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P A R I S

1

Associate Professor of Mechanics and

Assistant Director of the Institute of Research,

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa,

F . E R D O G A N

Professor of Mechanical

Engineering, Lehigh University,

Bethlehem, Pa. Mem. ASME

A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f C r a c k P r o p a g a t i o n L a w s

The practice of attempting validation of crack-propagation laws (i.e., the laws of Head,

Frost and Dugdale, McEvily and I llg, Liu, and Paris) with a small amount of data,

such as a few single specimen test results, is questioned. I t is shown that all the laws,

though they are mutually contradictory, can be in agreement with the same small sample

of data. I t is suggested that agreement with a wide selection of data from many speci-

mens and over many orders of magnitudes of crack-extension rates may be necessary to

validate crack-propagation laius. For such a wide comparison of data a new simple

empirical law is given which fits the broad trend of the data.

s *

I n t r o d u c t i o n

IEVEHAL crack-propagati on laws have been pre-

sented in the past few years, whi ch claim to be verified by the

experimental data analyzed in their respecti ve papers. They

are specifically the work of Head [l ],

a

Frost and Dugdal e [2],

McE vi l j ' and I llg [3 ], L i u [4, 5 ], and Paris, Gomez, and Anderson

[6,7,8].

Thi s paper will attempt to show that basing val i dati on of a

crack-propagati on theory on a limited amount of data is a poor

test of any theory. Moreover, a wide range of test data is now

available in a conveni ent form [9] whi ch may be empl oyed to

anal yze cri ti cal l y these several crack propagati on laws.

Therefore the paper will consist of three parts whi ch will i n-

cl ude:

1 A revi ew and compari son of existing crack-propagati on

laws.

2 The erroneous results obtai ned by compari ng each l aw wi th

a l i mi ted range of test data.

3 The results of compari ng crack-propagati on laws wi th a

wi de range of data.

A R e v i e w o f E x i s t i n g C r a c k - P r o p a g a t i o n L a w s

Crack-propagati on laws gi ven in the literature take many

forms. I n general they treat cracks in infinite sheets subjected

to a uni form stress perpendicular to the crack (or can be appl i ed

to that confi gurati on) and they relate the crack l ength, 2a, to the

number of cycl es of l oad applied, N, with the stress range cr, and

material constants C,-.' The single form in whi ch all crack-

propagati on laws may be written is

da

dN

= / ( f , a, Ci) ( 1 )

Therefore this format will be empl oyed in the discussion to

fol l ow.

Chronol ogi cal l y the first crack-propagati on l aw whi ch drew

wi de attenti on was that of Head [1] in 1953. He empl oyed a

mechanical model whi ch considered rigid-plastic work-hardeni ng

elements ahead of a crack ti p and elastic elements over the re-

mainder of the infinite sheet. The model required extensive

calculations and deducti ons to obtai n a law which may be

written as

da

dN

C^a'*

(C2 - 0>' / '

(Head's l aw) (2)

where Ci depends upon the strain-hardening modul us, the modu-

lus of elasticity, the yield stress and the fracture stress of the

material, and Ci is the yi el d strength of the material. Head de-

fined Wo as the size of the plastic zone near the crack ti p and pre-

sumed i t was constant during crack propagati on. However,

Frost [2] noti ced that the pl asti c-zone size increased in direct

proporti on to the crack length in his tests. Moreover, I rwi n [10]

has recentl y poi nted out from anal yti cal considerations that

Wo (3)

for the confi gurati on treated here whi ch is in agreement wi th

Frost's conclusions. Therefore, though Head adopted equati on

(2) with w0 considered constant as his crack-propagati on law, we

are forced here to i ntroduce equati on (3) i nto equati on (2) to

obtai n a modi fi ed or corrected form of Head's crack-propagati on

l aw; i.e.,

1

Also Consultant to the Boeing Company, Transport Division,

Renton, Wash.

2

Numbers in brackets designate References at end of paper.

3

I n this discussion a will imply the stress-fluctuation range and Ci

will vary slightly with mean stress in a general interpretation.

