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It also identifies the knowledge, skills, abilities and personal competencies pe
ople need to perform their work well. In short, it is a method that provides a d
escription of the job and profiles the competencies people need to be successful more
Page 1
The Person - An integrated introduction to personality psychology Dan P. McAdams
Third Edition
Page 2
Introduction I-Studying the person Each individual is a) like all other persons
(species-typical properties) b) like some other people (same traits in some indi
viduals) c) like no other person (individual differences). Three levels of perso
nality: 1 dispositional Traits Width dimensions of personality, presumably inter
nal locus, global, stable individual differences in behavior, Thinking and feeli
ng describe. Traits are the time and situation it constant. Friendliness Dominan
ce Tendency to depression Punctuality Second characteristic Adjustments Individu
al facets of personality, personal adaptation to motivational, cognitive and dev
elopmental specific Describe tasks, mostly in the context special times, situati
ons, places and social roles. Objectives, intentions and Plans; Values ??and bel
iefs; cognitive schemata; Species of relationships; psychosocial stages; develop
ment-specific Tasks 3 life- stories Internalized and evolving Stories of the sel
f that people construct the past, To integrate present and future and their life
a certain unity and to give an objective. Life Stories include the integration
and Identity problems of personality (v. a modern adulthood). first memories Rec
onstruction of the Childhood, perception individual future, Ascent stories; Imag
ery and Topics of stories to 1: The Big Five (the five basic traits): 2 Neurotic
ism (neuroticism, N): concerned - quiet nervous - casual high strung (restless?)
- relaxed insecure - secure self-pitying - self-satisfied vulnerable-tough / ha
rd Extroversion (extraversion, E): sociable - retiring (restrained) Fun liking -
sober lovingly - Reserved friendly - restrained spontaneously - inhibited talka
tive - quiet
Page 3
to 2: Example: personal construction of a cognitive conflict between control and
surrender in addressing the challenge of an intimate relationship in young adul
t Age. (Personal constructs according to Kelley (1955) are bipolar categories, t
he people use to use information and to order. They are highly subjective and ca
n be understood as part of the personality.) to 3: Example: Construction of an i
ndividual life story with the help of a) metaphors like Light (for movement, fin
ding in diaries or so) and b) characters such as "mother" or "doctor" "Science a
nd the person" Normally running science in three stages: 1 unsystematic observat
ion: It is held for patterns, regularities and phenomena on the lookout for thes
e then to describe. Here, the observer subjectively by watching and also interac
t with its environment. With increasing observation and organization of the Obse
rved in categories of incidents more and more abstract and universally valid. 2
The setting up of theories 3 To Openness to Experience (Openness Experience, O):
original - conventional resourceful - objectively creative - uncreative wide in
terests - narrow interests complex - simple curious - indifferent Reliability (c
onscientiousness, C): reliably-careless carefully-careless reliable - unreliable
well organized - poorly organized self-disciplined - weak-willed not giving up
- giving up Compatibility (Agreeableness, A): benign-irritable soft-hearted - pi
tiless polite - rough forgiving - vindictive sympathetic - numb compatible - inc
Page 4
One theory is, a set of mutually contiguous statements try Phenomena has been ob
served to explain. A theory should be judged on the following: - Scope (the more
a theory explains, the better) - Thrift (little explanations for many observati
ons) - Coherence (logical inner connection of the parts of the theory) - Testabi
lity (from the theory should be testable hypotheses) - Empirical validity (the r
esults of the testing of hypotheses, which should correspond to what the theory
says) - The advisability (theories, solve the problems, the better) - "Fertility
" (generativity, from the theory should new approaches and questions may arise)
3 Testing of statements Empirical testing of refutable theory by correlative or
experimental Designs. Personality Psychology History: Beginning in the 30s throu
gh publication of Allport's "Personality: A Psychological Interpretation ". Whil
e the nomothetic (search for general psychological laws) American psychology mor
e on stimulus-response was fixed, turned ideographic (The unit of each individua
l viewing) the personality psychology of the whole person about. There are three
historical periods of personality psychology: 1930-1950 "Establishment phase" o
f the Personality Psychology; Develop detailed conceptual systems that still par
tly influence have. Representative: Allport, Murray, Catell, Kelley, Erikson, bu
t also: Freud, Jung, Adler 1950-1970 Focus on the measurability constructs conta
ining a direct and visible Had an influence on behavior (Eg, extraversion or Anx
iety) later: trait vs.. situation - Debate (Mischel) 1970-present Awareness abou
t the complex interaction of internal and external Factors. Emergence of resista
nce trait - Models: the Big Five (McRae & Costa) Summary: S. 43 4
Page 5
Part 1; The Background: Human Nature and Cultural Context II Human Evolution On
Human Nature: Our evolutionary heritage Principles of Evolution D ARWIN : A prer
equisite for life is the possibility of physical reproduction. Individual organi
sms are the product of a long chain of evolutionary events, where-replicating sy
stems compete for limited resources. Some systems are in the long run more succe
ssful and produce the next generation live more efficient copies (natural select
ion). Need to be successful organisms adapt to the environment and competition (
what behavior and physical characteristics terms). Today, through the expansion
of knowledge about genetics (keyword: selfish gene). The organism shows behavior
that is used to replicate its genes without knowing this (directly: by own desc
endants; indirectly: by descendants of relatives; both together the inclusive fi
tness). The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness People have only been 2 mill
ion years (first life 3.5 billion years ago). 99% the time they were sudden and
collectors. Is always in groups, because the nature of man socially. Cooperative
activity not only helped the group as such, but also the inclusive fitness of e
ach individual. In the groups, there was also conflict. By Aggression (or clever
ness), some group members more dominant than others and found to have a hierarch
ical structure. People formed families, where is especially striking that the de
scendants of long were cared for shows until they themselves were sexually matur
e. It developed language and different cultures in which all specific universal
pattern occurred (sports, working together, incest taboos, Funeral ceremonies, r
eligion (!) ...). The angepasst Mind In addition to physical changes above, the
development of the brain to the superiority of the People out ("cognitive niche"
). The human mind consists of evolutionary theoretical perspective of several co
operating subsystems or Modules for various adjustments to the environment. Huma
n behavior is from more than two instincts. Reproduction problems (successful in
tersexual Competition, vehicle selection, successful conception (social and sexu
ally correct Behaviors), keeping the companions, building a reciprocal dyadic al
liance with the partner, establishment and maintenance of coalitions, parental c
are and Socialization, investment in relatives who are not descendants) are tact
ics and strategies overcome. One can distinguish between behavior for distal and
proximal explanations. Distal For example replication as a reason for sex. Prox
imal however, the pleasure of sex, which is, however, influenced subtly or indir
ectly from the distal surface. 5
Page 6
Mating Men try as many women as possible to fertilize while the so much longer n
eeds in order to procreate offspring, very accurately selects who they sexual co
ntact would like to have. The fast sex (the man, it's enough for the act from to
To beget descendants) will more frequently and therefore must gain access to th
e slow Gender compete, allowing the slow sex select exactly. - Here, but also pr
oximal factors play a role (eg cultural norms ...). - In addition, natural selec
tion often plays also a role behind the behavior. Motivational or emotional mech
anisms such request need not be restricted in Express behavior. - Furthermore, i
t should be no moral justification, because we can indeed still decide which pat
terns we choose. In fact, the man is more prone to promiscuity and less carefull
y selects its partners from. Even across cultures can be seen that there is at p
olygamy much more often Men's than in women. Hence the theory of evolution resul
ted after a conflict between the sexes. Men are aggressive because women refuse
(sexually vorenthaltendes behavior) and Women because men often insist of sex (s
exually aggressive behavior). Studies have shown that only sexually vorenthalten
des behavior appears between the Varying sexes. But men find sexual infidelity w
orse, while Women find "emotional infidelity" worse. Other gender differences sh
ow up directly in mate choice: Women want a sexual partner with a high social st
atus and a face that both 'Sweet' expresses (large eyes, smile) and the other in
Expresses agreement with the theory of evolution maturity and social dominance
(Strong jaw, thick eyebrows, a corresponding to the high status clothing). While
men want a woman, sexual maturity (high cheekbones, narrow Cheeks, youth (large
eyes, small nose, narrow chin), health and friendliness (Big smile, eyebrows, d
irectly above the eyes and thick hair) expresses. From the choice of sexual part
ners, a rivalry developed. Why wear Women make-up on, groom and pull good. Howev
er, men are trying their To show "resources" and to boast about. Both sexes are
on prosocial behavior and therefore try humor, Helpfulness and sympathy to expre
ss. Women (and their families) seem to be more committed close relationships wit
h their Children build than men, not least because men will never know 100% if i
t is really is their children. Gender differences are especially salient then, w
hen the sexes in dealing with the evolutionary environment are exposed to variou
s tasks (eg, sexual Reproduction; here the differences are probably in different
patterns of Request justified). In addition to the distal reasons, in cultural,
religious, political and social rules or norms proximal reasons for gender diff
erences be found. In many ways (especially when it comes to the good of the elev
ator To ensure offspring) agree sexes agree in the choice of a partner. 6
Page 7
Getting along and Getting Ahead Socio-Analytical Theory (H OGAN 1982): Humans ar
e biologically predisposed to live in social groups, the hierarchical are struct
ured. Our evolutionary ancestors had through cooperation in groups a Advantage o
ver attackers. A high status in the group leads to higher fitness as you have a
choice when it comes to partners, food, or place of residence. Even today, it co
mes To get attention, to be liked and to have power ("getting along and getting
ahead "). This is only in ritualized social interactions are possible in which t
he individual specific roles plays and scripts follows. The individuals that the
se genetic tendencies at best fit to perform in a social environment best and wi
n it their social identity, if it is good, the distal goal of reproduction paves
the way. The "audience" of the social role playing change with age. Dealing wit
h the Parents, so as we give ourselves to our parents, to make our character str
ucture. The adult role playing opposite a wider audience such as friends or Coll
eagues is our role structure. Standing both structures in conflict with each oth
er (The character structure lingers later in the unconscious), there is an ident
ity crisis (Eg when working boys who later problems with life and Sichdarstellen
in a Elite environment has). Some people are able to adapt better, they play th
eir roles better and come better cope with social rites. These people usually ha
ve the acceptance of others and Positions with a lot of influence. A Pernlichkeit
s trait (which also relatively stable and consistent is) is shyness (feeling the
mselves and Gehemmtsein in the presence of others). Shyness is a handicap in soc
ial interactions and leads to less fitness. Study: Shy boy marry later (marriage
s are less stable) and have less stable careers. Shy girls tend to follow the co
nventional pattern of marriage, Child and housework. It is interesting that the
men of timid women were more successful. "Under certain circumstances can also t
raits such as shyness to increase the adaptation result (here via the detour of
the man who had more success because the shy woman alone taking care of the chil
dren) Hurting and Helping Aggression Aggression as an adaptive behavior. The agg
ressive survived longer and reproduces itself successfully. Human aggression is
very flexible and can take various forms accept. How aggressive are humans compa
red to other species is controversial discussed. Psychologists distinguish betwe
en instrumental aggression and hostile Aggression that does not pursue a goal th
an the violence itself. Many aggressive incidents seem to be a combination of bo
th. Altruism Altruism and aggression could be two sides of a coin can be seen. L
ife in hierarchical groups consists of competition and cooperation. 7
Page 8
Aggression could bring the group apart, so Mechanisms and Maintain standards ant
isocial aggression under control. People are "moral animals." Three conditions o
f group life are the basis of human morality: Search the value of the group (dep
ending on the members while eating or - Defending) - Mutual assistance - Interna
l conflicts (conflicts of interest, competition) The intra group conflicts had t
o be scattered by a balancing of the individual and the collective interests - o
n dyadischem level by one-to-one interactions, Reconciliations after fights and
at higher levels by peaceful arbitration of Conflicts, individual recognition an
d encouragement of altruistic behavior Contributions to improve the quality of t
he social environment. Human morality consists of various tendencies and abiliti
es: 1 sympathy-related traits: a) binding, help and emotional contagion b) train
ed and adaptation to special treatment of the disabled and injured c) cognitive
empathy Second standards-related characteristics: a) prescribed social rules (Of
ten implicit rules) b) internalization of rules and expectation of punishment (E
g development of a conscience) 3 reciprocity: a) Concept of Giving, action and r
evenge (Sense of fairness and justice) b) moral aggression against injured the r
eciprocal rules 4 along with each other (getting along) a) creating peace and av
oidance of conflicts b) adjustment of conflicting interests through negotiation
(+ Individuals who are trained to avoid conflicts (eg Judge or ambassador) c) pa
rticipation in "communities" and maintaining good relations (Identification with
the group, development of strategies that position the improve the group) One c
an distinguish two types of altruism: Altruism based on kin selection: individua
l task goals to descendants or Relatives to help (and thus passing on their own
genes). Occurs more often in - Close affinities - Have in groups that live close
ly together and thus common kinship frets - Can differ in species, the relatives
of non-relatives reciprocal altruism: comes more often in front of - Low risk f
or those who help - A high value for the receiver - High probability of a revers
al of the situation in the future Another approach (H Offman 1981) describes an
innate biological tendency other to help those in need. It is based on empathy.
(H OFFMANN suggested an involvement of the limbic system.) Other two types of mo
tivation to help: 8
Page 9
- Help on the basis of personal "concern", ie jmd to help those in need, on its
own To reduce excitement about this situation (egoistic motivation) and - Real e
mpathy (altruistic motivation) Studies show that both types of motivation play a
role. Altruism in childhood occurs already (eg in babies who at the age of two
Shout years when others cry). The altruistic personality: - Strong feelings for
others in need - A high degree of responsibility to help others - Ability to per
spective taking B IERHOFF et al. (1991) extended this to the belief in a just wo
rld (trust to achieve positive results in the ability and control one's own dest
iny). The Evolution of Love: Attachment Theory Attachment theory (J OHN B OWLBY
& M ARY A INSWORTH ): The bond marked by love between a child and his parents or
other caregivers in the early years is a general prototype for later Love relat
ionships. People are instinctive and biologically predisposed emotional To form
relationships begin to pick off the benefits of these relationships (evolutionar
y Importance of close mother-child relationship: to be hurt reduce the risk). At
tachment in Infancy Binding behavior: sucking, clinging, consequences, vocalizin
g and smiling. Taking into account the emotional development of attachment behav
ior is the first expression of Fear and love (especially fear of strangers and s
eparation). In the second and third year of life the child builds expectations a
bout the nature of Relationships that comprise a working model. If the tie is su
re developed A fundamental trust in the environment along with the self-confiden
ce, which is needed to explore the world. The bond here is always the safer star
ting point. If the binding, however, be reassured that the child perceives his e
nvironment as dangerous and scary. Secure and Insecure Attachments One way to im
prove the quality of bonds to investigate this is from A INSWORTH developed Stra
nge Situation paradigm. Here, a small child comes with his supervisor (Usually t
he mother or father) in a laboratory, then comes a stranger, the supervisor brie
fly leaves the room, come back, the stranger leaves the room and a little later
the Supervisor, then the stranger comes back and finally the supervisor. It is t
he Behavior of the babies in the two "Reunification phases" investigated. A dist
inction three binding patterns: 9
Page 10
A-Babies: insecure attachment behavior; avoidant pattern compared to the caregiv
ers at Reunification B-Babies: secure attachment behavior; they explore their su
rroundings with great Relaxation and the caregiver as a base. But if this is gon
e, there will be less Investigation of the environment. With reunification, they
welcome the caregiver with much Enthusiasm and then continue with the explorati
on of the environment. C-Babies: insecure attachment behavior; resisting (a mixt
ure of approximation and Avoidance) behavior at reunification; and aggressive be
havior towards the Managers possible The binding style is sure when mothers more
sensitive (in terms of communication, Reaction to wines, detection of signals o
f babies, more caution in dealing with the Mother) to deal with their children.
The synchrony of interaction (reciprocity) plays a role. A secure attachment sty
le later leads to ... - Improved skills in preschool years - More active behavio
r in the study of the environment (3 years) - Higher quality of research around
- Higher quality of imaginary play - Higher competence in problem solving - Fast
er and easier adaptation to strangers - Less negative reactions (2 years) - Vict
imize less and less victimized themselves (preschool) - An increase in the gende
r differences such as aggression (male) and Dependence (women) (4 years) - Bette
r interaction with other children (4 or 5 years) About long-term effects (adulth
ood) is so far not known. Apparently seems a secure attachment style based on so
cial, emotional and To be development of the personality. Are some people at ris
k kids because they do not guarantee a secure attachment style can? Probably not
, since a secure attachment style rather arises from the interaction and with li
ttle Has to do Traits of the supervisor. However, chronic negative affect act (D
epression) in mothers probably from an attachment style. Socioeconomic status se
ems to have no effect. Abuse of Children A-babies or D-Babies (conflicting litera
ture) dissorganisiertes pattern; are confused and uninformed at reunion with the
mother; little exploration in the presence of the mother; Mother can not calm;
is probably regarded as similar frightening as the unknown environment; later of
ten increased Aggression level. Harm daycare? Conflicting results, depending on
the quality of care. Further problem with the application of the Strange Situati
on, as children in day care differently to strangers react (habituation). 1 2 or
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Father-child bonds can parent-child conditions are very similar, differ but in s
ome points. Mothers spend more time with the child, leading to higher Accountabi
lity leads. Since fathers also physical, emotional and peculiar exciting play wi
th children who are father-child relationship seems more fun to have on based, w
hile mother-child relationships based more on perceived safety. Both Types of bi
nding appears to be independent but are correlated. Evolutionary significance of
an (un) secure attachment style for fitness: - Growing up in a stressful enviro
nment "insecure attachment style" higher quantity in the Reproduction (Wsk. that
child survives less in such an environment) - Growing up in a non-stressful env
ironment "secure attachment style" higher quality in the Reproduction (through b
etter binding behavior "stable relationship and such) Adult attachments In recen
t years, the binding theory was extended to adult. Are usually reported by adult
s working models of childhood bonds and the romantic relationship between young
adults regarding safer vs. uncertain Binding quality examined (Adult Attachment
Interview, M AIN ). M ARY M AIN distinguishes four categories: Adult-binding Int
erview Style of answers Binding type of child secure / autonomous convincing and
consistent Report childhood sure (B-baby) "Missing" (dissmissing) "Reflecting"
(preoccupied) relatively incoherent reports of own childhood (contradictions, su
dden swirling in a other language problems to the Questions of the interview foc
us) avoidant (A Baby) resisting (C-baby) unresolved moderately consistent with r
eports magical or bizarre proportions regarding Details to do with the binding h
ave, such as loss dissorganisiert (D-Baby) B AZAN & S HAVER see a continuation o
f the child's attachment styles in love between adults (attachment styles). sure
: leave no problem with closeness and mutual dependence, not afraid to be too cl
ose or before avoiding: Problem with too much closeness, intimacy, dependency or
the construction of Trust, ambivalent: I feel other than hesitant when it comes
to their search for my area, often doubt the love of the other, I want as close
to a person come together, as you can get what others often frightened The prov
ision of support for children and adults, the key function of secure attachment.
A secure attachment style leads to: - More positive than negative in everyday s
ocial interaction (avoidant: less Intimacy and less pos. Interactions; ambivalen
t: rich mix of pos. and neg Interactions) - More curiosity and exploration 1
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- Higher self-esteem and less depression (negative are not existent Overcome wit
h experience, as well as enough positive experiences are available) B AZAN & S H
AVER : Adult attachment styles are the heirs of internalized Relationship models
of childhood. Summary: S. 43 1
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III-Freud and the Psychoanalytic Tradition Sigmund Freud Founder of psychoanalys
is and most influential theorists Carl Jung former colleague of Freud, which, ho
wever, the role of sexuality was different and therefore a competing analytical
psychology founded (meaning the collective Unconscious and mythical). Alfred Adl
er also earlier colleague of Freud, the founder of individual psychology Anna Fr
eud Freud's daughter, focus on the customization of the ego and the self, early
Ego-psychologist Heinz Hartmann Father of ego-psychology, removal of Freud's ass
umptions about instincts towards the ego as adaptable and effective representati
ve of the personality Melanie Klein first object relation s theorist, assumption
: the perceived love of children or hatred of objects to be unconscious represen
tations that influence have on social behavior Harry S. Sullivan interpersonal t
heory; Focus on strategies of people with anxiety to deal with it, through the e
stablishment of a self-system in childhood; Loneliness in later childhood accord
ingly can be overridden by intimacies with friends. Karen Horney against Freud's
Oedipus complex; Focus on social and cultural impact, and less on biological, i
n the formation of the self; provides three ways for (neurotic) people To accomp
lish challenges: be it to people away from them or against move Erich Fromm Inte
grative Theory of Marx and Freud; importance of social and cultural forces in th
e formation of personality Erik Erikson Ego-psychologist; known primarily for hi
s stage model (8 life crises need to be Development be addressed: about childhoo
d: "Trust vs. Non-confidence "to "Integrity vs. Despair ") Margaret Mahler objec
t relationship s-theorist; Focus on process of separation and individuation in t
he first three years Hein Kohut Self-psychologist, is similar to the object-rela
tions theory, but also focuses the Problem of a cohesive development of the self
in the early years of life All psychoanalysts share a certain view of human nat
ure, in the four aspects can be divided into: 1) determinism (behavior and exper
iences are determined by uncontrollable forces) 2) Conflict (which forces many a
cquired during childhood are in conflict together which fear arises) 3) the unco
nscious (no awareness of the forces) 4) psychoanalytic interpretation (by they m
ay have some knowledge about the forces be collected (eg, interpretation of drea
ms)) The Unconscious In Freud's view, the conscious out is just the tip of an ic
eberg, the rest is in the Unconscious. 1
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His clinical cases he saw as under suppressed (repressed) sexual conflicts or ag
gressive nature neurotic suffering. He designed a topographical model of human f
unctioning, consisting of Unconscious, Prbewusstem (today: memory; info that are
not there but accessed may be) and the conscious. The material lying in the unco
nscious was suppressed for a reason. It penetrates through symbolic form, as in
neurotic symptoms or indirectly satisfied in Dreams, fantasies or art into consc
ious. Oppression is inevitable and will take place every day. Unconscious Inform
ation Processing Cognitive psychologists assume now that Freud had not so wrong.
The most information processing is based on algorithms that are unaware be perc
eived. This allows trigger emotional reactions such As automatic liking or disli
kes. One can see the psychological unconscious as a series of implicit processes
, such as implicit memory, implicit perception, thought or implicit learning. Th
e notion that there are two types of processing, consistent with Freud's ideas a
) a primary and a b) secondary process. to a): spontaneous and effortless proces
s, often starting from sexual or aggressive drives, connected with the unconscio
us; For example, to find in Dream to b): rational thinking, coupled with real pe
rception, conscious and aware The difference from modern social-cognitive approa
ches is that there aggressive and sexual impulses do not matter. Is comparable t
o Freud's model with that of E PSTEIN . He distinguishes a experential ("Hot" em
otions, spontaneous and involuntary processing, barely conscious control, evolut
ionarily older system, but not connected with shoots) of a rational system ("coo
l" logic, realistic and relatively logical, control of conscious thought). Repre
ssion and repressor Defensive perception (perceptual defense) seems to an empiri
cally occupied concept be. Between 1940 and 1960, experiments were conducted in
which it became clear that People take longer to perceive stimuli that produce a
nxiety or Trauma related. Also sexual stimuli are perceived later. W EINBERGER e
t al. (1979): Recent studies show that some people are more likely Suppressors a
re / displacer. People with little fear on a conscious level and a defensive lif
estyle (Displacement) reported less concern in the Presentation of sexual or agg
ressive stimuli than those with little scared and a little Defensive behavior or
people with a lot of fear and a lot of defensive behavior. On the other hand sh
owed physiological measures in displacers more inner excitement. Also they have-
like a second study showed (D AVIS & S CHWARTZ 1987) - less Memories of negative
events of her childhood. "Both are consistent with Freud's theories But they al
so showed less positive memories of memories, suggesting that suppression or rep
ression is a more general phenomenon. 1
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But there seems to be no general memory deficit, because displacement remember m
ore emotional experiences other than strong emotional experiences of one's own p
erson (D AVIS 1987). B ANSEN & H ANSEN (1988) suggest that displacement associat
ive network for negative Own emotions, the much less complex and more from other
memories separated than in persons who do not displace. This is also used by th
em empirically occupied. Repression as a coping strategy may lead to increased r
isk for diseases (eg Asthma or cancer). A Collective Unconscious Carl Jung Unlik
e Freud, Jung unfocused aggression and sexuality, but believed that People are m
otivated by a series of unconscious factors and forces (internal Shoots and pict
ures about loneliness, death, Adrogynie, wisdom, ignorance, and Sexuality and ag
gression-all results of our evolutionary heritage). The main structures of this
collective unconscious are archetypes , universalPresiding positions from which
images and sequences of behavior can be formed. You are found in ancient myths,
dreams or universal symbols. 3 Example: Anima: the unconscious female part in ma
n Animus: the unconscious masculine aspect in the women Both act as unconscious
filters to tap the behavior of the other Sex in the interaction between man and
woman. Shadow: Shadow, the dark half of the personality, desire for unacceptable
and socially inappropriate behaviors; mapped in metaphors of demons or to the b
iblical Fall of Man Empirically guys is to prove hardly approach. The Formation
of Personality Freud sees the spirit of man as a machine that takes energy. This
comes from two types of biological instincts: a) sexuality and other survival i
nstincts and b) Aggression and other death instincts. Survival instincts serve t
he individual survival and the Reproduktion. The shape of the energy of the life
instincts is the libido . The personinvested his libido into various objects (pe
ople or activities), satisfying the instincts promise. The erogenous zones (mout
h, anus and genitals) are loaded with libido. In the Development of a human wand
ers the libido of a erogenous zone to the next. According to Freud, the psychoan
alyst away from the importance of libido and instead focused on the importance o
f early interpersonal relationships (object (In this case a person) relationship
s) for the development of personality. 1
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The Early Years Oral phase :Psychosexual development Freud begins suckling at th
e mother's breast (The first goal of the sexual instincts). In the oral phase, t
he child is completely dependent on his mother what the satisfaction As for his
physical needs. If they are satisfied on a regular basis, takes the Child's envi
ronment as predictable and stress-relieving (voltage by hunger, for B.). This is
the basis for a good psychosexual development. However, it can also lead to fix
ation are used in the oral phase:2 types of oral personalities: 1) before fixatio
n "oral passive personality type (happy, strong, dependent, Expectation of the w
orld him "mothering" to) 2) late fixation (after the child begins to bite with t
eeth) oral sadistic personality (cynical, pessimistic and "Biting" sarcastic) Ana
l Phase: can stop and go from feces; regular and dismantling of voltage; success
ful toilet training leads to a certain level of mastery of the sexual Instincts
(libido under the control of social plans). 2 styles anal personalities: 1) stri
ct, rigid toilet training "anal retentive personality (Stubbornness, greed and b
latant plan of life; little spontaneity and flexibility; Timer: to stop efforts)
2) anal expulsive personality "Let go" (steady in impulsive type; messy, disorg
anized, cruel, destructive) Unlike Freud have other analysts on the importance o
f the relationship between Mother and child for future bonds relative. So can su
cking on the mother's Breast be understood as first establish a secure trust rel
ationship, and the anal phase as first win of independence and self-mastery. App
roved: A good time in the first year increases the Wsk. for a good time then (wh
at object relations and autonomous self-concern). M ARGARET M Counter (1975): Th
eory of early development: first month: Child in the initial phase of normal aut
ism (biological Needs can not object to search) second month: normal symbiosis w
ith the mother; Unity with the mother then critical process between separation a
nd individuation: 5th-9th Month: Self and Others are distinguishable, check back
with mother at first slight distance (differentiation of body images) 10th-14th
Month: by more exercise options more research into the Environment; in the abse
nce of the mother inhibited exploration, Instead, search for the inner pictorial
mother (training phase) 14-24. Month: Approach-avoidance-Konfikt; Conflict betw
een drives for Reunification and complete detachment (approach phase) 1
Page 17
2nd-3rd Year: Establishment of a stable, even under the awareness that the Mothe
r, the child also loves when that is not present The Oedipus Complex Main event
of personality development according to Freud. Age: 3-5. Phallic stage (libido f
ocuses on the genitals):Fascination about their own sexual organs, incipient cur
iosity for sexual practices of Adults, possibly the beginning of masturbation. i
t comes to the Oedipus complex :on unconscious level sexual desire of the son fo
r his mother; The boy invests his libido in a female love object, which only in
his mind exists, and his mother corresponds to (process of object-choice). The b
oy is but a masculine power, his father, in the way of "castration anxiety (symb
olic of the loss of his Force (and his love-object)) "unconscious desire to kill
the father. Normally, the Oedipal complex is resolved by one of the object-choi
ce Identification with the father is. This is both a defeat against the overpowe
ring father and a loss of imaginary omnipotence, on the other hand, a gain a mor
al foundation (the Father). Freud called the Superego, the (German: super-ego).
