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"#$%&'( $%)*( +)#*,


*-. /0120.34
+2-50 67










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/-21 9: ;&'<* ;9' 6

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B4@4.?C-1?4.

When a poweiful countiy (colonizei) takes ovei a less poweiful countiy
(colony).
By having many colonies, you get moie iesouices, lanu, anu people.
The moie colonies you have, the moie poweiful anu iich youi countiy
becomes; eventually the goal is to builu anu empiie.
To have an empiie, you must have uiiect access to the sea.

8-1?4.-@?A=

To have piiue in youi countiy anu be piouu of it.
Biings unity, suppoit, patiiotism, anu piiue.
0nfoitunately it also biings excessive piiue, which can be uangeious. ("Ny
countiy is bettei than youis.")

D?@?1-2?A=

Builuing up youi aimeu foices to be the stiongest countiy.
Aimy on lanu anu navy in the watei.
uieat Biitain hau the laigest anu most poweiful navy in the woilu anu they
wanteu to keep it that way (as of 1914.)
Theie was constant competition between the Euiopean poweis.

9@@?-.E0 $FA10=

Fiienus helping fiienus.
"If I go to wai, you aie coming to wai with me."
Involves many countiies.


In 187u theie was a wai (Fianco-Piussian Wai) between Fiance anu ueimany, in
which ueimany won. uoing into Woilu Wai 1 (1914), Fiance hateu ueimany
because they won the Fianco-Piussian Wai. The Biitish also hateu ueimany
because ueimany was iapiuly inuustiializing anu the Biitish Empiie was scaieu of
losing theii title of "the most poweiful Empiie."
S

Seibia anu Nontenegio (which latei became Yugoslavia) was lanu calleu the
Balkans, which was stiongly uesiieu by Russia in 1914.

9@@?-.E0A G ,.0=?0A

ueimany still angiy with Fiance foi Napoleon even though it was a hunuieu
yeais ago.
Fiance has colonies in Afiica anu ueimany keeps stealing them. ueimany anu
Fiance aie enemies.
Fiance is allieu with Russia anu Belgium.
Fiance BATES ueimany. ueimany is uoing bettei financially anu Fiance lost
a wai to them too.
Austiia-Bungaiy anu Russia uon't like each othei. A-B also uoesn't like Seibia
anu Russia.
Austiia-Bungaiy wants contiol ovei the Balkan iegion.
Seibia wants to be inuepenuent but Austiia-Bungaiy uoesn't let them.
Seibia is goou fiienus with Russia.
Italy allieu with ueimany.
Italy is fiienus with Austiia-Bungaiy.
Italy uoesn't like Fiance.
Italy is the weakest of woilu poweis.
Biitain is allieu with Fiance anu Russia anu Belgium.
Austiia-Bungaiy is allieu with ueimany anu Italy.
Biitain uoesn't like ueimany. They want woilu powei.
Belgium is allieu with Biitain, Fiance, anu Russia.
Belgium is enemies with ueimany.
Belgium is a beautiful countiy to invaue uue its low giounus.
Tuikey uoesn't like Russia.
Russia is allieu with Fiance, Seibia, anu Biitain.
Russia uoesn't like ueimany, Austiia-Bungaiy, anu Tuikey. They want to
piotect the Balkan iegion.

;42@5 ;-2 6 9@@?-.E0 $FA10=

Tiiple Alliance (Cential Poweis):

! ueimany
! Austiia-Bungaiy
! Italy
! Tuikey

Tiiple Entente (Allies):

4
! Biitain
! Fiance
! Russia
! Belgium
! Seibia

%H0 9AA-AA?.-1?4.

The Balkan iegion consists of Seibia, Bosnia, Albania, anu Nontenegio. They weie
piovinces pait of the Austiian-Bungaiian Empiie. But Austiia-Bungaiy uoesn't want
them to sepaiate, although they wanteu to become inuepenuent.

*?20E1 B-IA0J $H421 %02= B-IA0 KKL M-@3-. /4N502 O0P Q-R3R-R 1H0 A>-23S

The Balkans want to be inuepenuent but Austiia-Bungaiy uoesn't want them
to sepaiate.
Aichuuke Fianz Feiuinanu, heii to the Austio-Bungaiian thione.
Aichuuke goes to visit Saiajevo, Bosnia (which is a iegion in the Balkans)
A Seibian nationalist teiioiist gioup calleu "The Black Banu" plans to
assassinate Aichuuke Fianz Feiuinanu.
uaviillo Piincip (19 yeais olu) kills the Aichuuke anu his wife.

1. Austiia-Bungaiy ueclaies wai on Seibia (August 1914)
2. Russia backs up Seibia.
S. ueimany backs up Austiia-Bungaiy.
4. Fiance backs up Seibia.
S. Italy backs up Austiia-Bungaiy.
6. Biitain (anu Biitish Empiie) backs up Seibia.

o Canaua joins with Biitain.

When Biitain goes to wai, the Biitish colonies go to wai:

Canaua
Austialia
South Afiica
New Zealanu
Inuia
Bong Kong


T?PH1?.P 1H0 ;-2

Tuikey enteieu the wai on ueimany's siue because they wanteu the Black
Sea foi themselves (against Russia.)
S
Canaua set up a tiaining camp in valcaitiei, Quebec.
;-2 4U 9112?1?4. " which team can last the longest
T24.1 " the aiea wheie the fighting occuis
;0A102. T24.1 " takes place in Belgium anu Fiance.
Belgium, Netheilanus, anu Luxembuig aie flat countiies (no mountains),
making them easiei to invaue.
Since eveiyone fought on the same giounu level, they woulu uig tienches to
avoiu getting shot.










%20.EH '-?5 " one team attempting to captuie the opponent's tienches (by
iunning thiough No Nan's Lanu)
Pooi conuitions in the tienches maue life theie hoiiific. (Rain, uisease, tiench
foot, etc.)
Tienches weie uug in zigzag patteins to avoiu many casualties anu confuse
the enemy.
%H0 B4.AE2?>1?4. B2?A?A

B4.AE2?>1?4. " foiceu militaiy seivice uemanueu by the goveinment
Boiuon piomiseu no consciiption at the beginning of the wai.
Theie weie uisagieements because people uiu not want to be foiceu to go to
wai.

Auvantages of Consciiption Bisauvantages of Consciiption
Bighei chance of winning wai
No neeu to waste money on
auveitisement
Belps with unemployment
Quickei way of finuing tioops
Limitation of iights anu fieeuoms
Bigh likelihoou of ueaths
Nen aie taken away fiom families
Cieates angei anu iebellion
Not a faii choice

! Biitish Canauians wanteu to fight in the wai (to suppoit Biitain)
! Fiench uiu not suppoit consciiption, uiu not want to fight on the siue of the
Biitish (still angiy because of the Seven Yeais Wai)
! Aboiiginals uiu not suppoit consciiption, uiu not want to fight foi the Biitish
who weie always xenophobic to the aboiiginal ways.

No Nan's
Lanu
Allies ueimans
6

/2?=0 D?.?A102 M4254.
# Piime Ninstei uuiing WW1
# Biieu anu fiieu Sam Bughes
# Was all foi consciiption

B-.-5?-. $4@5?02A
Wai was ueclaieu in August 1914. They weie tolu that wai woulu be ovei by
Chiistmas.
Nost ieciuits weie fiom the city anu weie unemployeu.
They hau no iuea what to expect.

%H0 $EH@?0UU0. /@-.
A ueiman plan to attack Fiance thiough Belgium, while Austiia-Bungaiy
attacks Seibia.
As soon as ueimany invaueu Belgium, Belgian-Biitish tioops also invaueu
Belgium. Combineu Biitish anu Fiench foices stoppeu the ueimans anu the
plan faileu.

;;6 ;0->4.A
Nain weapon useu was the Bolu Action Rifle.
Nachine guns neeueu 4-6 men to woik them. Bau the fiiepowei of 1uu guns.
Chloiine gas, fiist useu in 191S in Ypies, causes buining in the thioat anu
chest pains. Painful ueath.
Zeppelin was a blimp useu to uiop bombs, mainly by the ueimans.
"Little Willie" tank was the fiist tank anu was useu in WW1.
Planes weie useu to uelivei bombs.
Submaiines useu toipeuoes.