Contributed by the Metals Engineering Division and presented at

the Winter Annual Meeting, New York, N. Y., November 25-30,

1962, of T H E A M E RI CA N SOCI E T Y OF M E C H A N I C A L E N GI N E E RS.

Manuscript received at ASME Headquarters, April 11, 1962. Paper

No. 62WA-234.

da C3o~

2

a

dN

=

(C2 - o)

(Head's corrected l aw) (4)

Frost and Dugdal e [2] in 1958 presented a new approach to

crack-propagati on laws. They observed as was i ntroduced in

equati on (4), that Head's law should be corrected for the vari a-

tion of pl asti c-zone size with crack length. They deduced that

the corrected result, equati on (4), depends linearly on the crack

length a. However, they also argued by dimensional analysis

N o m e n c l a t u r e -

a = half crack length

Qo = initial half crack l ength

B = a functi on of stress range (and

mean stress)

C = a numerical constant

C; constants (whi ch vary slightly

with mean stress)

Ds = constants which depend on

stress level

/( ) = a functi on of

F { } = a functi on of

G { } = a functi on of

k = stress-intensity factor (range)

IClW = stress-concentration factor

m = a numerical exponent

M = a material constant

n = a numerical exponent

N = cycl e number

A

r

o, Nj , initial and final cycl e number,

respectively

da

= crack extension per cycl e of

d N

l oad

Ak = stress-intensity-factor range

p, pi = crack-ti p radius

cr = applied stress (range)

UQ = stress at a crack tip (wi th

finite radius p)

crnot = net section stress

w0 = pl asti c-zone size

5 2 8 / D E C E M B E R 1 9 6 3 T r a n sa c t i o n s o f t h e A S M E

Copyright 1963 by ASME

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that the incremental increase in crack l ength da, for an i ncremen-

tal number of cycl es dN, should be di rectl y proporti onal to the

crack l ength a. Hence they concl uded that (i ndependent of

Head's model )

da

dN

Ba (5)

fol l owi ng arguments: I rwi n's [12] stress-intensity-factor k re-

flects the effect of external l oad and confi gurati on on the i n-

tensi ty of the whol e stress field around a crack ti p. Moreover,

for various confi gurati ons the crack-ti p stress field always has the

same form (i .e., di stri buti on). Therefore i t was reasoned that

the intensity of the crack-ti p stress field as represented by k

should control the rate of crack extension.

4

That is to say:

where B is a functi on of the applied stresses. Then they ob-

served that in order to fit their experimental data:

dN

= ( ? {f c } (15)

B =

C;

Combi ni ng equati ons (5) and (6) they obtai ned the l aw:

( 6)

da cr

3

a

= (Frost and Dugdal e's l aw) (7)

dN Ci

About the same ti me McE vi l y and I llg [3] modi fi ed a method

of analysis of stati c strength of plates wi th cracks used at NASA

to obtai n a theory of crack propagati on. Thei r arguments were

as fol l ows: Presuming that a crack ti p in a material has a charac-

teristic (fi cti ti ous) radius pi, whi ch allows computati on of the

stress (To, in the el ement at the crack ti p using elastic stress-

concentrati on factor concepts, the stress a0 is

(To = Kn(T net (8)

I CN = 1 + 2 (a/p,)'A

(9)

which is based on the elastic sol uti on for an elliptical hol e of

semi major axis a and end radius pi.

<Tnet = <J (10)

and substituting equati ons (9) and (10) i nto (8) gi ves

tr = <r[l + 2 (a/p,)'^] (11)

Based on considerations that under cycl i c l oadi ng work-hardeni ng

at the crack ti p will raise the l ocal stress to a fracture stress, they

concl uded that the crack-extensi on rate will be a functi on of <ra or

da

dN

- = F{tr} = F{KN<rnei\ (12)

(McE vi l y and I l l g's l aw)

Therefore for the special confi gurati on of interest here, i.e., i n-

troduci ng equati ons (8), (9), (10), and (11) i nto (12), we have

S - ' K - O T <

u

>

which is the desired form in this discussion upon considering pi to

be a material constant, in likeness to the Cs.