Without the super-ego, the child would be a ruthless tyrant clever with deficits
in Challenges of life in moral communities. Instead of a solution, it may be co
nfusion between object-choice (unconsciously willed) and Identification (if obje
ct selection not possible) come. The solution of the Oedipus complex is a protot
ype for the suppression of instincts and Establishment of institutions or social
organizations in their place. Ex Totem and Taboo :formerly father as patriarch,
who has sexually the women of the Horde and the younger offering; then the fath
er is killed and eaten by young men ( totem meal ;symbolic of identity theft) an
d it will be placed through them new social rules, including the incest taboo. F
rom this then other more far-reaching moral structures. Oedipus complex in girls
: Attraction to the mother, "then, disappointment because two missing penis ( pe
nis envy ) unconscious attraction for stronger father figure; Solution: instead i
dentification with the Mother; since girls from the start are neutered, can wome
n a weaker and less independent Superego (+ less moral sensibility) to meet or S
uperego with the possibility of moral choices more flexible (Alternative assumpt
ion) more modern approach: no desire for penis but by power and privileges for w
omen A reinterpretation of the Oedipus Complex; Chodrows Theory of Gender Oedipu
s complex is difficult to operationalize and therefore could not be confirmed em
pirically be. 1
Page 18
Reinterpretation of N ANCY C HODROW (1978) for explanation of sex differences: M
other exerts a major influence on children. they treated their children in confo
rmity with this their sex; because the son always different than it is (ie male)
, the relationship to daughter increasingly emotional and symbiotic. yet the aut
hor as Freud sees a point at which the daughter of the mother is disappointed (F
reud: oh, Mama has no dick) and the father turns; nevertheless the bond between
mother and daughter stronger so that the daughter of her female self in finds th
e relationship with the mother; this is for the son not possible because the fat
her is not so currently is like the mother, he finds his masculinity in the dive
rsity of Mother; he can only imagine how his male self is, so is for patterns th
at he guessed and which are contrary to the mother. Daughter is motherhood, son h
as suppressed maternal skills later. The Structure of Adult Personality back to
Freud; for the solution of the Oedipus complex "latency (libido is" on vacation
"; energy from the Instincts is lived out in game, school, or relationships) thi
s creates values, rules, skills ... (In general you can say that Freud did not h
ave much to say about the latent phase!) with the onset of puberty the child com
es into the genital phase , in which it-for biologicallyready-to let out libido
in socially appropriate and for the self-satisfying way can. The energy from the
shoots must on the one hand by genital love the other hand also be expressed th
rough productive work, with conflicts between the two always fear trigger. As we
ll as conflicts between the three parts of the human mind: Freud's model of the
psyche :Es ( id ):lies in the unconscious; Home of the shoots (sex & aggression)
and their energy; is chaotic and is not constrained moral or logical way; funct
ions according to the Pleasure principle ( pleasure principle , pleasure by redu
cing stress, triggered byPulses) the I ( ego ):Moderator between the outer world
and its logic and the blind impulses of the id `on Basis of the energy from the
It; reality principle (save the satisfaction of the instincts toa matching obje
ct or an external condition appears / is given); deliberately works (at themselv
es reflected decisions) and unconsciously through defense mechanisms thatunconsc
iously distort the external world in order to reduce anxiety 1 Defense mechanism
s :- Reduction (displacement) - Projection project disturbing thoughts to other
- Development of reactions disturbing thoughts by opposite "write" on - Rational
ization find particularly good reason - Regression assume a primitive or past be
havior - Relocation One ... thoughts to another non-intrusive object - Sublimati
on socially unwanted reinterpreted in Desirable
Page 19
the super-ego ( superego ):a primitive internalization of social norms and value
s ??acquired through identification with parents ("eat the parents"); requires s
trict and inflexible after the abandonment of the instinctual needs of the time;
as well as the id of the outer world through blind (no Reality principle); that
I must therefore resolve conflicts ... - Dangerous reality of the external worl
d engenders fear - The neurotic fear of an uncontrollable release of instinctual
energy of It - Moral distress (guilt, regret) of the idealistic super-ego Ego-p
sychologists Freud assume that the I (ego) is more than a helpless Defender but
has the opportunity to act integrative and a broad arsenal of Weapons against fe
ar has (significantly more optimistic view than Freud). Studies show that defens
e mechanisms exist and give up the developed or are ripe. P LIFTING C RAMER (199
1): Children in four different age groups to tell the story based on selected im
ages. Younger children showed there more denial ( denial ; most primitiveDefense
mechanism; Denial of the fear-inducing situation), less projection (Less primit
ive defense mechanism; attribution of internal fearful States to external other,
prerequisite: development of a conscience (distinction Good and Evil))) and the
least identification (most mature; replication of behavior other, only in adult
s, because Prerequisite: clear differentiation between people). D Ollinger & C R
AMER (1990): Traumatized children tend to use more denial than other children in
this age. The caitiff / applied were the children of the less mature were Defen
sive mechanisms used. Conversely: Age-appropriate mechanisms seem most best redu
ce anxiety. In adults, the use of mature strategies with high social adjustment
and depends professional success together. Causal relationship? "Probably recipr
ocity between strategy and status. Development in the Adult Years: boys View Jun
g sees-unlike Freud-development as a lifelong process, which he Individuation ca
lls. The objective here is all aspects of personality (conscious andunconsciousl
y) develop and integrate into a large unit (symbol of this is the Mandala (Sansk
rit for circle). The development is dependent on the personality type that by a)
settings , and b)Functions is determined. Eight different personality types ari
se froma combination of: a) two setting (depending on personality type one of th
em conscious and dominant, the other unconsciously): Extraversion (orientation t
o the external, objective world) Introversion (orientation to the internal, subj
ective world) b) four functions (depending on the personality type one of them d
eliberately (dominant), the other unconsciously): 1
Page 20
- Think (rational and intellectual analysis of the world) - Feel (emotional Expe
riencing he world through pain, anger, fear, worry, joy or love) - Feel ( sensin
g; specific facts about an event as it looks or sounds)- Intuitive know ( intuit
ing , about facts and feelings going beyond detecting theunconscious essence of
an event) Organize the various functions, settings and archetypes of personality
by the self around, which they in a unified, stable person Equilibrium matching
. Over time, the individuation of time, parts after forward step and others in t
he background. In particular, the mid-life (about 40 years; according to Jung, t
he most important development phase) marks a special shift of settings and funct
ions of materialism, Sexuality and reproduction to inner spiritual cultural valu
es ??and a more philosophical exploration of the self. The Interpretation of Liv
es Freud developed a way of life stories based on their hidden, unconscious Expl
oring meanings and interpret. Core assumption is the truth between the lines and
behind that obvious lies. Neurotic symptoms are symbolic manifestations of unco
nscious anxiety or unconscious desire. One way to unconscious is to bring to the
surface free association , in which the patient explains all thoughts to a stim
ulus, as soon as they . occur A problem between therapist and patient is the tra
nsfer (transfer of the unconscious Patients of the dynamics of a problematic rel
ationship to the relationship with the Therapists) and the counter transfer (unc
onscious feelings of the therapist to the patient). Methods of interpretation As
a text has multiple meanings and human behavior is like a contract Result from
a compromise our inner conflicts. The behavior consists of a manifest (augensche
inlichem) part and a deferred (Hidden) part. The manifest level consists of diff
erent levels, from the open, direct and scarce behavior arises. It is thus of la
tent and unconscious Material "overdetermined" ( overdetermined ), since there a
re more hidden material. At Dream analysis going from manifest to latent materia
l over (via Wi-associating for example). The other way round, the patient has be
en in an unconscious process that Freud Dream Work ( dreamwork ) calls generated
from latent material has a manifest dream.Here are the major strategies: - Cond
ensation ( condensation , compaction: to many latent elements are amanifest imag
e or theme) - Deplatzierung ( displacing , the accentuation is but one important
angstauslsendem object or topic to another trivial moved) - Symbolism ( symbolis
; construction of images or processes, the hiddenbut have general meanings; for
example, a box similar properties for Vagina) 2
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- secondary revision ( secondary revision ; sec revision. unconsciously issmooth
ed the dream through creation of transitions and removal of Contradictions is de
dream into a coherent story) Also, artistic expression or neurotic symptoms or
common errors or Slip (Freudian slip) are unconsciously using these four strateg
ies formed and are also expressed latent material. You can also analyzed (by man
ifest by latent) and formed (of become latent after manifest) and are expressed
internal unconscious conflicts. Actually, our whole behavior can be interpreted
accordingly. Unconsciously deceive ourselves and others, we give her the illusio
n that we know what behavior means. As Freud sees Jung dreams and symptoms as ov
erdetermined manifest Products replete with latent meanings. But Jung does not s
ee it as the expression of Desire for fulfillment of sexual and aggressive drive
s but as symbols of the Striving for balance of personality. This desire manifes
ts itself in images universal myths and anticipations of the future (!). Therapi
sts should not be too far away from the manifest dream away "interpret" because
yes the icons are visible there. Symbols are images or names that you know and s
pecific meanings in addition to their original function. Often they express Thin
gs from which do not define and understand the man clearly can (eg religion). Yo
u spontaneously and deliberately formed by people in a dream. Even if the symbol
s are not known to the dreamer (a child does not characterize all Myths), they c
an occur, because they exist in the collective unconscious by archetypal images
stored on the history of time-are often symbols of Creation, death, rebirth ....
Summary: S. 184 2
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IV Social Learning and Culture Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory The behavi
orist tradition Behaviorism (founder: BF SKinner (1904-1990), Flowering period:
1920-1950) examined how the observable behavior is learned by the environment an
d develops. Three main themes or lessons: 1) Observation :important is only dire
ctly observable behavior; internal operations (conscience, Traits ...) do not pl
ay a role, since they can not be observed directly and so can not be studied sci
entifically, and behavior alone Observation and measurement of behavior and the
environment are predicted can. 2) ambient / environment: J OHN L Ocke (1690): Th
e environment is because people who always at birth is born equal, as a "blank s
heet". Differences in personality are results from the different environment. En
vironment is generally seen as a stimulus, behavior in response. Genetic or inna
te differences are ignored. 3) learning The environment is the behavior through
learning. We are motivated by learning to Pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of p
ain. Philosophical basis is utilitarian (good company more pleasure for more peop
le). Learning occurs mainly by the association of actions and positive vs. negat
ive events: Classical conditioning: yes process is known ; also possible (egwith
phobias): high-order conditioning: conditioned stimuli that their Meaning getti
ng through the associations with the unconditioned stimuli associated with other
neutral stimuli Example: U.S. (closing in a relationship) "UR (anger) CS (prese
nt at this time person) "CR (anger) CR CS (mother perfume) (anger) Instrumental c
onditioning: S Kinner : Operant conditioning; positive Consequences of a behavio
r increase the Wsk that it occurs again.; different variants: positive reinforce
rs Presentation of the stimulus strengthens the response (reward for organism).
negative reinforcers Removal of the stimulus strengthens the response (relief of
the organism, even a kind of reward) positive punishment Presentation of the st
imulus attenuates the response (eg, pain). negative punishment Removal of the st
imulus weakens the response. Extinction (Deletion) A previously reinforced behav
ior is no longer reinforced Behavior decreases and reaches base level. Shaping R
einforcing successful approaches or parts of a complex Overall behavior. continu
ous reinforcing Every time gain after a certain response (Kiss for girlfriend ev
ery time 2
Page 23
when she says she loves the type) Amplifiers plan is quickly learned partial rein
forcing Following a specific plan is not any answer strengthened: Interval plans
(Pay once a month) or ratio schedules (ratio schedules; wages after ten sold va
cuum cleaners). Is more resistant to extinction than continuous course of conduc
t. The most amplifiers are conditioned general amplifier, because they are havin
g a lot of other associated amplifier (eg money). Some of them are of a social n
ature, they can be divided into two categories: Stimulation rewards ( stimulatio
n rewards ; require a general reaction of others, eg: Reward:Presence of other,
non-arrival: isolation, excess: Exclude other) affective rewards (requiring an e
motional response of others, eg: Reward: Respect, contrary insolence). Determina
nts of behavior are not only environmental performance but also past experiences
of similar situations where the person got the same answers. The first Social L
earning Theory: Miller and Dollard M ILLARD & D Ollard s Output consideration: i
ntegration of Freud's theory that aggression in conflict with social norms and t
he frustration-aggression hypothesis under the Assumption that the threat of pun
ishment aggressive responses have been in derogation of, but Frustration increas
ed. Aggression then discharges indirectly ("Freud Replace aggressive Shoots) exp
ress-as it were socially secure. M ILLARD & D Ollard walked away from that behav
ior in social, cultural and is learned historical contexts. Learning consists of
four factors: - drive (urge; brings Freud's instincts and Hull's generalized ur
ges together;Differentiation between primary or physiological drives (eg hunger
and thirst) and secondary or learned drives (eg dependence, mostly social needs
originated from primary drives; drives solve learning from) - cues (cues (); sti
muli of the environment, which give information about how the?Should respond org
anism) - response (answer, and the resulting act or action of the organism)- dri
ve reduction (through the action of the drive is reduced, rewardingaffects and t
hus acts as an amplifier In general, many Freudian terms "rename": - Pleasure pr
inciple Amplifier principle (reduction of a primary or secondary drives..) - Tran
smission ( transference ) special case of the generation of stimuli- Suppress "in
hibition - Fear sec. drive, learned through repeated experience with the prim. dr
ive Pain - Psychosexual development learning of basic principles (training of Foo
d, flop, sex and socialization) Conflict theory (also M ILLARD & D Ollard ): Con
flicts = Zieldilemmata, with approach of ( approach ) and avoidance ( avoidance
)Characteristics; Both tendencies are stronger when the organism approaches a ta
rget (Pre-and back Vermeidungsgradient) by a stronger triggering the drives. 2
Page 24
The conflict is when two tendencies compete resolved when a stronger tendency th
an the other. 4 ways the conflict: 1) approach-approach conflict: 2 attractive d
estinations; by random activity is a closer, causing the individual for this obj
ective decides. 2) avoidance-avoidance conflict: two unattractive goals; Proximi
ty to any of the dreaded Stimuli leads to retrogression in the middle between tw
o Goals. 3) approach-avoidance conflict: includes a target approach and avoidanc
e- Characteristics; with increasing proximity to increase both Tendencies, but a
voidance faster "retreat 4) double or multiple two goals with each approach and
avoidance approach-avoidance conflict: Characteristics; often cause of neuroses
Rotters View: Expectancies and Values Assumption: person responds not only to en
vironment but creates a subjective Environment (as in social-cognitive views see
s R OTTER Cognitions as important to). Behavior probability = Expectancy (learne
d from experience; For what behavior I'll reinforced) + Value of the gain (subje
ctive importance of gain) [ BP ( behavioral potential ) = E ( expectancy ) + RV
( reinforcement value )]Mischels Approach: Cognitive / Social Learning / Person
Variables 1968 shoos M ISCHEL psychology on by advocates that more on situationa
l Factors to look than in traits. Behavior consists of five cognitive / social l
earning / personal variables: 1) competencies (skills and knowledge a person) 2)
Encoding strategies (such information to be encoded and interpreted?) 3) expect
ations (in terms of the impact of behavior, the importance of certain Perform st
imuli, the possibility of behavior in certain situations) 4) subjective value (v
aries inter-and intrapersonal) 5) self-regulating system and plans (we will cond
uct through plans, objectives or Conducted standards or regulated) Bandura's The
ory: The Role of Observational Learning Not only that run behavior is of importa
nce but also, and rather more the acquisition. Observational learning ( observat
ional learning ) happens outside the boundaries ofReward and punishment. 2
Page 25
Four stages of observation learning: Self-efficacy := A person's belief in his b
ehavioral competence (Influenced by observations of performance, deputy experien
ces, verbal Persuasion by others, emotional arousal (anxiety more "difficult sit
uation)) in a given situation ( is distinguished from output expectation, becaus
e "I can tell him good, it nevertheless determined not convince " ); helps to de
cide whether werunning a special goal-directed behavior, with what degree of eff
ort and the length of time. Through faith in one's own behavioral competence the
person obtains control, Situations which can not be solved can be avoided. A th
reat will be seen when the personal resources insufficient be considered for the
given situation. Self-efficacy has a positive influence on physical health. rec
iprocal determinism :external and internal factors influence each other, is chan
ged a part, changed everything: Ex aggression: - Bobo Doll studies of B Andura :
Expression of disappointment about the fact that no longer allowed to play with
the things according to what previously prsentiertem model (Confidant verkloppte
the doll "child verkloppt now the doll) va - where aggressive model was rewarde
d 2 Attention processes Depending on ... -Modelbildendem stimulus (Distinctivene
ss (special), affective Valence, complexity, validity, functional value) - Chara
cteristics of the observer (Sensory abilities, level of arousal, Tendency of per
ception, past Gain) Keep processes (retention processes) - Symbolic encoding - C
ognitive organization - Symbolic practice - Motorized Practice motor reproductio
n processes Depending on ... - Physical abilities - Availability of partial answ
ers - Self-observation of reproduction - Accuracy of feedback motivational proce
sses - External amplification - Vicarious reinforcement (observed Reinforcement
of another for this Behavior) - Self-reinforcing personal factors (Especially co
gnitive variables) Environmental factors (The situation) Behavior
Page 26
- If observers perceive aggression as justified (other study) - Even television
serves as a model, it is positively correlated with aggressive behavior in boys
and girls but other important factors: - Few committed parents - Aggressive puni
shment by parents aggressive children are also: - Less popular with peers - Less
intellectual abilities - More aggressive fantasies - Anti-social views with par
ents Reasons: - TV as a model - Aggressive cues (see B ERKOWITZ in social) - Dis
inhibiting and desensitizing (you get used to it) effect No causal connection (T
V Aggression) possible! Probably reciprocity. The Ecology of Human Behavior Socia
l Ecology : all the various factors of the environment, the behavior of a person
and influence its development. Social situations are the micro-context of the so
cial ecology, the direct influenceof the environment on behavior. The macro cont
ext , however, makes the distal coarsest context, ie factors such asGender, soci
al class ... Micro Context: The Social Situation M OSS (1973) six categories of
the human environment, which make up a situation: - Ecology (climate, geography
...) - Behavior settings (church, football game, Kitchen, classroom) - Organizat
ional structure (eg, student-teacher ratio (%) or space or number of Members in
an organization) - Characteristics of the population (age, gender, status, talen
ts, ...) - Organizational climate (morality, nature and intensity of relations)
- Functional features (eg reinforcement because behavior at a fixed point in tim
e) or hierarchical approach of B Arbara K RAHE (1992) [bottom-up]: - Situational
stimuli (individual objects such as tables with pending verification) - Situati
onal events (you will be asked to begin with the test) - Total situation (Prereq
uisite: one occurrence in time and space) - Situations in generalized expression
s (tests in general) - (His student) life People see the situation more psycholo
gical than physiological, ie on the basis of subjective Criteria. Mostly in rega
rd to the possibilities for action that a situation of the person there. Differe
nt dimensions: fear it engenders situation; Valence of the situation; Coping vs.
socio-emotional interaction (as well as many others, controversy over the Impor
tance). Traits apparently determine the perceived situation (introversion "situa
tion is seen based on Selbsbewusstseinsdimensionen; Extraversion how pleasant is
the Situation and how much interpersonal involvement it requires) 2
Page 27
Situational prototypes: abstract set of properties of a situation (physical Text
ure and psychological condition of the operators), which is designed to to under
stand the situation (eg: party). Pattern-matching ( template matching ):Situatio
ns are then functionally the same when the same pattern or template show shown b
ehavior, ie if the same types of people probably in a act certain ways. Macro Co
ntexts: Social Structure Social structures are related to differences between in
dividuals in terms of power and resources. They have a large influence on the pe
rsonality: I NKELES : People in higher social classes - Show other patterns rega
rding opinions and behavior - More satisfaction with the work - Belief in the po
ssibility of the world improve K OHN : - Are self-oriented at work (More cogniti
ve challenge more Initiative, less obedience to authority) - More internal control
, more Trust - Less conformity - Less anxiety - Higher intellectual flexibility
This is also valid for the life of families: children of parents with a working
with high status are more socialized to exert self-orientation, which them in tu
rn relieved to find a good job opportunities. Low-status parents, however, conve
y - through the set of them on priority a secure job - as important values ??tha
t pos. Reputation among peers and the Ability of exploitation opposed by powerfu
l one. The language reflects the opinion of various systems of social classes (e
ven when the same intelligence, more stereotypical language in lower classes; re
stricted code vs.Elaborated code ).Gender as Macro Context Social learning also
means that men and women in some important leads Facts differ. Extreme are here
stereotypes about gender roles. Men usually have more access to social and econo
mic power than women, both in terms of high social positions, as well as to the
dominance in families. Stereotypes about gender roles (men dominant and controll
ing; women obedient, and carefully cherishing) amplify the difference with respe
ct to the power relationship. This happens from birth through reward learning an
d model learning. 2
Page 28
The socialization is therefore of great importance (according to E AGLY & W OOD
the reason for Gender differences in social behavior): Men are their development
: - Aggressive - More altruistic in short duration Relations Women ...: - More h
elp in long-term relationships - Sensitive to non-verbal cues - Show interaction
s in more body language and smile more - Show more concern regarding the behavio
r else - Approach more closely to (more touching other) - More empathy Empiricis
m thus confirms the social expectations that a woman's tendency is to to bind ot
hers and therefore is friendly and selfless, and strong emotions for Expresses (
communion ), while men are more likely themselves as powerfulpresent and thus a
ggressive and independent behavior ( agency ).These trends are empirically demon
strated in principle, with the tendencies only moderate show. Statement related
gender roles and social behavior: - Gender show triggered by the nature and the
human choice Differences (strong men vs. Nativity capable women) - Hegemony: heg
emony of men by unequal distribution of power over the Gender (consciously and u
nconsciously). This women must surrender to strategies that their survival and s
uccess in the submissive role ensure (by more interpersonal sensitivity more rel
ationships). Culture the most far-reaching macro context; Definition of culture
(R UPPER L E V INE 1982), culture is the tradition of rules used by a community
of people around pattern with respect to communication, faith, values, and to mi
nimize social behavior. From the rules results in two fundamental characteristic
s of culture: 1 maintenance system (German: maintenance system; ensure the survi
val of theTo ensure community in relation to the external physical environment c
aused ecological, economic, educational and socio-political structures; the Syst
em develops the personality of the people (eg: Eskimos to roam must, because the
ir environment is so cold)) 2 projective system (German: projecting system; expr
ession of personality inArt, religion, folklore and other media of expression) T
he two are linked. Today it is believed that culture not only seen as a specific
system of rules should be, but rather consists of different elements, some of w
hich in Conflict with each other. People are not 100% like the culture "dictates
" You can select, strategic and customized through the "tools of the culture" De
velop skills, values ??and styles. 2
Page 29
Culture influences implicit and explicit mental processes in it, so that the Ind
ividual can be distinguished between culture us self. Thus, both interact each o
ther. Individualism and Collectivism Individualism: autonomy of the individual a
s important interdependencies into groups; People focus on their personal goals,
even if they conflict with groups are, as families or work groups; Competition;
especially in the western, industrialized world; Collectivism: collective or th
e ingroup are more important than the single person seen; especially East Asia a
nd Africa; The roots of cultural behavior often form on religion, philosophy, ec
onomics, or Governments (Buddhist self-renunciation and Confucius view of ind. S
pace in soz the hierarchy vs. Capitalism and the rule of the independent individ
ual). M ILLER (1984): Children from Western cultures attributions to personal tr
aits, while Hindu Children Attributed behavior to peer pressure. After M ARKUS ,
K ITAYAMA & H Eiman (1998) affects collectivism on the language (Samoa: Childre
n are taught to recognize hidden meanings of words, so that they not have to ask
; Japan: one wonders whether the question should be asked and whether one is the
right one to ask the question before asking a question). Distinction should not
be too sharp; more question of the relative accentuation, expressed in terms of
four attributes of the differences between collectivism and Individualism: Obje
ctives: important personal goals vs. Goals of the ingroup (delimited by outgroup
) important Relationships: Relationships to trade resources vs.. Loyalty frets s
ocial behavior: personal attitude more important than vs. Is to act within the s
tandards Standards ("Stand up for your opinion") Group! Constructs of the self:
(also a mirror of society form) Feature independent self-construct (Individualis
m) interdependent self-construct (Collectivism) Definition regardless of the soc
ial context depending on the social context Structure bound, uniform, stable fle
xible, variable Characteristics internal, private (Options, thoughts, Feelings)
external, public (status, roles, Relations) Tasks was exceptional, pushing you o
ut, realize your internal attributes that promotes your goals, whether directly
(say what you think) agree, take your right Place one, participating in you appr
opriate activities, promotes the Other objectives, is indirectly Role of other S
elf-assessment based on social comparisons Self-definition of relationships with
other Basis of self-respect Opportunity to express themselves, evidence interna
l attributes Ability to adapt and To live in harmony soz contexts 2
Page 30
Individualismus/Kollektivismus- distinction refers to cultural differences, not
on gender differences (not a transfer of agency-communion -thoughtpossible, ie w
omen ? collectivist Asians). Modernity Modernity: the expansion of capitalism, t
he stronger influence of the Are science and the powerful of nations, especially
democracies since the industrial revolution. If the communities are modern, to
change the individual Personalities: - Openness to new experiences - Assertion o
f independence from authority - Belief in the science and less of fatalism - Amb
itious career and educational goals for yourself and children - Interest in plan
ning and accuracy - Interest and participation in local politics - Interest of n
ational and international news Modern cultures tend to individualism, individual
ism and modernity are but not the same. In modern cultures, the self is seen as
a project that is developed, refined, and wants to perfect (formation of identit
y as a problem of modernity). - Importance of being honest with themselves - Sel
f is complex and deep and changed throughout - Still striving for coherent self-
History The present historical background also influences people. K ARL M ANNHE
IM (1928/1952): a generation consists of people who were born on the same date a
nd a shared understanding of the world, certain common beliefs and goals, and a
uniform style develop. S TEWART & H Ealy (1989): Influence of the story depends
on the personal age: Age Focus the influence of the historical event Childhood a
nd early adolescence fundamental values ??and expectations (eg, family values) l
ate adolescence and early adulthood Opportunities and life choices; Identity (eg
Watergate experience Studying Journalism) Early Middle adulthood Behavior (eg c
hange of behavior because a war breaks out) Midlife and later new opportunities
and choices; Revision of identity (emerging Feminism as a new identity for older
women) The influence of history is also filtered through the macro contexts rac
e, social class, Gender and culture (which takes care of a poor, black man, a st
ock market crash) and by the individual interpretation of events. 3
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? people can be examined only in the context of their environment. Summary: S. 2
43 3
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Part 2; Sketching the Outline: Basic Traits and the Prediction of Behavior V Per
sonality Traits: Basic Concepts and Issues Traits are imprecise and generalize,
but are an important way of To explain personality psychology differences betwee
n human individuals. The Idea of ??Trait What is a Trait? - A trait is an intern
al disposition, the relatively stable across situations and time away is. - Trai
ts are usually bipolar, from one to the other extreme, and so one speaks of oppo
site dimensions of traits (extraversion vs.. introversion). People normally dist
ributed in the Traitkontinuum. - Different traits are seen as additive and indep
endent. - Traits refer to significant individual differences in the socio-emotio
nal Functioning (Traits are thus patterns of reactions and emotional Tendencies)
. You should of cognitive variables such as values, beliefs, world views and Sch
emes can be distinguished. Intelligence is sometimes seen as a trait only, not h
ere. Four positions regarding the nature of traits: Traits are ... Description T
heorist Neurophysiological Substrates Traits are biological patterns in the CNS,
trigger the behavior and explain why is it over situations and time is consiste
nt across. A LLPORT (1937) E YSENCK (1967) G RAY (1982) C LONINGER (1987) Z Ucke
rman (1991) Behavioral dispositions Traits are consistent trends inManner by int
eraction with external Factors (such as cultural norms and situational variables
act) to think and feel. These trends affect the functioning of a Person. Trait
properties can be used be to explain behavior and to causal and general mechanis
ms to describe the behavior. C ATELL (1957) W Iggins (1973) G Oldberg (1981) B O
GAN (1986) M C C RAE & C OSTA (1990) Action frequencies Traits are descriptiveSu
mmary category for Behavior. Are behavioral aspects based on the same functional
Features grouped, with some Aspects of prototypical and representative than oth
ers. B USS & C Raik (1983) Linguistic Categories Traits are useful inventions of
people to the diversity of human behavior and the human experience to categoriz
e and him to sense give. Traits have no causal M ISCHEL (1968) S HWEDER (1975) B
AMPSON (1988) B ARRE & G ILLETT (1994) 3
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Influence, since they are not outside the Mind of the observer exist. Traits are
formed from social Interaction. A History of Traits Traits have a long history.
... 18th century: K ANT : Activity has two dimensions
(a lot = choleric, phlegmatic little =)
Feeling has two dimensions (a lot = Lively ( Sanguines );
little melancholic =)late 19th century: W Ilhelm W UNDT : Four Temperaments what
emotional intensity and emotional variability Mid 20th century: H ANS E YSENCK
: four types based on two overarching traits (extraversion and neuroticism) biol
ogical basis for these traits (and not as before physical characteristics but Hi
rnstrukuturen) G Ordon A LLPORT : ? In his book, Personality: A Psychological In
terpretation established the Personality psychology as a legitimate, intellectua
l discipline ? traits are the predominant structural units of the personality ?
Trait = neuro physical structure - Traits are more than mere semantic features,
because they exist the unobservable observable as neuro-physical structures, thr
ough behavioral will - Due to the playback of various stimuli as functionally eq
uivalent, including Traits for the consistency of human behavior; Behavior is mo
re or less predicted by the behavior of the Traits - The existence of a trait wi
thin a person can be determined by: o The frequency o range of situations and o
The intensity ? Allport distinguished between two meanings of Traits - Common Tr
ait: dimensions of human functioning, on which most People differ (friendliness)
- Personal Disposition: is particularly characteristic of a particular individu
al, based on personal dispositions, the uniqueness moored o They can be divided
into a plurality of terms: ? cardinals Disposition: general and pervasive trait,
which in itself reflects a variety of behavioral ? Central dispositions: refer
to many dispositions which are characteristic of a person and occur regularly ?
Secondary dispositions: limited scope, every person has many secondary dispositi
ons of the under limited Conditions are obviously, they are limited, contingent
and situational cues 3
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? Allport was of the opinion that the behavior varies across situations and acro
ss to the effect traits must be understood ? limitations of the descriptive and
explanatory power by general trait profiles R Aymond B. C Attell : ? Personality
= what allows a prediction of what a person in a will do certain situation ? He
focused on the traits, the individual differences between people describe (in A
llport common traits) ? Cattell distinguished three different sources of data: -
L data (ran data) mainly contain information about the real life of a Person (d
iaries, letters) - Q data (questionnaire data): Self-ratings, self-reports, - T
data (test data): observations of a person in a controlled experiment ? He used
factor analysis to a complex classification scheme of traits to gain - factor an
alysis: examination of the ways in which responses to various Questions and meas
urements are combined - reduction of a number of distinct factors ? surfaces Tra
its : associated with behavioral elements, which, if empiricallybe measured and
inter-correlated, tend to coalesce (are observable in behavior) (eg: friendlines
s, openness, spontaneity); ? they can to sources traits are reduced, such as soc
iability? these may be further divided into functional categories: - dynamic tra
its: put the individual into action to achieve a goal - Skills Traits : effectiv
eness with which an individual reaches a target - Temperament Traits: speed, ene
rgy, emotional reactivity ? He described 16 sources traits and individual differ
ences can be with the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire measure Cattellsc
hen (16 PF) ? Cattell combined scores in different traits in specification equal
ity (Specification equation), which each trait weighted differently with respect
to the Relevance in a situation ? To increase the predictive power, he is not i
nvolved trait variables such as status (Fatigue, mood) and roles B ANS E YSENCK
(50s, 60s) How C ATELL He also used the factor analysis. However, he went other
than C ATELL assume that the resulting factors should be arranged so that the th
us independently orthogonal to each other. Also unlike C ATELL is the number of
traits with E YSENCK : Three Supertraits - Extraversion - Introversion - Neuroti
cism (stable vs. unstable (labile).) - Psychoticism The first two factors are no
rmally distributed in people, the last refers to psychopathological behavior (ma
dness, cruelty, anti-social behavior). The first two factors correspond to the a
ncient typology of States of mind: - Extroverted, highly neurotic "nervous, irri
table, irritated quickly" choleric 3
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- Extroverted, low neurotic "stable, happy" sanguine type - Introverted, highly
neurotic "anxiety, depression melancholic - Introverted, low neurotic "quiet, ste
ady, stoic" phlegmatic The empirical studies show that individual differences in
extraversion and neuroticism ... - Are associated with the behavior - For a lon
g time are stable (especially in adults) - Are associated with genetic differenc
es (finding from twin studies) E YSENCK : Relation between traits and patterns in
the CNS Extraversion: RAS is significant (involved in excitation) Neuroticism:
limbic system (emotion) The Big Five A LLPORT found from the dictionary and abou
t 4500 stable and enduring traits; C ATELL reduced this to 171 by assembling and
elimination of rare and metaphorical traits; by correlating ratings further red
uction to 35-40; by novel and thereby little mature factor analysis (calculated
by hand) arose out of it between 16 and 22 Traits; D Onald F Iske showed that mo
st of the inter-correlations decreased to 5 Basistraits. Other calculations show
ed the same thing. The five factors are variously conceptualized and named, but
all involve Neuroticism and extraversion. best-known model: C OSTA & M C R AE :
1 extraversion 2 neuroticism 3 friendliness ( agreeableness )4 conscientiousness
( conscientiousness )5 Openness to Experience Measuring Traits Trait Judgments
error paradigm (FUNDER ): - People often generalize from insufficient informatio
n - ... Ignore social norms and expectations - ... "Unusual events" person "stra
nge" " - ... Different standards for the evaluation of one's own person and othe
r BUT accuracy paradigmatic : - Correlation between different raters when judgme
nt on a Person - High correlation (0.4-0.6) between external and internal assess
ments - Trait ratings say behavior produced Explanation: (!) Incomplete knowledg
e from different multiple sources result in a seemingly accurate picture of a pe
rson. 3
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A rating can either likely to be accurate or probably false. The Truth does exist
, but there is no safe way to her. The accuracy in social perception seems quite
an evolutionary advantage to be compared with other races, as they served the a
daptation to the evolutionary environment. F UNDER : 4 influences on the accurac
y of trait ratings: Aspect Explanation Example good Rater Quality of the assesso
r Perception, Assessment of assets, Independence good "target" Ease with which o
ne a Person can assess Clarity, consistency of Behavior, Willingness to cooperat
e good trait Ease with which one the Trait can assess Obviousness of Trait relev
ant behavior, frequency of Behavior, social desirability and accuracy of the def
inition of Traits good info how well can the data on raise the Trait Quality (ob
jective?) And Quantity the data More precisely you know a person, so the closer y
ou get to her, the better they can be judge. Constructing a Trait Measure ? The
most popular methods self-report questionnaires and rating scales are ? There is
no consensus about which method to measure constructs is best for However, all
test situations, most use the access construct (construct approach): - A clear c
onceptual definition of the traits (usually embedded by theory) - write down ite
ms (test questions or statements), each item is with the other connected in an a
dditive way - It must be noted that some have the tendency to say yes or no, so
many questions to be answered and vice versa - In addition, also items should be
used that have nothing to with the have to do with seeking trait (veiling of in
tention) - Then, a preliminary test should be carried out to Itemtestung, this m
akes you an item analysis: Determining the distribution of any items by correlat
ion of the values ??of each item with the total value - In addition, a factor an
alysis should be performed by each item with each other correlated to determine
empirical subgroups (factors) - It has the trait behavior can be determined in h
ow far predicts ? This researcher also learn what does not measure a test - Conv
ergent validity: positive associations between different measurements of the sam
e traits should converge - discriminant validity: the test of a trait should not
with other traits correlate 3
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Criteria of a Good Measure Construct validity: Test and measured approach should
be simultaneously valid. To this end, the constructed Psychologist is a measure
of its construct and then examined to what extent the results of the Tests (as
it were the observable behavior) with the theory (not the "tangible" Construct)
matches. Each new empirical knowledge is included in the nomological network of
the construct. This network is a system of the assumptions that the theory of a
construct account. On the highest construct validity is therefore in constructs
that most empirical Documents have for the diversity of its nomological network.