;-2 ?. 1H0 9?2

Canauians joineu the Biitish Royal Flying Couise oi Royal Naval Aii Seivice
to become pilots in WW1.
WW1 planes hau open cockpits, flew low, anu offeieu veiy little piotection.
The life expectancy of a wai pilot was S weeks.
Being a pilot was nicknameu "suiciue seivice" anu the planes; "flying coffins".
9?2 9E0 " a pilot who hau shot uown at least S enemy pilots
Roy Biown was a Canauian pilot who shot uown the ueiman aii ace, Reu
Baion.
M?@@F M?AH4>:
# Shot uown 72 enemy planes
# Belpeu oiganize Royal Canauian Aii foice aftei WW1
# uot the victoiia Cioss

7

$0- M-11@0A

M@4E3-50 " a baiiiei that pievents access
ueiman submaiines weie calleu 0-Boats.
ueiman submaiines in WW1 sank 4S Canauian steamships.
The Lusitania sank in 191S. It was an Ameiican boat. Nany innocent civilians
uieu, thus the Ameiicans ueciueu to join the Allies.

B-.-5?-. M-11@0A ?. ;;#

(>20A
(Apiil 191S)
ueimany was fighting the
BiitishFienchCanauian.
ueimans ieleaseu EH@42?.0 P-A
(fiist weapon of mass
uestiuction)
Fiist time Canauians enteieu the
fiont line.
6uuu Canauian casualties (Allieu
foices weie victoiious.)
0ntiaineu men tiansfoimeu into
skillful soluieis
$4==0
(}uly-Novembei, 1916)
Allieu foices veisus ueimans
Canauians fought with the goal to
auvance foiwaiu
Laigest massacie of Biitish foices
Canaua suffeieu 24,u29 casualties
uave Canaua the ieputation as a
foimiuable assault foice.

V?=F '?5P0
(Apiil 1917)
Canauians' goal was to captuie
the iiuge.
All 4 Canauian uecisions fought
togethei in a bittei snow stoim
Riuge was heavily guaiueu by
ueimans
0seu B200>F M-22-P0 A12-10PF "
Canauians woulu sneak to the
ueiman tienches anu kill them by
suipiise. (cieateu by Aithui
Cuiiie)
Canauians won anu took contiol
of the iiuge.
/-AAEH0.5-0@0
(}uly-Novembei, 1917)
Flanueis, Belgium
Allies wanteu to bieak thiough
the ueiman Fiont anu uestioy
theii submaiine bases off the
coast of Belgium.
Canauians fought muu, =IA1-25
P-A, anu machine guns
1S,uuu casualties
Flanueis Fielu poem is baseu on
this battle


'4AA '?U@0 was useu in Woilu Wai 1, howevei uue to its bau qualities, the <00
,.U?0@5 ieplaceu it. (Ross Rifle got jammeu often anu lots of times uiun't woik well.)

B4.W4F $FA10=- many boats tiavelling at the same time thiough the ocean (insteau
of one at a time) so that they avoiu getting tuineu ovei.
8

/24>-P-.5-- a specific type of message piesentation aimeu at seiving an agenua.
(0sually in political context.)

;-2 4. 1H0 "4=0U24.1

Canauians ieuuceu foou consumption by following suggesteu weekly
consumptions.
Chiluien became paits of the Boy Scouts. Nen woikeu haiu.
2uuu Canauian nuises went oveiseas uuiing Woilu Wai 1.

T?.-.E?.P 1H0 ;-2 Q/-F?.P U42 1H0 ;-2S

1. victoiy Bonus
Lenu the goveinment money anu you get paiu back with S% inteiest aftei the
wai.

2. Income Tax
Not eveiybouy was taxeu.
0nly if you maue ovei $1Suu a month, you hau to pay.

'-1?4.?.P- To save goous, to conseive, to be useu foi wai effoit.
(Ex. canneu foou, buttei, fats, oils, sugai, coffee, tea, iubbei, anu scaip metal)

/24>-P-.5- N-A IA05 14RRR

1. Enlist (ieciuit)
2. To puichase victoiy bonus
S. To iation
4. To ieciuit nuises

/24>-P-.5- " a specific type of message piesentation aimeu at seiving an agenua.
0seu to achieve a ceitain goal oi aim. It appeals to emotions, not logic, fact, oi
ieason. Its puipose was to motivate the public.

/24>-P-.5- %2?E3A:
1. Name Calling " Putting a bau label on an iuea.
2. Caiu Stacking " Best case foi youi aigument, woist foi opposition.
S. Banu Wagon " Peisuaue auuience to follow the ciowu.
4. Testimonial " Associate a iespecteufamous peison.
S. Plain Folks " Spokespeison is humble, tiustwoithy, anu sensible.
6. Tiansfei " Caiiy ovei authoiity anu appioval of something we iespect.
7. ulitteiing ueneiality " 0sing statements anu themes that stii emotions.


9

,.5 4U ;42@5 ;-2 6

<0-PI0 4U 8-1?4.A " An inteinational oiganization wheie all countiies woulu be
membeis. Its puipose is to keep peace anu pievent fuithei wais. The oiganization
faileu because no one was veiy committeu.

ueiman auvance into Fiance was stoppeu only 12u km fiom Paiis.
Allieu tioops auvanceu anu pusheu ueiman tioops out of Fiance anu
Belgium. (Auvance was calleu the "677 *-FA")

92=?A1?E0 " Novembei 1918, ueimany was staiveu, uefeateu, anu ietieating. 0n
Novembei 11, 1918 at 11 am, an aimistice was signeu to enu WW1. Theie was no
foimal suiienuei.

%20-1F 4U V02A-?@@0A

Foimal peace tieaty enuing Woilu Wai 1 signeu in veisailles, Fiance.
"Big Thiee" mau the most uecisions: Englanu, Fiance, anu the 0niteu States.
Foui Najoi Teims of Tieaty:
1. Wai uuilu Clause- ueimany takes full iesponsibility foi WW1
2. Repaiations- ueimany paiu foi all wai uamages.
S. Nilitaiy Restiictions- ueimany hau a iestiicteu aimy.
4. Teiiitoiy Restiictions- ueimany lost all teiiitoiies gaineu anu oveisea
colonies.
S. Loss of Resouices- ueimany gave up coalmines to Fiance.

'0-E1?4.A 14 1H0 %20-1F:
C00NTRY LEABER ATTIT0BE T0 uERNANY
BRITAIN Baviu Lloyu ueoige Belu the miuule position
FRANCE ueoiges Clemenceau Wanteu to ciush ueimany
0NITEB STATES Woouiow Wilson Wanteu peace


/-21 M: %", '&9'#8+ %;,8%#,$

,.0=F 9@?0.A

Theie was a lot of piejuuice befoie anu aftei the wai at the Bomefiont.
1u
ueiman, Austio-Bungaiian, Bulgaiian, Tuikish, Cioatian, Seibian, anu
0kiainian immigiants in Canaua faceu hostility anu impiisonment because
the goveinment was suspicious that they weie spies.
Canaua hau 24 uetention camps (?.102.=0.1 E-=>A) thiough out the
countiy foi Enemy Aliens.

%0EH.4@4PF ?. 1H0 6XY7A

Piouuct Besciiption & Impoitance
The Automobile T- Foiu (most common one)
Banu ciankeu to stait engine
Top speeu 64 kmhi.
veiy heavy, no seatbelts
o Incieaseu economy
o Changeu lifestyle
o Easiei to get to woik
o uas stations
o Noie ioaus
The Rauio &
Telephone
Big
Non- movable
AN iauios
0ne pei householu
Luxuiy item
o New ways to spieau infoimation
o Cieateu jobs (iauio station, telephone opeiatois)
o Communicate quickei anu easiei.
Bouseholu
Appliances
o Washing machine saveu time
o Washing machine saveu watei
Notion Pictuies Black anu white
Silent films
o New foim of meuia
o New foim of enteitainment
o Cieateu many jobs



80@@?0 DEB@I.P

%0=>02-.E0 D4W0=0.1 - in the 19th centuiy, people woulu love to get uiunk
(completely intoxicateu.) Nen woulu uo this, spenu all theii money on alcohol, anu
beat theii wives. The women stoou up against this.