McE vi l y and I llg go on in an empirical manner to obtai n the

form of the functi on F { }, and suggest

logi 00509 ffiVcrnel - 5.472 -

34

(14)

KNane, - 34

(McE vi l y and I l l g's l aw empirically extended)

I t should be noted by the reader that McEvi l y and I l l g's laws,

equati ons (12) and (14), are not restricted to the special confi gura-

ti on here, as was the case for the laws of Head, and Frost and

Dugdal e. The appl i cabi l i ty to other configurations and an addi -

tional similarity to Paris' work [6, 7, 8] will warrant later com-

ments.

I ndependent of McE vi l y and I llg, Paris [11] proposed a crack-

propagati on theory at about the same time. I t is based on the

I n treating the special confi gurati on of interest in this di scussi on,

i t should first be observed that (11)

k = < r a ( 1 6 )

whereupon equati on (15) may be specialized to read:

da

dN =

"A!

(17)

Somewhat later, Li u [4] restated Frost and Dugdal e's [2] di -

mensional analysis in a much more elegant form and argued that

the crack-growth rate should depend linearly on the crack

l ength; i.e.,

da

= Ba (L i u's l aw)

dN

( 18)

where K N is the stress-concentration factor and <rnet is the net

area stress at the cracked secti on. For the confi gurati on used

here, i.e., an infinite pl ate wi th uni form stress a

which is the same result as equati on (5). Li u then presumed

that B was in general a functi on of stress range a (and mean

stress); i.e.,

B = B(o-) (19)

I n a subsequent work, Li u [5] notes that mean stress is of

secondary influence and, using a model of crack extension em-

pl oyi ng an idealized elastic-plastic stress-strain diagram and a

concept of total hysteresis energy absorpti on to failure, reasons

that

B{<T) = C6o-

2

whi ch combi ned with equati on (18) gi ves

da

= C5o"'a (L i u's modi fi ed l aw)

dN

( 20)

(2 1)

T h e E q u i v a l e n c e o f K

N

t o k

Hardrath [14] observed that KNanet for the special confi gura-

ti on empl oyed here, from equati ons (8) and (10),

KN<rnet = u[l + 2(a/p,)'/]

is similar to the stress-intensity factor, equati on (16),

k = <sa

h

(22)

(23)

if pi is small compared to a. For aluminum al l oys (2024T3 and

7075T6) his colleagues McEvi l y and I l l g [3] had already observed

that pi is less than 0.005 in. so that the condi ti on pi <K a is in fact

present for cracks of a readi l y observabl e l ength in crack-propaga-

tion tests. Thus Kj/O'net and k are known to concur for this

special confi gurati on and in addi ti on a proof that they are

equi val ent in general will be offered here.

I rwi n [12] observed that the equati ons for the stress field sur-

roundi ng the ti p of a sharp crack contai ns the factor fc/(2r)

1/,J

which implies a singularity of stress at the crack tip. Now, if a

hol e of radius p is drilled at the crack ti p, the maxi mum stress on

the peri phery of the hol e will be proporti onal to k/ (2p)

1

^ or

<r = CT/(2p)'A (24)

whi ch applies for any p whi ch is small compared to other planar

4

At about this same time Martin and Sinclair [13] attempted un-

successfully to correlate crack-extension rates using a similar parame-

ter but did not observe a correlation which does in fact occur.

J o u r n a l o f Ba si c En g i n e e r i n g D E C E M B E R 1 9 6 3 / 5 2 9

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dimensions of any confi gurati on consi dered, and C is a constant

i ndependent of the confi gurati on. Fi nal l y, cr0 in equati on (24) may

be interpreted to be the same as KN<TNET, from equati on (8) and

its accompanyi ng discussion, if p is taken equal to pi. Then

K N a net = ffo

Ck

(2 p,)'

A

(25)

I n order to evaluate C, the results for the special confi gurati on

considered herein may be empl oyed, i.e., substituting equati ons

(22) and (23) i nto (25) and noting equi val ence for small pi gives

C = lim

= lim

pi>-0

a

[_

1 +2

(tO

a

]

( 2 p , ) I/ !