Other validities: Construct so; the basic validity, farthest-reaching and all o
ther constructs are, in principle, Derivative works Content ( content )How much
collect the items the content of the construct and not other content. Convergenc
e How much are different measurements of the construct related to each other. Cr
iterion In how far can the test external behavior ( predicitive validity ) and c
urrent externalBehavior ( concurrent validity ) predict.Difference ( discriminan
t )How different are different dimensions of the construct, how independent they
are from each other. Face ( face ) For how reasonable and fair holds the respon
dent the test.Reliability: How consistent is a test? Test-retest reliability: Th
e consistency of the assay (to measure over time by means of correlations betwee
n tests at different times). split-half reliability:How internally consistent is
the test? Correlating results of one half of which the second half? Other crite
ria: Utility :How well you can use the test in practice? Economy: Short test is
better than a long one. Communicability :How easy is the test to interpret and o
ther tell? A test should also be as free of social desirability. Trait Inventori
es 3
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Persnlichkeitsinventories have a lot Traitskalen in their total large pool of ite
ms: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI B ATHAWAY & M C K Inley 193
0 -Originally 550 statements in 10 categories (Hypochondriasis, depression, hyst
eria, psychopathic Deviation, masculinity / femininity, paranoia, Psychasthenia,
schizophrenia, mania and social Introversion) and scales that capture how much
the person lies, cheats or listless answers. - Clinical tool - General method: c
riterion-key method ( criterion-key method ), that is as relevant for depressedp
atients are seen such statements as true designate who are depressed (no Zshg. t
he theory) - So little valid and reliable - Later: MMPI-2 (567 items), the day i
n the clinic is used California Psychological Inventory CPI B Arrison G Ough 195
0 - 462 items on 20 scales (dominance, status, capacity, social behavior, social
presence, self-acceptance, Independence, empathy, responsibility, Make socializ
ation, self-control, good impression ( want), commonality, Good Walking, toleran
ce, reaching by adapting, by reaching independence, intellectual efficiency, psy
chologically predisposed?, Flexibility, masculinity / femininity). - Pretty reli
abel - Scales overlap, correlate up to .50 with each other - Folk concept ( folk
concept ), that is, certain factorsrelate to the differences in individual Beha
vior in social interactions (socialization and Responsibility) - Modern work sho
ws three vectors of the CPI: 1 interpersonal Beteiligtsein 2 acceptance of stand
ards 3 ego integration : Selbstverteidigendes and interpersonalunacceptable beha
vior vs. Selbstrealisierendes behavior and higher Ichfunktionieren - Give the fi
rst two vectors crossed four Lifestyles: Alphas: high, high (good leader) Betas:
1 = low, 2 = high (good subordinates) Gamma: 1 = high, 2 = low (want to change)
Delta: low, low (withdraw from interpersonal back, artist or mathematician) - L
ebenssitle be modified by vector 3; Example: Alphas are interpersonally involved
and accept rules; depending on ego integration they are good leaders orintrusiv
e authoritarian types Personality Research Form PRF D Ouglas J ACKSON 1960 - Str
ict orientation to construct approach - 320 items in 20 scales (personality need
s for M Urray (See below)) - Less overlap - High validity what the prediction of
behavior, values As for opinions and - There is a non-verbal test in which the
respondents says he at one shown on an image plot would join (good for crispy-cu
ltural studies) Neuroticism- Extraversion-Openness C OSTA & M C R AE - 240 items
in five scales (Big Five) - 5-point rating scale 3
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Personality Inventory Revised NEO-PI-R 1985.1992 - Jades trait is divided into s
ix facets (eg Extraversion: Activity Level, arrogance, Aufregungssuche, pos. Emo
tions, sociability, warmth) - Highly reliable methods and very high construct va
lidity - There is also a version for external assessments The Controversy over T
raits Behaviorists (1930): A LLPORTS Traits (1937) are nonsensical because a) be
havior by the Environment is determined and b) differences between people are no
t investigated need. 50: Traits were tested more and more, sometimes good someti
mes bad 60 (to date): "traits are discriminatory and stereotyping!" 1968: M ISCH
ELS Problem with universality vs.. Specificity by situational factors (in Tradit
ion of behaviorists) Mischels Critique Through consideration of literature on pe
rsonality variables such as honesty, Aggression or attitudes towards authority,
showed M ISCHEL That correlations between results from Traittestungen and actual
behavior in specific situations were very low (not higher than 0.3). He assumed
that traits jangle only in the mind of the beholder, also due to the fundamenta
l Attributionsfehlers (behavior of others is their personality attributions, own
behavior to situational factors). Traits thus say more about the Observer and w
hat he thinks of the behavior of another, as on the objective of Consideration.
Correlations between traits based on semantic similarities. People develop a set
of assumptions about how to relate the meanings of traits, and use this self-de
veloped relationships in the evaluation of other (human develop their own implic
it personality theory). 1970: Advent of the person Situations debate. Situationi
sm assumes that 1 behavior is highly situation-specific 2 individual differences
on the measurement error return (Fund. attribution error or other distortions)
3 go back observable response patterns to stimuli 4, the experiment is the metho
d to relationships between stimuli and To examine response 1980: interactionism
ends the person Situations debate. It goes back to L Ewins Words of 1935: "Behav
ior is a function of the person in interaction with the environment." Predicting
Some of the People Some of the Time ? Mischels criticism: people are not consis
tent in their behavior across situations of time, this applies to all? ? Traditi
onal Traitforschung: some people have high values ??in friendliness and other lo
w, but we generally accept that all people-friendliness as a View Trait that is
her life belonging 3
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? Bem saw this differently: for some friendliness is not an important dimension
and to are therefore not connected in a consistent way with kindness ? Significa
nt correlations between behavior and traits are only for people likely for a tra
it is important ? B EM AND A LLEN (1974) found an increased consistency between
self-report and Peer ratings on the traits friendliness and conscientiousness wh
en these individuals described consistent behavior (as opposed to those who pret
ended not to be consistent) ? K Enrick AND S TRINGFIELD (1980): the correlations
between self-report and Foreign rating of traits are high when the individual f
ound them consistently; at inconsistent traits are the correlations lot less ? M
oderator variables : a relationship between two variables is through a thirdVari
able moderated / affected ~ Ex Relationship between A (self-report) and B (exter
nal rating) is moderated by C (relevance of traits for A) ? there are two groups
:a) Relevance of Traits and b) irrelevance of Traits ~ In the case of a), the co
nnection between A and B is greater than in b), which means that the added value
of C determines the relationship / predictability ? Wymer and Penner (1985): Se
lf-report and third-party rating is by Communication skills (or even intra-direc
tedness ) moderated? moderator variables can a) Trait-specific or b) persons to
be specific a) Some are more predictable than others for certain traits b) affec
t the relationship between A and B in all traits (eg Communication skills), that
some people are more predictable than other ? B Aumeister AND T ICE (1988): Met
atraits : have a trait or do not have a trait,which are predicted to have him an
d those who do not have the trait, due to their Traitwertes not predictable - It
may be through a variability and a consistency to a high Traitwert come, the on
e who comes through the consistency of this higher value has the corresponding t
rait more ? The influence of moderator variables should not be overestimated Agg
regating Behaviors ? S EYMOUR E PSTEIN proposes a solution to the problem that t
here is no behavior consistency are about situations of time, before: sometimes
vanishes us the obvious ? Aggregation (German: accumulation) : - Individual beha
vior measurements in different situations should be grouped together and will th
us be Traitwerte over to consistent predictors of behavior Situations and over t
ime - For this, however, the aggregated items must conceptually or empirically r
elated (ie, the researcher must accurately keep in mind that, if he wants to mea
sure the aggressiveness of a child from his brother, not the Aggression towards
the mother looks, but about different situations away the aggressiveness recorde
d against the brother) - When a scientist aggregated behavior across different s
ituations, then Modifications may to a certain behavior in a certain situation b
e closed - aggregation works better when aggregated across different situations
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- aggregation across different situations of time in which one with a friend int
eracts revealed strong situational consistency in behavior (trait affect higher)
When interacting with a stranger, revealed less consistency (situational Influe
nce stronger) "existence different situations with different consistency Modern
Interactionism ? K RAHE (1992): Doctrine of modern interactionism: - behavior is
a function of the continuous process of the multi- Interactionism between the i
ndividual and the situation - individual is an intentional, active agent in this
process interaktionalem - are on the side of the person cognitive and motivatio
nal factors essential Determinants of behavior - On the side of the situation is
the psychological meaning of the situation for the The individual determinant P
ersons Versus Versus Situations Interaction ? Mechanical interactionism (EDEALER
1981): comes from the interaction effect from the Statistics - The trait of a p
erson making an independent predictor of - The situation makes a second independ
ent predictor of - The interaction of trait and situation is the third independe
nt predictor - The AV is a form of measurable behavior (1), a significant effect
of trait-situational interaction indicated that there was a statistical tendenc
y for the trait exists that this is associated with the behavior , when a certai
n level of the situation is involved or (2) that there is a tendency for the sit
uation that this with the behavior is associated, when a certain level of the tr
ait involved ? R OMER , G ROWING AND L IZZADRO (1986): helping behavior is proba
bly a function of the Interaction of personality and situation - 2 groups of alt
ruists: altruists and give-and-take altruists - It was to participate in a psych
ological experiment - No compensation condition: there was nothing for participa
tion - compensation condition: subjects hours - altruists help more in the no-co
mpensation condition than in the Compensation condition - eye-to-eye altruists h
elp more if a compensation is Reciprocal Interactionism ? Provides a more flexib
le and more complex pattern, in which person and situation Behavior continuously
and reciprocally influence (similar to Bandura's reciprocal Determinism) ? pers
on, situation, and behavior are parts of an interdependent system of reasons and
effects ? reciprocal interactionism can be understood as a two dimensional syst
em (Person and environment) ? It is difficult studies measure the dynamic, recip
rocal interactions, perform ? E MMONS , D IENNA , AND L ARSENIC (1986): a) choic
e of situations model : people choose situations and avoidothers on the basis of
different traits and needs 4
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b) affect, congruence model : people perceive greater positive andless negative
affect in situations that are congruent with the Are characteristics of their pe
rsonalities ? Mehrer Studies confirm that the congruence between situations and
traits Evokes feeling of well- Traits as Conditional Statements ? M ISCHEL : Peo
ple change their behavior in different situations in a consistent way and people
also differ in the way they make it ~ Example: Mathew - when friends give him a
piece of advice, it irritates when this Authorities do not and he is grateful;
Julie - if authorities give her advice, she irritates, if their friends do, she
is grateful ? different if-then (conditional statement) consistencies ? Mischel
et al. conducted studies in a summer camp by where they conditional Statements s
uch as "if the adult exhorts the child, then it cries" examined - They found a t
otal of 25 different interactions - The observers found intraindividual profiles
: for every child they could Profiles locate, which had consistencies in behavio
r variability - The children are particularly consistent in different periods, w
hen it comes to verbal aggression and behavior compliance is less when it comes
to prosocial Behavior goes - Shown behavior occurred partly in various types of
cycles Summary: S. 299 4
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VI-The Big Five ? T UPES AND C HRISTAL (1958/1961) were by their investigations
of the conviction, that the many traits were due to five factors ? The values ??
on these factors seemed to make even fairly good predictions ? Also N ORMAN (196
3, one of the few that the original study of Tupes and Christal had read) was of
the opinion that the five factors an adequate taxonomy of Represent personality
attributions ? Nevertheless, a debate arose whether five factors would be reall
y sufficient ? 1960/70 the reduction to five factors was further investigated ?
G Oldberg : The structure of personality traits is revealed by language - Lexica
l Hypothesis (1990): the most important differences in human Transactions are en
coded as individual expressions of the language - The degree of representation o
f Attribution in the language has a context with the general importance of Attri
bution ? Goldberg summed up according to various studies have shown that a five-
factor structure on best explains the interrelation between trait ratings ? In o
ther countries, the results are not entirely consistent, in general you can howe
ver, say that they support the five-factor model ? In the 1980/90ern McCrae and
Costa designed the most commonly used test to the Big To measure Five (NEO-PI-R)
? However, there were still a variety of opinions ? Costa and McCrae: OCEAN: -
Extraversion - Neuroticism - Openness to experiences - Agreeableness - conscient
iousness ? These factors can to Costa and McCrae, in turn, subdivided into six f
acets be (assertiveness) 4 ? extraversion: o heat o Activity o Positive Emotion
o socializing o presumption (assertiveness) o adventure ? Compatibility / friend
liness: o Trust o determination o altruism o compliance o modesty o Soft mind ?
neuroticism: o anxiety o Depression o self-absorption o impulsivity o Vulnerabil
ity o Mad hostility ? openness to experience: o fantasy o Aesthetics o feelings
o Action o Ideas o values ? conscientiousness: o Competence o order o sense of d
uty o Self-discipline o determination o consideration
Page 44
Extraversion Support ? situations that extraverted behavior are likely to contri
bute that extraverted behavior occurs ? Why do however BWLer behave differently
than psychologists could on the socialization lie ? The differences may lie in d
ifferent traits ? extraversion is related to the participation and success in th
e business world ? People who are particularly open, energetic and active, perha
ps more inclined to such occupations The Evolution of E ? C ARL J UNG (1913) bro
ke with Freud because of different opinions on the role of Sexuality, he establi
shed his own based on psychodynamic assumptions (Analytical) theory of the colle
ctive unconscious and the individuation of the self - The sexual energy may be e
ither outwardly or inwardly - For extraverts, the energy flows in the direction
of an object and people - For Introverts the energy flows in the direction of th
e inner subjective world - extraversion and introversion are therefore, accordin
g to Jung different psychological types - If the conscious and public life sugge
sts the extraverted side, then plays the hidden or unconscious lives in introver
ted paths from (and vice versa) (compensation or balance) - Jung was interested
in how far the general attitude (extraversion vs.. Introversion) effect on the i
ntellectual life ? H ANS E YSENCK (1952/67): extraversion and introversion is th
e first dimension of the individual differences - He carried out various studies
and showed that individual differences in the Traits correlate with predicted b
ehavior - He also looked extraversion and introversion as a psychological types
- Both the concepts defined by reference to the direction of a personal (Directe
d inward introversion and extroversion to the outside) access to life - Extraver
sion: open, social, enthusiastic, impulsive and careless, has many friends - Int
roversion: quiet, withdrawn, contemplative, takes no nasty risks, has fewer but
deeper friendships - Many fall in Eysenck in the middle area, people who both pr
operties find combined - There was a bell-shaped normal distribution of values -
Eysenck leaned guys believe that if introversion is in the unconscious, the Is
to find extraversion in the conscious, difficult from (empirically also a bit to
o support) - Eysenck believed in a connection between the traits and different p
atterns of brain structures - He saw the differences in the energy itself (not a
s young in the direction; more Energy more extraversion) ? Some regarded the e-di
mension as surgency / social dominance, other thanImpulsiveness ? Today we rathe
r believe in a tendency toward positive emotional experiences as a Extraversion
component 4
Page 45
? differences in E, which were collected by questionnaires, suggest a link with
differences in social behavior towards, ie extrovert are rather in Society and a
re sexually active ? extraverts also have other cognitive strengths and weakness
es as introverts - extravert: improved divided attention, resistant in relation
to distraction; extraverted engine driver (Dinas bloke?) discover better signals
and other Stimuli, extraverted post men show more rapid letter decryption, extr
averted television watchers have better short-term memory in terms of TV are fas
ter than accurate in learning - Introverts: perform better when it comes to deta
iled attention going to have better long-term memory for words and show better p
erformance (get some sleep) in low arousal, are slower but more accurate when Le
arning Feeling Good ? extraverts report higher levels in everyday life positive
affect, as Introvert ? C OSTA AND M C C RAE confirmed that positive feelings for
both men as well as Correlate women with extraversion ? However, you must there
fore not necessarily report less negative emotions ? Eysenck was of the opinion
that e of sociability and impulsivity is ? These led E MMONS AND D IENNA (1986)
conducted a study in the VP over a longer Period should assess their mood before
bedtime - There are components of sociability of E that something with kindness
, warmth and openness has to do, Soziablitt is highly correlated with positive af
fect - The component of impulsivity has something to do with adventure and socia
l Stimulation by groups, so it is not correlated with positive affect and shows
only a weak correlation with negative affect ? Extraverts report more positive a
ffect because ~ They react less on punishment ~ introverts more negative and pun
itive things in social situations perceive: o remind them less good sides of soc
ial interaction and o advise other less positive o they also anticipate more in
agreement with other ~ extravert can be less likely by a punishment or a Frustra
tion discourage than introverts ~ B Barrett (1997): Extraverted remember more po
sitive affect than they actually experienced have ? To what extent is the positi
ve relationship between extraversion and positive affect is a function of increa
sed participation on the part of extraverts in social activities? ~ B RAND Statt
er (1994): extraverts are explicit in social situations, which leads to social c
ompetence and effectiveness ~ A RGYLE AND L U (1990): Path analysis (allows dire
ct and indirect effects of Sort out variables) o revealed a significant direct e
ffect of extraversion on social Competence and 4
Page 46
o a significant and direct effect of social skills on Satisfaction o extraversio
n exerted an indirect effect on friendliness due to the Path which runs towards
social competence o That happened to the relationship between extraversion and f
riendliness in two ways: 1 very extraverted people tend to more social skills an
d this leads to more satisfaction 2, there is also a direct effect of extraversi
on on friendliness, ie social skills do not explain everything ? Some scholars a
re of the opinion that the relationship between E and positive affect is very st
rong ~ E and positive affect correlate 12:20 to 12:50 and both say similar thing
s before ? Other researchers assume no case that E and positive affect is the sa
me ~ Costa and McCrae: positive affect is one of the six facets of E ~ There are
also situations in life in which an extrovert worse feels as an introvert The T
heory of Arousal ? Eysenck different concepts of Pavlov has borrowed, tried incr
eased To get stimulation and an increased reaction - However, the organism is th
en reaches a point at which the high stimulation Response back, this point is ca
lled the threshold transmarginal inhibition - Pavlov observed a difference in di
fferent dogs how fast this Threshold is reached - Dogs with strong NS achieve hi
gher levels of stimulation, before the answers be inhibited in Cf to dogs with w
eak NS ? Eysenck put the weak NS with introverts and extraverts with the strong
NS equal ? stimulation of the environment generates excitement ? Each individual
has an optimal level of arousal, on which it and satisfaction optimal response
feels (similar to the threshold of transmarginal inhibition) ? In extravert you
need more stimulation to the optimal level of arousal to reach ? E YSENCK (1967)
: Being the reticular activating system responsible for the individual differenc
es in excitation (and thus also in e) o The RAS is a Netwerk of nerve fibers fro
m the spinal cord to the thalamus ascend o It is responsible for the general exc
itation, has a regulatory function of Attention and vigilance and is Eysenck int
rovert at different tuned ? Introverts are from the outset more excited than ext
raverts, so the threshold achieved faster ? The cortex of the introvert more inh
ibition or control via primitive, lower brain structures from ? rather avoid an
increase in the excitation? introverts who are the adoption by excited than extr
averts, so you can difficult to keep at (introverts can be worse sedate) 4
Page 47
? introverts are more sensitive with respect to stimuli at all levels of sensiti
vity (Lower pain threshold, stronger response to lemon juice) ? G EEN (1984): Ex
traverts feel loud music as a reward and can at a learn higher background noise
better ? Even at the level of the automatic reaction (dilated pupils), reveal In
troverts more than extraverts to avoid high stimulation ? Z Uckerman (1978): Sen
sation Seeking Scale , sensation of hunger is the need fordifferent, new and com
plex situations and the willingness physical and to take social risk for these e
xperiences to themselves; includes four different Factors: ~ adventure (physical
risk) ~ experience pleasure (new experiences in music, art, traveling, meeting
unusual people, drugs) ~ disinhibition (satisfaction by parties, sex with differ
ent partners, Games) ~ boredom / irritability (restless always in the same situa
tions and Turning away from boring people) Appear ? At low to moderate levels of
stimulation Introverts physiologically reactive to sensory input than extravert
s ? However, it is very difficult to prove Eysenck's conjecture (EEG, heart rate
, electrodermal activity) that introverts generally at higher levels of arousal
work and if this is rather determined together with impulsivity than with E ? is
the strongest argument against Eysenck's theory, not that physiological respons
es necessarily occur simultaneously (a brain structure is active and energized,
so you can be inhibited others) ? Summary: - extraverts prefer and seek higher s
timulation levels, va. what social Stimulation affects - Only moderate support t
hat introverts more sensitive to increased stimulation respond; these difference
s are moderated by several factors (Time of day) - Converse and inconclusive res
ults, in terms of the fact that E with stable traithnlichen differences in a gene
ral arousal related, ie Introverts are generally not necessarily excited than ex
traverts - Eysenck's theory (in particular the connection with the RAS) is now c
onsidered discarded presented although he has initiated 35 years of research The
Behavioral Approach System ? psychologists were especially interested in a) the
understanding of the relationship between E and positive Affect b) exposing the
psychobiological basis points ? J EFFERY G RAY (1982, 1987): behavioral approac
h system (BAS): a hypothetical system in Brain, which is responsible for the mot
ivation of behavior that is out goal to achieve and maintain positive emotional
rewards ? Gray, accepted that the BAS from different paths and structures, which
fell slightly would have to do with the neurotransmitter dopamine, and with the
limbic system ? Studies in rats: reward in the brain with the release of dopami
ne in associated mesolymbischen system 4
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? In humans: differences in mesolymbischen dopaminergic pathways and associated
structures are differences, the people of reward show a searching behavior ? Acc
ording to Gray, the BAS is linked with impulsivity: impulsive obsolescence is no
t inhibited and facing forward (impulsive people move quickly and sometimes head
less on rewarding stimuli) ? impulsiveness is a component of e - S Utton AND D A
VIDSON (1997): individuals with a strong BAS (more sensitive and receptive to in
centives) are likely extroverted and impulsive ? scientists have tried direct co
nnections between the dopaminergic Find activity and E ~ D EPC , L UCIANA ET AL
.: Extraverts and introverts differ in the reactivity of the dopaminergic system
mesolymbischen ? EEG studies: positive affect (smile) is associated with an act
ivity of the left frontal and the anterior part of the brain ~ manipulations of
pos. Emotion systematically influence the asymmetry of electrical activity in th
e anterior, but not posterior brain regions ~ Beautiful films, for example, incr
ease the activity in the left anterior side; unsightly things excite the right,
anterior side ~ The left prefrontal cortex as a biological substrate for itself
considered approximate behavior and positive affect ~ However, further investiga
tions show also the asymmetry of the BAS in Anger ~ Other factors such as hormon
es might also play a role in the BAS N: neuroticism ? The big problem is that th
ere are two souls in his breast and often characterized feels bad ? emotions suc
h as fear, sadness, shame, guilt and doubt = negative emotionality (Neuroticism)
The Many Ways to Feel Bad ? continuum of emotional instability to emotional sta
bility = neuroticism ? Chronic anxiety, depression, excessive emotionality, nerv
ousness, Moodiness, hostility, vulnerability, self-uncertainty, hypochondria ? W
ATSON AND C LARK (1984) relates to individual differences between people in the
ir Experience of sadness, anger, fear, guilt, etc. (= negative affectivity) ? Pe
ople who achieve high values ??are often tormented and upset ? People who achiev
e low scores are often quiet, safe and happy with yourself ? Individual differen
ces in N were with differences in the experience of negative emotional Events ?
Typical studies use self-report measurements ? N is consistently associated with
unwell moods, higher voltage levels, Predominance of negative emotional feeling
s ? People who have high values ??in N, lonely and less satisfied with interpers
onal relationships ? clinical patients suffering from mood disorders, such as de
pression and generalized anxiety 4
Page 49
? Students with high N have more symptoms of stress and homesickness ? contrast
to E ? High N means that one more bad feelings than at low N, but with a high N
must be no less good feelings you have (ie, good and bad feelings are independen
tly) ? Individual differences in N Tell a range of behaviors before: - L ARSENIC
AND K ASIMATIS (1991): high N students are often ill - O RMEL AND W OHLFARTH (1
991): high N values ??are better predictors of psychological discomfort as envir
onmental factors - C OSTA AND M C C RAE (1978): People with high N value perceiv
e the midlife often as a crisis - N values ??are good predictors of divorce ? B
Olger AND S CHILLING (1991) conducted a study on 42 consecutive days, every day
they ried her mood of 24 based on 18 emotions and gave their Stressors on - High
N value meant that the adults uncomfortable feeling, 3 sources of their Malaise
: o Higher stressors: neuroticism seems the individuals stressful more Suspend e
vents (fault it when it involves interpersonal conflicts) o Reactivity: N high v
alue meant that they were more stressful events had and that they reacted more s
trongly to these events (by ineffective Coping strategies) o General negativity
in life, even if nothing happens bad, find people with high N value bad feelings
? Other studies suggest that a high N value by using inappropriate Associated b
ehavior in different social situations - Low N value means that the person adjus
ts a level of intimacy and being responsive reciprocal - people with high N valu
e of the given situation can not adapt ? Neurotic people seem social cues to for
get, perhaps because they too much inThoughts are recessed to register callback
functions which will tell them their environment Stress and Coping ? N is the tr
ait of the most consistent and very related to stress symptoms ? N a risk factor
for serious illness seems to be ? neurotics report that they tend to neglect an
d mistake ? motorists who values ??high N are more prone to stress in the form o
f anger, irritation, Anxiety and self-distrust ? neuroticism seems to certain cr
iminal acts tend (alcoholic, Drug junkies) ? Causes Stress neuroticism or neurot
icism causes stress? o O RMEL AND W OHLFAHRTH (1991) where data for 3 different
time points (to Beginning of the study (time 0), 6 years (Time 1) and 7 years (T
ime2) and later split endogenous (by one's own behavior of exogenous (external s
ources such as accidents) Behavior from - Endogenous and exogenous events at Tim
e 1 had an impact on psychological Discomfort at Time 2 - Better predictor of di
scomfort at Time 1 and 2 was the N value at time 0 - N values ??also said endoge
nous events previously 4
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o M AGNUS , D IENNA ET AL . (1993): high N values ??predispose a person to more
to experience stressful events in the next 4 years - It seems not to be that str
essful events predict the N value - These two reasons: ~ High N value tends to b
e rather negative in several events to react ~ The difficulties in social intera
ction initiate negative events, such as unemployment, divorce ? N has a tendency
to depression ? N has left as a symptom of clinical depression, the emotional s
cars and therefore a greater anxiety is caused ? S URTEES AND W AINWRIGHT (1996)
: the strongest predictor of depression was N ? High N value is in a difficult s
ituation with a negative view and see themselves more as helpless to ? You use m
ore coping strategies Emotions focused or avoided ? They fight less of a problem
than their fear ? High N value at a forthcoming examination is prone to daydrea
ming, or the Desire to flee and in Selbstbeschuldung that one is not doing enoug
h ? anxietycontinues to increase ? Low N value is preparing properly before, or
thinks that it is not so bad will be ? anxiety does not increase? The two groups
, however, do not cut differently from well The Behavioral Inhibition System Eys
enck assumed that E with the Reticular Acitvating system is connected and N with
the limbic system and the hypothalamus. Of both has been suggested that it the
autonomic NS control and are involved in emotions. At low Activation threshold i
n the regions to attract people quickly and have high N- Values. Eysenck assumed
that in addition to experience and social learning va innate differences in the
functioning of the brain the way in the direction of stable and unstable person
alities pave. Eysenck's conjectures were not detected in psychophysiological stu
dies be. Today it also assumes that different parts of the limbic system differe
nt emotions are responsible. For anxiety, the amygdala is responsible (As eviden
ced by, inter alia, fear conditioning). The amygdala appears to be part of the b
ehavioral inhibition system (BIS; Verhaltenshemmsystem)to be, which triggers res
ponses to fear and signs of danger. Emotionally, by the BIS triggered responses
to stimuli signs of anxiety and fear. Ergo, some argue psychologists that indivi
dual differences in N differences resulting in BIS. In the EEG show neurotic str
ong activity in the right anterior cortex. BIS is the opposite of the BAS consis
ting of dopaminergic pathways. It seems to Extraversion to be related (EEG activ
ity in extraverts in the left anterior Cortex). 5
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O: Openness to Experience From Cattell's original assumption that intelligence i
s a trait (but little correlation with intelligence) developed traits that suppo
sedly basis of expression or Intelligence, such as O. - Open: inquisitive, imagi
native, unconventional - Do not open: conventional behavior, preference of the f
amiliar to new ideas (But hard to say whether high O value is good, are enough c
ounter-examples and question whether intellectual venture might not be other tha
n intellectual recklessness is seen.) Correlates of O NEO-PI-R: six facets of O:
- Fantasy - Aesthetics - Feelings - Action - Ideas - Values (High?) (Meaning th
is?) (Width?) (Many species?) (Widersprchl.?) (Broken?) People with high O are al
so: original, curious, much daring, independent, analytical, non-traditional, li
beral (not conservative) and have many interests. They also show more psychologi
cal insight, more experience and question Authorities and stereotypes. - O is on
ly slightly correlated with intelligence (.32, but not overestimate, since diskr
imante Validity must be shown that two traits are not the same measure). - O cor
related pos. (unclear causality) with the level of education. - O correlates wel
l with the welcoming of challenges and changes (eg Career). - In O of trait abso
rption seems to be integrated. A strong and vibrant Imagination, for example, in
terms of faith in Para Psychology, correlated with O. A study of D Ollinger & C
Lancy shows that people with high O creative and pictorial Art produced, while
those with low O prosaic, dull and concrete Pictures showed. The same study also
showed that low E and high N had the same effect as high O (but only in women).
W Helped STONE & T RULL showed that O is correlated with depression. C OSTA & M
C C RAE showed that O positive with intellectualization as Defense mechanism ("
explain away" from problems) and negatively correlated with Denial as a defense
mechanism. Furthermore, the authors showed in another study the following: Extra
version Neuroticism Openness effective coping strategies in Dealing with stress,
such as: - Pos. Thinking - Rational action - Restriction ineffective coping str
ategies in Dealing with stress, such as: - Escape Fantasies - Hostile reactions
- Ineffectiveness effective coping strategies in Dealing with stress, such as: H
umor negative correlation with 5
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- Replacement - Passivity - Reassurance - Self-reproaches - Wishful thinking - R
etraction - Faith (in God or other People or institutions) The authoritarian per
sonality O is the trait that correlates most closely with policy settings. high
value in O 'belief in progressive change, skepticism about traditional authority
and tolerance of contradictory positions low value 'belief in stability, prefer
ence for authority and uniform Positions Fromm was assumed that the authoritaria
n character structure was responsible for Hitler Seizure of power. On this basis
, developed A Dorno ET AL . the California F (aschmismus) scale with nine Charac
teristics: -Conventionalism-author. Submission-author. Aggression Superstition a
nd stereotypy - Anti-interception (against pictorial and subjective things like
art)Might & hardness -Destructiveness and cynicism - Projectivity (belief in wil
d and dangerous things)Sex (exaggerated belief in gender differences) The Author
itarian personality results of the authors' view of the environment in which Fam
ily (Psychoanalytic point of view). Oppressive, distanced socialize parents chil
dren by not given models bad self-developed without superego and with personal w
eakness and dependence on others (as well as a latent homosexuality), the author
itarian personalities later. A number of studies show a correlation between the
personality and autor. neg attitudes towards dissenters and pos. Attitudes towar
ds the Ingroup (the country, race ...). Authority is strongly negatively correla
ted with O, ie people with low O values ??tend to high values ??on authority rat
ings. Between the two concepts, there are several Overlaps, but most important i
s the intolerance for ambiguity, a predisposition cognitively to seek simple sol
utions. Other features of authority, such as aggression, cruelty and hardness be
fore coming especially in people with low A (greeableness) ago. C and A: Agreeab
leness and conscientiousness Conscientiousness (C) = conscientiousness (how hard
-working, self-disciplined, responsible, reliable, conscientious, well-organized
is a person?) high: Tasks are carried out systematically and logically. Precise
answers to questions. Behavior in accordance with standards. Planned life with
targets and plans. Capable hard To make decisions. Stable, predictable and conve
ntional. 5
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low: disorganized, inefficient, careless, unreliable, unpredictable, inconsisten
t, haphazard, lazy, indecisive, extravagant, impractical, no sense of moral or p
rofessional Standards, risk (love) relationships. Agreeableness (A) = Convenienc
e (includes love, empathy, altruism, affection and other of the best aspects of
the human personality) high: warm, cooperative, sufficient, helpful, patient, em
pathetic, friendly, understanding, of course, polite, sincere, invigorating, hon
est, ethical, selfless, with family and friends connected, social good, peace-lo
ving humanists. low: antagonistic, pugnacious, rough, manipulative, cruel, spite
ful, contemptuous, coarse, disingenuous. Work B OGAN & O NES : Three central the
mes of C: control, orderliness, hard work. M C C RAE & C OSTA : Six facets: comp
etence, order, conscientiousness, determination, Self-discipline, consideration.