11
Nellie NcClung joineu a tempeiance union. She wanteu to get the iight to
vote foi woman. She was a gieat public speakei, so eveiyone wanteu to listen
to hei.
/02A4.ZA B-A0 - the pioblem that the Biitish Noith Ameiican Act uiu not
incluue women to be legible foi sitting in the feueial senate.
In 1929, women weie ueclaies peisons.
Nellie NcClung was a female suffiagist.
Auvocateu foi women's iights
Equality in euucation anu society (piopeity, politics, finances)

$-= "IPH0A K %H0 DI.?1?4.A $E-.5-@

In Woilu Wai 1, Sam Bughes was the ministei of militia. Be was in chaige of
the Bomefiont " munitions
Be piofiteeieu, he gave his fiienus the contiacts (owneis of munitions
factoiies) anu many munitions weie maue bauly.
Ross Rifle was always jammeu anu uiun't woik well.
Be eventually go fiieu anu establishes ciown coipoiations. (Companies
owneu by the goveinment.)

"-@?U-[ ,[>@4A?4.

Any boat going fiom Noith Ameiica to Euiope, woulu have to go thiough
Balifax Baiboi foi an inspection befoie pioceeuing to Euiope.
At night, the haiboi woulu place piotection fiom ueiman 0-Boats uuiing the
wai.
The Canauian goveinment was in contiol of the haiboi uuiing the wai.
1. The Nont Blanc was a Fiench munitions ship tiavelling fiom Ameiica to
Euiope.
2. They took many piecautions as they hau many explosives on boaiu.
Piecautions incluueu no alcohol, no smoking, anu not putting up ieu flag to
inuicate explosives on boaiu (because they'u be a taiget foi 0-Boats.)
S. The Nont Blanc was foiceu to iemain outsiue the haiboi on the night of
Becembei S, 1917 because the anti-0-Boat lines weie alieauy up.
4. In the moining, a Belgian ielief ship wanteu to leave the Baiboi fast. They
acciuentally ciasheu into the Nont Blanc as the Nont Blanc was coming in the
haiboi.
S. The Nont Blanc exploueu anu killeu many people.
This was the laigest iecoiueu, man-maue explosion in histoiy befoie Nucleai
weapons.

;42302A G ;-P0A ?. 1H0 6XY7A

S Top Inuustiies foi Nales:

12
Sawmills- $9S6
Pulp anu Papei- $1Su2
Railway Rolling Stock- $1S29

S Top Inuustiies foi Females:

Bosieiy, Knit uoous, anu uloves- $728
Clothing, Women's Factoiy- $88u
Cotton Yam anu Cloth- $7u2

(Accoiuing to 1926 aveiage annual wages)

;?..?>0P +0.02-@ $12?30

What uiu they want.

1. Incieaseu wages. (8S cents pei houi)
2. Eight houi woik uays
S. The iight to baigain with the employei as a collective unit.

Results of the Stiike:

Nany saw the stiike as a failuie as the woikeis went on stiike with little
impiovements maue. People weie in jail. Families weie bankiupt.

T@->>02 Q-R3R-R D4502. D?@@?0AS

They weie mouein women
Woie loosei clothes
Noie skin ievealeu
Woie pants anu baggy clothes
Smokeu
Shoit haii 'bob'
Baii banus
Rebelleu against society

%H0 /02A4.\A B-A0

Emily Nuiphy was the fiist woman juuge appointeu to a couit in Canaua.
A male lawyei aigues that she uoes not have the iight to make uecisions, as
she is not consiueieu a peison.
1927 " Emily Nuiphy anu 4 women petitioneu the piime ministei.
T-=4IA T?W0 " Nellie NcClung, Louise NcKinney, Beniietta Euwaius, Iiene
Pailby, anu Emily Nuiphy.
1928 " women weie ueemeu not peisons by the Canauian Supieme couit.
1S
They appealeu to the Piivy Council in Biitain anu they won. A woman was
now officially a peison.

,1H.4E0.12?A=
The belief that youi cultuie is supeiioi to anothei.
Ex. Euiocentiism anu Anuocentiism

#==?P2-1?4. G '-E?A=

Nackenzie King wanteu immigiation fiom Biitain anu 0niteu States.
Theie was some uisciimination in immigiation policies against the
Nennonites, Bunttentes, Boukhobois, anu Chinese.
BH?.0A0 ,[E@IA?4. 9E1 " pieventeu immigiation of almost anyone fiom China.
KKK emeigeu in Canaua in the eaily 192us. They weie a iacist gioup who
taigeteu anyone not being a white piotestant.
The KKK was most successful in Saskatchewan because theie weie mostly
white people theie.
The KKK uisappeaieu fiom Canaua by the 19Sus.

'0A?50.1?-@ $EH44@A
The goveinment put Fiist Nations into iesiuential schools uuiing the 192us.
They uiu this to encouiage civilizeu lifestyles anu confoim them into the
Euiopean cultuie.
Nost Fiist Nations hateu these schools because they got mistieateu anu theie
was a lot of abuse.
Fiist Nation chiluien coulu not be of any use to theii families when they got
back home because they weie confoimeu into uiffeient ieligions anu
lifestyles.

Assimilation
The melting pot
The iuea that all cultuies shoulu change to fit the uominant one

Xenophobia
The feai of uiffeiences

'4-5 14 9I14.4=F

Autonomy " inuepenuence, soveieign, self-goveining

1921 New piime ministei D-E30.C?0 O?.P wanteu to move Canaua towaius
autonomy.
1922 BH-.-3 B2?A?A- Biitish tioops stationeu to guaiu the Baiueneilles, bases in
Chanak, Tuikey. Tuikish wanteu to kick them out. Biitain askeu Canaua foi
14
back up anu King saiu no.
192S "-@?]I1 %20-1F between Canaua anu 0SA about fisheiy showeu that Canaua
coulu make its own uecisions without uepenuence on Biitain.
1926 O?.PKMF.P B2?A?A- King wanteu to call foi election, uoveinoi ueneial Byng
iefuseu. This upset King anu he ueciueu to make the uoveinoi ueneial iole
stiictly ceiemonial.
1926 M-@U4I2 '0>421 Q#=>02?-@ B4.U020.E0S - the Biitish Empiie gatheieu in
Englanu anu talkeu about all countiies in the empiie being equal to Biitain
in status. They aie now calleu the M2?1?AH B4==4.N0-@1H 4U 8-1?4.A.
19S1 $1-1I10 4U ;0A1=?.A102- Act was passeu which maue Canaua Biitain's
equal. This maue Canaua completely autonomous.

/24H?]?1?4.

# Nen woulu uiink theii paychecks away
# They woulu get uiunk, beat up women anu chiluien
# /24H?]?1?4. is the banning of the sale, consumption, uistiibution, anu
manufactuiing of alcohol.
# 'I= 'I..?.P - to sell alcohol illegally
# $>0-3 ,-AF- an illegal bai











1S
"#$%&'( )8#% Y

/-21 9: %", *#'%( %"#'%#,$

M44= 14 MIA1: $14E3 D-2301 B2-AHK &E14]02 6XYX QM@-E3 %I0A5-FS
Causes:
0veipiouuction of goous (too much maue anu not enough solu)
Bepenuence on selling a few piimaiy piouucts.
Too much uepenuence on the 0niteu States
Bigh inteinational taiiff
Buying too much on cieuit (buy now, pay latei)
Effects:
0nemployment iate iose
Wages weie cut
Relief was only offeieu to maiiieu men
Piices of ciops uecieaseu anu piices of machineiy incieaseu foi
faimeis.
Plagues of giasshoppeis anu locusts foi faimeis " they hau to
abanuon theii faims anu move into the city.
Theie weie ielief camps set up wheie single men coulu stay anu
woik. But they got paiu veiy little anu conuitions weie pooi.

80N /4@?1?E-@ /-21?0A

!"#$%$&'# !')%* ! ' +)",- ". -/"-#/ 0$%1 %1/ 2'3/ -"#$%$&'# 4$/0 01"
21')/ ' 2$3$#') $5/"#"+*6 71/* 21')/ %1/ 2'3/ 4$/0 ". 1"0 %1/ &",8%)*
21",#5 9/ ),86
!')%* !#'%.")3 ! 71/ 9"": ". $5/'2 5/2&)$9$8+ 01'% %1/ -')%* $2 +"$8+ %"
5" '85 01'% %1/ -')%* $2 -)"3$2$8+6

Nany new paities weie foimeu because people in Canaua lost
faith in theii cuiient leaueis anu believeu that the cuiient paity
cannot cope with the uieat Bepiession effectively.
Libeials:
$ Leau by William Lyon Nackenzie King
$ Wanteu to solve Canaua's economic weaknesses. (Pioviue money
foi social piogiams, iestoie faims, anu ieuuce taiiffs)
$ Bau lots of expeiience in goveinment but was not ieauy foi a
long-teim uepiession.
16
Conseivatives:
$ Leau by Richaiu Beufoiu Bennett
$ Wanteu to solve Canaua's economic pioblems. (Focuseu on
unemployment insuiance anu health insuiance.)
$ Wanteu to copy the 0SA in seveial ways.
$ Bau a lot of expeiience in goveinment.
Social Cieuit Paity:
$ Leau by Bill Albeihait
$ They pioposeu to give eveiy citizen $2S because they believeu
that they uepiession was occuiiing because people coulu not
affoiu goous anu seivices.
Coopeiative Commonwealth Feueiation:
$ Now the New Bemociatic Paity
$ They pioposeu unemployment insuiance, fiee meuical caie, anu
pensions.
0nion Nationale:
$ Foimeu in oiuei to give Fiench moie voices in pailiament,
believeu in anti-communism, wanteu to piomote Fiench cultuie.

