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PRINTING

TEXTILE PRINTING
Textile printing is used to signify the production,
by various means of colored patterns on designs
upon all sorts of textile fiber.
Textile printing is the most important and versatile
of the techniques used to add design, color, and
specialty to textile fabrics.
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STEPS OF PRINTING
The basic steps in the printing process are as
follows:
Preparation of the fabric
Preparation of the print paste.
Printing the fabric.
Drying the printed fabric.
Fixation of the printed dye or pigment.
Afterwashing. 3
PRINT PASTE AND ITS INGREDIENTS
Print paste is a viscous solution of printing ingredients
referred below that is used for textile printing. The main
three printing ingredients are:
Dyestuff or pigments
Thickeners: Thickener can be defined as a substance
used to increase the viscosity of a print paste or other
fluid, in order to control its flow properties.
Chemicals and waters: The main types of chemicals
used for textile printing are wetting agents, solvents,
solution acids, dispersing agents, hygroscopic agents,
oxidizing & reducing agents, defoamers, acids, alkalis,
catalyst & carriers, swelling agents etc. 4
PLASTISOL VS. WATER-BASED INK
There are two main types of ink that are used for textile
printing.
Water-based ink utilizes either dyes or pigments in a
suspension with water as the solvent. The evaporation of the
water is necessary to set or cure the ink. Plastisol ink is a PVC
based system that essentially contains no solvent at all.
Usage Recommendations Plastisol Water-base
T-Shirts/light colors Excellent Excellent
T-Shirts/dark colored Good Poor
Nylon Jackets Good Poor
Towels Poor Excellent
Yard goods Poor Excellent
Sporting Goods Excellent Poor
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STYLE OF PRINTING
Metal style of printing: In the metal style of printing
fabric is printed with silver or gold solution or non-
removable resins.

Resist Printing: In this method, the fabric is first printed


in a design with a chemical that resists dye. The fabric is
then dyed. The resist will leave the fabric white or some
other color in the print areas. One of the advantages of
this method is that dyes with very high colorfastness can
be used.

Flock Printing: Flock printing is a process in which a


flock is fixed on to a cloth by means of adhesive to form
printed pattern. It produces a pile or velvety effect on the
fabric similar to form a printed pattern.
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STYLE OF PRINTING (CONTD.)
Discharge Printing: Discharge means removal and
Discharge style refers process which can produce a
white or colored effects on a dyed ground by printing
paste containing a chemical capable of removing the
ground color called discharging agents. It could be of
two types

White Discharge: the printed part remains


white after destroying the dyed color
Color Discharge: With a dye incorporated in
the print paste which is resistant to discharging agents.
When printed the discharging agents removes the
ground color and at the same time deposit color on the
dyed ground.
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METHOD OF PRINTING
Block printing: In this method the wooden or metal block with a
negative and raised design (i.e. in relief) is first stamped on the
print paste and then on the cloth and an impression of positive
design is made on the cloth.
Screen printing: In hand screen printing the fabric is stretched
out on a long table. The screens are moved methodically along
the fabric. When a screen is in position the dye paste is pressed
through the open mesh with a squeegee blade.
Transfer printing: Transfer printing is defined as any process by
which a design is transferred from paper to another substrate.
Selected disperse dyes transfer in vapor form to thermoplastic
fibers when the printed paper and fabric are brought into close
contact in a transfer press at 170-220C.

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FLAT BED SCREEN PRINTING
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FLAT BED SCREEN PRINTING
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ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING
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ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING
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PIGMENT PRINTING
In pigment printing, insoluble pigments, which have no affinity
for the fiber, are fixed on to the textile with binding agents in
the pattern required.
Importance of pigment printing
Pigments, of course, are used for the production of
plain-colored fabrics, but are of much greater importance in
printing.
The pigment can be applied to all fibers potentially and it is
the only coloration to glass fiber, fabric and polyester
No wet treatment is required, so drying and curing is
applicable to all fiber.
Extensive color range of highly light fast colors
Possible to produce good combination shades on blended
fiber in one padding operation
Application procedure is simple
Less expensive
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FOIL PRINTING
This printing method is based on
the use of metallic foil paper of
aluminum or copper one. A foil
layer is affixed to a certain
material by a heating process.
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WATER BASED GEL PRINT
A rapidly drying aqueous
printing ink containing a gel
forming polymer soluble in
the ink but which rapidly
gels upon application of the
ink to a substrate during a
printing process. Gel ink
gives high gloss wet
looking prints that have a
three-dimensional feel to
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SPRAY PRINTING
A spray gun forces the color
through a screen
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HIGH DENSITY PRINTING
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High Density printing is the
process of printing a
specially formulated ink
through a very thick stencil
to achieve a raised, glossy
smooth print with very sharp
edges.
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