C is the strongest predictor of career success in different occupations, and is
more accurate with more professional autonomy. Therefore recruitment test resul
t of items from C and N (low desired) and to correlate + .41 With work performan
ce. C can be measured very well with the Socialization scale of the CPI, which i
n turn is a Predictor of rule compliance. Also Reliabilittsskalen are negative wi
th irresponsible Behavior in the workplace and car accidents connected. C is als
o sometimes referred to as the "will to fulfill", which explains why it unexplai
ned variances in tests provides an explanation (eg IQ test). E is connected with
success as a manager. A low and N is a predictor of job success in service occu
pations. A is negatively associated with creativity and autonomy for managers wh
o seems Innovations in the way. Love High A: to love better and better lovers, f
riends, colleagues and supervisors, as People with high A play by the rules, her
e according to the rules of love and interpersonal transmission. A is also calle
d "friendly fulfillment" or "social likability" and divided according to Costa &
McCrae in the following six facets: trust, goal-directedness, Altruism, complia
nce, modesty, mental softness. A had a strong significance due to the social vol
umes in evolution. 5
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Dimensions of A are found in the CPI (socialization, empathy, and tolerance), PR
F (Affiliation, education, helpfulness), McAdams measure of intimate motivation
and eagle Concept of social interest. An important part of A is prosocial behavi
or. Studies have shown that in in cultures which usually children by other famil
y members take care of this more show prosocial behavior. Also, the presence of
a pro-social model leads to more prosocial behavior. Dimensions for sympathy, so
cial responsibility, the ability to Perspective taking and high moral standards
say prosocial behavior best advance. Parents with a high value in A and N are lo
w value in good humor in dealing with their Children and therefore provide them
with a high level of cognitive stimulation. A also seems to be a particularly st
rong predictor of good mothers. S HAVER & B Rennan (1992): Study on the relation
ship between attachment styles and traits: N: sig. Difference between secure att
achment style and anxious and avoidant E: sig. Difference between secure attachm
ent style and anxious and avoidant O: no differences A: sig. Differences between
secure, anxious and avoidant attachment style C: no differences A SENDORPF & W
ILPERS (1998) study over 18 months; Traits remain over time stable social relati
onships are not (they are influenced by traits, but no reverse Influence); gener
al traits had the following impact on relationships: E: large social network, a
lot of time in social relationships C: much contact with family members through
more frets A: negatively correlated with the number of conflicts in relationship
s with the opposite Sex Life M C C RAE & C OSTA were able to show that the trait
C and A influence on general well-being and positive emotions have-either direc
tly or indirectly (instrumental: by the Creating conditions of the feel good cau
se). L EWIS T ERMAN (1921): THE long-term study par with 1500 children in middle
age of 11 years, which showed above average performance in intelligence tests;
Study also predictors of longevity: - Above all: Gender - Negative impact of fam
ilial stress - Also very strong predictor (as strong as biological risks such as
high blood pressure): Personality in childhood (C was a predictor, an aspect of
E (sociability), Self-esteem and emotional stability (N) and the energy levels
were not predictors!) Variations on a Theme: Alternative Taxonomies 5
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Big Five are very popular, even if sometimes some was conceptualized differently
or just named differently (ie O at different culture or intellect). There are a
lso other models: - Eysenck's three-factor model - Grays 2-factor model (impulsi
vity and anxiety) - Catells 16 Quelltraits - 20 different folk concepts in the C
PI with the three basis vectors- B LOCKS Sorting method for 100 personality desc
riptions of two traithnlichen dimensions (ego-resiliency ego-control) (California
Q-Sort) new different approaches: Z UCKERMANS (1994) Alternative Five :Sociabil
ity, neuroticism-anxiety (both similar to E and N), impulsive Search sensation (
similar neg C), Aggression-Hostility (similar to low A), Activity (no equivalent
in the Big Five, maybe a little E). Zuckeman can get cognitive dimensions of pe
rsonality such as O. All five parts of the Alternatively Five each have their or
igin in specific biological substrates (Hormones, neurotransmitters or brain str
uctures). C LONINGER (1991): seven basic traits: four of them in childhood visib
le; fundamental dimensions of human Temperament, correspond almost all a kind of
neural pathways: Looking for something new (dopamine) Injury prevention (seroto
nin) Reward dependence (noradrenaline) Persistence as an adult manifest addition
al traits: Selbstdeterminierung (autonomous individual? Self as a whole) Coopera
tion (the self as part of the whole humanity) Spirituality (the self as part of
the whole, the people of the beyond) It is often criticized that nothing in the
Big Five on relationships between Dimensions and the lower parts of the dimensio
ns is predicated. Starting L EARY (50) developed several psychologists circumple
xe trait models, such as G URTMAN (1991; see McAdams S. 361) or W Iggins (1979,
1996 based on B AKAN s interpersonal circumplex): Two independent axes agency (r
oughly equivalent to dominance / power) andcommunion (love / heat)-Both are the
principal organizer of human life (according to the theoretical dichotomies of m
any other psychologists) Supplement to the Big Five, because: dominance overlaps
with E and A corresponds communion ; but both also contain the other traits of
the Big Five model,nevertheless main assumption: all (interpersonal behavior to
social structures) can be explained on the basis of E and A D Igman (1997): Fact
or analysis of both models "only two" traits " Socialization and the growth of t
he self big five: (A, C, N) (E, O) Circumplex: ( communion )( agency ) 5
Page 56
Summary: S. 363 5
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VII-Traits Across the Life Span: Continuity and Change Traits are stable over ti
me? How do they change? The Continuity of Traits Psychology and people in everyd
ay life assume that traits over a certain time are stable. How long is this part
icular time? Different Meanings of Continuity Absolute continuity Constancy in t
he expression of traits over time (eg: N-value with 12 = N- Value at 28), usuall
y calculated for groups (average values ??or average values), since Individuals
rarely given. Important in the examination of development. Differential continui
ty Consistency of individual differences between a sample of persons over the Pe
riod of time. Measured by correlations between time points. Completely independe
nt of absolute continuity. ipsative continuity Continuity intraindividual patter
ns regarding certain variables (order of Meanings of traits). Few studied, yet i
mportant because Focus on Intraindividual. Coherence Conceptual or theoretical c
ontinuity that is visible by the fact that a set of Variable to a different set
of variables at a later date, in accordance with theoretical predictions, predic
ts. Differential continuity in the Adult Years There are very many longitudinal
studies that clearly show remarkable that differential continuity of personality
traits across the life span adult exists. This applies to self-ratings and rati
ngs of the spouse over time, as well as the predictability of a trait at time 2
by the trait at time 1 (C ONLEY 1985). C OSTA , M C C RAE & A RDEN BERG (1980):
6-12 years interval between the measurements of N in different old subjects yiel
ds correlation of + .70. Also confirmed in other Big Five traits. In general (ot
her trait models) can be of studies of time (time difference 3-30 Determine year
s) that r ? + .65.This is particularly noteworthy since measuring methods are us
ually only a test-retest reliability of + .85 have (otherwise probably even stro
nger differential continuity over time of time). In addition to the errors in th
e measurements, it comes despite the interpretive strong continuity Results in c
hanges of traits! Factors that affect the stability of: - With increasingly larg
er measurement interval suffers from the continuity 5
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- The age of the subjects (more stability with increasing age) Childhood Precurs
ors: From Temperament to Traits Children are born with differences in behavioral
styles, and significant direct biological control stand. These temperaments, fo
r example, consist susceptibility for emotional stimulation, strength of the chi
ld, reaction rate, the type and strength his mood (A LLPORT ). T HOMAS , C HESS
& B Irnch (1970): 3 types of temperament patterns: little babies: konsitent posi
tive mood, low to medium intensity emotional responses, regularly sleeping and e
ating- Rhythms heavy baby: negative mood, intense emotional reactions, irregular
rhythms slow-to-warm-up example: relatively negative mood, low intensity emotio
nal Reactions, withdraw only from new situations, approach them but later on R O
THBART (1986): six dimensions of temperament: Activity level, smiling and laught
er, anxiety, concern over Limitations, soothability (peace?), vocal activityBeha
vioral inhibition (shyness towards new people or events) seems to be an importan
t temperament. Inhibited children show intense physiological Reactions (more pup
ils, higher heart rates) in social situations, and in the morning more cortisol
(an indicator of more excitement). After K AGAN go the differences between inhib
ited and uninhibited children back to genetic differences, which in inhibited ch
ildren leads to a low Reaktivittsschwelle in the limbic system (rather excited in
social situations). This assumption is consistent with Eysenck's assumption abo
ut introverts. In addition inhibited children show more activity in the right fr
ontal lobe (negative emotions, such as fear, thus inhibition (BIS)) and non-inhi
bited children more activity in the left lobe (BAS). Nevertheless grow only 2/3
that of K AGAN to introverted examined inhibited children Children on. Conjectur
e: shyness "from-learned" by environmental and social pressure. B USS & P Lomin
(1975.1984): 4 temperaments that become Traits: Emotionality, activity, sociabil
ity, impulsivity they all are ...: inherited, stable over the development of tim
e, over the life course present, generally adaptable, also present in biological
ly similar animals Problem of empirical evidence, since methods in children (par
ental report, Behavioral observation) of the Traiterfassungsmethoden in adults (
self-reports) differ. Temperaments seem to be basics that biological mainly on f
undamental Differences decrease, although Traits are socially elaborated and com
plex. 5
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Presumably offer temperament dimensions psychobiological documents that make up
Develop traits. However, until now not empirically proven. C ASPI (1998): 5 temp
erament dimensions, which have different effects on the Big Five: The more cogni
tive traits of the Big Five evolve through a process of Development elaborative
C ASPI sees six mechanisms: Learning processes Differences in temperaments disti
nguish what and how children learn. Ambient "Get Get" ( environmental elicitatio
n ); Differences in temperaments lead to otherReactions of the environment, whic
h may enhance the original differences. Ambient Construct Differences in tempera
ments lead to different processing of the environment, and thus the development
of different experiences. social and temporal Comparisons Differences in tempera
ments lead to various comparisons with other and itself (over time), which has d
ifferent self-concepts result. Environment selection Search Depending on the tem
perament of children from environments that affect them (usually those original
predispositions reinforced). Environment manipulation is Manifested, the self-co
ncept of a child, it actively change its Environment to match his dispositions.
Activity Level positive affect Behavioral inhibition negative affect Persistence
* continuous line: positive association dashed lines: negative associations * (
Attention span, Distraction, interest) 5
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The Origins of Traits: Genes and Environments The Logic of Twin and Adoption Stu
dies First of all: Erblichkeitsquotient describes variance of a sample, not a si
ngle Person, ie in a population, 90% of the body size genetic says Differences b
etween people, but not for me as an individual. In addition, the Erblichkeitsquo
tient to a large extent dependent on characteristics of the sample (in undernour
ished countries more influence of the environment on body size). General: - Trai
ts the product of an interaction between genes and the environment, both of whic
h are totally are interdependent. - Genetic influence on traits is indirect and
complex - There is not the ONE gene for a particular trait - It's always about t
he 10% of the genome that are different between people Getting a method to eluci
date inheritance are twin studies. Here, a sample monozygotischer twins with a s
ample is dizygotischer Twins compared. Is the correlation between the characteri
stic value Twins from a zygote higher, the difference is due to genetic equality
. (MDGs are genetically identical, DCs, however, share only 50% of the genome.,
Since in both the environment for the twins is the same, the more need of common
ality in the MDGs common genes go back.) Erblichkeitsquotient = 2 (correlation i
n MDGs - correlation in DZs) h = 2 (r mz - R dz ) Another method according to th
e same logic, adoption studies. Here are correlations between adopted children a
nd step-siblings (same Environment, no same genes) with correlations between bio
logical siblings (Same environment, to 50% of the same genetic material). compar
ed. In addition, can be compared to how much children resemble their biological
parents and how much her adoptive parents what inferences about genetic or speci
fic environmental factors allow. Both methods come from a research field of psyc
hology, behavior genetics means. Heritability Estimates of Traits F LODERUS -M Y
RHED et al. (1980): twin study of 13,000 adults found Erblichkeitsbewertungen of
slightly more than 50% for E and N traits. Other studies also indicate high Erb
lichkeitsquotienten (between .30 and .60). All in all, probably 40% of the pheno
typic variance by the genetic Variance to be explained. In particular, the Big F
ive and their sub-facets seem to be substantially heritable. The effect of inher
itance is still seen more clearly in foreign judgments. 6 r mz r dz N .41 .18 E
.55 .23 O .58 .21 A .41 .26 C .37 .27
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Two puzzling findings: 1 In some studies, the correlations in MDGs are more than
twice as high, as in DCs. MDGs (100% same genes) should, however, not more than
be twice as similar as there are DCs (50% same genes), because genetic Variance
should be additive. 2 Adoption studies explain only 20% of the variance by gene
s. Here should the But results be the same. Two possible explanations: 1 non-add
itive genetic variance: Genes influence traits non-linear or additive but intera
ct in konfigurellem a pattern by all component are significant and even the modi
fication or the absence of a part (the gene) to can cause major qualitative or q
uantitative changes. That is, there is for traits be a genetic threshold, above
which one can (you are right), and under which one may be (one is not the same,
even eg at 50% same genes is not sufficient to cross the threshold to come) (Mig
ht explain why siblings are so different) 2 emergenisis: A specific configuratio
n, a specific pattern of genes (or Basistraits who themselves are genetic in ori
gin) leads to Behavioral tendencies that arise not solely by the parts of the pa
ttern would (read: parts of two poker hands result in a specific pattern, many p
ossible combinations, only MDGs twice exactly the same sheet (The full-house, re
sulting in the expression of a trait)). Shared Environment ? How does the enviro
nment on the variance of the traits of a personality? ? University of Minnesota
study (1988) examined 44 separate adultidentical twins (adoption) and 217 togeth
er raised identical twins ? Most of separated twins were grown only by the study
again united ? The correlations in terms of traits in common grown twins relati
vely high (ranging from .41 to .65, mean .52) ? Amazingly, however, is that the
separated twins also grown very high Exhibit correlations (mean .49), ie, that s
eparated twins grew up to just as similar as are commonly grown twins ? The comm
on growing up in a family, so show twin and Adoption studies, has hardly any inf
luence on personality traits ? There are also, however, a few exceptions: - trai
ts that have something to do with intimacy, closeness and love that show familia
l, environmental influences - youth delinquency also shows an influence of the f
amily - Child abuse and neglect has consequences for the Personality Development
? Since siblings have almost the Hlft of their genes in common, it is clear that
there is little Are differences in their properties 6 J ANG et al. (1996)
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? adoptive children have little traits that are similar to those of their adopti
ve family ? Eaves, Eysenck, and Martin (1989): the correlation between adopted c
hildren and their biological mother (which they have never seen) is .21 and the
correlation between Adopted children and their adoptive mother is - .02 ? The tr
uly amazing fact that the environment (school, community, prosperity, Love) shou
ld have no influence on the development of personality is difficult to to accept
, but a fact. ? Since half is influenced by genetics, family environment, howeve
r, no Influences, the question is, what then accounts for the remaining influenc
e? - Trait measurements contain errors, add the unexplained variation (the scale
are not as accurate as a thermometer; usually 10-20% of Traitvarianz by Error)
- One must distinguish between two types of environment: o Shared environmental
effects ( shared environment ): environmental influences thatFamily members can
be similar (conflict, warmth, discipline, social class, parental education) o No
n-shared environmental effects: environmental influences that Family members can
not be be similar ? Scientistsbelieve that these influences make up the remaind
er of the variance Nonshared environment ? Just because siblings grew up in the
same family, this does not mean that they perceive them as equal ? birth order,
for example, is a factor that ensures that siblings by different positions of th
e family differently perceive (the oldest is the Biggest, Strongest, and the sec
ond-born, must first find its place in the family) ? R OWE (1990) identifies six
categories of a non-shared environment: - Prenatal trauma - Random events (eg,
physical illnesses) - family constellation (birth order and the period in betwee
n) - Fraternal mutual interaction (closure of several frets and Cooperation betw
een siblings, that Tommy and Mathi understand better as Tommy and Katrin) - Uneq
ual treatment by parents - Influences outside the family (teachers and friends)
? J Udith B ARRIS (1995): group socialization theory of development: - Shared en
vironment has hardly any influence on personality traits - The influence of the
parents, she stops just because of their genes for influential - For the sociali
zation outside the family plays a major role - children identify with their peer
group with which they age, gender, ethnic Share membership and interests - chil
dren identify themselves with ingroup and feel hostility towards the outgroup ?
There is a lack of sufficient empirical evidence for the nature of the influence
s on the Personality in terms of divided and undivided environment ? D UNN AND P
Lomin (1990): 35% of the variance is due to the effects of environmental undivi
ded, 40% genetic effects, 20% measurement error and 5% shared environmental 6
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? Strong evidence for 40% heritability, we have little evidence of more than 5%
divided Environment, we take 10 to 20% for measurement error in sales and remain
at 35% unexplained variance, ie non-shared environmental How Genes Shape Enviro
nments ? In a kind of genes and environment are two different types, on the othe
r hand both are in Combined behavior ? The relationship, however, is not recipro
cal, because the environment does not directly affect the genes can ? A spirited
child (which by its genes, this temperament) can be obtained by the environment
are not changed, or it may change its behavior, but not its Gene ? The genes, h
owever, can alter the environment: change genes and form, in as far Mensch percei
ve their environment and form genes, which for an environmental man selects ? Th
e environment itself is hereditary: MZ twins who grew up together, report on sam
e environments, DZ twins have slightly different environments ? P Lomin AND B ER
GMANN (1991) criticized many measurements of the socialization of environments a
nd concluded that they are likely to be confounded with genetic variation ? The
report on the environment is also always the genetic requirements of Formed Rapp
orteur ? The influence of genetic differences on the perception of the environme
nt increases with the Age, because older adolescents have more influence on thei
r environment and shape their World, so that they better fit their genotype ? Ev
en in the first months of life forms children their environment through their ge
nes, and the The environment pushes then turn the personality and the personalit
y formed thereupon reinstate the environment ? endless circle of reciprocal infl
uence? S CARR AND M C C ARTNEY (1983) distinguished three types, such as the gen
otype environmental forms and the environment influences the development of pers
onality: - Startling influence (evocative influence) simple babies evoke other p
atterns the care of a difficult (smiling and active baby get more affection) - P
assive effect: the biological parents of the child to provide an environment Ava
ilable that are compatible with their own genotypes and these are those of the C
hild like (parents who love to read, buy your child books and read him before mo
re ? child may then also books)- Active influence: manifests itself in the direc
t selection and in the search after matching the genotype environment (an athlet
ic girl will be the Athletics club connect); this intensified from the beginning
of adulthood Change and Complexity ? traits are by definition relatively stable
(otherwise they were called, for example, mood) and the fact that do not change
our genes, which account for traits, traits are stable Contemporaries ? Traits
are simple, ie they are clear, focused and Unconditional Behavioral tendencies ?
If traits were not stable and they could not predict behavior, then it would Pe
rsonality psychology slightly believable o Persnlichkkeitstraits may change o Tra
its are organized into various patterns and these may change 6
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o The aspects of human individuality, which is likely to dramatically change, th
ere are no traits Different Meanings of Change ? If the mean on the trait Exhibi
tionism in a group close to the average the same group three years ago, so this
trait is absolutely continuously over 3 years ? If the average change over a per
iod so that seems to be the trait have also changed Differential ? continuity re
fers to the stability of the individual differences in Trait values ? a Trait Sh
ows no high values ??of differential continuity, then appears to the To have cha
nged personality ? However, it is then difficult to characterize the changes, yo
u can then no Make prediction about the trait values ??for a second time ? Peopl
e are trying to change for the better their Traits ? psychotherapists these chan
ges promote under the banner of, for example, adaptation, then the change is to
resolve or cure ? maturation, self-fulfillment, self-actualization: the change h
as a direction and go towards something better, higher, Altersgemeren ? Gordon All
port (1961) argued that the development of personality in the direction should d
evelop five criteria of maturation: - Emotional safety and regulation of behavio
r by social rules that to reduce interpersonal friction and to receive social re
ward - The capacity to integrate the self in significant life projects and to be
exerting as engrossed in immediate needs - The capacity for compassionate and i
ntimate relationships with other - A realistic assessment of the self and the ot
her - The establishment of a derived from the personality life philosophy ? scie
ntists tend variations of two research designs to take over to detect changes in
the life span: - Cross-sectional studies: Comparison of individuals in differen
t age groups: o You do not examine directly a change or development o cohort eff
ect: 40 years less than 20 years at O ??"does not mean necessarily mean that a d
evelopment impact has occurred (Another Birthday and thus different life events)
- longitudinal studies: repeated measurements at different time points to the s
ame persons o Here come the 20 and 40th of the same cohort Trait Change in the A
dult Years ? It gradual and systematic changes in the Big Five traits can be fou
nd (but: no dramatic changes) ? traits that may be associated with E, N, and O f
rom the early to middle Adulthood decline while then raise A and C only ? McCrae
, Costa, de Lima et al. Higher levels of E, N and O, and A and C to lower compar
ed with students with middle-aged adults ? Watson and Walker (1996): decrease of
negative affectivity (N) with students (Longitudinal section) ? Mortimer, Finch
, Kumka (1982): Waste of sociability (E) in middle age 6
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? Jessor (1983): Increase of achievement (C)? development towards more competenc
e, autonomy, accountability and increasing maturation is a common theme in longi
tudinal studies in the U.S. ? AT & T Study: 266 Manager candidates over 20 years
(late 50's to the 70) were studied and observed this period in assessment cente
rs, are the focus was on the career and personal development o decrease the ambi
tion and increasing realistic expectations o increased levels of independence an
d increased focus on productive Work o less kindness and empathy as the cost-won
autonomy ? Mills College Longitudinal Study: 140 women who in 1958 or 1960 at M
ills College graduated, they were interviewed at the age of 27, 43 and 52 (inter
esting cohort due the women's movement, some women broke into a male domains) o
(start to 43) increase of responsibility, self-control, Susceptibility o (43-52)
less dependent and self-critical and more familiar decisive, better coping by i
ntellect, logical analysis, Tolerance for Ambiguit o were carefree saw in terms o
f their self-concept and in their Actions reflected their needs ? men and women
show different development paths in terms of their traits in young adulthood and
midlife o Gutmann (1987): young parents show traditional division of roles that
are However, later (approximately 40 years dissolves) o In the Mills study, thi
s is partly supported: 27 (the women are similar to this time rather their mothe
rs, who in mid-life behind her Men remained ? historical changes) are the husban
ds ofWomen realistic, goal-oriented, clear-headed, accurate, etc., with 52 (are
but their fathers when they were the same age similar) they have similar values
? When people approach the mid-life, they are more satisfied with themselves, le
ss self-critical and show less negative affect ? In addition, an increase in pos
itive affect, self-confidence (seems especially good at formed), accountability,
autonomy and conscientiousness Patterns of Traits Over Time ? J ACK B LOCK and
his colleagues (1971, 1981.1993) have used a method to throw a bit more light on
the continuity and change in the lives ? They used professional observers, all
traits within an individual detected ? In addition, they worked with the Califor
nia Q-sort method: it contains 100 statements, the rater in 9 different stack sp
lits (very characteristic of up to little characteristic) ? This method allows t
he researcher different Traitmuster within a Identify personality ? Comparing th
e patterns over time allows a longer-term coherence of these To make patterns id
entify ? In this case, different sub-groups can be identified that are similar i
n structure and which can be understood as personality types 6
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? block found two central dimensions, the many different aspects of human Functi
oning organize: - ego control : the extent to how far a person's expressions of
pulses modified o At one extreme are people who react uncontrollably and their D
esires and impulses can not suppress (they are scattered and exploration taker)
o At the other extreme are people who are controlled (adjusted and restrained, h
er life is planned, but it keeps sometimes spontaneous Joy and creativity from)
- ego resiliency : (clamping force): capacity, the typical level of ego-control
to modify, to adapt to the conditions o The more someone has of it, the better,
because these people are then very energetic and flexible ~ Funder and Block (19
89): Ego clamping force, ego control, and intelligence bear all contribute to th
e significant prediction for deferred behavior ? H AAN (1981) examined longitudi
nal studies of 136 people and examined these on six personality factors: - Cogni
tive investment - Emotional (Un-) controlledness - Open or closed self- - nurtur
ant / hostile - under-or over-controlled heterosexuality - Confident o This Q-so
rt values ??are very stable over time for both sexes, but still more for women o
Over time, both sexes are cognitively invested, more open in terms of their Sel
f and self-confident o Sexual expressivity reaches its peak in late adolescence
and with 40 Years it flares up again ? Y ORK AND J OHN (1992): new typology life
for women in their mid-life (the four Faces of Eve) - The personality types sho
uld be defined as a prototype, with the boundaries are not very clear - They ana
lyzed longitudinal data from 103 Mills College graduate, she used an inverse fac
tor analysis, through which individuals instead of variables are inter-correlate
d over their characteristics across - be individuated, Traditional, standing in
the conflict, for sure: 4 people factors - How much a person is captured by thes
e factors? Some correspond exactly These factors and others are more of a mixtur
e o The individuated Type: combined with strong ambitions of interpersonal warmt
h and Sensitivity, high level of ego clamping force for all four types and a low
level for ego control, they are flexible and adaptable in terms of their Expres
sion of feelings, their needs and their desires, high values ??in E, A, and O o
The traditional type: high ego control and high values ??on C, A; however, they
are very conservative in terms of the feminine role, are compassionate and like
to give something from and prone to feelings of guilt o Conflicting people: low
level of resilience and Eo highest of N, they appear dissatisfied with himself,
are anxious, hostile, cautious 6
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o Secure persons: most emotionally stable, narcissistic and detached interperson
al approach to life, the most self-confident, rational, productive and skeptical
, high levels of ego resilience and C and low N values, doubt the least and rare
ly feel guilty and deal with the least Fantasy and introspection What Else Might
Change ? Many adults feel that they have changed with regard to other things (R
eligious conversion, life-changing events, personal awakening, Rediscovery, iden
tity crises, etc.) ? The change took place in stages ? psychotherapists help peo
ple to improve in the direction of a good thing ? In addition, a lot of self-hel
p guides are available in the belief that one is really able to change ? But any
change is very difficult ? Caspi and Moffitt (1993): accentuate or consolidate
major life changes the tendencies of Traits ? Consistent individual differences
are often more apparent in changes visible ? Significant personality changes may
occur, but not by Changes in Traitwerten ? Traitmessungen relate more to the co
ntinuity of these traits, and to change it up Most things that need to be unders
tood in the whole context ? Changeable things: desires, goals, motives, life pla
ns, values, beliefs, Visions of the future, the view of the past Traits and Beyo
nd (1) Traits are more than mere linguistic features: o the Situationists were o
f the opinion that the trait rather in the mind of Can be found beholder, as in
the behavior of the observer to o people commit the fundamental attribution erro
r o Trait ratings are valid and reliable and no illusions o Traits reflect real
differences in behavior and in the Personality (2) Many traits have longer-term
consistency: o consistency over time and textures on the situation o Mischels cr
iticism: traits are not consistent o However, longitudinal studies show especial
ly for E and N, that traits are stable o stability was demonstrated when Traitra
tings of self-ratings and Foreign credit ratings were (3) Show aggregations that
behavior traits really well predict o Epstein (1979): Studies show that individ
ual differences in traits often strongly correlated with differences in theoreti
cally-associated behavior, when behavior was summarized several situations o Sit
uational effects are usually not strength as trait effects (4) Trait psychologis
ts have grouped around the Big Five: o studies led to the five-factor model o Th
e doubt about the existence of traits was abolished 6
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? The five-factor model, however, can not for any specific behavior prediction b
e used ? It tells us little about personal development and personal organization
? To what extent can behavior traits explain (causal mechanisms betweenTrait an
d behavioral) ? problem the light of the context, because this is important for
accurate Forecasts, detailed descriptions and understanding ? The Big Five: Psyc
hology of a stranger, because if we know people better play a role other things
? When assessing the settlement / relation to other is the scale ? Traits are no
t conditional constructs ? Conditional statements constructs can make the condit
ion under which a Behavior occurs ? The key to a well-known man is his life / hi
s life story "Traits are continuous constructs. In the next Chapter, other const
ructs that are better suited to detect changes. Summary of S. 427 6
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Filling in the Details: Characteristic Adaptations to Life Tasks VIII Motives an
d Goals Theories of Human Motivation What do People Want? Four Views Four tradit
ional views of human motivation: Optimism: People are able to think well and rat
ionally. Reason directs behavior. People act according to conscious goals that m
ake them happy. (P Lato , A UFKLRUNG , R Ogre , M ASLOW , K Elley , K OGNITIVE T
HEORIEN ) Pessimism: People are bad, want to do bad and their behavior is motiva
ted in irrational or physical instincts and goals. Human reason is overrated. (A
LTES T Estament , F REUD , E VOLUTIONSTHEORIE ) Neutrality: People are "blank"
at birth. The environment developed the goals and motives by Rewards, punishment
.... Arise from a benevolent environment good, happy People. (L Ocke , B EHAVIO
RISMUS ) Diversity: People are diverse, different people want different things a
nd different goals. (J AMES , M C D OUGALL , M Urray , M C C Lelland , A URRENT
GOAL - THEORIES ) Psychologists have accordingly tried taxonomies from the surve
y of people with regard to their objectives, tasks ... to form. N OVACEK & L AZA
RUS (1990): Affiliation, power / achievement, personal size, Altruism, stress av
oidance, sensation Search P ERVIN (1996): Relaxation / Fun, aggression / power,
self-esteem, Affection / support, anxiety reduction W A (1992) assumes that if y
ou want to know what people want, you two Must consider aspects: 1 biological or
physical aspects that govern the human as a Machine; both must obey to the laws
of physics and physiology (Example: Thirst & Hunger) " Motivation pushes the bo
dy forward " 2 Power of the human spirit that it is possible on Biological Needs
and everything else thinking (metaphor: God instead of machine); "Cognitive mot
ivation pulls the organism forward " 6
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Carl Rogers' Theory R Ogre (1951) developed a humanistic perspective ( client-ce
ntered therapy ) ofPsychology, which was in contrast to psychoanalysis and behav
iorism. She has to today major influence on the modern therapy. The person shoul
d be in the context of their phenomenal field, the entire width of their Experie
nces, their subjective view of reality, to be understood. This is possible if th
e Psychologists through careful listening and empathy. Human behavior and the hu
man experience is the result of a single Organismic striving for improvement ( o
rganismic enhancement ), ie the personacquires through conscious, goal-oriented
decisions in the course of their life more Differentiation, independence and soc
ial responsibility. At the end of the fully functioning person (is fully functio
ning person ), in which the selfmost of the phenomenal field occupies the variou
s facets of their Life knows and also integrates seemingly inconsistent aspects
into a coherent whole. So a person leads a life that is rich in emotional experi
ences and self-discovery is. The person is reflective, spontaneous, flexible, ad
aptable, confident, confident, creative and has a high self-confidence. It opera
tes according to the organismic valuing process ( organismic valuing process ),
dis, that such information be included, which serve the purpose of size and perf
ormance, and such that the target can be avoided in the way. Rogers is unfortuna
tely no precise course of development, but expresses that a Condition for the de
velopment of fully functioning person unconditional positive Consideration ( unc
onditional positve regard is). People have because of their existence asPerson t
o be loved. But love and acceptance are often related. The person comes to the c
onclusion that some of their experiences are valuable and others not valuable. O
n the way to meet that person have experiences that are not compatible with the
internalized value or condition of the self-structure, which they then on a pre-
Discovered attention level and for threatening explains ( subception ). Then, t
heirMeaning distorted or rejected, which protects the self from injury. This com
ing, but the conscious tendency for the fulfillment and growth of the person and
the unconscious, otherwise directed linking of experiences internal values in c
onflict, which leads to fear. The fully functioning person is finally aware that
the subtle feelings and impressions do not need to be assessed and thus opportu
nities for the growth and are improving. Abraham Mallow's Psychology of Being M
ASLOW renames the goal of human endeavor, in self-update. This goal- is, however
, in his opinion, underpinned by four other kinds of needs that form a need hier
archy. Here only must all need below the meaningful Need to be met in order for
the possibility that also satisfies this: 7
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He gained his knowledge through studies of healthy individuals (other than many
other psychologists of his time). So he could sketch the self-updater (SA). This
is mainly motivated by being-values ??( B-Values ??; eg wholeness, perfection,J
ustice, uniqueness, authenticity, playfulness, richness ...). He has lack- Motif
s that exist at lower levels of the hierarchy and by the Mangen something specif
ic or degradation are led by voltages (food because of hunger), behind left. His
behavior is not subject to constantly striving for a balance of Voltage reducti
on, but it is by b-values ??motivated and can grow with time be and richer. Furt
hermore, the SA experienced more peak experiences , moments of ecstasy, of happi
ness andTranscendence. Interviews with people after peak experiences Maslow came
to the conclusion that People at such a moment the world from the standpoint of
b-cognitions ( being- cognitions ), a unit of consciousness (experience of whol
eness, unity, freedom,Selflessness and transcendence). Humanistic Research on Hu
man Motivation The research mainly focused on the two concepts, self-updating an
d peak experiences . S HOSTROM (1965.1966) developed the Personal Orientation In
ventory (POI) with 150 itemsto different dimensions of self-actualization (2 sum
mary values: inner Directedness ( intra-directedness ) and time-competence ( tim
e competence ), as well as 10Subscales on characteristics of SAs, as spontaneity
, ability to intimate contact, Self-acceptance). The POI proved to be reliable a
nd valid. High values ??were positively correlated with test autonomy and creati
vity and negatively with N, Alcoholism and other psychopathological symptoms. Th
erapeutic success turn correlated positively with high values ??in the POI. Phys
iological needs: hunger, thirst, excretion, heat,Fatigue, pain avoidance, sexual
release Safety needs: Protect them from the environment, house,Clothing, safety
from crime beloginess and love needs: intimateRelationships, social groups, fri
ends Value estimation needs : competence,Attention, status, Prestige, approval S
elf- Update Needs: Fulfillment of the off Potential Movement above, if lower Nee
ds are satisfied. Movement down when lower Not needs are satisfied. 7
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An alternative developed J ONES & C RANDALL (1986) with the short index of Self-
actualization (15 items, see page 447), which were reliably and fre social Desir
ability. The correlation between the two tests is + .67. A few studies have show
n that SAs more peak experiences experienced. Other indicated a relationship bet
ween personality dispositions and the peak experiences . M C A DAMS (1982): - Su
bjects with high scores on intimacy motivation ? peak experiences with love,Frie
ndship, communication, sharing, helping each other, interpersonal feeling - High
values ??in Mach motivation ? peak experiences with perceived strength,Power, i
nspiration, influence, be noted However, no correlations between the disposition
s and experiences showed beyond peak experiences . ? peak experiences give much
more information about theStruts and the orientation of a person award. Similar
to the peak experiences of MOslow are C SIKSZENTMIHALYI s autoletic acitivities
,Activities of creative people, artists or athletes, they enjoy the most. The St
ate of enjoyment is best described by a flow .Here, the people focused all his a
ttention on the activity. Furthermore, it must the relationship between challeng
e and skill are accurate. Too much or too little Challenge would lead to anxiety
or boredom. In addition to intensive forms of play or recreation such as mounta
in climbing, can also everyday work, sports, passive or social activities and ho
bbies flows trigger. P Rivette & L ANDSMANN (1983) describe a third possibility,
the peak performance .This makes a person a little beyond expectations (eg: wor
ld record). Comparison of three: peak experience flow peak performance perceptua
l receptive, passive, not motivated structured situations, stimuli, Behavior, li
ne, fun, intrinsic Motivation practiced, Sense of self, intentional, clear focus
on the self and a Object, not in the social Preoccupation, Involviertsein, fun,
self-identity, responsibility, spontaneity, freedom, awareness of Power, loss o
f time and space Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination Theory All three ju
st mentioned experiences are self-reinforced experiences. It need not external m
otivation, because the experiences are the goal itself. Especially positive expe
riences our lives are often intrinsically motivated. Research showed that extrin
sic rewards to intrinsic value of a behavior cancel, as they do the perceived fr
eedom of a person, what she wants, limits. D ECI (1971): subjects who were rewar
ded financially for solving a puzzle played, then less with this interesting puz
zle, as such, were not rewarded. Apparently, the intrinsic motivation decreases
due to an extrinsic motivation. But this is not always the case. Intrinsic motiv
ation is not by extrinsic Rewards reduced if ... - The task is intrinsically uni
nteresting 7
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- Social amplifiers were chosen as extrinsic reward and not substantive Amplifie
r Furthermore, it seems to make a difference whether the attempt (exert yourself
) or the Ability (make it good) will be rewarded: K OESTNER et al. (1987): two U
Vs: 1 self-awareness involvement (task is intelligence test) vs. Tasks Involved
unit (task match) 2nd attempt vs. reward. Ability vs. reward. no Reward All type
s of reward were social in nature (praise the subjects). It came to more intrins
ic motivation (as measured by the time after which the subjects Task even played
with the puzzle): - In task involvement awareness - Ability to reward In additi
on: - More effect the ability of reward in self-awareness Involved - More effect
of the test reward for task involvement awareness Self-determinative theory (D
ECI , R YAN , 1980): People are motivated by the tendency of new to learn what t
he development of their Self-advancing. This intrinsic motivation is the basis.