/2?=0 D?.?A102 M0..011
Be lost populaiity because men uiun't like his ielief camps.
People uiun't like him since he wasn't helping them.
Bau little iueas foi uiawing Canauians out of ciises.
Coulu not ueal with unemployment efficiently.

<?U0 *I2?.P 1H0 *0>20AA?4.

Relief Camps:
# uoal was to pioviue unemployeu single men with woik
# uot little oi no pay, got ioom anu boaiu in exchange foi manual
laboi
# The conuitions weie uisgusting (iats, lice, etc.)
# Isolateu fiom society.
# 0nce you left, you coulun't ietuin.

0n-to-0ttawa Tiek:
Relief camp woikeis ueciue to hop on the iails anu take the tiain
to 0ttawa to piotest the goveinment.
The piotestois weie stoppeu in Regina " The Regina Riot
17
The RCNP officeis stoppeu them fiom going fuithei anu foiceu
them off the tiain.
;/88/%% ;,++* ! ' %/)3 .") ' &') %1'% 1'5 $%2 /8+$8/ %':/8 ",% '85 1'2
9//8 -,##/5 9* ' 1")2/6 <% 0'2 8'3/5 '.%/) != ;/88/%% 9/&',2/ 1/ 0'2
:8"08 %" 9/ %1/ &',2/ ". >'8'5'?2 -"4/)%* $8 %1/ @)/'% A/-)/22$"86

/-21 M: ;&'<* ;9' Y

B-IA0A 4U ;42@5 ;-2 Y

Inuiiect Causes:
1. Bitlei (ueiman Bictatoi), Nussolini (Italian Bictatoi)
2. Tieaty of veisailles, economic ciisis anu iise of Fascism
S. Invasion of Czechoslovakia
4. ueimans occupying the Rhinelanu (Closei to Fiance)
S. Appeasement & Austiia
6. Failuie of the League of Nations (countiies weie conceineu with
themselves)
Biiect Cause:
1. Invasion of Polanu on Septembei 1, 19S9

*?E1-142A 4U ;42@5 ;-2 Y

Italy Russia }apan Spain
Leauei Nussolini }oseph
Stalin
Biiohito Fiancisco
Fianco
Bate he
gaineu
powei
1922 1927 192u 19S6-19S9
Besciiption Staiteu a
gang anu
oveithiew
the
goveinment.
(Coup u'tat)
Be piomiseu
gieat things.
(Economic
Came
thiough
contiol of
the aimy. Be
was Lenin's
successoi.
Bau a S-yeai
economic
plan.
"Anointeu
by gou".
Suppoiteu
by militaiy.
Killeu any
opposition.
Piomiseu to
make the
economy
Leu a ievolt
against the
goveinment.
Suppoiteu
by the aimy.
Civil wai
between the
nationalists
anu the
18
piogiam)
Killeu any
opposition.
Contiolleu
the countiy
by feai anu
exileu many
people.
stiongei. Fascists.
Fascists
won. Be
stayeu in
powei until
197S.

$ Spanish Inquisition " }ews anu Nuslims weie foiceu out of Spain
anu many moveu to Noiocco.
$ The Spanish Civil Wai of 19S6 was also known as a Pioxy Wai.
This is because it was a battle of iueologies. Bitlei anu Nussolini
suppoiteu Fianco (Fascism), while Stalin fought foi Communism
(the opposite siue of the political spectium.)


<0-502A 4U ;42@5 ;-2 Y

Canaua Biitain 0niteu
States
ueimany
Leauei William
Lyon
Nackenzie
King
Winston
Chuichill
Fianklin
Roosevelt
Auolf Bitlei
Besciiption Avoiueu a
consciiption
ciisis.
Responsible
foi the Wai
Neasuies
Act anu
Inteinment
of }apanese
people. Be
was also an
anti-Semite.
Naue
inspiiing
speeches
that gave
people hope
uuiing wai.
Thought of
a heio
aiounu the
woilu.
Spoke to the
English
people ovei
the iauio
when
ueimans
Be leu the
0SA thiough
economical
uifficulties
anu the
seconu
woilu wai.
Bieu shoitly
befoie the
wai enueu
anu his vice-
piesiuent
hau to take
ovei anu
finish the
wai.
Leauei of
Nationalist
Socialist
Paity (Nazis)
thiough out
WW2. As
uictatoi of
ueimany, he
was
iesponsible
foi the ueaths
of six million
}ews anu
othei
piisoneis in
concentiation
19
weie
attacking.
camps. Be
killeu himself
in a bunkei in
Beilin.

%H0 '?A0 4U "?1@02 -.5 1H0 8-C? /-21F

Bitlei was boin 1899 in Linz, Austiia. Bis mothei maiiieu hei
uncle anu gave biith to Bitlei. This maue Bitlei a chilu of incest.
Bitlei hau a bau ielationship with his fathei who uieu fiom a
heait attack when Bitlei was young. Be loveu his mothei who
uieu fiom cancei when he was a teenagei. (Be blameu a }ewish
uoctoi foi hei ueath)
At 18, he moveu to vienna to go to Aits School. Be was not
accepteu anu blameu a }ewish piofessoi.
At 19, he moveu to Nunich, ueimany. Be joineu the wai in 1914.
1919" Be woikeu as an infoimant foi a political paity (ueiman
Woikeis Paity)
1922" Be became the leauei of the paity.
192S" Be tiieu to oveithiow the goveinment violently. Be got
aiiesteu anu thiown into jail. In jail he wiote his famous book
calleu "Nein Kampf" (Ny Stiuggle).
In the 192us, Bitlei piomoteu that he's going to fix poveity,
uemolish the Tieaty of veisailles, anu make ueimany numbei 1.
In 19SS, his paity won the uemociatic election by getting the most
votes in the Reichstag.
Bitlei became chancelloi.
In 19SS, Be buineu uown the Reichstag anu blameu the
communists. Be tolu his countiy that since ueimany is facing
thieats, he must take full contiol.
Bitlei implementeu the "Enabling Act". This suspenueu the
constitution anu put Bitlei in chaige as uictatoi (Fuhiei).

Bitlei hau S main aims.

1. To abolish the Tieaty of veisailles
The ueimans coulu only have limiteu aimeu foices
The Rhinelanu was uemilitaiizeu
A union with Austiia was foibiuuen
2u
ueimans weie foiceu to live in Czechoslovakia anu Polanu

2. To expanu ueiman teiiitoiy
ueiman population was giowing anu iequiieu space

S. To uefeat Communism anu eiauicate the }ewish population
Bitlei believeu that they weie tiying to take ovei ueimany


$10>A ?. ;42@5 ;-2 Y

1. Rhinelanu
$ Bitlei invaueu Rhinelanu in 19S6.
ueimany to be uenieu
naval anu aii foice;
militaiy seveily limiteu
Feel weak, shameu, lost
moie anu moie
Revenge, tiieu to make
ueimany stiong
ueimany to accept the wai
guilt clause, which
assigneu blame foi the wai
solely to the ueiman
people
Angei, humiliation, shame,
iuineu ieputation
People lost faith in olu
leaueis, Bitlei useu 'scape
goats' anu foieigneis
Naue piomises to make
ueimany gieat, gave hope
to the hopeless.
-Economy suffeis, low
moiale, high
unemployment
Suiienuei of all ueiman
oveiseas investments
ueimany to pay billions of
uollais in wai iepaiations
ueimany to suiienuei the
coal-iich Saai Basin to
Fiance
%20-1F 4U V02A-?@@0A
B@-IA0A
/4A1K;-2
B4.A0^I0.E0A
'0@-1?4.AH?> 14 1H0
'?A0 4U T-AE?A= -.5
"?1@02
21
$ It violateu the Tieaty of veisailles.
$ Fiance anu Biitain uiu nothing.