=

2

Putti ng this result i nto equati on (25) and rearranging,

Kn <rnet pi

1

/ '

k l i m

pi-t-0

(26)

(27)

which implies the general equi val ence of /fA.<J net and k.

S i m i l a r i t i e s B e t w e e n C r a c k - P r o p a g a t i o n L a w s

The result of the foregoi ng discussion, equati on (27), implies

the di rect similarity of McE vi l y and I l l g's law, equati on (12), and

Paris' result, equati on (15). A choi ce between the two is stri ctl y

dependent on a matter of conveni ence and cl ari ty of accompanyi ng

concepts in empl oyi ng one or the other.

6

The laws of Head, equati on (4), Frost and Dugdal e, equati on

(7), and Li u, equations (18) and (21), can all be approxi mated by

the form

da <T"a'

n

dN

=

( 28)

for the special confi gurati on whi ch is treated. Now, i t is evi dent

that Paris' result for this confi gurati on, equati on (17), i mpl i es:

n

~2

(29)

whi ch can also be deri ved from McE vi l y and I l l g's result, equa-

ti on (13), for pi small compared to a.

The laws of Head, and Frost and Dugdal e do not qui te

agree wi th appl yi ng equati on (29) to equati on (28), however,

L i u's l aw does concur wi th the specified form.

I t is perti nent to now show that determining m and n from a

limited quanti ty of data is a doubtful practi ce. That is to say

that pl otti ng data from single test specimens on a l ogari thmi c or

semilogarithmic graph on which laws such as Head's, Frost's, and

L i u's predi ct straight line relationships is not a reasonable test

of the val i di ty of a crack propagati on l aw.

E r r o n e o u s E v a l u a t i o n o f D a t a F r o m S i n g l e T e s t s

A typical crack-propagation test consists of a wi de plate with a

central crack of length 2a, subjected to uni form tension <r, re-

peatedl y applied. Duri ng a single test then tr is a constant and

data consisting of crack lengths and corresponding cycl e numbers

are obtained. L et the probl em of examining each of the previous

crack-propagation laws for a particular test be formul ated.

I n a constant maxi mum repeated stress-level test Head's law,

equati on (2), is reduced to

da ,,

^ =

a A

(30)

6

For very small cracks there is a difference between the two

theories which is left unresolved.

200000 ei o o o o 2 2 0 000 230 OOO

, N0.I5

575 000 600 000 625 0 0 0

NO. 10 ,

102 000 103000

F i g . 1 T yp i c a l d a t a f r o m Ma r t i n a n d S i n c l a i r o n He a d ' s s u g g e s t e d p l o t

;

TESTS BY MARTI N 8 SI NCLAI R [.13} !

SYMBOL SPECIMEN STRESS

MO. 10 27027 PSI

NO. 14 23 760

O NO. 15 21978

/ / '

NO 13 ,

575 000 600 000 6250 0 0

NO. 14

200 000 2 J O 000 220 000

, NO. 10

230000

[ 02000 105000 110 000 115000

N ( eyel o)

F i g . 2 T h e s a m e d a t a f r o m Ma r t i n a n d S i n c l a i r o n F r o s t 's o r L i u ' s s u g -

g e s t e d p l o t

TESTS BY MARTIN 8 SINCLAIR [|3J

SYMBOL SPECIMEN STRESS

F i g . 3 A g a i n t h e s a m e d a t a f r o m Ma r t i n a n d S i n c l a i r o n Mc E v i l y' s o r

P a r i s ' s u g g e s t e d p l o t

5 3 0 / D E C E M B E R 1 9 6 3

T r a n sa c t i o n s o f t h e A S M E

Downloaded From: http://fluidsengineering.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 09/15/2013 Terms of Use: http://asme.org/terms

where D\ is a constant for a given stress range a. I ntegrating this

expression gives

rr = DiN + const

n '

2

(31)

Therefore Head suggested plotting l/ a^ versus N and, observing

equation (31), implied that obtaining a straight line for each

specimen whose data are plotted this way indicates verification of

his law.