Activities are freely chosen and thus determined by the self. Behavior, however,
is controlled behavior that person to execute the internal or comply with exter
nal demands. Even if this behavior is intentional, feels the Person that they do
not really want it to run, which means that the person their Actions can not re
gulate and the behavior is performed amotiviert. From birth, man is increasingly
taking on new, and the self grows, what to leads that he sees himself his behav
ior more and more as defined by the self. According to the authors, is the self-
determined behavioral expression of three psychological Needs: 1 Competence ('s
effort to control the outcome of events) 2 Autonomy (striving for independence f
rom external pressure) 3 attachment (pursuit of social connectedness to others e
g by support) So This would result in self-deterministic behavior, which leads t
o development, the Authors oranismische integration name, and consists of two fa
cets of the unit Self and integration in the social network. S Heldon & K A TER
: Distinction between organismic integration in the self- Determinierungs theory
and Persnlichkeitskongruenz (how congruent are the objectives of a Person with e
ach other?). Wealth and travel as targets are indeed congruent (only by Wealth I
can travel expensive) but are no Example for organismic integration, as these O
bjectives consistent with needs of the organism are little and therefore not sel
f- determined (ie extrinsically rather than intrinsically motivated) are. They a
lso showed that people with high values ??organisimischer in integration tests p
ositive daily moods, increased vitality and participate in meaningful daily Sign
posted activities. Other studies also showed a positive correlation with respect
higher levels of mental health, self-updating and psychological Well-being. The
other way round showed K A TER & R YAN That financial success in the classic Am
erican Dream (little relation to autonomy, competence and interpersonal connecte
dness) with lower vitality, less self-updating and more psychopathological Syndr
omes were associated. 7
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The development of the self is a function of the intricate link between the Pers
on and the social world that the person opportunities to organismic integration
offers. This is done primarily by three social dimensions: 1 support the autonom
y (Encourage to select or not) Second structure (structured soz environment that
provides clear guidelines as to what you get when you act in a certain directio
n) 3 interpersonal involvement (the degree of energy and time, the significant o
thers in Relationships invest. All in all, soz contexts that are high in all thr
ee dimensions, the best Conditions for self-deterministic behavior and organismi
c integration. Three social Motives Henry Murray's Theory of Needs M Urray (1938
) is the most well-known representative of the study of the diversity of human M
otivations: Human life must be seen in Zshg. the time. The objective of a life o
nly over time. obviously-not by the action in a situation The Human life will be
by two types of forces that live where the direction: 1 in the body: psychologi
cal and physiological needs; called needs (Definition: a representation of a pow
er of the brain that provides the energy directs and selects what the organism p
erceives, thinks, feels, and what he sought. Needs transform change operate to u
nsatisfactory situations in satisfactory(Cf. Freud's arousal reduction)) 2 situa
tional requirements of the environment for expression of needs , calledpress Lon
g time interaction of both creates a theme , which is the basis of motivation.Tw
o types of needs :1 viscerogenic needs : needs for sleep, air, food ...2 psychog
enic needs: for the relevant personality needs, 20Basic needs: autonomy, achieve
ment, affiliation, aggression, dominance, Viewing position ( exhibition ), injur
y prevention, nurture ( nurturance ), Order,Play, search and enjoyment of sensor
y impressions ( sentience ), sexuality, helpreceived ( succorance ) and understa
nding (for all a n before)Needs to operate simultaneously, can other strong over
lap, several togetherwork or if there is Subsidiation, ie a need works for anoth
er.The needs (why do we do it?) interact with traits (how we do it?).Pressing en
vironmental factors (human or concept) that make it easier a need comply. There
are alpha press (real and objectively existing characteristics of theEnvironment
) and beta press (perceived characteristics, depending He vondInterpretation of
the person). The Thematic Apperception Test short TAT, developed by Murray; In a
n ambiguous image, the person is a narrative response, the hidden themes of the
Personality (especially needs , conflicts and complexes) disclose.The interpreta
tion in the following steps must proceed: 1 Held identify (reflects the narrator
) 7
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2 motifs, identify trends and needs (primarily psychogenic needs )3 forces aroun
d the handhelds ( press )4 outputs of the needs (shows how much the person belie
ves that their needs be meet) 5, the combination of needs and press ( theme )6 t
he feelings of the person / hero regarding certain people or aspects of the Envi
ronment The interpretation of time can lead over other methods. Hard to judge ho
w reliable and valid. Documents only by some studies. Suspected problematic that
much more conscious control of the people prevails as Murray suspected. But mos
t probably unconscious motives (especially achievement, power and intimacy) can
be better find out than in conscious self reports. Achievement Motivation Achiev
ement motive ( achievement motive ): the well-being of a person depends greatly
onwhether the person is successful in various areas of life. Measurement : M C C
Lelland & A TKINSON investigated the influence of achievement motives for TAT.
Subjects took part in an earlier task in the condition a) to assess the intellig
ence should lead and was just tested in condition b) so. Subjects of a) conditio
n were therefore primed to achieve and had in the TAT stories more heroes, where
it came to perform better. From the TAT results, the authors developed a system
of parts of the stories, occurring in achievement motivation: - Achievement-ima
gery (character wants to act better) - Advance Hunch success (anyone in the hist
ory of thinking about a future goal) - World blockade (something around blocked
the achievement) - Negative emotions (hero is discouraged if target is not reach
ed) It show up under this category differences between the groups, the normal to
distribute. High values ??of TAT overlap with other behaviors than low values,
what a high Construct Validity speaks: high values ??? more power and more in pr
eference for moderate tests with direct Feedback; Furthermore, they are persiste
nt in many types of power efficient (also show cheat), high self control, good P
erspective of the future, are innovative, restless, and on motion and change fro
m Career in business :High values ??also often lead to a career in business; pre
sumably because there Risks are gone, personal responsibility is assumed that At
tention must be directed at the cost and profit, and found innovative ways must
be (all characteristics of high achievement motivation). In men, high achievemen
t motivation is multi-valued for economic success connected. However, this need
not be so. Seemingly out high values ??only in companies to Success, where it co
mes to show good performance, and only up to a certain Point (the hierarchy), fr
om there it is more likely on power motivation. 7
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In women (much less frequently studied) are high levels with challenging careers
connected (career and children for example) and careers in the field of teachin
g. In both sexes, a long-term study has shown that such persons with 31 Years, h
igh levels of achievement motivation had, 10 years later, a relatively high Inco
me had. The Achieving Society ? analysis of social and historical differences ?
McClelland (1961): societies and historical eras differ in the achievement (atta
inment) Motivation Support ? Some companies achievement values ??and entrepreneu
rship, others not ? In addition, grows or shrinks, the main concern of the achie
vements over time ? The social and historical differences correspond with econom
ic Growth and with the rise or fall of states, regions and people ? To measure t
hese differences, stories are checked for achievement topics (Literature is enco
ded as if it were a TAT story) ? Narrative expressions reflect cultural assumpti
ons and values ? Economic growth 1929-1950 was greater in those countries pronou
nced, the emphasis on achievement in school textbooks in the 20s submitted ? The
children are thus quasi calibrated that they later times become entrepreneurs ?
Another index of the vitality of an economic society is the fertility of invent
ions and innovations ? changes in collective achievement motivation say economic
growth previously ? There is also also a positive relationship between achievem
ent motivation and economic growth in non-Western and pre-literary societies ? c
riticism: it reduces complex social phenomena on the working of a individual per
sonality variable, also the results are not statistically robust ? Also, that Mc
Clelland tried war and social reforms on the achievement Motivation due, believe
d to be implausible ? In addition, there are conflicting findings by replicating
his study Power Motivation ? The force / power motive is a recurrent preference
an impact on other To have people ? people who have high values ??in the force
/ power have motivation aspire to power exercise and to feel stronger and more i
nfluential ? Energizes The recurring desire for power, selects and directs behav
ior out to be predictable ? Individual differences are objective content analysi
s of the TAT stories recorded ? David G. Winter (1973): he leads the coding syst
em for power motivation from the Comparison of stories from that under neutral m
akes excitatory and under Conditions are written ? correlates of high power moti
vation: 7
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- Large absorb risks to be considered - Write letters to the newspaper - accumul
ation of prestige possessions like expensive cars and many credit cards - Negati
ve self image - Men: impulsive and aggressive Behave and early and exploratory s
exual Activity Leadership ? Fodor and Smith (1982) examined how students with hi
gh power motivation over other behavior in the group and decide: - groups in whi
ch the guide had a great power motivation, put less Facts and suggestions repres
ent and showed less moral concern as groups with a guide who was motivated low p
ower - The level of group cohesion did not influence the results - The guide, wh
ich was highly motivated power, favored groupthink (Janis, 1972 - See Social Psy
chology keyword: Group-Think) ? People who take strong leadership roles and posi
tions of influence, are highly motivated power ? Winter (1970): Studies of U.S.
President revealed that the motivational Reflects imagery in their speeches to t
he part of their own personality - power motivation was positively associated wi
th the "size" of the President and with the Number of historically significant d
ecisions - President makes with high motivation led the U.S. in the war Love and
Health ? Stewart and Rubin (1976): conducted a longitudinal study with 63 pairs
- At the first testing high power motivation was associated (the man) with grea
ter dissatisfaction on both sides and with greater anticipation of future proble
ms on the men's side - two years later, 50% of couples in which the man makes hi
gh was motivated, had separated, 9% had married - In the case of couples where t
he man low power was motivated to only 15% had separated and 52% were married -
High power-motivated men show instability in romantic relationships and frequent
ly change partners ? Winter (1973): power motivation in men is positively associ
ated with the number of Associated sexual partners and the frequency of services
? Well educated, highly motivated power women marry successful men ? power moti
vation in women is associated with marital satisfaction ? men power are highly m
otivated to press several themes of feminine evil in their imagination and draw
rather frightening and bizarre images with exaggerated sexual characteristics ?
McClelland (1979): a strong need for power increases the vulnerability in relati
on to Disease when the need inhibited challenged or is blocked. ? Va vulnerable
are people with the following characteristics: - High power motivation - Low int
imacy motivation - High self-control (controls and inhibits its own expression o
f power) 7
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- High levels of power-related stressors ? high power motivated are predisposed
high activation of the sympathetic NS to show, when they are faced with obstacle
s or frustrations ? This increased activation appears to be associated with elev
ated blood pressure ? McClelland (1979): 61% of men, whose value is above the me
an on a TAT index are of power and self-control, show elevated diastolic blood p
ressure 20 years later ? McClelland and Jemmot (1980): students who are highly m
otivated power, relatively large Exercise self-control and an increased number o
f power or achivement stressors learned in the last year, were in the past 6 mon
ths often sick and the Disease was more serious vs. other students Intimacy moti
vation ? In intimate relationships (according to which we all aspire) there is r
eciprocity ? intimacy motivation is a recurring preference for the experience of
warm, close and communicative interactions with other ? Also, this motivation i
s detected by TAT ? High Intimacy motivated to think more on the day to relate t
o others, take more often in friendly discussions in part, laugh more and have m
ore eye contact ? intimacy motivation is not related to extraversion or introver
sion ? High Intimacy motivated prefer narrow, 1to1 activities take group activit
ies ? In large groups this people support the harmony and cohesion, seen in Grou
p activities, the ability to contact each other and dominate rarely ? You are th
erefore by their friends as often honest, natural, loving not dominant not rated
and self-centered ? McAdams, Healy and Krause (1984): students report high inti
macy motivation rather on Dyadic Friendship episodes as large groups interaction
s ~ They also describe conversations in which they personal Disclose information
~ high intimacy motivated speak probable fears, Hopes, fantasies and very intim
ate topics ~ Intimacy motivation is linked to a local friendship style, of it, v
alue sets to be together and to share secrets ~ power motivation was, however, a
ssociated with large groups interactions and with friendly activities ~ power mo
tivation is rather connected to recite genetic friendship, the value puts on joi
nt activities and on mutual assistance ? High Intimacy motivated students have m
ore dyadic interactions within a Week and have a higher level of self-disclosure
with close friends and learn more positive emotions in their relationships ? Hi
gh intimacy motivation seems to sensitize people, empathic and show caring behav
ior ? Performs high intimacy motivation to greater well-being, health and happin
ess? ? McAdams and Vaillant (1982): high intimacy motivation at the age of 30 at
male graduate of Harvard College says psychosocial adjustment in 17 years previ
ously ? men intimacy are highly motivated to report greater satisfaction in thei
r marriage, in the professional and higher income 7
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? McAdams and Bryant (1987): the benefits of highly motivated intimacy are Gende
red ~ women happy and satisfied ~ men: are not necessarily happier, but they rep
ort less Uncertainty and tension ? Zeldow, Daugherty and McAdams (1988): ~ high
intimacy motivation and low power motivation ? highest level the well-being ~ hi
gh intimacy motivation and high power motivation ? depressive, neurotic, fatalis
tic and more doubt in their first year of training at a medical school ~ the rig
or of medical education makes it difficult for students with the need to be some
one who is near and high power motivated to be to find a satisfaction ~ after tw
o years, these negative effects are not to be found ? Women seem higher value on
intimacy motivation to have (women are more in interpersonal relationships inte
rwoven than men) (no gender gap in Achievement and power motivation) ? A the int
imacy motive similar construct, which is also imposed on TAT is the Affiliations
Motive: to others the desire relationships with positive affect to establish, r
estore and maintain ? Construct validity but low ? Affiliation motivation is pos
itively correlated with intimacy motivation ? intimacy motivation: in a warm and
close relationship standing Affiliations ? Motivation: for relationships strive
Implicit and Self-Attributed Motives ? Through the use of TAT Murray and McClel
land take like Freud, that , people are not aware about their motives ? Otherwis
e you could use self-reports to capture the motives ? This type of acquisition o
f motives, however, is only weakly with the TAT method correlated ? McClelland e
t al. Assume that these two types of record is not the same thing ? measurements
by questionnaire regarding achievement trends are responding (Respondent) measu
rements, ie, the participant is limited in their responses (yes or no Answers) ?
measurements by TAT are operant (effective) measurements, ie, the participant m
ay have its own generate unique answer ? Operant measurements no responsive meas
urements predict and vice versa ? Answering measurements relate to the conscious
evaluation, or even attribuierte motives ? Operant measurements relate to narra
tive thought and thus to less conscious implicit motives (cf. explicit and impli
cit learning section 3) ? Explicit even attribuierte motives personality traits
are similar: self-report regarding Intimacy motivation are probably aspects of A
? These measurements general behavior trends predict McClelland et al. are the
Opinion that the predicted trends are different than those with individual Diffe
rences are associated in implicit motives 7
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? Answering measurements of self attribuierten motives relate to a conscious Sel
f-image ? self-reports should predict what people are doing in situationsrequire
the behavior that coincides with the motifs ? Operant measurements of implicit
motives relate to naturally occurring trends in spontaneous ideas and thus expre
ss deeper and unbewusstere wishes Search ? have people who have high self attrib
uierte achievement motivation social Incentives other than achievement oriented
to be viewed ? People who have high achievement motivation implicit search for A
ctivity Because they have incentives to achievement fun ? Self attribuierte moti
fs are associated with an extrinsic reward and implicit with intrinsic motivatio
n ? Spangler (1992) examined 105 articles on achievement motivation and found th
at TAT-based achievement motivation, a moderate predictor of achievement behavio
r was ? He also provided evidence for McClelland's distinction between activity
incentives and social incentives ? critics of the TAT are of the opinion that th
is test low test-retest reliability and having low internal consistency ? limits
of the TAT: (1) less reliable measurement typically constructed as a Personalit
y questionnaire ~ test-retest correlations (r = .55) are lower than under the be
st conditions Self-reports regarding traits (r = .80) ~ TAT is very sensitive in
terms of factors and influences within a Person (humor) (2) The three motifs ar
e less stable over time than Traits ~ there is probably no genetic basis for mot
ives as they for Traits are ~ motives treat goals and desires, which may change
over time (Lasting than moods) ~ Traits related to basic behavioral styles, whic
h in early life be established and partly a function of biological temperament a
re Personalized Goals ? motives explain why people do something and, in certain
situations show certain behavior ? Level 1: dispositional traits that are not co
ntext-dependent ? Level 2: motivational constructs are closer to characteristic
Personality adjustments and are more dependent on context (time), confirming the
importance of motifs often comes in part from the context ~ motifs are defined
as desired and anticipated goals, which in the future exist ? Personalized goals
are more detailed and specific than motives are in everyday Life formulated and
implemented in behavior ? you from saying what people want in life Concerns, st
rivings, Projects, and Tasks ? Eric Klinger (1977): the human experience is orga
nized around hunting for incentives 8
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? Daily life with all sorts of incentives filled (eg money making, Find love) ?
things present concern (current Concerns): incentives that at any given timeare
the most important; is a motivational state of a person between the initial Perp
etration (commitment) of a target and its achievement of a goal ? Current concer
ns influenced thoughts and feelings ? Klinger, Barta and Maxeiner (1981): the de
gree to how far a current concern shall be assessed or scared, says the frequenc
y with which the people on this Incentive to think, before ? Vpn recommend words
that are associated with the current concern, as excitatory and thereby show hi
gher physiological reactivity ? Klinger motivational counseling programs has dev
eloped, the current concern detect and change (applied to alcoholism, depression
and problems with the Job satisfaction) ? Robert Emmons (1986-1999) conducts re
search on the meaning and function of personal Aspirations (strivings): characte
ristic, recurring goals that a persontries to execute ? Emmons target oneself an
d how different goals together in conjunction stand or contradict ? Some efforts
reflect more general motivational tendencies (TAT power and Intimacy motivation
s are positively associated with power and intimacy aspirations) ? Personal aspi
rations give a good description from idiographic, concrete Details regarding a p
erson in a context ? Emmons (1999): less than half of the personal efforts fit i
nto the three large Design Categories, he has developed different coding strateg
ies to Efforts to categorize: o avoidance goal o achieve o Affiliation o intimac
y o power o Personal growth and health o self-representation o Independence o se
lf-conquest o emotionality o Generation o Spirituality ? Emmons (1999): Intimacy
and generation efforts are independent Associated ratings psychological well-be
ing ? Power and prevention efforts are lower psychological Associated well-being
and greater anxiety levels ? Spiritual aspirations are low conflicts over life
goals and the Connected personality integration ? Spiritual endeavors are powerf
ul carriers of life ? Personal projects: Brian Little (1989-1999): series of act
ivities that are coordinatedare to achieve a specific objective, large span of t
hese projects ? 4Verschiedene steps to bring a project in action: o application
(inception): person imagines the goal and define it o Planning: Organisation of
a series of actions to achieve the goal 8
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o Action: discharge of the plan, change its o Termination: conclusion of the pro
ject, because the goal is reached ? traits have an impact on project hunting o H
igh O: greater variety of projects o High N: high stress levels in chasing the t
arget, and with the Projects and goals is connected, involved in the prevention
o High C: is healthy ? ? Cantor et al. (1990): life's work : a cognitive motivat
ional construct; Problem, one thatMan tries to solve, which a man devotes energy
and time and the person devoted to this problem daily organizing activity durin
g a given Period of time ? often caused by developmental demands ? Cantor et al.
were mainly at the intimate life task of early adulthood interested ? The hunt
for intimacy important (marriage) and each individual will experience the Demand
s this change differently ? Important is cognitive strategies that the individua
l develops it and needed to cope with stress ? The various efforts can to Little
, the term personal action Units (PACs) are summarized, these are dynamic and st
eerable and the main characteristic adaptations, which flow into the 2nd Level P
urposive Behavior and the Quality of Life ? If you think about it, how satisfied
or dissatisfied you are with his life, then one makes an implicit or explicit i
nventory of the status of its objectives ? Targeted, functional behavior is tied
with the inventories in Respect to the quality of life, ie, when people realize
that they more closely their goals come, they are happier and emotionally healt
hier ? Listens and Little (1983): individuals who pursue nice and moderately dif
ficult projects, aimed at short-term goals, are happier and more satisfied ? Hap
py people report supportive friends and relatives that they stand in their proje
cts to the side ? To the relationship between personal projects and well-being i
nvestigate, Little has five different dimensions on which subjects their project
s should assess: o significance (meaningfullness) o Feasibility (manageability)
o Support o Efficiency o Stress ? We strike a balance between relevance and feas
ibility seem to need ? The organization of purposeful behavior is often in an in
terpersonal To see the context ? In a complex social context, it is important th
at people effective ways Find communicate their personal projects ? Emmons exami
ned what happens when different aspirations in conflict with each other: o Posit
ive emotional experiences of students during a certain Period were positively as
sociated with reports of efforts, the high 8
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were evaluated and by which the individual in the past success experienced o Neg
ative emotional experiences were with ambivalent aspirations and associated with
greater levels of conflict between aspirations ? Emmons & King (1988): Conflict
and Ambivalence in aspirations are negative Affect, depression, neuroticism, hi
gher number and psychosomatic illness Connected suffering ? In the case of confl
icting aspirations people can not often specified in relation act on the aspirat
ions and spend a lot of time on the conflicts think ? efforts also differ in ter
ms of their Abstraktivittsniveau: o High-level strivers: frame their goals in bro
ad, abstract, expensive, introspective and selbstreflektive pattern o Low-level
strivers: frame their goals in more concrete, more specific and more superficial
Pattern ? Emmons (1992): high-level strivers: rather deppressiv and psychologic
ally tortured, low-level strivers report more physical illnesses o High-level st
rivers likely confront stressors and disappointments and experienced negative af
fect as a result, the high level of abstraction makes it possible for they are d
ifficult to get satisfactory feedback from the environment ? Psychological well-
being is a function of the complexity and ambiguity is high-level goals ? Low-le
vel strivers are more prone to physical discomfort as a result of the direct Mis
conduct of the stressors ? you have concrete goals and avoid psychological disco
mfort and track a repressive personality style, the one by denial of malaise, bu
t highly excited sympathetic NS and thus more psychosomatic diseases is characte
rized ? Brunstein, Schultheiss and Grassmann (1998): Interaction between motivat
ional Values ??and goal progress in the prediction of well-being o High motivati
onal profiles (high power and achivement motivation) report more psychological w
ell-being when they are making progress in agen matic objectives o Students with
municipal motivational profiles (high intimacy and Affiliations motivation) rep
ort more psychological well-being when they make progress on local targets o Wel
l-being is a function of progress and success in the pursuit of motive-congruent
goals Summary: S. 492 8
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IX-Social-Cognitive Adaptations: Construing the Self and Social Behavior With th
e development of the computer that was used for the human mind as an analogy, be
gan cognitive psychology. Cognition: attention, perception, reasoning, abstracti
on, problem learning, Memory, language and other "spiritual" activities Social-c
ognitive adaptations play in personality psychology va then a role when it comes
to explain how people and mental presentations of themselves their social world
construct, and how these constructions affect on behavior. How motives are thos
e mental representations well the details of the personality to traits are aroun
d to fill. The Psychology of personal constructs George Kelly's Theory Release K
ELLYS Book , The Psychology of Personal Constructs in 1955 (his onlyPlant, died
as early). Fundamental Postulate: A person's processes are psychologically pave
d the way in which the person events anticipated. Construction corollary: Any pe
rson classified their world in which they developed personal constructs based wh
ich the person can interpret how things are similar or different from others. Di
chotomy corollary: Each construct is bipolar and specifies how two things are si
milar to each other or are different from a third thing. Experience the followin
g block: A construct helps me to control my interpersonal world and watch out by
Replications of events (lessons learned from past experiences): Organizational
corollary: People can be best understood from its construct system by Constructs
are hierarchically organized and relate to each other. Individuality corollary:
Each construct system is unique, ie each person divided subjective experiences
in of a different kind Sociality-ty, the following block: If one knows the const
ruct system of another, you see the world through his eyes, which affect the rel
ationship has another. 8
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Range ( range ) follow-up sentence:Construct systems differ between individuals
with regard to the breadth of their usefulness. (Construct liberal / conservativ
e politicians has also at a party validity.) Modulation corollary: Constructs al
so differ with respect to their permeability, ie in how far they are modifiable
(with permeable constructs a person is very open; Problem: permeable constructs
lose predictive power). Fragmentation corollary: It is difficult for a person to
recognize the meaning behind events in the world and Events to anticipate when
their constructs are incompatible with each other. Election result set: A person
selects the dichotomies of constructs, the construct by which the can be best a
nticipated. Commonality-corollary: To the same constructs from experiences betwe
en people, are also the psychological processes in question. Views of traditiona
l concepts: - The unconscious ? nonverbal, flooded or temporarily set constructs
- Fear ? realization that events beyond the width of the appropriateness of the
ir own Construct system are - ? guilt when a person perceives that they do not l
ive up to their construct system Exploring Personal Constructs: The Rep Test Rol
e Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test): First, the person filling Different peopl
e lists in certain roles, according to (mother, father, brother, sister, favorit
e teacher, on certain items least favorite teacher, ex-spouse, partner, boss, ne
gative person person that you better get acquainted, pitied person, smartest, mo
st successful, interesting person), on. 15 times then it must be called a simila
rity between certain two people, and a common contrast both to a third party. Ea
ch of these 15 Results regarding similarity and dissimilarity form a construct.
The constructs can now be evaluated individually or there may be hierarchies or
Relationships of constructs are analyzed. The frequency in which certain Can be
called constructs shed light on how important it is the same. For the personalit
y psychology is especially interesting to see how similarities in Construct syst
ems friendships affect (actually a better predictor than common traits) and how
different individuals, which the repetition of constructs terms differ (many dif
ferent constructs ? more cognitive complexity and thus more nuanced view of the
world). 8
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Cognitive Styles and Personality cognitive styles: characteristic and typical ki
nds of processing process; While cognitive skills (verbal, numerical, or spatial
skills in the IQ test) describe how well someone solve a cognitive task, pointi
ng to the cognitive style in what type processes a person's information. Two typ
es of cognitive styles: field-dependent vs. -field indepentend Field Independenc
e - Dependence A SCH & W Itkin (40): - Vpn should ask their chairs perpendicular
to the ground - Problem: the tilted room, opposite to internal cues information
supplied- Subjects solved the task according to external cues ( field-dependent
, depending on theField of the environment) or according to their internal cues
( field-independent )50 years later grew out of the two styles, a universal cog
nitive Concepts with the dimensions dependent regardless of the field to that ba
ckground different personality differences is (mainly W Itkin ). high- field-dep
endent high field-independent - Perception is done on the basis of external Fram
e around - Global and more intuitive in the processing of information the enviro
nment - Participation in less cognitive Restructuring, with no internal plans as
guidelines (Environment is seen in their own context) - More interested in huma
nitarian and pro-social Professions (ministry, social work, teaching young Child
ren, social science, and Sell Advertise) - Information processing in analytical
and differentiated type - Better performance in the Embedded Figures Test (WItki
n (1950; task: hidden figure in another See picture again) through better skills
in Restructure of the perceived field - Information of the environment on the b
asis of internalized Processing schemes, rules and values - Non-social informati
on are processed differentiated (Example: anagrams) - Person with Kelly'
s conception of the People as a hypothesis tester, the world in parts analyzed -
Careers in science, math, management, Mechanics Impact on the area of ??Interpe
rsonal: field-dependent persons ? sensitive in the social context (more attentio
n for interpersonal cues , more time for watching people than looking atThings,
prefer physical proximity to others) Emotional differences: field-dependent pers
on ? feelings of shame (shame in the social context) field-independent person ?
guilt (usually by violation of internal standards) general: - Women are more lik
ely direction of field-dependence; Men tend toward field independence (no large
but consistent gender difference) - From childhood to adulthood tendency towards
independence - Individual differences in childhood are still predictors of Adul
ts differences 8
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- The impact of socialization (little parental control ? independence, monitorin
g and control Organization ? field dependence - Hunter-gatherer tribes are rathe
r independent from the field (due to changing environment due to further migrati
on); agricultural crops more field-dependent - W ITIKIN : No style is better tha
n the other; few other authors: field dependence is Deficit in cognitive ability
(organization and differentiation) Integrative Complexity While field dependenc
e is more linked to perception, is integrative complexity rather an expression o
f a style regarding the judgment and understanding ( reasoning ). In addition, i
ntegrative complexity significantly less consistent across time and situations o
f time. An integrative complex person sees the world refined, that differs more
between things (differentiation) and looks more connections (integration). Indiv
idual differences with respect to integrative complexity are clearly in written
words. Here rated the examiner passages based on their differentiation and integ
ration. Different perspectives, balance between several explanations and conside
rations leads to high values. T ETLOCK (1981): Integrative complexity (from now
IK) is lower in the rhetoric of Presidential candidates, if they are just in the
election campaign. T ETLOCK et al. (1984): Moderate Liberals show more IK as a
moderate and crass Conservatives and liberals crass. Statement T ETLOCK : Values
-pluralism between freedom and equality - Conservative measure freedom more impo
rtance to - Extremely liberal measure equality more importance to - Moderate lib
eral measure two values ??meaning to (Due to complex political and ideologies) P
ORTER & S UEDFELD (1981): Analysis of the writings of Dickens, Eliot, Meredith,
Bennet and Woolf. IK declined during the war and increased civil disobedience a
t times. Personal Disease led to a decrease IK and IK increasing age increased.