2. Austiia
$ Bitlei took ovei Austiia in 19S8.
$ 0nce again Fiance anu Biitain uiu not ieact.

S. Nunich
$ At Nunich in 19S8, the Biitish piime ministei appeaseu Bitlei anu
gave ueimany the Suuetenlanu.

4. Czechoslovakia
$ In 19S9, Bitlei invaueu Czechoslovakia.
$ Biitain anu Fiance tolu Polanu that they will inteifeie if Polanu is
invaueu.

S. Polanu
$ 0n Septembei 1
st
, 19S9, Bitlei invaueu Polanu.
$ 0n Septembei S
iu
, Biitain ueclaieu wai on ueimany.

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggiession Pact:

0n August 2S, 19S9, iepiesentatives fiom Nazi ueimany anu the
Soviet 0nion met anu signeu the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggiession Pact,
which guaianteeu that the two countiies woulu not attack each
othei.
Bitlei bioke the Pact when he invaueu the Soviet 0nion in 1941.

9[?A /4N02A -.5 9@@?0A

Axis Poweis Allies
% ueimany
% Italy
% Spain
% }apan
% Bungaiy
% Romania
% Bulgaiia
% 0niteu States
% Biitain
% Fiance
% 0SSR
% Austialia
% Canaua
% Belgium
% Biazil
22
% China
% Benmaik
% uieece
% Netheilanus
% New Zealanu
% Noiway
% Polanu
% South Afiica
% Yugoslavia



M-11@0 *-10 G *0AE2?>1?4. $?P.?U?E-.E0
M-11@0 4U M2?1-?. August 194u, ueimans
useu 0-Boats in the
Atlantic to attack the
Biitish. ueiman aii
bombeis fiom the
'<IU1N-UU0\ attackeu
Biitain.
Pioveu that ueimans
woulu not contiol the
skies of Biitain.
Fiist time that '-5-2
was useu to uetect
planes.
0se of M@?1C stiategy:
Biitish tuining off
lights at night to
avoiu being spotteu
by ueiman bombeis.
M-11@0 4U 1H0
91@-.1?E
In the entiie wai, this
battle was a ueiman
naval opeiation uesigneu
to pievent Canauian anu
Ameiican tioops anu
supplies fiom ieaching
Biitain.
ueimans useu 0-Boats
anu aii bombeis to attack
ships that ciosseu the
Atlantic ocean.
All ships hau to tiavel in
convoys in oiuei to
tianspoit tioops anu
This was an on going
battle thiough out the
entiie wai.
Canaua lost many
lives anu waiships in
the Battle of the
Atlantic.
2S
supplies.
M-11@0 4U 'IAA?- }une 1941, ueimany
invaueu Russia.
Russians _$E42EH05
0-21H >4@?EFR` (Buint
theii own lanu so that
ueimans won't use it.)
ueimans useu M@?1C32?0P
to invaue.
Russians stoopeu
ueiman auvance on
Stalingiau anu began to
push them back in 194S.
ueimans bioke the
non-aggiession pact
with Russia anu
invaue them.
ueimans stiuggleu in
fioze the Russian
wintei.
ueimans weie now
faceu with a two fiont
wai.
/0-2@ "-2]42 Becembei 1941, }apan
launcheu a suipiise
attack on Peail Baiboi,
Bawaii.
The 0SA immeuiately
ueclaieu wai on }apan.
ueimany anu Italy
ueclaieu wai on the 0SA.
It biought the 0niteu
States into the wai
officially.
"4.P O4.P Becembei 1941, Canaua
hau tioops set up in
Bong Kong to uefenu it
incase the }apanese
attack.
Bouis aftei Peail Baiboi,
the }apanese invaueu
Bong Kong anu the
Canauians weie bauly
outnumbeieu.
}apanese mistieateu
theii piisoneis of
wai. They tieateu
them with ciuelty,
killeu anu iapeu
them.
Canauian tioops
uefenueu Bong Kong
foi as long as they
coulu.
24
M-11@0 4U *?0>>0 August 1942, Allieu
tioops lanueu on the
beaches of Bieppe,
Fiance unuei oiueis to
take Euiope back fiom
the Nazis.
The ueimans weie awaie
of this attack anu the
uaylight has taken away
the Allies' element of
suipiise.
Nany Allies soluieis lost
theii lives anu otheis
weie taken as Piisoneis
of Wai.
The fiist majoi battle
foi Canauian tioops
was a uisastei.
They ueciueu to push
back an invasion to
take ovei Euiope.
The Allies agieeu to
attack less uefenueu
poits than Bieppe.
M-11@0 4U &214.- }uly 194S, Allieu foices
attackeu an Italian Islanu
calleu $?E?@F. It offeieu
little iesistance anu they
quickly captuieu it.
The Allies the attackeu
the Italian mainlanu
thiough a city calleu
0itona. The town was a
natuial foitiess. It was
veiy uifficult to invaue.
The Canauians useu the
"=4IA0H4@5?.P" technic:
blasting a hole in the
outsiue wall of a house,
blasting it with gienaues
(to make suie it's safe to
entei) anu then move
into it anu iepeat.
This was oveiall a
success anu the allies
eventually ieacheu
Rome anu uiove all
the ueimans out of
Italy.
*K*-F }une 1944, the Allieu
foices weie ieauy to
ietake Euiope.
They invaueu the
beaches of Noimanuy.
This was the
'beginning of the enu.'
The ueimans enueu
up ietieating because
they weie fighting
2S
It was a uifficult battle
anu the Axis poweis
woulu have stiong
iesistance foi anothei
yeai befoie the Allies
won the wai.
battles on thiee
uiffeient fionts.
801H02@-.5A 194S, Canauians enteieu
the Netheilanus to fiee
them fiom the "Bungei
Wintei."
They weie successful in
the libeiation anu aie
iewaiueu foi this up to
this uay.
Canaua ieceives gifts
fiom the Netheilanus
up to this uay as a
commemoiation of
theii haiu woik in
Woilu Wai 2.

;-2 4. 1H0 "4=0U24.1

Pacifists anu Conscientious 0bjectois
-They uiun't wai
-Bisagieeu with this wai (not necessaiily against wai in geneial)
-They influenceu the wai uue to the consciiption ciisis. These people
uiu not want to go to wai but they weie foiceu to.
-Weien't tieateu well because they weie against the wai.
Newfounulanueis
-Newfounulanu isn't a Canauian piovince yet. It's a sepaiate colony anu
many ueiman 0-Boats always passeu by them in the Atlantic.
Biitish Commonwealth Aii anu Tiaining Piogiam (BCATP)
-Tiaining schools foi pilots in Canaua so that they can go to the wai anu
be efficient pilots.
Aboiiginals
-Suppoiteu the wai effoit by knitting socks anu mittens foi the soluieis.
-Weie still angiy foi being tieateu pooily in the past.
Waitime Economy anu uoveinment Contiols
-victoiy bonus useu to contiol the economy
-Ciown Coipoiations weie cieateu to contiol the economy.
26
Byue Paik Beclaiation
-"Lenu Lease" maue the 0SA back up Canaua with mateiials anu vice
veisa.
Inflation
-The goveinment tiieu to inteifeie with the maiket. Even though some
supply was low, they still tiieu to keep the piices the same without
inflation.
C.B. Bowe
-Be expanueu anu maue new inuustiies
-Tiieu to convince companies to sign up foi the "Bollai a Yeai Nan"
piogiam. (Factoiies maue wai supplies out of the goouness of theii
heait.)
-Ninistei of Nunitions anu Supply
"Zombies"
-Consciipteu men that iefuseu to go to wai.
-They weie impiisoneu.