Other stressful events, however, had no effect. To a decrease occurred Moreover,
shortly before the end of life, probably through decrease of cognitive function
s directly before death ( terminal drop ).Also, another study by the authors con
firmed the theory of the terminal drop before s from 5 yearsthe death (for disea
se and sudden death). - High IK ? generally: informed, well-balanced decisions;
Openness; Tolerance compared with contradictions; cognitive self-management ? bu
t also to take difficult decisions clear moral (slavery abolished, one of which
showed the little IK) T ETLOCK et al. (1993): peer 's advise people with high IK
as creative, as well as difficulttolerated, unconscionable and narcissistic; lo
wer IK other hand, leads to assessment as easy and compliant but warm, generous,
self-controlled. 8
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Social-Cognitive Theory and the person Social cognitivists try to understand how
multiple mechanisms together as coherent psychological systems work. This inclu
des processes such as the interpretation the environment, development of knowled
ge and skills, reflections on the possibilities and planning and regulating acti
ons. The personality is thus an integrative system by the people coherent consis
tency use and variability patterns in responses. Social Intelligence Cantor & Ki
hlstrom (1985, 1989): Concept of social intelligence Each person brings a set of
skills, talents and knowledge in every social Situation. These skills differ be
tween individuals, ie, individuals use to interpret their social intelligence in
different species and solve problems. 3 aspects of social intelligence: Things
that are in the information repository (Different brain structures) Processes th
at determine how things are used declarative-semantic knowledge (Concepts) decla
rative-episodic knowledge (Episodes) procedural knowledge (Rules) abstract and c
ategorical: - Self-concepts (self-schemas, possible self, self- Guidelines, Self
-units with other) - Relationship diagrams (over important interpersonal Bzhg.)
- Scripts (stereotyped socialEvents) - Implicit personality Theories (see Chapte
r 5; personal theories about the Why human Actions and General regarding attribu
tes (entity (Human attributes are stable) vs.. are incremental (attributes chang
eable and changing over time) concrete and particularly: - Memories of persons -
Autobiographical memories - Attributionstile (special Meaning: causal attributi
ons (Internal vs. external;. Stable vs. unstable.; Keyword: fundamental Attribut
ion error; internal and stable Attribution for success; see Social Psychology) -
Assessment heuristics - Hypothesis Testungs styles (in kind is social Predicted
behavior?) Problem solving is most effective when people are capable, flexible
and sophisticated have to act and creative responses to social problems, which t
hey left and efficiently can continue their lives. Especially significant are li
fe tasks (see chapter 8; tasks that people have a Bring step in the development
progress and therefore are significant for them, which means that they invest a
lot of time and energy). C ANTOR et al. (1987): Students with good living tasks
a) study ( achievement )and b) 3 types of interpersonal categories; Results show
ed two types of cognitive strategy: - Optimists ? academic tasks are challenging
but solvable; accurate Prediction of own notes - Defensive pessimists ? same ra
ting regarding interpersonal categories such optimists; but negative prediction
of own performance (low expectancy despite good performance in 8
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Past; but similar to better results and "the more fear the more better the grade
") Self-schemas ? A central concept in cognitive approaches is the scheme ? Sch
ema = abstract knowledge structure ? Fiske and Taylor (1984): a diagram of a cog
nitive structure the general knowledge reflecting on a concept or a concept doma
in ? schemes can be seen as a filter or patterns that we use to To perceive info
rmation, understand and organize ? Neisser (1976): a schema is like a format in
a computer programming language, the format specifies that information must have
a certain style to it to interpret coherently ? The scheme of a person is beyon
d the information - are given by simplified information when too many are there,
as that could deal with these efficiently - be given by filling the gaps when i
nformation is missing ? Each uses a number of (complex) schemes, to give meaning
to the world ? Social cognitive approaches: human adaptation is accomplished by
schematic Processing of social information ? Social schemes apply to the self ?
each forms aSelf-perception, ie a self-schema or a series of self-schemas that
theStructured processing of relevant information regarding the self and behavior
control A self ? scheme works as other schemes (see above), but it is - Larger
and more complex than other schemes - Rich in terms of their association network
and in terms of the relationship within the components - Frequentieller enabled
in your daily information processing - And emotionally charged ? The self-schem
a does not contain all information about a person, it rather emphasizes personal
ly significant information about the self ? In the center of the self-schema pro
perties are as our name, representative Aspects of physical appearance, sig. Per
sonal relationships, traits, motives, values and objectives ? The self-concept m
ay overlap with other concepts ? people process information, which are particula
rly relevant for the self in high efficient ways ? Hazel Markus (1977), the dime
nsion of independence examined - dependence in Self-schemas, to students were di
vided into 3 groups - independence scheme - dependency scheme - ash matic scheme
~ Then the representation of schema-relevant (based was carried out on (Un) dep
endence) or schema irrelevant adjectives ~ The subjects were asked to indicate w
hether the adjectives they described or not ~ the students whose self-schemas un
derlined dependence, showed faster RZ dependent on adjectives 8
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? the dependent schemas were about fancied themselves as compliant and binding t
o look at and made these judgments faster ~ the independent had made ??a similar
pattern ~ ash-matic did not differ in their RZ on (un-) dependent words ? they
seem to have no structure for (in) dependence, their Information processing lead
s ? persons with self-schemas that emphasize certain areas, are capable - New in
formation taking into account their relevance to the particular region to evalua
te - judgments and decisions in this domain with simplicity and security to meet
- to identify episodes and other behavioral evidence from their past, the illus
trate the particular region - Future predict behavior in this area - to resist i
nformation that is contrary to the scheme, ? Markus (1983): a self-schema develo
ps when a person begins to feelings of To learn personal responsibility in a spe
cific behavior domain ? If a self-schema developed, the person from their behavi
or in this is Domain affected and tries control over the reasons and consequence
s of this Exercise behavior ? differences in the content of self-schemas (self-r
elevant material in a Is included schema) are unlimited ? differences in the str
ucture (complex vs.. Easy) are also observed ? Some people have different self-a
spects that are independent of each other ? Every aspect of a self-schema can be
associated with a certain role in life, wherein the various rolls are independe
nt of one another ? Perceives someone stress in an area of ??his self-schemas re
main other areas unaffected ? People with high levels of self-complexity divide
these aspects on ? People with low levels of self-complexity have a less differe
ntiated Scheme itself, so that the stress in a segment, it spreads over the othe
r ? These differences in self-complexity are with differences in focus on the co
nnected to one's consciousness ? high private self-conscious (tendency to intros
pection) develop a more developed and more extensive self-schema A Confederacy o
f Selves ? Declarative semantic knowledge about the self comes in many different
forms and qualities ? For example, one has to agree general attributions that m
any situations and contexts seem ? In different roles various aspects seem to pl
ay a role ? Diversity of the self, can it be contained self, which one would lik
e to, but has not, you should have that one has sometimes, but only under certai
n Conditions ? There is a confederation (confederacy) of self-concepts (Hart, 19
88) ? Possible selves: a sig. Portion of our behavior is determined by how we ha
ve should (a young man trained for years for the Olympic Games) ? Possible selve
s (Markus and Nurius, 1986) represent the ideas of individuals, what they might
be, what they want to be and what they are afraid to do so 9
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be; they are the cognitive components of hope, fear, goals, and Threats and they
give the specific, self-relevant form, meaning, Organization and management of
these dynamics ? The self-schema contains many generalizations about the current
and past Self as well as the possible selves ? The possible selves, the success
ful, creative, rich, loved an d be admired selves ? The feared possible selves,
the lonely, depressed, incompetent, his alcoholic, unemployed selves ? Each poss
ible self is a personalized design that articulates very detailed was ? The pote
ntial, dreaded unemployed self, for example, is unique in every Personality, if
this self is important in my self-concept, I try much to avoid it ? The possible
selves as crucial links between motivation and cognition during Self-understand
ing ? People are motivated by strong internal needs, desires and inclinations, H
owever, these dynamics are not active until they in themselves relevant form be
transformed ? Possible selves only act as incentives for future behavior ? A sec
ond function of possible selves is the self-evaluation ? Possible selves provide
a framework by which to assess a person as rich or poor runs their lives, they
are therefore powerful structures to the importance to determine an event ? disc
repancies between selves: Higgins (1987) assumed that the self-knowledge 3 Domai
ns contains: - current self - consists of representations of the attributions th
at you own - ideal self - representations of attributions that one or other is i
deally want to have (representations of hopes, wishes, Aspirations) - to self -
attributions that you should have (representation of obligations, Responsibiliti
es, obligations) ? each of the three domains can be seen from the standpoint of
one's own person from or another, so different Higgins zBzwischen current / self
self- and current / other self ? Higgins (1987) Sebstdiskrepanz Theory: Problem
s arise when different selves inconsistent in different domains or from differen
t viewpoints or are discrepant - Two types of discrepancies are particularly sal
ient and each leads to a corresponding emotional reaction - discrepancies betwee
n the actual / own and ideal self leads to Dejection-related emotions, the perso
n she believes is incapable Hope to attain dreams or aspirations that they thems
elves or others have set - discrepancies between the actual / own self and shoul
d lead to excitement related emotions, the person believes that they did not mak
e it to the standards to live for good and responsible behavior ? Many studies c
onfirm the link between Selbstdiskrepanzen and negative emotional experiences, t
his is strongest in domains that are highly relevant in Life are ? News / Selbst
diskrepanzen should say anxiety before 9
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? Current / ideal Selbstdiskrepanzen a Depression ago ? Ideal and should self ca
n auto guide (self-guides) are: provide standards and objectives, according to w
hich one can aspire and against which a person their current life can compare ?
Higgins (1997): these two self-guides represent different motivational foci in s
ocial behavior - promotion focus is associated with a strong ideal self guide, s
ensitivity compared to positive results and approximation strategies in social b
ehavior - prevention focus is associated with strong should auto guide, a sensit
ivity compared to negative results and avoidance strategies in social behavior -
This distinction is similar to BIS and BAS ? Ogilvie (1987): to what extent dif
fer-date and self- unwanted self- ? unwanted self contains attributions that the
person fears, hates and tries exclude ? He thinks that we might be closer conta
ct with our unwanted self- stand out as the ideal or ought self- ? The undesired
self is rooted in our past, in which we Felt oppression, fear, doubt and anger
? The ideal or ought self is rather hypothetical and abstract ? Studies: the lar
ger the discrepancy between the ideal and actual self, the less life satisfactio
n ? The greater the distance between the current and undesired self, the greater
the Life satisfaction ? The distance between unwanted and current self was a st
ronger predictor of Life satisfaction than the distance between the ideal and ac
tual self- ? if we want to be happy, we should better avoid the dreaded path ins
tead to strive for the ideal route ? Even with others: Ogilvie and Ashmore (1991
) examined the cognitive Representation of the interaction with specific people
? When we interact repeatedly with a particular person, then we start an impress
ion of ourselves in interaction with another particular person to form ? The sel
f is changing with people ? An important aspect of self-knowledge includes the v
arious self with others Units that we may identify you in the most important rel
ationships in our lives ? They believe their concept in seven points together: ~
The self-concept includes many components ~ One of them is the social or interp
ersonal self- ~ The self with other variable is a hypothetical construct, it is
defined as mental representation, a set of personal qualities contains what an i
ndividual believes that these characterize his own, if it interacts with other ~
Each self with other important inter-dimensional representation is unique, the
Individual develops groups of similar self with others Representations, a self w
ith other family can develop ~ constellations of the self with others are mental
ly in a self with others Organized structure, the structure may, however, are po
orly specified and is individually different, are self with other groupings hier
archically organized 9
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~ The mental representation of the self with others brings a variety Functions t
o (a) Summary of past experience (b) Guide current actions (interpersonal behavi
or) and (c) Interpretation of their own and others' behavior ~ Even with other r
epresentations are dynamic and relatively stable ? Ogilvie and Ashmore have deve
loped an ingenious method to itself with other To measure representations: ~ The
person should call 25 important people in their life and then a long set of adj
ectives generate that describe how the person feels when she is with these peopl
e together ~ After the list is reduced by the researchers ~ Then the person shou
ld imagine to each target a typical scene and rated the emotions in each scene ~
The person responds to the target / scene matrix by pressing keys on the comput
er and guess items like, as I am usually "for each of the Scenes, the target may
be divided into two targets ~ The computer program generates a self-portrait ev
ery other person, which is unique ? The self-other approach is very detailed and
ideographic ? Various configurations of different people can be compared and ar
e contrasted, so that it also nomothetic findings can be achieved ? Ashmore and
Ogilvie (1992): a tendency on the part of men with their negative self- to isola
te other representations and to the positive representation separate ? Women ten
d to pattern with larger connections between positive and produce negative repre
sentations, but further research is needed Schemata, attribution, and Explanator
y Style: The Case of Depression ? Depressed people perceive, understand, and int
erpret their worlds and themselves in a strange and dysfunctional way ? The cogn
itive approach does not preclude biological predispositions, but they assume tha
t the center of the depression is a depressive cognition ? Some theories see the
cognitions as a cause other than result of depression ? Aaron Beck (1967.76) wa
s one of the first, a cognitive theory of depression suggested: depressed people
have a negative view of themselves, are in Reference pessimistic about the futu
re and have a tendency to experience in a to interpret negative way ? feelings o
f sadness ? Negative thoughts ? even more negative feelings ? Depressive see the
world through depressive schemas: - These schemes distort reality through a neg
ative interpretation of Information - For example, they remember more (and faste
r) negative experiences and successes forget ? However, it seems more likely to
be such that the non-depressed people distort their experiences and perceive thr
ough the rose-colored glasses, so we are happy ? means Depressive tend very accu
rate and not influenced in social To be information processing; Depressive and D
epressive hard not to lean a distortion in the respective direction ? Ingram (19
84): Depressive not remember more positive self-references in the income Conditi
on than in the failure condition, depressive recall in both conditions equal 9
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? the success feedback that precedes the Remember, enabled a positive self-schem
a for not depressed and sensitizes them for positive self-related adjectives ? t
he outcome feedback is not successful in depressed students ? Seligman and Abram
son (1975) reformulated learned helplessness hypothesis :Dogs undergoing aversiv
e stimuli and to avoid this, even if the possibility of - people who uncontrolla
ble events are subjected learn to be helpless and chronically depressed - helple
ssness and depression are on the reformulation of cognitive Attributions, or wha
t they explanatory style based call- That depressed people perceive their world
in a helpless kind arising from the characteristic patterns of cause and Declara
tion of negative Experiences - Depressed people explain negative events in their
lives as by internal locus, global and stable reasons caused (bad note by inter
nal, always occurring stupidity) - on the other hand Depressive explain positive
events as external, specific and caused unstable grounds ? Moderate, but incons
istent support of the model - The relationship between attributional patterns (s
table, external tional factors) and depression is partially weakly - Nichtattrib
utionale dimensions of information processing (the expectation over the extent t
o how far negative events are intended or likely to re- occur) seem to be associ
ated with depression - The causal relationship between cognitions and depression
should Long-term studies are examined: Peterson, Luborsky, and Seligman (1983):
support the causality, others are less supportive (depression than Cause of cog
nition) ? The characteristic explanatory style of a person is an important featu
re of the procedural knowledge containing the social intelligence of an individu
al ? The explanatory style is associated with a set of behavioral results that b
eyond the phenomenon of depression ranging Nolen-Hoeksema ?, Girgus and Seligman
(1986) raised the explanatory style in School children, showed how great a vari
ation in the styles - Children who showed a pessimistic explanatory style (inter
nal, stable and global in Terms of explanations for poor results) were been rate
d by their teachers - they showed more helpless behavior and less Mastery behavi
or at school - have lower scores on standardized achievement tests, and higher v
alues ??at Depression ? Seligman and Schulman (1986) studied life insurance agen
t; Representatives who showed a pessimistic explanatory style at the beginning o
f the year, selling less than those with an optimistic style and also left rathe
r the Company ? Peterson, Seligman, and Vaillant (1988) found out via longitudin
al study that the explanatory style was a predictor of health in a span of 40 ye
ars ? Peterson, Seligman, Yurko et al (1998). Individuals tended negative Events
by global causes to explain (in the early to middle adulthood), tend to die ear
lier than individuals with an optimistic style - The explanatory style was mainl
y in men predictive of and especially when by Should be and predicted accident c
aused by violent death 9
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- The attribution of global causes to negative results is a form of cognitive ca
tastrophizing - The catastrophizing is with poor problem-solving, social alienat
ion and linked to high-risk decisions - We believe in a world in which you can n
ot control anything rational anyway, because it are unpredictable forces The Reg
ulation of Social Behavior ? The purpose of social intelligence is social behavi
or to steer ? The social cognitive perspective assumes that people planned and m
ore or less effective performers are extending over a large variability of socia
l Moving situations ? The various above-described social cognitive adaptations a
re targeted on behavior, which aims the many problems in the social sector to so
lve ? Social cognitive adaptations regulate social behavior in the service of pe
rsonal Objectives ? These objectives can nest in a hierarchy, so that concrete a
nd simple goals in abstract and complex targets are included ? According to some
social-cognitive perspectives, there is a hierarchy for each person of differen
t levels of behavioral control, with different levels of Standards or objectives
that lie close to most of the most concrete and toward the most abstract and mo
st organizing principle are arranged ? The lower levels indicate how the action
will take place and the higher Levels obtain information of purpose and the impl
ications of the actions ? goals or standards can be characterized at different l
evels in the hierarchy will ? Carver and Scheier (1981) have a representative hi
erarchical model developed regulate cognitions as purposeful behavior - In a fee
dback loop, a system regulates itself to a set point around - Deviations from th
is point stimulate adaptation activities that are completed, when the point is a
gain reached - The set point may be a goal, a standard or a value against which
the behavior is compared - The comparison point for behavior comes in an infinit
y shape, and contains values, self-schemas, situational expectations and conscio
us intentions - A person consistently monitored their behavior the behavior of o
thers: sensing in a dare generic way the qualities shown in the action - Perceiv
es the person is a discrepancy between the behavior and a target, it changes the
behavior to get closer to the point of comparison - if the destination is reach
ed, the target is changed and the behavior of the new target adjusted - The obje
ctives and intentions that guide behavior are dynamic, they change over situatio
ns and over time ? is the process of self-regulationcontinuously and constantly
- Any change in behavior produces a change in the perception of a state - The ne
w input is compared against values ??that change in turn - There is a continuous
interplay between adaptation and evaluation of the Adaptation 9
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- Better regulation is ensured by self-examination ? any environmental condition
that leads to self-examination is probably the Regulate behavior ? In studies t
o the auto focus is accentuated ? The result of the self-focus is increased goal
matching behavior ? Carver (1975): in a self-focus condition (students observe
their own Administration of punishment in a mirror) they act in accordance with
their Values; if they do not, however, observe their own behavior so directly, t
hey tend does not desire to regulate their actions in order to act according to
their values ? The feedback loop is more complicated, Carver and Scheier propose
d a Feedback hierarchy before: - The output of a feedback loop to the reference
value (value) for the subordinate feedback loop - Higher overall levels in the h
ierarchy provide reference values ??for lower levels - The three highest levels:
program, principle and system concept o program-level: behavior is guided by sc
ripts, many of our daily intentions operate at this level, o level principles: b
ehavior is regulated by primary qualities that different programs or scripts to
be implemented o System design specification level: here takes place the highest
abstraction of the Try behavior analysis, the generalized sense of self, the hu
man maintain the time and place; the general sense of self (Identity) is the chi
ef regulator of behavior ? Vallacher and Wegner (1987): Action identification th
eory: an action may be in a Diversity are identified by species, from concrete t
o abstract - If both the low level and a high level of identification is possibl
e, then people tend to adopt higher (more abstract Level, except when this is fr
aught with difficulty, so you can see the Challenge to master) ? Baumeister (199
0): Suicide can be made of hard cognitive movements of high-level resulting to l
ow level of identification in response to pain and suffering (Suicide as escape
from self) - Cognitive Deconstruction: dramatic drop of adaptive, high-level thi
nking prevented to a concrete frame, the emotions and concern for the Importance
erased - The person arrives at a more limited time perspective, focus on the he
re and Now - Larger contexts are painful, so they are reduced - Then the person
will lose the level of higher thinking and life loses the emotional tone - The w
ithdrawal prevents the person with the challenges of the simple Life is not grow
n - suicide as a final retreat from the complexities of life ? Social cognitive
processes are to be found in almost every behavior and are part human individual
ity ? Social cognitive adaptations enrich us with details such as the person the
mselves other and social behavior considered, and tell us how people understand
their lives and interpret their social world Summary page ? 9
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X-Developmental adaptation: Erikson and Loevinger ? ego identity: who I am, how
I fit into the world? Martin Luther's Identity Crisis ? Eric Erikson (1959) cond
ucted a psycho-biographical analysis of Luther's Identity development through (Y
oung Man Luther) ? Erikson's concept of identity is a characteristic development
of adaptation, ie is an aspect of personality, which is salient during the deve
lopment stage Eric Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development ? Erikson was bo
rn in 1902 in Frankfurt, the Protestant father left the family before Eric's bir
th and the Jewish mother married Dr. Theodor Homburger ? Erikson was an outsider
because he did not look like a Jew, but not of the Jewish was not accepted ? He
yielded not a very good university services and first painted ? Here, he suffer
ed a crisis of identity that brought panic and anxiety with it, it was impossibl
e for him to work with discipline and regularity ? In 1927, he accepted a teachi
ng position small and worked with Anna Freud ? In 1933, he emigrated to the Unit
ed States to Boston, where he worked as a psychoanalyst for Children along with
Murray ? In 1939, he was naturalized in America and took the name Erikson Erikso
n and the Psychoanalytic Tradition ? Erikson plunged into the intra-psychic myst
eries of life, engaged in Dream Interpretation and used free association ? Early
personality development, he said in a stage that is connected to the libido wer
e ? Erikson is often classified as ego psychologist ? The biggest differences to
Freud: o Erikson was generally optimistic about the human condition was concern
ed o He agreed with the fact that any kind of experiences and behavior as expres
sions of the unconscious, internal determinants of childhood are rooted, can not
be interpreted; yet he was of the opinion that the later personality structure
act on childhood experiences can thought (Freud that childhood to adult human de
termined) o He agreed with Freud's view that the internal drives with the Demand
s of society bumping into each other, but felt that no unavoidable tragedy; More
over, he believed that man by conscious factors can be influenced (interpersonal
relationships, Ideologies, etc.); the individual has no losers in the inevitabl
e His conflict with the degrading society; some societies provide niches and opp
ortunities to live out the individuality (Value systems, specification of the ad
ult role) ? The key to understanding the person was three times the accounting r
ecords: o The level of the body and all constitutional circumstances (sexual and
instinctual dynamics) o The level of the ego, which refers to the unique way in
which the Individual experiences synthesized to give a meaning to the world and
to deal with anxiety and conflict 9
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o The level of the family and the society that the focus on the development Rela
tes individual in society and in the family ? Each stage includes body, ego and
society Developmental Stages in Childhood ? Erikson identified eight stages, wit
h the early with basic psychosexual Issues linked ? The first five in some aspec
ts similar to those of Freud ? In contrast to Freud, he emphasized the interpers
onal-social-cultural- historical context in each stage ? psychosocial stages? Ea
ch level has a central interpersonal / social issue ? The model extends over the
entire life span, are in each stage Combined changes in the individual and in i
ts environment and there is a conflict, characterizes this level of ? The confli
ct must be addressed, but need not be solved, so that the individual in the next
level passes (each stage so to speak, contains a question) ? Each phase could c
orrespond to a chapter that through a central psychosocial In challenge (trust v
s.. Mistrust in the first phase or as can I be sure?) ? In addition, from primar
y issues are a secondary phase later in other phases and emerging issues will co
me together later into a separate phase Age Psychosexual Phase after Freud Psych
osocial Topics The central question Associated Virtue 1 infancy Oral Trust vs. D
istrust How can I be sure? Hope 2 early childhood Anal Autonomy vs. Shame and do
ubt How can I be independent? Will 3 Childhood (Play age) Oedipal Initiative vs.