%H0 ;-2

$ The wai between }apan anu China lasteu fiom 19S1 anu enueu
194S. }apan invaueu China in 19S1.
$ }une 194u- ueimans weie bombing Biitain (hau not invaueu
Russia yet)
$ People weie scaieu that Biitain was going to fall. So the 0SA anu
Canaua hau thought up a plan.
27
&P50.A]I2P 9P200=0.1- foimeu between Canaua anu 0SA (King anu
Roosevelt). They stateu that they will keep fighting togethei anu cieate
a new fiont in Noith Afiica.
;-2 D0-AI20A 9E1- takes away basic iights fiom people who aie
consiueieu a thieat to national secuiity. (Fieeuom is compiomiseu foi
secuiity.)
,.0=F 9@?0.- someone on the Bomefiont fiom an enemy nation.
}apanese Inteinment
% }apanese people weie stiippeu of theii iights, theii houses weie
solu oi auctioneu off, anu they went to live in Inteinment camps.
% Aftei Peail Baiboui (Bec. 1941) anu officially in effect (Feb.
1942).
% This mostly happeneu in Biitish Columbia.
-They weie a thieat (goveinment thought they weie spies)
-Theie was angei towaius the }apanese (Invaueu China- Bong Kong anu
committeu many human iights abuses)
-Allies weie angiy because of Peail Baiboui
-Canaua was angiy of the tieatment of Piisoneis of Wai in }apanese
occupieu Asia.

,.5 4U ;-2

In Nay 8, 194S the wai in Euiope was finisheu. The }apanese howevei
weie still fighting.
August 194S- victoiy ovei }apan
Atomic Bomb A-bomb Nucleai Bomb
-This is a significant uevelopment in technology that changeu waifaie
foievei.
-This is a new kinu of weapon with enoimous explosive Powei.
A-Bomb's effect happens in 2 stages:
1. The actual explosion itself (fiie uestiuction anu immense heat).
28
2. The fall out (nucleai eneigy fiom the bomb is ieleaseu into the aii.
toxic anu if gets into a human cell, it will mutilate causing cancei,
uisease, uefoimation, anu buins.
-The 0SA uevelopeu the A-Bomb known as the Nanhattan Pioject (Top
Seciet). Albeit Einstein was a suppoitei of the pioject. Baiiy Tiuman
gives the oiueis to uiop the bomb.
-Fiist bomb was uioppeu on Biioshima on August 6, 194S.
-}apan uoesn't suiienuei so they ueciue to uiop anothei bomb. The
seconu bomb was uioppeu ovei the city of Nagasaki on August 1S, 194S
anu }apan suiienueieu.
The wai was ovei anu it was calleu victoiy ovei }apan Bay (v ovei }
Bay).

80N %0EH.4@4PF ?. 1H0 ;-2

! Rauai: pioviues an eaily waining befoie attacks.
! Neuicine: New uiugs to fight uiseases, new suigical techniques.
! Coue Bieaking: Camp X (0shawa, 0ntaiio) tiaineu spies to bieak
coues.
! }ets anu Rockets: Bevelopeu the fiist jet (ueimany) anu the Nazis
also uevelopeu the fiist iockets.
! Atomic Bomb: a new weapon of mass uestiuction that woulu
change waifaie foievei.

%H0 "4@4E-IA1

Bolocaust: the mass uestiuction oi exteimination of mainly Euiopean
}ews by the Nazis in Woilu Wai 2. (It was genociue.) This lasteu all
thioughout the wai uue to Anti-Semitism.
! Also incluueu uypsys, Slavs, uisableu people, anu homosexuals.

Stages of the Bolocaust:

Stage 1: Segiegation thiough
Piopaganua (19SS)
Euucating ueimans to hate }ews anu
view them as less than human.
% Nuiembeig Laws weie passeu
which stiippeu }ews of theii
29
iights.
% Kiistallnacht (19S9) was the
night of Bioken ulass wheiein
}ewish synagogues anu
businesses weie uestioyeu.
Stage 2: Segiegation in uhettos
(19S9-194S)
0nce Nazis invaueu othei countiies,
}ews weie foiceu to move out of theii
homes anu foiceu to live in ghettos.
The houses weie veiy small anu 4
families typically liveu in a veiy small
space.
Stage S: Exteimination By 1941, the Nazis came up with theii
"Final Solution". They took the }ews to
eithei Concentiation Camps oi Beath
Camps.
In a Concentiation Camp, they woulu
woik haiu anu woulu uie fiom toil anu
laboi.
In a Beath Camp, they woulu be gasseu
to ueath.

Anti-Semitism on the Bomefiont

The }ewish Refugee ship coming in fiom Euiope was uenieu access into
Canaua in Nay 19S9. Piime Ninistei King was an anti-Semite anu when
the ship's captain askeu to accept at least a few }ews into the countiy,
his ieply was "none is too many."
This is a uaik event in Canauian histoiy that is gieatly iegietteu.
Nost of the }ews on that ship weie sent back to Euiope because they
hau nowheie to go. The majoiity of them weie killeu.




Su
"#$%&'( )8#% a

B&<* ;9'

Wai of iueasiueology
2 majoi playeis weie the 0SA anu the 0SSR.
0SA " Bemociacy (capitalism), fiee maiket, fiee elections
0SSR " Autociatic (communism), equal uivisions of goous anu seivices
Supei Poweis:
Laige militaiy
Laige population
Lots of money
Both poweis wanteu to spieau theii influence to secuie inteiest in iegions. They
both expanueu theii foieign policies (anything that a countiy uoes outsiue of its
countiy.)
6XbXK 9 $?P.?U?E-.1 (0-2
1. Soviet 0nion gets the atomic bomb (thiough spies, espionage)
Rosenbeigs weie consiueieu Russian spies in Ameiica.
Policy of NAB- Nutually Assuieu Bestiuction (if you bomb me, I'll bomb you
guaianteeu).
2. China becomes communist
Civil wai between Nationalists anu Communists
Communists won- Nao
Nationalist leaueis fleu to Taiwan anu weie iecognizeu by the 0.N. anu most of paits
of the woilu as the legitimate leaueis of China even though they weie in exile.
Bemonstiates how anti communist the woilu was.
Eventually becomes the Peoples Republic of China
Russia leaves 0.N. (initially, comes back latei)
S. NAT0 is foimeu
(Noith Atlantic Tieaty 0iganization)
Bemociatic alliance Atlantic alliance
To piotect each othei fiom an attack --> 0SA is the leauei
4. Waisaw Pact-19SS
Cieateu in iesponse to NAT0
An alliance of the communist countiies
Leauei is the Soviet 0nion
92=A '-E0
Race to builu the best anu laigest amount of weapons.
Stockpile weapons.
Technology (Race foi Space) Soviets put 'sputnik' on the moon (satellite)
This eia was chaiacteiizeu by gieat ueal of paianoia.
Centie foi 0n-Ameiican Activities (wheie anyone who was communist oi accuseu of
being a communist woulu be uealt with)
S1
NcCaithy tiialspuiges (witch hunt in the 0S foi communists)
Consiueieu a "Bipolai 0niveise."
D?55@0 /4N02
Canaua was a miuule powei because we weie well iespecteu but still not as
poweiful as the 0SA oi 0SSR.
A Niuule Powei takes auvantage of its uiplomatic expeitise anu lack of militaiy
stiength to play a iole in meuiating conflicts between majoi woilu playeis.
(Peacekeepeis, peacemakeis)
/24[F ;-2
Aftei Woilu Wai 2, countiies began abanuoning theii colonies (uecolonization).
Fiance anu Biitain abanuoneu many of theii colonies in Afiica.
Fiance contiolleu Inuochina uuiing WW2, but then aftei Woilu Wai 2, Fiance
abanuoneu them.
The Soviets wanteu to take ovei Koiea, but the 0SA was against it anu they invaueu
South Koiea.



O420-. ;-2
Who.
Koiea, 0SA, anu 0SSR
When.
19Su-19SS
Wheie.
Koiea
What.
Koiea split into two (Noith Koiea anu South Koiea) anu began fighting.
The 0SA took the siue of the uemociatic siue anu fought against Noith Koiea, who
was aiming foi Communism.
Why.
0thei countiies got involveu because of the Colu Wai. It was beyonu Koiea, it was
the about the iuea of Communism vs. Bemociacy.
Thieat.
Canaua lost many men in the wai. It was one of the top thiee fieicest wais that
Canaua hau to fight in.
Result.
Both siues signeu an Aimistice in 19SS to enu a hot wai, howevei both countiies aie
iivals up to this uay.
Significance.
Showeu how the woilu can split up anu get violent uue to political beliefs anu
paianoia.