. Debt How can I be strong? Purpose 4 Childhood (School age) Latency Vs. diligen
ce. Inferiority How can I well be? Competence 5 Youth and early Adulthood Genita
l Identity vs.. Role confusion Who am I? As I fit into the World? Loyalty 6 earl
y Adulthood Intimacy vs.. Isolation How can I love? Love 7 mature Adulthood Gene
rativity vs.. Self-absorption How can I make a Design talent? Care 8 old age Int
egrity vs. Despair How can I make a Get talent (Talent Life)? Wisdom ? 1st libid
o is in the oral zone centered (sucking at the mother's breast), trust in a safe
world, but experiences of distrust are also happen healthy Development: balance
between the two poles ? 2 libido expresses itself through anal activity from to
ilet training as a desire for Autonomy risks. Danger of shame by embarrassing si
tuations that without the protection 9
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the mother arise when the child dissolves too early or if the parents do not see
ms unreliable ? 3 learn to blame if their aggressive attempts to conquer the wor
ld in collision advised; Boys adopt a more intrusive method (beat, yell); Girl u
se inclusive methods (tease, challenge) ? 4th attempt to acquire the tool box an
d the roles of adults (Manual and cognitive) ? Learn the 5 most important skills
that one needs to be a productive member to are developing a superego or intern
alized standards for good behavior The Problem of Identity ? It was only in earl
y adulthood raises the question of identity ? The first four stages of the peopl
e have a pool of resources and handicaps, Given strengths and weaknesses ? the p
ast determines the future? But the opposite is true, because the teens, young ad
ults decide Now, what childhood meant ? This decision is made after the child ha
s recently been completed the importance of childhood can be changed (the new im
portance is the part of the Identity) ? We look back to find out how it came to
something, and where we might be Go future Adolescence and Young Adulthood ? pub
erty as the end of childhood and as a transformation to a new phase ? Identity v
s.. Role ambiguity ? The identity issue in Youth: - body: we perceive ourselves
as new residents in our altered body o we have become not only larger but have c
hanged essential (Primary and secondary sexual characteristics and sexual desire
) - Cognition: Piaget thinks that people in adolescence in the cognitive phase o
f the enter formal operation o we are able in very abstract ways about us and ou
r world reflect o in formal operations, we can think about what is and what its
is through verbal statements and logically derived hypotheses (previously we can
only somewhat abstract over the actual state of thinking) o For adults, the rea
lity is only a subset of what his could o Adults can the realities of the past a
nd now Compare and contrast with possible o these introspective and abstract ori
entation of the self and the world, in the formulation of hypothetical ideal res
ult (perfect family, religion, Life) o so the adults can go new and unimaginable
ways to make the world explore and things of childhood question (is there a rea
l you behind the different roles?) - Company: change in expectations by the Comp
any o The (Western) society expects young people to the professional, examine id
eological and interpersonal opportunities and 9
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make some decisions, who they want to be as adults (niche find) o In the search
for identity, the young adults should not blindly Adapt family (society), yet cr
eate the society and the Individual's identity together o The individual should
neither victims nor the master of his socio-historical environment be Identity S
tatuses ? One way is to understand the identity on the process of formulating th
e answers to the question "Who am I?" to focus ? The formation of identity invol
ves two related levels: - The person has broken with the faith and perceptions o
f childhood, asks for Assumptions about the self and examined alternatives o Thi
s leads to the challenge of the perspectives of parents, teachers and other auth
ority figures o The past is questioned what might have been otherwise o The indi
vidual looks for alternative values, ideologies, practices, Life breastfeeding,
for an outlet to life to fit seems - The person's obligations in relation to dif
ferent roles and views, that define how the person sees himself (as in the world
fits) o The questions and doubts the exploration phase are solved ? Marcia (196
6) use a semi-structured interview to questions about exploration and Obligation
i Employment / Vocational ii. Ideology (religion and politics) ? After that peo
ple can be divided into four different identity status ? Each state can be used
as specific development location (under consideration of the current identity) a
re seen ? Over time, people can change the status ? Most studies were performed
with Student ? The advanced status (Erikson) is the identity achievement o You h
ave gone through a period of exploration and obligations with come out in terms
of professional and ideological goals o You have passed the fifth stage and stri
ve for internalized goals and rely on their skills and capacities o you feel the
relationship with their parents as balanced or ambivalent o They are more acade
mically inclined (eg, higher scores on achievement motivation, they make moral d
ecisions in autonomous and controlled types and give them the pressure to confor
m not after) ? moratorium : they explore identity issues at this time, but do no
t have anyObligations, identity crises are possible, but one should keep in mind
that they are the Identittserreicher of tomorrow o They are more mature and crea
te as well as the Identittserreicher richer and more individual Conceptions of th
emselves o ambivalence refers to the relationship with the parents, the individu
al looks for greater psychological distance and sees the parents as negative Ide
ntities o These embody everything that the individual would not be (stormy times
, the Parents as enemies) o Otherwise, the moratorium people are open, friendly
sensitive creatures 1
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? Foreclosure: did not understand the challenges of identity come too You have n
ot explored, but make commitments to unanswered questions A childhood o keep you
in the safety of the child's roles and thoughts and risk not resolve the uncert
ainty o They do exactly what they prescribe authorities o ideologies, beliefs an
d values ??were brought from childhood and never reformulated o You are very clo
se to their parents (especially their fathers, sons) o They are the ones the sta
tus that best behave (on time, on a regular basis), which probably comes through
traditional and conventional values o you have a more authoritarian view of the
world than the other status o However, they are not very anxious, very anxious
and less autonomous ? identity diffusion: they are not in the exploration, but h
ave also no commitments o They swim in ambiguity and are taking back o you feel
socially isolated and perceive their parents as distant and misunderstood o You
are only what they feel (a little before and after) the moment ? Josselson (1996
): Longitudinal Study: Identittserreicher college age are in the 30s and 40s to p
ioneers (self-doubt is there but not disabled, they are aware of their error, bu
t optimistic) o moratorium in college ? seekers to learn more self-doubt andSelf
-criticism; report more spirituality and lively emotions; they find themselves b
ut itself and eventually the forerunners similar o Foreclosures and identity-Dif
fusionierende remain rigid and moralistic than the other groups; Foreclosures ta
ke advantage of their strong principles as the basis for new, interesting self-c
oncepts; in mid-life, they discover inner aspects and them enough their own auth
ority o identity Diffusionierende show audited and complex life cycles and have
Mid-life commitments and goals built around their lives; regret it most their pa
st, but now they begin to explore the world; they grow more Awareness and contro
l approach Identity and Intimacy ? The relationship between the 5th and 6th stag
e can be very difficult ? Many people define themselves through intimate relatio
nships with others and in many the sixth stage comes before the 5th ? Erikson is
of the opinion that a person can not be truly intimate with someone when he has
not made any progress in terms of its identity ? intimacy contains the will / w
illingness his identity with another to merge ? Love? To be intimate means open
and receptive to the other, the outside of the ego is, even if the other is an i
nternal part of the unconscious is ? Orlofsky, Marcia, and Lesser (1973) Intimac
y status : by means of a semi-structuredCollected interviews to determine the qu
ality of intimacy ? 4 Status: intimate, printim, stereotyped relationships, isola
ted ? identity status and Intimittstuatus are heading. Correlated with each other
(people who have successfully resolved the question of identity, also show high
er levels of intimacy 1
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? Kahn, Zimmerman et al. (1985) examined the extent to how far an adult the Has
solved problems of identity and how the quality of marriage (18 years later) loo
ks ? the degree of identity says the establishment (men) and stability (women) i
n Marriages ahead (men who have found themselves, rather marry and women who hav
e found themselves, have lower divorce rate) Generativity and Adult Development
? Middle adulthood focuses on the well-being of the next generation ? In late ad
ulthood man looks back on his life and accepts the Life as something good Genera
tivity versus stagnation ? The prototype for generativity is raising children, m
aking the most of their meet basic need to be used ? There are also other ways,
however, to be generative (professional life, church) ? The generative adults ha
s the desire's own substances in forms of life and the labor to invest to ensure
that this takes about the self (he invested energy and time for what will live
on) ? Kotre (1984) identified four ways in which adults can be generative: ~ by
biological ~ Technical ~ Parental ~ Cultural generativity ? If all four connecte
d, these are acts of care A Model of generativity ? generativity is described by
the urge to reproduce itself, the Need to care for others and to be used, an ur
ge for transcendence and symbolic immortality, a sign of maturity and mental hea
lth and to create a social demand a productive niche in society ? It was identif
ied with behavior, with designs and values, and with a general Setting over the
world ? model of generativity that combines different and the best ideas and con
cepts Proposes ways to measure generativity ? generativity is a configuration of
seven psychosocial features, all to the personal and societal goal relate, prep
aredness for the next generation taken (it exists in and outside the person) ? T
he model identifies motivational sources of generativity ~ Cultural demand: soci
ety demands that the adult responsibility take over for the next generation ~ Ha
rd-rooted inner desires: symbolic immortality (power and To be self-extension) a
nd the need used (soft and loving Page) ~ concern for the next generation ~ fait
h in the human species ~ meet inside obligation (decisions about goals and aspir
ations for the to create next generation) ~ action by (a) create (b) continue (c
) give 1
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Motivational sources Thoughts, plans, Behavior Importance ? McAdams and de St. A
ubin (1992), the Loyola generativity Scale (LGS) developed to individual differe
nces in conscious concern for the next generation raise (2) inner desires (Symbo
lic Immortality and Need second hand to be) (3) concern for the next Generation
1 (1) Cultural Receivables (4) Belief in the Human species (5) Internal Obligati
on (Objectives and Decisions) (6) Action (Create, aufrechterh old and give) (7)
Narrative ( Generativit tsskript the personal n Lebensgesc hichte)
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? To raise the action, they used a behavioral checklist ? obligations were raise
d by the fact that the person 10 personal aspirations should call or Ongoing Wor
k ? Generative actions and concerns were positively correlated, and these two ar
e also available with correlated many commitments ? McAdams, de St. Aubin, and L
ogan (1993) examined three age groups - Middle Adulthood: Generativity is partic
ularly salient (but can also be a His cohort effect) ? Old adulthood shows same
Generativittseffekte with respect to obligations as the average, but the young ad
ulthood shows only very slight Liabilities ? The seventh feature of Generativitts
modells is narrative (a generative script) ? The generative script is an interna
l history of the consciousness of a person, where Attempts of generativity in th
e personal history (society, social world and fit their story) When people start
? to reflect how the story might end, perhaps, they give birth to children Stor
ies of generativity ? The various ways in which adults construct their life stor
ies, shown in a book by Kotre (1984) ? He has let adults tell their life story i
n detail and for each He found the heart of this story out and analyzed the hist
ory by means of three Generativittsthemen ? In many people, the attempt was to cr
eate a legacy of their own with many connected tragic or insurmountable obstacle
s ? Generativittsgeschichten usually have redemption as a theme: fight the protag
onists to achieve through difficult situations to a positive result ? In order t
o keep the belief in the species, they need to keep their hopes high that their
aspirations to be paid at the end Individual Differences in generativity ? In or
der to detect differences that can be applied questionnaire, clinical ratings of
Case descriptions use, using semi-structured interviews and self-ratings, Q-sor
t personality profiles, content analyzes of TAT, ratings of goals in life, Conte
nt analysis of autobiographical texts (diaries) ? An adult does not have to be a
parent to be generative, but very generative have a different relationship to p
arenting ? Peterson and Klohnen (1995): very generative mothers, invest more ene
rgy and Commitment in their parenting role and have an extended care radius ? ge
nerativity in adults with an authoritarian approach of parenting connected ? the
children have a greater self-esteem and higher levels ofmoral development ? Peo
ple who achieve high scores on the LSG, help their children more with the Homewo
rk, know better know about their school performance of children, provide Values
??and wisdom ? A ffentlicherer expression of generativity is the assistance in ch
urches, societies, Policy ? Hart et al. (In press): very high Generativittslevel
are with more extensive networks of Friends and community, and greater satisfact
ion with social relations 1
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? High Generativittslevel are also equipped with church attendance and turnout co
rrelated, there is also a correlation with sense of community and political Effe
ctiveness ? Erikson believed that generativity is good for the individual and fo
r the community ? Vaillant (1979) and Snarey (1993): ratings of generativity ass
ociated with mature coping strategies ? In addition, generativity correlated mod
erately with self-reports of life satisfaction, be happy, self-esteem and life c
oherence ? generativity negatively correlated with depression ? ? generativity s
eems a sign of psychosocial maturity and psychological healthto be (generative b
ehavior, generative social obligations and generative Self-definitions are the k
ey to psychological well-being Integrity ? To achieve integrity, the old person
has to accept her life as something to be the and had no replacement to be ? Eri
kson: Integrity is a post-narcissistic approach to life, by which a person Looki
ng back, criticized their lives ? Butler (1975) is also of the opinion that old
people have a life review take place to give an account ? ego integrity a certai
n distance to his own life seems to involve ? With the acceptance of the lived l
ife is a certain wisdom ? If the person is not able to accept her life, she feel
s bitter despair ? It is interesting to know when people take this final challen
ge ? The annual pension for many as postgenerative period is seen ? The healthy,
postgenerativen years that will delight some, operate in accordance with many p
sychosocial demands that we do not yet fully understand ? transcendence through
life a meaning ? The person simply exist in the moment, embracing the time with
a wink Jane Loevinger's Theory of Ego Development ? Jane Loevinger's (1976) theo
ry of ego development is an addition to Erikson and it also refers to the entire
life span ? Some of their concepts also come from the psychoanalytic tradition
? The theories differ in the aspects of human experience that they try to explai
n ? Erikson refers to the content of life and what we do at certain stages ? Loe
vinger rather focuses on the structure and is like something organized The "I" a
nd the "Me" ? The word ego refers to the self- ? William James (1842-1910) disti
nguished between the self as self and the self as Me ? The self is double-sided:
the self as a subject ? the self that knows, feels and acts;the self as object
? the me that one knows, feels and acts observed in? They both refer to the self
, the human being can be both object and subject be of consciousness simultaneou
sly ? However, it is easier to talk about me ? The Mich contains everything that
looks at the person as their own (body, feelings, values, Faith, friend, poster
s etc.) ? Some of the external locus components are important for the self as ce
rtain internal locus 1
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? The total Me is unique and can be divided into three regions according to Jame
s: - Substantive Me: body, clothes, family members - Social Me: recognition that
a person gets from others (there are many; see chap. 9 possible to ideal self;
can be arranged in hierarchy be) - Spiritual Me: collection of states of conscio
usness, the psychic power and Disposition; consists of our own understanding of
our person who thinks, feels, concerns and experiences (our understanding of the
ir own traits, motives, values, desires, Fears) ? The ego, however, is the knowe
r in a certain moment of knowledge, Knower is very changeable ? I This is a mome
nt of mindfulness ? moments follow other moments in aStream of consciousness and
receive information from previous (theologians I call it the soul, philosophers
transcendental ego) ? Loevinger's theory deals with the ego (the ego as a subje
ctive sense of self) ? The ego should not be confused with the self as object (w
hich are different Aspects of the self, the identified James as a part of me) ?
The ego is the perspective from which I'm self-attributions and the process by I
am making this ? Augusto Blasi (1988): the ego is more than a momentary state o
f consciousness o A durable and penetrating mind can be experienced, although in
directly and not by thinking or introspection o The I is detected by intentional
action, as we then our I as different o In this experience we can isolate four
dimensions of the self: - efficacy (agency): in how far an act without reflectio
n as the own is captured and in how far one is even recognized as a source; - in
an intentional act, the person feels an identity with itself (foundation for se
lf-reflection) - the experience of a unit via different components of a intentio
nal action across - the self is in complete otherness learn (I am me and other a
re others) o the ego is a position (believe, desire, control, hope) with respect
on how a person views an object ? Some theorists see this as a process and I my
self as a product of the process ? the ego is the process of thinking, knowledge
, synthesizing, Adaptierens, willing (Large function for human intentionality an
d wholeness) ? the person realizes that it is a continuous entity across time an
d space that they is essentially different and that they, or the agent of willed
by other intended actions is ? if this is not the case, you feel disorientation
and disturbances of subjective self ? schizophrenic episodesStages of the I ? e
go as a guy that I synthesized, which adapts itself to the world and makes them
useful ? tame Efforts to integrate and make sense is nothing more than what the
ego does, it is what is the ego ? If we do I see as the general process by which
each of us the Experiences together closes as our own, then we assume that the
process changed 1
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? Loevinger's theory is based on the cognitive development paradigm: the Individ
ual is an active knower, the experience in more adequate and complex Types of st
ores ? The development is considered to progress through hierarchical levels ? E
ach stage contains everything that was in front of her ? The movement from one s
tage to the next is a complex product of internal maturity and external forces t
hat are in constant reciprocal interaction ? Higher levels are better ? See also
Piaget, Kohlberg, Perry Stage Typical manifestations Label Name Impulse control
Interpersonal Mode Conscious Matter of concern I-2 Impulsive Impulsive Self-cen
tered, dependent Physical Feelings Delta Even protective Opportunistic Manipulat
ive, careful Trouble, Control I-3 Compliant Respect for Regulate Cooperative, lo
yal Appearance, Behavior I-3/4 conscientious Compliant Exceptions allowed Helpfu
l, self-conscious Feelings, Problems Adjustments I-4 Conscientiously Self-evalua
ted Standards, even critical Penetrating, responsible Motives, traits, Objective
s I-4/5 Individualistic Tolerant Mutually Individuality, Development, Roll I-5 A
utonomous Coping with Conflicts From one another dependent Self-fulfillment, psy
chological Causality I-6 Integrated Individuality Appreciating Identity ? Each s
tage is characterized by a name and a label I ? Each stage provides a framework
of meaning available to the person needed to get out to make sense of the world
? The importance of context can be understood in specific areas (Impulse control
to conscious concern) ? The higher the individual comes in stages, the less it
is a slave of immediate Pulses and the more it becomes a flexible agent, accordi
ng to the internalized Standards of conduct lives ? The person moves from egocen
trism conformity of autonomous and mutual interdependence ? With increasing matu
rity, the individual is less on the body and look and more to the internal life
of thoughts and feelings as well as internalized goals and Fixed plans ? The ind
ividual is more complex in its cognitions and develops a tolerance for Ambiguity
and paradox ? People are very different in terms of their terminal development
levels 1
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? Depending on what stage is the development remains ? an evolvingcertain type T
he Infant I ? Loevinger measures the development of the ego by a sentence comple
tion test ? notChildren applicable ? The first stage is a pre-verbal, but Loevin
ger says this not ? Most theorists assume that the child is born without a sense
of the 'I' will ? That sense of self as subject is developed first (so that it
is as of other understands different and as a holder of control over his actions
) ? The individual first develops a sense of I as an active agent and begins the
n to develop a vision of me ? Michael Lewis and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn conducted stu
dies for self-reflection detection by: Children are observed in the presence of
mirrors, while gazing from Videotapes and photographs ? In 1979, she studied chi
ldren aged 5 to 24 months: - show Between the 5th and 8th month children a great
variability in terms of self-centered behavior in front of mirrors; they do not
seem to realize that the Mirror is a reflection of their own - Between 9 and 12
months, they begin to understand this - Between the 12th and 15th month they co
nsolidate a sense of self as independent agent; they use the mirror to locate ot
hers and can distinguish between their own movements on the video tape, and othe
r - Then the child can form a conception of me (15 to 18 months); they recognize
an them painted as their point person belonging - The Me continued to develop w
ith the language (18 to 24 months) - The normal, healthy child with 2 years of a
basic sense of self as active agent and a clear distinction between himself and
others - The four aspects of the self as subject (Blasi) manifest now The Child
I ? towards The change from the self-centered impulsivity to the socio-centric
Conventionality, ie, change from simple, concrete, one-dimensional and ichbezoge
nem thinking and acting for socialized and refined structure to the World to int
erpret (9-10 years) ? The self of early childhood is by Loevinger in an impulsiv
e stage (I-2) included: - the world is merely the satisfaction of needs and desi
res - The child is demanding and dependent in relationships and has a primitive
morality - The child classifies humans into black and white categories - the chi
ld remains too long at this stage, it is of other than uncontrollable and experi
enced uncorrectable ? The impulsive step away prepares for the self-sheltered (d
elta) phase - The individual has learned an appreciation of the rules and know i
t better is to play according to the rules - The self is a brief Hedonist - The
good life is the simple, good life - Persevere the individual to long in this ph
ase, it will opportunistically deceptive in relationships with others 1
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? In late childhood and early adolescence, the individual moves from egocentric
to an individual, with the welfare of a group identified (conformist) - It devel
ops a conventional morality, the social rules and norms by Groups or society is
determined - Due to the desire for intimacy, the individual connects with others
- The individual strives for harmony, closeness and identification and searches
for a good friend like him The Adolescent I ? If the self has been developed fo
r conformists, then runs the Development in young adulthood in the opposite dire
ction ? The teenage years are characterized by the search for individuality and
uniqueness and the Person is no longer bound by social conventions ? rite of pas
sage, through which the person in an individual adult transformed and thereby tr
ying the various aspects of the self-integrate ( ? Erikson's identity concept)?
To find a unit and a purpose, the individual must be a self-images-new new me-co
nstruct ? In the I-3/4 phase, in which the individual realizes that you can not
in accordance with all standards of can live self-defined group, it breaks with
the group and with the conventional thoughts ? Then a greater self-awareness and
an appreciation for the diversity developed the possibilities within a situatio
n ? In the I-4 phase, the young adults solved by konventionalen standards and ha
s internal locus of personal standards formed ? long time, even evaluated goals
andIdeals, self-criticism and accountability sense ? Empire, inner life The Adul
t I ? celebration of the synthesized power of adult I ? This stage but fail to r
each many ? Many people the full potential of selfhood are not able to realize ?
The knower is stagnating and the process of synthesizing experience (self as Su
bject) moves into a routine that is adequate for daily functioning, but helps no
t to further growth ? In the individualistic phase, I developed a higher toleran
ce for Individuality of others and a greater awareness of the conflict between i
ncreased Individuality and increased emotional dependence ? Due to the realizati
on that this conflict is a part of the people, increases the Ability of the indi
vidual to tolerate the paradoxical and contradictory (larger cognitive complexit
y) ? distinctions between inner reality and outer appearance, between psychologi
cal and physiological responses between process and outcome are taken ? The auto
nomous stage is the capacity associated with the conflicts of the individualisti
c level adequately handle ? High tolerance for ambiguity and large cognitive com
plexity ? self-fulfillment partly replaced personal goals ? The person expresses
emotions clearly and convincingly formulated and abstract social Ideals and tak
e the corresponding decisions 1
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? Even rarer is the integrated individual: enjoy the individuality and the Conso
lidation of identity ? The person sees reality as a complex and multifaceted ? S
ome of Maslow's self updated people have reached this stage ? Hard: the highest
level involves the coordination of identities about life with those of others an
d with cultural values ? Eastern conceptions assume that the ultimate transcende
nce of selfhood individual self and a oneness with the cosmos contains ? Such an
egoless state is characterized by a lack of self-confidence and Introspection M
easuring Ego Development ? The ego can step through a standard sentence completi
on test (Washington University Sentence Completion Test for Ego Development WUSC
TED) are collected ? It contains a series of sentence stems such as "The thing t
hat I like most on me like it is ... " ? Each reply is placed in one of the stag
es ? The scores are then tabulated and a final ego level value is obtained accor
ding to a numerical form ? He too is mainly used for the assessment of individua
l differences in older children as well Adults (Vp must read and write) ? The te
st correlated moderately with intelligence, with the Egoentwicklung not a synony
m can be evaluated for intelligence ? The test has adequate test-retest reliabil
ity and internal consistency ? adults have higher values ??than adolescents and
older adults have higher Values ??than younger adults ? ego development is moder
ately correlated with moral development, but not with E and N ? O, however, corr
elated stuck with ego development ? Ego development in women with strong O and i
n women was strong with C ? In addition, ego development is correlated with - fo
reign rating to maturity in the Career and Community Involvements - But not with
parenting and marriage ? ego development is negatively correlated with indices
of the MMPI and measurements of Delinquency at city girl ? In general, however,
it is not consistent with mental health and wellbeing connected, mental illness
has on the different levels (high ? depression,low ? antisocial behavior) differ
ent forms? John et al. (1998) presented a reference to the different types of Yo
rk and John here: - conflicts women have low ego development values, - Tradition
al women have average ego development values - Individuated women have high leve
ls of ego development Summary: S. 611 1
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Integrating A Life: The Stories People Live By XI Life Scripts, Life Stories ? A
fter Traitanalysen, surveys of goals and personal constructs and after However,
detection of the development is still a gap: what life as a whole for someone? ?
Modern life are meaningful to the extent that it is meaningful to Assimilate st
ories or that they express culturally meaningful stories ? Personal identity is
to find other not in behavior or the reactions but to maintain a narrative in th
e capacity ? A life history consists of: - Setting - main characters - actions a
nd Subhandlungen - Key Scenes - end The Meaning of Stories The Narrating Mind ?
The story occurs in every human culture and seem a fundamental way to be ourselv
es and express our world compared to other ? Our ancestors got together and told
stories to get out of Past to make sense ? stories connect people in time and e
vents ? You will be less because of the facts told, but rather in order of their
importance ? History is made and by narrative criteria such as credibility and
Judged coherence ? There is a narrative truth, not by logic, science and empiric
al Demonstrations is determined ? Bruner (1986.1990): People understand the worl
d in two different types - Phonetic mode paradigm of thought: we try through our
experiences Analyzes to understand logical checks and empirical observations an
d search for cause-effect principles; we order the world in logical theories, ex
plain the events and help the reality predict and control - Narrative mode of th
ought: keep yourself busy with stories that go beyond the Transformation of huma
n intention are organized in time; it is about human desires, goals and needs to
ld; Events are characterized explains that the actor is eager to do things over
time; you have the understand individual history ? A good narrator (narrative mo
de) brings over more importance than he can write, ie if there are different mea
nings ? A good paradigmatic narrator tries to say more than they think, that the
y work logically and accurately and avoid others declarations; there are no Desi
res, goals or needs described What is a story? ? A story thus is easy to see tha
t it has a beginning, middle and end and also tells about people (unlike eg a ma
nual) 1
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? Even small children have an inner understanding of story-grammar ? history con
sists of: - Setting: where and when the action happens; however, is used differe
ntly - Human (or human-like) character: at the beginning there is a character in
neutral equilibrium (it is not happened yet), because we first learn basic thin
gs about the character - start end event: so begins the plot and motivates the c
haracter of a Dare to attempt to achieve a certain goal - tension is built up an
d the test results in a consequence - Then a reaction takes place which makes th
e action of complicated - An episode follows the next - change of perspective an
d flashbacks are possible - The structure of the voltage is applied to a climax
and it comes to Solution - Finally, the story ends with a conclusion and brings
us into modified form returns to the beginning ? On television, this structure i
s often used Healing and integration ? stories make us laugh and cry, we learn s
omething from them, eg via People, ideas, morals, good or bad behavior ? Some sc
ientists believe that integration and healing two psychological functions of sto
ries and storytelling are ? Bettelheim (1977): Fairy tales help to get through i
nternal conflicts and crises, children, because they identify with the heroes un
conscious ? The heroes are also mostly children and have similar fears and conce
rns ? theChild gets by hope and confidence in the world ? Even adults can build
the people's stories because they are having to identify them or just the fact t
hat they are written ? An autobiography is the life in a story with a setting, C
haracters, initiating events, attempts, consequences, reactions, Highlights, red
emptions, recurring themes and images and the reconstruction of human time ? Wri
ting an autobiography so often involves a personal Find integration to the parts
of a life in a meaningful whole to bring ? Also in therapies de force of the st
ories is used to a life depathologisieren ? The development of a coherent life s
tory is an important goal in the psychoanalytic therapy ? The healthy man can te
ll a coherent life story, in a sick people, this is not so, and therefore, the t
herapist with the client together to write a healing story of the self ? Penneba
ker et al. caused by a number of studies on the effect heilbringendem Disclosure
of personal trauma narrative additions performed ? it seemsthat such disclosure
long time health benefits entails ? The possibility of the whole history of a s
tressful experience of the past to report (including facts and feelings) amplifi
es the well-being ? Pennebaker and O'Heeron (1984): People whose spouses in a ca
r accident have died and talk to others about it, tell a) fewer problems with 1
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) compared unwanted compulsive thoughts and b fewer health problems with those w
ho did not talk about it ? people reported for 4 consecutive days via their trau
ma showed improved immune function ? Pennebaker (1988): the process of active su
ppression of feelings and thoughts regarding negative events requires excessive
physical exertion ? stress-related Diseases ? The more a person tries to suppres
s thoughts and emotions, the more likely it thinks them to the oppressed ? incre
ased anxiety and arousal? entrusting and conscious Confronting associated with t
rauma Feelings makes it possible to integrate the event or cognitively reorganiz
e, thus you leave it behind ? reduction of physical arousal? Pennebaker et al. (
1992): two important factors play in the disclosure itself, the caused physical
reduction, a role - The extent of the negative emotion that is expressed - The e
xtent to how far the traumatic event as well-formed structure was reconstructed
? The disclosure of negative emotions and forming a clear cognitive history are
important components in a healthy writing Feeling and Story: Tomkin's Script The
ory ? Tomkins (1911-1991) came to psychology as a storyteller and dealt with the
question of what people really want ? He only eventually studied drama and then
a short time psychology, philosophy and worked with Murray ? He wrote a book ab
out TAT and brought a new test on the market: Tomkins Horn Picture Arrangement T
est ? He came to the realization that affects (not something drives (Freud) or n
eeds (Murray)) are the primary motivators of human behavior ? These led 2 person
al discoveries: o Late 1940s: recognition that such affects such as excitement,
joy and anger independent drives such as hunger and sexuality, but shoots streng
then, if you put them motivational force is available o 1955 (birth of his son):
massive physical reaction in the form of the child's Crying centered in the fac
e; together with others, he proposed the existence of 10 primary emotions before
, resulting in human biology and evolution justify; there is every affect with c
ertain facial muscle movements connected ? face as emotion organ? Later he expan
ded his theory on the concepts of the scene and the script from ? dramaturgical
and narrative approach Affects ? Natural selection has a very sophisticated and
specialized system of Brought forth emotion, so Tomkins ? This (Tomkins called p
rimary) emotions included interest / excitement, joy, Surprise, sorrow, anger, d
isgust, fear / anxiety, sadness, shame and guilt ? The first two are positive su
rprise may be positive, negative or neutral ? Basically, people try to maximize
positive and negative emotions minimize ? Each of the primary emotions can be di
stinguished at different levels: o Each feels qualitatively different to 1
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o Each emotion is connected to a specific face of the reaction (see Darwin), eac
h of the reactions sends sensory feedback from the face to the brain and some ps
ychologists believe that the feedback is instrumental in the Experience of the e
motion itself (the experience of joy is the result of sensory Information that h
as been sent to the brain by a smiling face; Expression sends social information
to others) ? Different facial expressions are so natural manifestations of prim
ary Emotions ? Izard (1971) Ekman, Friesen, and Ellsworth (1972) showed that fac
ial expressions transcultural be valued equally ? Even if you notice any obvious
change of facial expression, can Occurrence of certain emotions by measuring el
ectrical activity in the face and be demonstrated in the brain (during happier t
houghts show the same muscles electrical activity as when they smile, even thoug
h the face remains blank) ? Different cultures established various "pointing Rul
es", the Determine appropriateness of certain emotions in situations ? Izard (19
78): Emotions arise when they live in the child as adaptive prove o The crying o
f the newborn is a sign of sorrow and motivates the Utilities to reduce the sour
ce of suffering o The origins of joy are in the early social smile or in the Fac
e to face interaction ? bond is established between mother and childo interest a
nd excitement going on the 3rd and 4th months back ? the childtries to capture i
nteresting moments, the child focuses its Attention and motivated exploratory ac
tivity o fear and sadness occurs in the second half of the first year on, especi
ally in Response to new, separation and loss o shame and guilt later awaits the
development of self-awareness in 2nd year, after developing a sense of self as a
n object Scenes and Scripts Basic Concepts ? scenes and scripts, the organizers
are in life ? Tomkins the person sees as a playwright who his own personal drama
of the first weeks of designed ? The basic component is the scene: the memory o
f a certain Event in life, including at least one emotion or an object of that e
motion ? Each scene is an organized whole, the people, place, time, actions and
feelings includes ? The life thus consists entirely of scenes and certain scenes
keep coming back and specific groups to be distinguished ? script make it possi
ble for the compounds of each scene to give meaning ? A script is a set of rules
of interpretation, creation, enhancement or defense against a family of related
scenes ? Each organized a lot of scenes in the life according to his own peculi
ar script ? The short temporal importance of a particular scene is a function of
the quality of the Affect in this scene (when I think about yesterday, stands s
omewhat out by a particular emotion) ? The long temporal importance is a functio
n of psychological magnification (Magnification) which the process of connecting
related scenes in a 1
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meaningful patterns is must to do the one basic similarities and Find difference
s between scenes ? Psychological magnification often works by forming analogies,
negative affect Scenes are often psychologically magnified by the formation of
analogies ? If you look at the differences between different scenes, to use psyc
hological Magnification to variations (scenes that differ by a stable core aroun
d) to construct, especially in positive affect Types of Scripts ? There is no de
finitive list of scenes and scripts as there are a of emotions ? Tomkins, howeve
r, two forms of scripts, which are particularly significant in the identified Li
fe and are helping to organize the life stories o Commitment scripts: the person
binds to a program of life or goal that Reward by an intense positive affect pr
omises ~ this script contains a long temporal investment in the improvement of T
hings (vision of the ideal life); ~ these scripts start with positive early scen
es or series of scenes from childhood; ~ this scene represents an optimistic ide
a of what can be, it can lead to life-task ~ the person scenes organized around
a clearly defined goal, which is usually is there no conflicts ~ the person then
tries her goal despite possible obstacles with staunch To achieve devotion o Nu
clear scripts: are characterized by confusion and ambivalence regarding the life
goal labeled and contains complex approach-avoidance conflict ~ The person is c
aptivated by conflict-laden scenes in their Life history ~ The result is ultimat
ely a life story that resembles a tragedy ~ It begins with a nuclear scene (any
positive childhood memory, the evil ends) ~ As a good scene e contains the exper
ience of joy or excitement in Presence of others, especially in the presence of
those who with the person Stimulation, leadership, support meet ~ The scene chan
ges back to evil with the occurrence of Verschchterung, contamination or confusio
n, which the good scene endangered ~ A nuclear script is an attempt to reverse t
he nuclear scene (evil into good convert), but this is only partially successful
~ key properties can be: ~ Good things turn for the worse ~ Seduction and Betra
yal ~ disorientation in space ~ affects of shame and anger ~ retraction and inhi
bition ~ The evidence for the psychological magnification through the formation
of Analogies can by past memories, dreams, fantasies and interpersonal relations
hips occur Identity and the Life Story 1
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? The identity configuration of Erikson should according to McAdams as an integr
ative Life story to be understood ? identity is a life story, an internalized an
d evolving narrative of the Even ? The story combines different aspects of the s
elf, the unity of life, purpose to give meaning and ? During adolescence we real
ize that our life needs a purpose and a meaning and that we can work on our life
story ? Habermas and Bluck: young people develop a scheme of the life history,
as parent autobiographical knowledge structure is ? Through formal operational t
hinking is the young person in a position, his life retrospect, to think and to
imagine the future, the first tests is to articulate are often naive and awesome
? Elkind (1982): constructing personal fables, which shows that the Teen feels
unique and misunderstood ? The story is over the years, eventually more realisti
c and plausible ? In early adulthood, so Hankiss (1981), people use ontological
Strategies to explain how they have become so ? The life stories begin in childh
ood and continue to the middle Adulthood (addition) ? The biographical resources
we collect in childhood to later from our To form identity ? The life story is
a psycho-social construct, that although the story of the person whose story it
is, was written, the possibilities of Determined by the design culture ? Particu
larly relevant are gender, ethnicity, class formation, economic, political and c
ultural power ? Psychosocial constructions relate to facts, but also go beyond t