$I0C B2?A?A
Who.
Fiance, Biitain, Egypt, Isiael, 0niteu States, Canaua
When.
S2
19S6
Wheie.
At the Suez Canal in Egypt
What.
Suez canal links the Neuiteiianean Sea to the Reu sea.
The canal company, funueu by Biitain anu Fiance, was seizeu anu nationalizeu by
Egyptian piesiuent, Nassei.
Biitain, Fiance, anu Isiael began plotting militaiy iesponses.
Why.
The goveinment in Egypt changeu in 19S6.
Thieats.
Biitish aggiession in Egypt causeu a iift between the NAT0 countiies (alliances),
which was a thieat to Canaua because it coulu have leu to Biitain sepaiating fiom
the alliance.
Result.
Biitain anu Fiance began bombing Egypt until the 0SA uigeu Biitain to seek peace.
Significance.
Canaua became knows aiounu the woilu as a Peacekeepei anu Peaison ieceiveu the
Nobel Peace Piize.

V?01.-= ;-2
Who.
Noith vietnam (communist) vs. South vietnam (anti-Communist)
When.
196S-197S (1u yeais)
Wheie.
vietnam, Laos, Cambouia
What.
A piolongeu stiuggle between nationalists who want to have a uemociatic lifestyle
anu the communist iuling goveinment.
Why.
Battle of iueologies
Thieat.
The woilu was split in two anu Canaua hau paianoia about going to wai.
Result.
Ameiican foices hau withuiawn fiom vietnam
Communists won the wai
Significance.
0nification of South anu Noith vietnam into the Socialist Republic of vietnam.

BI]-. D?AA?@0 B2?A?A
Who.
0SA, 0SSR, Cuba, Tuikey
When.
1962
Wheie.
SS
Cuba anu Tuikey
What.
The 0SSR set up missiles on Cuban teiiitoiy, which is veiy close to the 0SA.
The 0SA got scaieu anu set up weapons in Tuikey, which is veiy close to the 0SSR.
Why.
They weie scaieu of a hot wai staiting.
Thieat.
Coulu have biought Canaua ueepei into the Colu Wai.
Result.
Both poweis iemoveu theii weapons fiom Tuikey anu Cuba.
Significance.
0niteu States nevei invaueu Cuba since.
The ielations between 0S anu Cuba aie teiiible up to this uay.
This was the closest that the woilu has evei gotten to a Nucleai Wai.


;4=0. ?. 1H0 B4@5 ;-2:
The expectation foi a woman in the 19Sus:
Bousewife anu mothei
Stays at home, cooks, anu cleans the house
Bas to be the one taking caie of the kius
Canaua was tiying to poitiay an image of peifect anu happy families. "The fathei
knows best anu the mothei uoesn't question anything." This was known as the
"Ameiican Bieam."
Nucleai Family: iefeis to two stiaight paients (mothei anu fathei), one oi moie
chiluien, wheie the housewife uoes not question hei husbanu anu uoes what he tells
hei.
Nany women tiieu to change this image because theie weie a lot of feminists,
Women's Libeial Novement, who wanteu oveiall social anu economical equality
between genueis.
0veiall, people in the 19Su weie veiy sexist. Women no longei felt neeueu. Theii
effoits weie neeueu uuiing the wai, howevei once the men came back, they weie no
longei neeueu.
T-E142A $H->?.P B-.-5-\A $4E?01F ?. 1H0 6Xc7A:
O0F T-E142 *0AE2?>1?4. $?P.?U?E-.E0
Subuibia Laige uiban sub-uivisions that
weie maue possible by
efficient public tiansit as well
as the populaiity of the
automobile, anu that became a
majoi featuie of Noith
Ameiican life aftei Woilu Wai
2.
A quietei aiea, safe,
nicei
The enviionment
was bettei
Noie affoiuable,
biggei houses
The subuibs
expanueu towaius
the Noith anu not
S4
only on the 49
th

paiallel
Stiong economy
Noie cais coulu fit
in the uiiveway
Teenageis anu
"counteicultuie"
Teenageis aie a stage in a
peison's giowth.
"The New ueneiation". They
hau money anu thus moie
iecieational time anu facilities.
Not foiceu to
maiiy, hau moie
fieeuom.
Not tiaineu foi wai
Biu not neeu to
have kius
Coulu enjoy life
Changeu fashion,
music style, values
Population Boom Immigiation- Canaua accepteu
moie immigiants because we
neeueu moie woikeis.
Baby Boom- couples wanteu to
stait families because the
economy was goou so they hau
moie babies.
Life was goou
uuiing this time
because people we
comfoitable
biinging chiluien to
the woilu.
Laige amount o
people " moie
competition foi
jobs.
Women stayeu
home to take caie
of chiluien
Baby boomeis aie
now ietiiing so
moie jobs aie
opening.
Automobile Piouucing moie cais, gas
station.
Fastei cais cieateu the neeu
foi highways, uiive thiough
iestauiants, anu uiive thiough
movie shops.
Rest stops weie cieateu.
People coulu woik
fuithei fiom home
People coulu visit
otheis who liveu fai
Social status; nicei
cais

B-.-5- G )$ '0@-1?4.A ?. 1H0 B4@5 ;-2:
Event Besciiption Significance
St. Lawience Seaway
In 1949 the Canauian goveinment
ueciueu to builu the St. Lawience
Seaway to eliminate natuial
Ameiica anu Canaua woikeu
togethei on this pioject.
When the Seaway openeu in
19S9, it became a symbol of
SS
baiiieis.
In 19S4, the 0niteu States
ueciueu to help builu it.
Each countiy paiu foi the sections
built on its teiiitoiy.
It connecteu the uieat Lakes.
Canauian-Ameiican co-opeiation.

Auto Pact
By the miu 196us, Canaua was
spenuing moie on Ameiican
piouucts (mainly cais) than it
was expoiting.
In }anuaiy 196S, Canaua anu the
0S signeu the Auto Pact.
This alloweu Ameiican auto
companies to builu plants in
Canaua anu sell these cais to both
countiies.
It ieuuceu huge tiaue imbalances
between Canaua anu the 0S.
Biought the countiies closei
togethei because they weie
woiking togethei to manufactuie
one of the most significant
technologies at the time.
N0RAB
By 19S8, the Soviets built long
iangeu bombeis that coulu ieach
Noith Ameiica.
To countei the thieat, the 0S
ieleaseu the Noith Ameiican Aii
Befense Commanu.
Puipose " tiack objects in space
anu issue wainings so that
missiles can be shot uown.
Naue Canaua anu the 0S closei
because they woikeu togethei
anu uefenueu each othei against
the 0SSR.
They hau each othei's back.
Avio Aiiow
Aftei WW2, the Canauian aii
foice neeueu new planes.
The Avio Aiiow was a jet that
shot uown enemy bombeis.
It was a Canauian pioject, but
Ameiicans lost inteiest anu
eventually the pioject was
cancelleu. " Nany jobs weie lost.
Causeu Canauian engineeis to
leave Canaua anu go to the 0S to
woik foi NASA.
"The Biain Biain"
Biought Canaua fuithei apait
fiom the 0S.
B0NARC Nissiles
An Ameiican maue missile
It is cheapei.
Canauians initially bought the
B0NARC missile.
Biefenbakei uiun't want them but
Peaison uiu anu uefeateu
Biefenbakei.
We bought Ameiican weapons
that biought us closei with the
0S.
Biefenbakei was ciiticizeu by the
0SA.

S6
B-.-5?-. /2?=0 D?.?A102A Q6XbcK6XdeS
1. Louis St. Lauient (Libeial)
1948-19S7
Be was Ninistei of Exteinal Affaiis.
Nackenzie-King pickeu him to be the next Piime Ninistei.
Be hau uignity, peisonal uecency, anu couiage.
Nicknameu 0ncle Louis.
Biought Newfounulanu into Canaua.
Be suppoiteu the TiansCanaua pipeline.
Be pusheu foi the TiansCanaua highway (Bwy. 1)
Came up with the St. Lawience Seaway.
The company that built the pipeline was Ameiican, which biought him
some hate.
2. }ohn Biefenbakei (Conseivative)
19S8-196S
Wanteu to fiee Canaua fiom Ameiican influence.
Came up with Bill of Rights in 196u.
Raiseu olu age pension.
Appointeu aboiiginals to the senate.
Cieateu the Faim Loan Piogiam.
Be huit ielations with the 0SA.
Buit Canauian economy by cancelling the Avio Aiiow pioject.
S. Lestei B. Peaison (Libeial)
196S-1968
Was the foimei Ninistei of Exteinal Affaiis in 1948, helpeu enu the
Suez Ciisis.
Staiteu the Social Safety Net piogiam.
New Neuicaie feueial piogiam that he initiateu.
Pusheu foi a new flag foi Canaua.
Set up the Royal Commission on Bilingualism anu Bicultuialism.
Be hau lisp anu was not as goou of a speakei as Biefenbakei, so he hau
some tioubles in the beginning.