hat (Father tells that doctor has said that it is the birth at a 50-50 chance Su
rvival has given so that today is a cautious man still, although Has perhaps nev
er occurred conversation) Story Themes and Episodes ? life stories are collected
through interviews or questionnaires with open ends ? First, the person is aske
d, his life as a book with several chapters introduce ? Then the person should w
rite down eight key scenes of her life (including a High point, low point and in
flection point) ? Each episode is to set out very precisely (thoughts, feelings,
etc.) ? In addition, after the biggest life challenge, important people, goals
demand and expectations, religion and political values ? At the end of the parti
cipants to look back and try to find a central theme to make ? The interview las
ts 2 to 3 hours and will be recorded on a cassette ? Scientists are particularly
interested in identifying the central themes of lines to make ? These relate to
what the person wants and wishes recurring (Love or Power) ? Bakan (1966): them
atic lines reflecting agency and communion (2 fundamental Modalities in all life
forms) 1
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- Agency: Try to expand the self to say, to perfect and to protect the self sepa
rate from others and to meet the environmental (Connected to dominance, extraver
sion, attainment and power motivation) - Communion: attempt to connect with othe
rs, in conjunction with other To meet bundles of love, search for intimacy, frie
ndship and society (Connected to sociability, intimacy and Affiliationsmotivatio
n) ? life stories can be compared and contrasted in terms of the strength and sa
lience of agen matic and local thematic lines ? McAdams et al. (1996) have devel
oped a system that both types into 4 subtopics divides ~ Each of these can Subth
emas in narrative approaches of key episodes in a Life story to be coded ~ Agenc
y: Self-mastery, status / victory, achievement / responsibility and Authorizatio
n ~ Communion Friendship / love, dialogue, care / assistance and unity / togethe
rness ? It is believed that issues of Agency and Communion consistent with the c
onnected motivational tendencies of a person (related to TAT) ? Woike (1995): mo
tives are not only connected with the content of life stories, but also with the
cognitive style, ie ~ people with strong power and achievement motivation using
an analytical and differentiated style when they state agen matic experiences a
nd feel more Differences, separateness and opposition in their life history ~ pe
ople with strong intimacy motivation use a synthetic and to experience integrate
d style when describing communal experiences they Similarities, connections and
congruence at various elements of the Life history ? In terms of structure, life
histories differ significantly in their narrative complexity ? Certain variable
s of the first level (traits) and the second level (characteristic Adjustments)
are connected to the narrative complexity ~ Loevinger's concept of Egoentwicklun
g is the complexity in Life stories connected (higher Egoentwicklung ? different
types ofActions; complex stories have greater levels of change in the Character
s: students with high Egoentwicklung articulate more stories Transformation and
growth, students with lower Egoentwicklung articulate stories of stability and c
onsistency (in terms of Religion)) ? scientists sometimes focus on one or two ke
y scenes in a Life history ? Pillemer (1998) focused on scenes that stood out in
my memory, and he underlines the importance of four types of events that are re
membered: causal Events (the beginning of an action), inflection points, anchore
d events and analog Events ? Singer (1995) he mentions particularly influential
and important memories in a Life-defined memories: vivid, affect-laden, recurren
t and similar memories associated memories with major unresolved issues linked o
r show a continuing concern ? Moffitt and Singer (1994): - students who recall m
ore self-defined memories that are relevant to the Are achieving goals, press mo
re positive affect in terms of memory from 1
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- students who have a large number of destinations you avoid unwanted or Results
included, reported remembered less-defined memories with positive emotional iss
ues Story Characters: The Imago ? Even early events that occur before the youth,
have an impact on the Construction of identity ? In addition, the quality of th
e bond affects the tone of the story ? Children collect a variety of images in f
riendly Speielen, in Family life, last through media, church, school, etc. and t
hese images to the Adolescence to ? In adulthood, the person relates to their re
sources (internal and external) to form the identity ? However, our identities a
re shaped by the psychosocial environment ? However, we are active creators in t
he design of our life stories ? The adolescent begins with conscious and unconsc
ious work by a ideological setting: Brochure of faith and values, which in the h
istory of a ideological temporal and spatial framework classifies ? Consolidatio
n of an ideological settings, the central task of His identity formation of youn
g people, this remains very stable ? Then the youth also takes a historical pers
pective of the self (Childhood = Past) and then it comes to self-defined memorie
s (Highlights in the past) ? In young adulthood, the main character can be forme
d and refined, including the person whose story it is, withheld himself also ? Y
our character occurs in a variety of forms (semi-autonomous agents, the Actions
and interactions determine the action) ? This is an Imago: idealized personifica
tion of the self that in as the main character of the Acts of life history ? ima
gos are one-dimensional, each incorporated many of the characteristics, roles, e
xperiences; they are like little Michs in someone who act and think in a very pe
rsonalized Because of ? The Imago could also be a potential, ideal or ought self
, internalized objects, his inner states or voices ? A person has several Imago
Imago and each lays claim to a certain set of identity resources ? In adulthood
Imagos can have social roles occupied, but they are larger than this ? The gener
al characteristics of a social role are defined by the Company, in which the rol
ler is operationally ? roles are influenced by social norms and expectations ? W
hen a role to become an imago, it must be internalized and extended are to funct
ion as the personal aspect of the self, which is applicable to a Is variety of a
ctivities ? A Imago can affect certain chapter of life and there may be differen
t consolidate social roles and internalize this in a self-defining type ? The ma
in characters represent Imagos a narrative mechanism to adapt to the Diversity o
f modern life available ? In young adulthood, the person has social roles and di
fferent aspects of Even together to create integrative Imagos 1
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? Central conflicts and dynamics can by standing and interacting in conflict Ima
gos are represented ? It is possible for us the multiplicity of roles to charact
ers of the To reduce life story ? This type of man is then unique, consistent, m
eaningful, appropriate and coherent ? Imagos so be sure that you can not simulta
neously all sorts of different roles to play and that you can stay true to yours
elf ? imagos are drawn in part by the culture and thus also represent in part, t
he values ??of a culture ? To the moral character types of the adult can herumba
uen his own life and can be articulate his own personalized characterization of
self- ? Personal Imagos often speak the language of values ??and beliefs on the
Level of individual adult identity ? Significant aspects of the ideological sett
ings can clearly imagos of Life stories are expressed ? Imagos can personalize r
eligious, ethical, political and aesthetic values ? A primary function of the im
ago is to be a mouthpiece for what the person perceives as right and true ? McAd
ams (1993) has developed a taxonomy, and the basis of Agency Communion is organi
zed: - Class 1 imagos are particularly powerful and recite tables Characters (th
e warrior who Groundbreaking) - Class 3 imagos are very loving and local charact
ers (the friend who Caring) - Class 2 Imagos combine Agency and Communion and ar
e powerful and loving (The healer, the teacher) - Press Class 4 Imagos little Ag
ency or Communion from (the survivor, the Fleeing) ? Each category of imagos a t
ype of narrative character should be and not a Type of person, because an identi
ty is not a single imago ? The identity namely, the story itself ? McAdams (1985
): Life histories with powerful agen matic imagos are very makes motivated peopl
e connected; Life stories with a local Imago also have a high intimacy motivatio
n ? connection between motivationand identity Types of Stories ? life stories ma
y contain elements of each mythical archetype (Comedy, tragedy, romance, irony)
Gergen and Gergen ? (1986) distinguished between stable, progressive and regress
ive Life stories ? In addition, they identified a common form of narrative for t
he establishment of a Identity (in the western world, especially in men): the he
ro myth (separation of the familiar, initiation of victory, return home) Gergen
and Gergen ? (1993) assume that the life stories of men in run similar to a line
ar manner; However, women construct with stories different, sometimes contradict
ory lines of action and ambivalent emotional States, they are also linked with t
he intimate understanding of and experience with the body 1
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? Many authors have in certain patterns (working or parental) histories identifi
ed, eg model (1992) identified common themes and narrative strategies in the sto
ries that parents told why they gave their children up for adoption ? Maruna (19
97) identified a general life story regarding why people have become criminal ~
In this standard narrative reform led to early scenes of victimization Find a de
linquent and recurring scenes of bottoming out ~ The negative cycle was as long
as not broken until the protagonist of a second chance of Agency and Communion o
r saw, often through the intervention a good friend ~ The final chapter of life
stories consolidate the reform through the return generative attempts something
? McAdams et al. (1997) conducted a study with 40 highly generative and 30 less
generative people through; it showed the generative rather a tendency to Commitm
ent stories in which typically occur 5 topics: o Previously advantage: As a youn
g child, the protagonist of the story, an advantage that it stresses in the fami
ly or with friends, he feels very early on that he had something is special o su
ffering of others: the young protagonist becomes a witness of suffering of other
people and feel sympathy or empathy for them. It deals with people who special
care or assistance need, such as disabled o Ideological steadfastness: in adoles
cence, the protagonist has a clear and coherent system of values ??established w
hich often rooted in religion. This is very stable over time and the protagonist
feels no doubt, uncertainty or crises in relation to this system o repayment se
quences: bad life events are followed by good results. The wicked scene is erase
d, saved, and made up for by what follows o Prosocial future, in relation to the
future, the protagonist sets goals to the Company or institutions to deliver be
nefits ? In a study of African-Americans also showed that generative rather Tend
Commitment stories and also that in the stories (regardless of Generativity) wa
s an evil, dangerous, threatening antagonist by the Power of religion was defeat
ed ? the commitment stories appeared indices for powerful In both studies, To be
identity format ? In stark contrast to eradicate sequence is the contamination
sequence: movement of good emotional scenes to negative or poor results, so fami
liar to good things are no longer that they continue ? despair, hopelessness? Pe
ople with longer repayment sequences have better mental health, greater Self-est
eem, greater life satisfaction and less depression ? people who experience a lot
of contamination sequences, have a poorer mental Well-being, poorer self-esteem
and more depression ? redemption and contamination sequences reflect objective
reality of the Past (happier people are happier because they have more positive
results have experienced) ? redemption and contamination sequences reflect impli
cit selection, how to make Want to see past and tell (how to tell and what scene
s Conclusions one draws from it) Reflect to tell self-defined memories ? Individ
ual differences in the way Differences in the objective past and differences in
narrative style 1
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? The used individual styles are both reasons and consequences different levels
of psychosocial adjustment What is a good story? ? There are periods of stabilit
y and of change, the development is both slow continuously and full of tumult an
d suddenly ? However, there are certain trends in people who come into middle ag
e; ideal Way should go the evolution towards increased good narrative form ? One
can identify six forms of the good form of a life story: ~ coherence: in how fa
r the story itself makes sense, without contradiction, but also not consistent ~
Openness: Open to change and tolerance for ambiguity, but also not too much, th
en that lack of commitment ~ credibility: the life story should be based on fact
s ~ Differentiation: rich characterization, plot and theme ~ reconciliation: bet
ween conflicting forces, harmony and integrity ~ generative integration: human l
ife exists in a social and ethical context, the person can take on tasks and for
the next Generation since, involvement in the social environment that is ongoin
g as the Self Lives as text ? A growing number of psychologists now study the ed
ucation of children (Values ??and moral development) ? Social and personality ps
ychologists explore the different narrative approaches, use the adults to deal w
ith personal problems ? Cohler (1982, 1990) and Whitbourne (1985): Life should n
ot be considered an advancement of Development in stages or as predictable expre
ssion of stable personality traits be seen, but as emerging narrative that in cu
lture and history is embedded ? advocate of narrative psychology: Sarbin, Polkin
ghorne and Bruner ? Sarbin (1986), the story can serve as a root metaphor for co
ntemporary psychology ? According to Pepper (1942), the root metaphor is a basic
analogy, to make the world understand (the dominant mechanism is Western) ? Sar
bin sees the story as a liberating metaphor for psychology, since the narrative
a Part of which reveals what is significant human to human (people are by nature
storytellers) and it provides a nuanced understanding of how the Life is embedd
ed in social and historical contexts, ready ? Bruner (1990): Stories are particu
larly useful explanations for events gain that do not fit into the expected soci
al pattern ? Every human life, the analogy is an event that needs to be explaine
d, because every individual life is different from what Bruner canonical Cultura
l Pattern is called ? uniqueness can be best explained through storiesHerman's D
ialogical Self ? Hubert Herman is of the opinion that the idiographic and nomoth
etic methods can be combined ? It begins with the concept of valuation (valuatio
n): everything that the person important place when she thinks of her life (or l
iked ungemochte People, startling dreams, plans, objectives, etc.); ? any value
determination is a unit of meaning and has either a positive, negative or ambiva
lent emotional quality 1
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? through self-reflection organize people value their provisions into narrative
patterns and embed them so into the social and historical and geographical backg
round ? from a nomothetic perspective, Herman assumes that the various Declared
value provisions to persons by two primary motivational systems can be ? Therefo
re, he distinguishes between agen matic S motifs (strivings for superiority, Exp
ansion, control, etc.) and local O motifs that are other-oriented (Strivings aft
er contact, unity, intimacy) ? must then finally distinguished between positive
and negative affectivity in order to analyze the various assays ? He has a self-
confrontation method developed to raise assays, while the participant serves as
co-researchers ? the data are collected through dialogues, conversations between
Vl and Vp, because the Vp is ultimately the expert when it comes to your own li
fe ? there are between 20 and 40 assays for each Vp out ? In the second phase, t
he participant must advise each value determination on a 6-point scale for each
of 16 different emotions (4 each for S and O motifs and negative and positive af
fect) ? then an index is formed for each of the 4 categories and also still some
of the respective strengths of S, O, P and N ? Hermans has found certain how ce
rtain patterns of value determination Characterize groups of people ? It (1992)
identified a group of clients in psychotherapy, which Assays unfortunate self-es
teem manifested (normally Self-esteem and happiness positively correlated) ? som
e have both highValues ??of S and N (paradoxical mix by certain significant even
ts or People) ? From the idiographic standpoint Hermans assumes that the study o
f Assays is a window to each one unique dialogical self ? He distinguished betwe
en James I and Me o the self is the self as author of the story (filled with the
Assay that represents the life of the meaning available); the I also moves with
different I-positions through history o the me is the self as doer of the narra
tive (agent who by the story passes and assumes different roles) ? the most view
s regarding the self in Western society see the ego as Thinking rationally and a
s a knower or ? Herman denies this view in his dialogical self, the multiple and
embedded in dialogs is ? The different I-positions are in dialogue with each ot
her and interact ? The ego creates the life history and is the host of the story
teller (the History is created from many perspectives) ? Each I-position can its
elf have a more or less autonomous voice ? TheEven as a polyphonic novel, each v
oice has its own world Music and Story: Gregg's Approach ? Gary Gregg (1991.1995
) also emphasizes the Multiplizit of self that by different voices is expressed ?
For each person the different voices a confusing cacophony create (little Patte
rns, organization of the various self) 1
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? In addition to the phenotypic noise of the concurring votes is a genotypic pie
ce of music, very orderly and meaningful, endless Expresses variations of a smal
l number of subjects ? life stories reveal a musical structure of self- ? The tw
o primary axes of the music are harmony (vertical) (expressed in chords, Musicia
ns playing different notes simultaneously) and melody (horizontal) (expressed by
a sequence of notes that are played over a period of time) ? harmony and melody
are made possible by the structure of the scale, as each note is heard, is dete
rmined by the musical structure of the scales ? For Gregg personality is like a
fugue (musical form in which each part different variations on a theme play; a v
oice directs the subject and others answer this with variations and produce as a
form of dialogue ? Each voice can be the subject, in other words, making both t
he same as well as different from any other voice ? it is alsoPersonality ? The
main themes of human identity relate to power and Love or Agency and Communion ?
Human cases the meaning that is associated with these topics into concrete imag
es objects and their environment (eg: tofu as a symbol of the New Age movement a
nd almost food as a symbol for unhealthy diet or consumed) ? What connects the t
wo things and differentiated is their relation to the respective end Octave and
the fact that both are connected with love (for mother, New Age) ? The moral sig
nificance of tofu makes it an octave be higher than fast food ? This moral signi
ficance arises from the culture, personal meanings therefore arise from social,
political, economic and cultural realities ? Social organization provides genera
l categories of thought of members of a particular society available ? The socia
l organization includes stratification and oppression ? The life stories that pe
ople create to their life a To provide identity indifference available, which we
find in the joint, reflected and reinforces the social rank ? He sees the self
as orchestration of voices that are different and yet equal ? The voices reflect
tension and conflict as well as peace and resolution The Postmodern Self ? In t
he 80s and 90s a discussion fallow to the sense of self in the postmodern world
go ? Postmodern expresses much, basically: skeptical and playful ironic attitude
to do about large systems, universal truths and conventional succession ways so
mething ? The postmodern attitude, it is with the ambiguity and multiplicity, on
the one Rejection follow all universal claims ? In a postmodern world no great
truths are present ? There are different approaches, versions and narratives (te
xts), the subjectively are constructed of a certain point of view, ? The lyrics
change from one moment to another ? On the one hand, we are of postmodernity bec
ause of their openness, tolerance impressed and dynamics, and on the other hand,
we regret that there is no fixed Values ??are more ? lives are like texts that
are only structures of words, images and characters and to which in itself there
is nothing truly real 1
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? postmodernity is related to the deconstructionism, according to the literary T
exts have no inherent and stable meanings ? So the word ambiguous and its meanin
g depends on the context ? If so, then life is meaningless ? stories and texts a
re written as if they had centers ? For deconstructionist texts are language-gam
es, as they many inconsistencies and Contain contradictions ? To identities are
then also by speaking and stringing together of words formed and symbols in soci
al contexts ? People are often caused by the way they are embedded in a discours
e that described ? Any other discourse brings a new expression ? The central pro
blem of the postmodern self is the unit since the postmodern life is so vague ?
Sampson (1989) argues that psychology is a new understanding of the person must
develop as the technology and the global economy of the people ago linked everyw
here, it makes no sense for more of the person as an individual speak ? The west
ern point of view of the person as a self-containing individual has his Culminat
ing in the modern world ? The person is a localization of overlapping and intera
cting forces Votes in a particular social group (linked with many other Companie
s in the postmodern world) ? The body is after Sampson well individually, the se
lf no longer, however, because People have become the guardians of assets and ar
e no longer more owners ? The identities are identified through social localizat
ions ? The Self is just outside in the world as well as in the spirit of man ? T
he postmodern approaches are skeptical with regard to the integration and Purpos
efulness of life (similar to the behaviorist approach) Nevertheless, they go fro
m the power of the human story from Summary: S. 676 1
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XII-Writing Stories of Lives: Biography and the Life Course The many aspects of
life will be in the psychologist in a integrative and interpretive history toget
her (eg: student "Grope" Icarus). As a result, unlike in Chapter 11 described a
story in the third person, but may well be based on the first individual represe
ntation. Personology and the Study of Lives Murray and the Harvard Psychological
Clinic After the death of Prince, the abnormal psychology at Harvard taught by
clinical cases demonstrated, Murray took over the local post of Director. Well i
t was a goal of the research against the behavioral psychology of the 30s to dra
w a complete picture of the person. Murray made use of this literature and myths
(eg: It / superego conflict with Moby Dick; Ahab and Moby Dick as it as a super
-ego). Significant publication: Explorations in Personality (1938):- Interdiscip
linary research of the person in the Personology - Search by recurrent schemes t
hat the individual as a whole characterize - Victims of accuracy and predictabil
ity at the level of specific behavior Murray sees the personality as household o
r Congress, an interaction competing and different personalities (like different
narrative characters). These are in a liquid state, ie individual combinations
represent at the Tip and be replaced later. Man is also time-bound, ie, time is
a crucial part of the person. Why should a large part of personology examining t
he life history of an Be individual. The history of any person is an interpretat
ion of the past under Consideration of what follows. - The smallest unit is a pr
oceeding (Tasks), triggered a single episodefrom the temporal complexity of life
, an interaction with the environment, the is long enough to detect a behavior;
each approach is unique, and reason for the uniqueness of a person - Multiple ov
erlapping proceedings form a durance , the way a short scene tocan be a long cha
pter of a life. - A long durance may also include a serial be (row), then on to
aInvolved area of ??life Man acts and interacts in the present with a view of th
e past and the Future. A serial program is an ordered program of sub-goals, the
differentwill far into the future and lead to a desired end state. Through them
get our aspirations a direction and a purpose. They are also connected with the
fundamental needs of the person.The needs organize human life in time. They inte
ract with press tocharacteristic behavior patterns ( theme ) that if they domina
te the life of aForming unit topic that as a central and organizing motif of a h
uman life can be seen. 1
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The Personological tradition After the war (by Murray for the preorganization of
the CIA recruitment test of wide Checks on the entire person-generated) develop
ed on the basis of Murray's Thought a social science called " the study of lives
"(next to Murray va RobertWhite). Again, contrary to the current trend of psych
ology the person was more qualitative than described quantitatively (by measurin
g individual characteristics) the person. Six general statements: 1 personology
is the result of many different forces: The person must be considered from diffe
rent viewpoints. It must Forces of biology, society, culture, history and even o
f chance and happiness are considered. In general, life is difficult to understa
nd and Behavior sometimes impossible to predict. 2 personology is a complex, lif
elong non-ending business The personality does not stop over the lifespan to (Re
) construct. Approach, in which the person is fixed in time (for example, traits
) must fail. 3 personology focuses on a close examination of the mental life-con
scious and unconscious processes, including creativity. From Freud importance of
the unconscious, but as with Kelley view, which is also the Conscious of import
ance. People are fundamentally creative, because they create themselves under co
nstant Influence of the surrounding forces. In people with exceptional creativit
y the boundaries between the conscious and the unconscious. Here creativity can
not always be controlled, which might even lead to a Can cause loss of well-bein
g. 4 personology needs a multidisciplinary approach and specific strategies and
techniques The personality must be studied using many different methods, v. incl
uding through such that generate imaginative answers. 5 personology examined liv
ing, historical, fictional and mythological characters and special human complex
es Ex: Icarus or harlequin complex; Evidence of the importance of human Life can
be found everywhere, most outside of science in Religion, mythology and literat
ure. 6 personology includes a wide range of concerns, from practical matters to
add urgent global problems What is the personality influenced by social opportun
ities, cultural forces or national and international events? The humanist though
t can also be seen in the premises of the increased and healthy personality; her
e from White: 1 stabilization of ego-identity (people should learn who they are
and how they fit into the adult world) 2nd release of personal relationships (di
ssolving negative relations Past and employment in more mature, intimate interpe
rsonal relationships) 3 deepening of interests 4 humanizing values ??(towards mo
re tolerance and more complex moral Performances) 5 expansion of the welfare 1
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Science and the single case Even before that were case studies (here is only con
sidered a single unit, ie a Individual, eg Freud) are used. To date, they are co
ntroversial. General criticism is that case studies are too subjective and too f
ocused on the Assessments of an individual life. This is contrary to the princip
le of Science generalized and uniform laws and theories to formulate. Criticism
were mainly practiced at the following points: 1 reliability Results are very su
bjective and can vary by several researchers be interpreted. This is a general p
roblem of qualitative data. It can be solved in the one "quantitisiert" the data
using valuation laws. This indeed increases the reliability between the ratings
, but is also a lot lost of information. 2 Internal consistency Problem that sev
eral explanations of a case can be offered and the same Degree of internal consi
stency have (ie, different explanations based on the same Facts give the same am
ount of sense). There seems to be no way around this kind of post hoc explanatio
n to give. However, the interpretation should therefore be extra careful and cri
tical. Pattern-matching plan: With a theoretical expectation of Personologe cons
iders the data and searches a conceptual pattern that is logically and psycholog
ically meaningful. From this entsteh a Mini theory that can be generalized to ad
ditional data. Here, it is important alternatives to be considered (by others).
3 Interpretative truth Narrative truth: The interpretation should be a good stor
y, ie, internally consistent, a have ongoing plot by an event logically leads to
the next and all Things should fit in a final form. In addition, the story shou
ld be aesthetically satisfy. Analogy to the setting up of theories: A good inter
pretation (as a good theory) should ... - Refer to the full width of the informa
tion Be simple and straight ahead - - Be in the same dimensions internally consi
stent and coherent - Basis of hypotheses to be, which can be tested empirically
- Consistent with empirically valid insights Be useful - - Generate new ideas. 4
External validity Of course ... is much better in correlation studies. Generall
y, there is also science of comparisons that can be drawn between several case s
tudies, too. In this connection should be based on prototypical case studies. Ot
her supporters of the case studies negate the task of case studies representativ
e of to be large populations. They also argue that case studies have the advanta
ge that they are valid across situations and thematic consistency. Correlation s
tudies and 1
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Experiments deal only with a situation (albeit with several Test objects). Furth
ermore, a case study should not be seen based on previous ideas but on the basis
of comparable cases. 5 The problem of discovery vs. Justification In Science tw
o approaches interact: a) setting up of new hypotheses and b) Testing and valida
tion of the hypotheses. Case studies can at least refute hypotheses and of cours
e bring new ideas and thus stimulate. Biography, Narrative, and Lives Psycho Bio
graphy Long before the beginning of the 20th century biographies have been writt
en, the first Psycho biography is, however, suppressed by Freud (1910) about da
Vinci and his interpreted homosexual fantasies as a means to preserve the mother
's love upright ( Freud da Vinci, in a vulture opened his mouth with his cock ou
t a fantasy and struck him with it; ? desire for fellatio and needs after oral s
timulation by mother). To psychobiography a personality theory is used (in Freud
psychoanalysis) to to a coherent story from the life of a person usually form-f
rom start to finish of life. Problems: usually the subject of history is already
dead and can therefore neither observed are still being interviewed; different
types of sources provide different Interpretations (usually reliabelsten data ar
e the least significant (Date of birth) and the least significant reliabel (fant
asies, dreams ...); too much Data; I RVING A Lexander (1988): 9 Guidelines for d
ata to be reduced to the most important; important Factors are: 1 Primacy (what
comes first is the cornerstone to all other)Second frequency (repetition as a si
gn of importance) 3 Uniqueness 4 negation (which denied or rejected or reversed)
5 accent ( emphasis , over-stressed and under things)6 omissions 7 aberration,
distortion 8 insulation (which stands alone or does not fit) 9 incompleteness In
a good psycho-biography theory and life should interact. The theory should not
be a straitjacket for life, that is, the theory should be fine used are also tim
es be exposed and used to make if possible to sense of contradictions. Theory an
d life should interact. Traditionally, most white men of the middle class subjec
ts of autobiographies, this but should not form the framework for psycho-biograp
hies of other groups. 1
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Abigail Stewart (1994): 7 Strategies to post a psycho-biography for women ("Femi
nistenstrategien"): 1 is important, what has been left out ("things that are mis
sing things the men probably do not know and women probably do not want to know
") 2 the writer should its role and its impact note (social position, Sex ... th
e biographer lead to a special relationship with the subject of History, which m
ay have an impact on the interpretation) 3 is important for the woman as an indi
vidual with free choice in the middle of the to see social constraints (not only
social power relations are also important the woman as a human being can resist
oppression) 4 sex can be an analytical tool (such as the woman understands her
Gender, and how this differs from the interpretation of their role from the othe
r?) 5 biographer should be sensitive to what extent the gender power structures
influenced you how much power structures influence the sex (many Experiences as
a woman are rather experiences of subordination) 6 the importance of other socia
l positions of the individual and their effects To seek seventh biographer shoul
d avoid for a unified self (the Notion of a consistent self comes from observati
ons of privileged Men with the appropriate socio-economic background) Story Begi
nnings and Endings: Alfred Adler's Theory Adler ( individual psychology ; indivi
dual psychology ) was an early follower of Freud,However, the little agreed with
Freud (no meaning unconscious processes and erotic instincts). Instead, Adler s
aw aggression as a basic pattern (which Freud then 12 years later recorded in hi
s concept of life and death instincts) and his theory shows Agreements with vari
ous other theories: - Social-learning theories: importance of the social environ
ment - Cognitive psychology: people are aware of their actions and can rationall
y judge according to their plans and objectives) - Humanistic psychology: optimi
stic views of the people, by means of its environment can create his self- Gener
ally, a person thinks that he can understand things when he knows its beginnings
. And Adler also wrote the first memories of a man of great importance. After Ad
ler uncover the first memories a unique pattern of adjustment by special self-se
lected goals and means to achieve this, the so-called lifestyle of the people. T
his clarified in the early relationships in the family. Few studies support thes
e considerations. B Ruhn & S CHIFFMANN (1982): Collected early memories ... from
200 college students and the perceived control over the World (via self-report)
. The memories were analyzed on the basis of three categories: Achieving mastery
, Punishment, interpersonal difficulties. ? subjects with active Erreichensbewtig
ung, allotments with their behavior and punishments self-induced interpersonal d
ifficulties reported much control. ? passive, arbitrarily punished subjects who
were victims of interpersonal difficulties, reported little control over the wor
ld. 1
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Adler later replaced the aggressive motivation by motivation or the pursuit of P
ower ( will to power ).Children who learn by psychological deficits recurring we
akness (through so-called organic sub superiorities; organ inferiorities ) try t
heir weaknesses by particularlyto compensate for hard work. Therefore Adler desc
ribes his concept of the will To have power even later than striving for superio
rity, a general concept that Adler looked at all the people. Why was the concept
of organic Inferiority changed to a more general concept of feeling of weakness
. Furthermore, the striving for superiority person generalizes their need on the
ir Environment, Adler speaks of social interest, through true love for and solid
arity with other people. Here, however, there are inter-individual differences.
C RANDALL (1980.84) operationalized eagle assumptions in a short questionnaire o
f social interest and was able to demonstrate in accordance with eagle, that peo
ple with high levels of social Interest also showed high scores in various tests
of psychological adjustment and negative results regarding stress. Although the
people strive all but in different ways after completion and wholeness. Here, r
ather, the hoped-for future plays a role, as the objective presence: final Targe
ts mainly influence behavior. These objectives are not logically or empirically
but fictions. Man acts as though she was (fictional purposiveness). Hereby gets
a person's life purpose and direction, even if the impossible fictions are to be
realized. The whole concept is similar to Murray's " unity theme "and Erikson's
" identity "but going any further, since Adler says that man after a narrative u
nit sought. The Seasons of Adult Life To Murray's research around were intereste
d in including sociologists for Life stories that explain you hoped for social p
roblems. B A cooler & F Renkel (1933, 36) collected data from 400 Europeans from
different Classes and countries, were able to show phases through which all peo
ple, especially the Midlife crisis at the age of about 40 The authors focused on
three dimensions of the biographies of adults: 1) significant external events,
2) internal reactions to it, and 3) special Bewltigungen and creative achievement
s of life. This also resulted in other interesting results: - In the first half
of life, a person's experience is strongly influenced by physical Influenced nee
ds and short-term expectations, and later by internalized Obligations arising fr
om the interaction with the social, cultural and religious environment have show
n; Dissenters from this pattern are classified as of neurotic - Life, in which s
exual satisfaction are seen as important work and family, have subjective deteri
oration in the second half on - Experiences of solitude and daydreaming are stro
ngest in late adolescence and in the mid-forties, here, there is also the re-exa
mination of the past (For the second time after the late teens life is called in
to question) and a increased interest in literature - The search for the meaning
of life begins in later adolescence 1
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D ANIEL L EVINSON (1978, 81) examined 40 American men from four different Profes
sionals (professors, writers, managers, workers). Here he went to some Guideline
s along which showed itself in the investigation. Must be considered ...: 1 diff
erent areas of life (family, education, relationships, marriage ...). 2 stable s
ections and turning points in the fields. 3 The interpretation of the areas to b
e learned. 4 There must be a sense of the various chapters of the life history o
f the part of the Interviewer form. 5 high and low points, which often represent
the end of a section and the Beginning of a new one. 6 life as a whole and the
relationships between the sections and fields of life. The central concept in th
is case the structure of life, referring to it is like a life is patterned to a
certain time. It includes the socio-cultural world, participation therein, and v
arious aspects of life that are stable over time or be changed. This results in
the following model: 17 years Childhood and youth 22 earlier adult - Transition
28 Entering the adult world (Dream for the future, Relating to a Mentor) 33 Age
30 - Transition (Reconsideration of earlier Obligations) 40 settle down (Family
+ house; BOOM: Becoming One's Own Man ) 45 Midlife - Transition 50 Entering the
middle Adulthood 55 Age 50 - Transition 60 Highest level of middle Adulthood 65
Late adulthood - Transition late Adulthood For women studies confirm the same st
ages of development. However, differences respect of the dream (in women more co
mplex and contradictory than the dream of the man of career and family) and ment
or (less often a satisfied relationship with a mentor than in men) in early adul
thood, the transition at the age of 30 Years (in women accompanied by dramatic c
hanges in personality, especially then if the woman is not married and has no fa
mily; Torschlusspanik) and the transition 1
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in midlife ( in men or less to the age of 30 in women, and the Man has an
urgent need for a reconsideration of his life structure) here. The general idea
is very contradictory seen today. Costa and McCrae could through a midlife cris
is scale, no differences in the occurrence of stress between different age group
s make up and R OSSI argued that Levinson's view only has validity for the worki
ng class white men and women. On the other hand exhibit H ELSON & W INK in a lon
gitudinal study with women that it is a change in aged years, following a phase
of security. M ERCER et al. showing that they in women this phase as a liberatio
n phase, in which the woman is itself expresses. The Life Course Life can thus b
e seen as a plot. The most interesting and significant change in Course of life
is the transition into midlife. In addition to biological changes (Woman can no
longer bear children) play a role especially social definitions. N EUGARTEN (196
8) speaks of the social clock, which sets as a person in a to behave certain per
iod of his life. This begins with the conclusion of Colleges in the early 20s, a
bout setting up a family in the 20s and 30s up for retirement at 65 or 70 At mid
-life, a person remembers that she has less than half of her life in front of hi
m. This makes them more concerned with their mortality or in Neugartens words wi
th the personalization of death confronted. Thus loss experiences are salient, l
osses other person's own vitality and loss of hope. Other effects: - Increased u
se of memory in everyday life - Increased attention to the inner world consistin
g of thoughts and feelings - Less interest in new interpersonal and instrumental
commitment - Women are instrumental and executive (see Jung's theory of the ani
mus in the older woman) - Men are passive, thoughtful and less aggressive than b
efore (anima) - J ACQUES (1965): amended efforts to be creative; demonstrated in
the works of great Artists (including Mozart, Gauguin, Shakespeare) of differen
t areas, the first in the Half of life optimistic and idealistic, romantic and l
onging works created from 40 years of age conscious, refined and philosophical w
orks disclosed. Unlike Levinson, psychologists with a perspective that is life c
ourse (CV) is called, the developing course of a person not categorized as clear
ly within certain stages, difficult to predict and to be dependent on social, cu
ltural and historical backgrounds. This gives rise to the diversity of human Dev
elopments between historical periods, cultures and individuals. Simultaneously a
ffect people the course of their development, but also their agen matic influenc
e. The life course perspective is thus based on ... 1st of social time and socia
l timing 2 social roles and relationships 3 of human agency and individual varia
bility with respect to psychosocial Development in adulthood 1
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to 1: the person acts according to age, ie according to social expectations conc
erning their Age; just so they can participate in social life and feel good; as
she tells her story based on the social expectation of life; to 2: social roles
are important; Erikson's concept of generativity should not be consideredStage t
o be seen but as a dynamic order of roles, ie generativity varies in different r
oles (such as family, work orReligion) and may if in a role not a predictor for
the presence be in other roles. It may even be that generativity to be from a ro
llnext moved on. Furthermore, the person is oriented to other people in the same
role ( linked live performance , social convoys), which are significant for the 3: People are not passive recipients of these influences. Construct Adults
active their lives in a social context. Summary: S. 729 1
Original German text:
2. charakteristische
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