S7
"#$%&'( )8#% b

D&*,'8 /,'#&*

%H0 fI?01 '0W4@I1?4. ?. fI0]0E:
The Quiet Revolution was about piotecting Fiench iights.
Quebec hau a piovincial goveinment calleu the 0nion Nationale. The leauei
of the paity was Nauiice Buplessis.
1967 " Libeials came to powei in Quebec. Leauei: }ean Lesage.
Famous Quote: "Naities Chez Nous" " Nasteis in oui own house
Libeials wanteu to pieseive Fiench cultuie anu the Roman Catholic Chuich.
They wanteu to make Quebec moie uiban anu moie inuustiializeu. They
staiteu a Fiench Language office to piomote Fiench Language in businesses.
uoveinment took ovei social seivices (contiolleu by piovince as ooposeu to
countiy oi piivate owneis.) Loweieu voting age to 18. Quebec nationalism.
Tiansfoimeu hyuio Quebec into a giant coipoiation manageu by Fiench
Canauians.
Euucation Refoims weie maue. Publicly funueu schools only hau Fiench
language instiuction.

Tiuueau:
1967- }ustice Ninistei
1969- Tiuueau becomes Piime Ninistei.

1. Be was a veiy goou leauei anu suppoiteu multicultuialism insteau of
bicultuialism like Peaison pioposeu.
2. Be was a uiffeient type of peison. Be was moie of a celebiity anu the
baby-boomeis (who tuineu 18 anu coulu vote now), voteu foi him
because they thought he was 'hip'.
S. Campaigning styles tell a lot about the peison iunning. A peison might
be a gieat canuiuate but not goou on cameia, which makes him lose.

Tiuueau intiouuceu the following:

&UU?E?-@ <-.PI-P0A 9E1 Q6XdXS: uave equal status to the Fiench anu English
languages anu maue Canaua an official bilingual nation. This meant that all
goveinment seivices must be offeieu in both Fiench anu English. All piouucts solu
in Canaua must have Fiench anu English. To go into piovincial oi feueial politics,
one must speak Fiench.

The Piovince of Quebec intiouuceu the following:

M?@@ YY Q6XgbS: maue Fiench the only official language in Quebec. It huit the English
language in Quebec. All uocuments anu contiacts hau to be in Fiench. All stoie signs
hau to be in Fiench.
S8

M?@@ 676 Q6XggS: No English! It piohibiteu English in all businesses. All Tv must be
in Fiench.

Tiuueau's "}ust Society"
'The state has no place in the beuioom of consenting auults.'
It is not the business of the goveinment to ueciue homosexuality vs.
heteiosexuality foi people.
Tiuueau legalizeu homosexuality.

Be ielaxeu aboition laws anu maue it easiei. The goveinment cannot make that
uecision foi people anu they shoulu ueciue what is iight foi them.
Be maue uivoice laws easiei.
Bis "}ust Society" incluueu:
Piomoting equality foi the most uisauvantageu
Social secuiity anu welfaie payments

%H0 T<f B2?A?A 42 &E14]02 B2?A?A:
(Fiont ue Libeiation uu Quebec)
uoal : to sepaiate fiom Canaua
They useu violence anu teiioi to tiy to achieve theii goal.
Ex. They kiunappeu two politicians.
1. }ames Cioss (who was ieleaseu)- Biitish Tiaue Ninistei
2. Pieiie Lapoite (who was killeu)- Ninistei of Laboui

They planteu bombs
The FLQ wanteu theii fiienus to be ieleaseu fiom jail.
Wheie: Nontieal

Tiuueau then intiouuceu the Wai Neasuies Act. This was the only time that this act
was useu in peacetime.

What weie some events that leu to the Language Ciisis in the 179s.
The Quiet Revolution
Bill 22
Bill 1u1
FLQ
Expo '67

%H0 /-21? fI0]0E4?A:
They came to powei in Quebec in 1976
Theii leauei was Rene Levesque
They wanteu to piotect Fiench cultuie anu soveieignty.
Wants Quebec to sepaiate fiom Canaua
They piomiseu a iefeienuum on the issue.
S9

Be pioposeu a manuate to negotiate soveieignty association with Canaua.
$4W020?P.1F: means that Quebec woulu be politically inuepenuent. It woulu have its
own laws t piotect Fiench cultuie anu woulu not be bounu by Canauian laws.
9AA4E?-1?4.: means that Quebec woulu still have close economic ties with the iest
of Canaua. The two countiies woulu have the same tiaue policy anu shaie the same
cuiiency in a common maiket.
D-.5-10 14 .0P41?-10: means Quebeckeis give theii goveinment peimission to
woik out a ueal with the iest of Canaua.

%2I50-I\A ,E4.4=?EJ$4E?-@ BH-.P0A:

1. Fuithei uecline of Canauian militaiy spenuing.
2. Policy of multi-cultuialism. (The goveinment hau to suppoit a uiveisity of
cultuies anu also fostei the Canauian iuentity.)
S. Changes in immigiation policy. (Points system is baseu on skills anu ability.)
4. National Eneigy Piogiam (NEP) - Tiuueau nationalizeu Canauian oil, the
goveinment bought out all gas stations except Shell anu Esso, foimeu a
ciown coipoiation of PETR0 Canaua (Pieiie Elliott Tiuueau Rip off Canaua).
S. Switcheu fiom impeiial to metiic system. (It's an easiei way to measuie, the
iest of the woilu switcheu anu so uiu Canaua, anu this cost a lot of money foi
the goveinment of Canaua.)

B4.A1?1I1?4.
The book of iules that states how the goveinment will iun
It is wiitten when cieating a countiy
Incluues the policies that it will follow

1867- Biitish Noith Ameiican Act
When a change is maue in the constitution, it is calleu an amenument.
0ntil the 198us, all the constitutional changes hau to be maue in Biitain.
Tiuueau patiiates the constitution "Biings the constitution home"
The Feueial goveinment can now make changes with appioval fiom the piovinces.

Naich 8
th
, 1982- the BNA act was officially changeu anu ienameu to be the
constitution act of 1982.

Thiee impoitant changes weie maue:
1. Canaua now hau the powei to amenu the constitution with no neeu foi
Biitain's peimission.
2. Changes coulu be maue if the Feueial goveinment anu 7 piovincial
goveinments agieeu (at least Su% of the Canauian population.)
S. The Chaitei of Rights anu Fieeuoms was auueu.
Legal iights
Aboiiginal iights
Equality iights
4u
Language iights

Tiuueau - 1968-1984
Biian Nulioney was the next Piime Ninistei.
Aboiiginal White Papei Issue
Recommenuation foi abolishing the Inuian Act
Wanteu to tiansfei the iesponsibility to the piovinces
Teiminate tieaty foi ieseive lanu
Native Canauians cuiiently have the iight to self goveinment but unuei the
contiol of the feueial goveinment
0ka Ciisis
When: Apiil-August 1989
Wheie: 0ka uolf Couise
Who: Nohawk-Iioquois (6 nations), RCNP, Bevelopeis
What: Bevelopeis wanteu to use the lanu anu make it a golf couise anu the
natives piotesteu (civil uisobeuience)
Why: The Nohawks wanteu theii lanu to be untoucheu (The Nohawk 6
nations won)
Conseivative- Nulioney 1984-1992
Be intiouuceu uST 7% Feueial Tax, paiu on top of the piovincial tax.
Fiee Tiaue Agieement - 1989
An agieement between the 0niteu States anu Canaua with no taiiffs oi taxes
on goous to help stimulate the economy
Libeial- }ean Chiistien - 199S
NAFTA- 1994
Noith Ameiican Fiee Tiaue Agieement
Canaua + 0niteu States + Nexico

Enviionment
Late 9us -9us
New oiganization is foimeu
uieen Peace " cleans up the enviionment anu iaise awaieness
2uuu+ Rio & Kyoto Piotocol
Summits
Bow to ueal with climate change

By 1991- Colu Wai is ovei.
In 1989, the Beilin wall comes uown anu ueimany is back togethei.
Summit Seiies:
Bockey game between Canaua anu Russia anu we showeu that we aie a stiong
competitoi.