The data of Martin and Sinclair [13] are employed here as an

unbiased source. From their data specimens nos. 10, 14, and 15

were chosen since those specimens were run at medium stress

levels and the greatest number of data points per specimen was

recorded for them. Fig. 1 shows the type of plot suggested by

Head and it is noticed that portions of the data do form straight

lines. Does this mean that Head's theory is verified? The

reader is warned that this might be a hasty conclusion.

First, consider the corrected law of Head, Frost and Dugdale's

law, and Liu's law, equations (4), (7), (18), and (19), respec-

tively. For a constant stress-range test all these laws reduce

to the form

da

dN

= D

*

a

I ntegrating this result gives:

log a = D2N + const

(32)

(33)

(34)

for a given material. T o test these theories, data from several

specimens should be plotted on a k versus da/ dN (or log da/ dN)

graph and these laws predict that the data of several specimens

will form a single curve. Again the same data of Martin and

Sinclair are plotted in Fig. 3. Noti ce that the points which do

not fall on the straight-line portions of Figs. 1 and 2 seem to be

perfectly acceptable here. Since the data were differentiated

to obtain da/ dN, an additional amount of scatter is introduced.

Therefore the data also imply verification of these two laws as

well.

Hence, all of the laws agree with the data and, since these laws

are not identical, the method of verification of crack-propagation

theories from a limited amount of test data is evidently in error.

An alternative approach employing a wider range of test data

must be employed.

C o m p a r i s o n o f C r a c k - P r o p a g a t i o n L a w s W i t h a W i d e

R a n g e o f T e s t D a t a

I n previous work [6, 8] i t was observed that data from several

sources [3, 9, 13] may be plotted in the form of Fig. 3 (semi-

logarithmic) to obtain a single curve on a range of stress-in-

tensity factor, Ak (corresponding to stress range) versus log

(da/ dN) diagram, where da/ dN covers as many as 6 log cycles.

However, replotting these data on a log Ak versus log (da/ dN)

graph reveals some pertinent results. The data are replotted i n

Fig. 4 and the three specimens from Martin and Sinclair's work

used in the foregoing for the purpose of illustration are shown to

indicate their concurrence with the general trend.

The authors are hesitant but cannot resist the temptation to

draw the straight line of slope 'A through the data in Fig. 4. The

equation of this line is observed to be

Therefore plotting log a versus N and obtaining straight lines has

been accepted as verifying these theories. Fig. 2 is this type of

plot employing the very same test data point by point of Martin

and Sinclair shown in Fig. 1. Again, the test data have straight-

line portions. Therefore it now seems to verify both Head's law

equation (30) and the other laws with the form of equation (32).

But the theories represented by equations (30) and (32) are

not the same!

Now let the laws of McEvi l y and I llg, and Paris, equations

(12) and (15), be examined in the light of these same data. Re-

calling equation (27) these two laws are equivalently expressed

by

da

dN

(Aky

M

(35)

Equation (35) fits the data almost as well as McEvi l y and I llg's

extended law, equation (14), and is considerably simpler in form.

The advantage of this form is clarified by considering its ap-

plication to the configuration employed earlier, in which case i t

becomes

da

dN M

(36)

The laws of Head, Frost and Dugdale, and Liu depend on a in a

manner other than a

2

. Clearly, their laws are at variance with

the data trend in Fi g. 4; i.e., Head predicts the slope of

l

/z and

Frost and Dugdale as well as Liu would predict '/* as indicated

in the figure.

Moreover, if one might be so bol d as to attempt to integrate

equation (36) i t becomes

J _

o

M

(N - N) (37)

10

AK

I0

4

'

O NASA

LIU

A MARTIN a SINCLAIR

X BOEING

LI U

- O - O - o j S ^ V

SLOP E 1/2

10

_L_

- 7

10

- 6

10

d(2o)

1 0 dN 1 0

F i g . 4 B r o a d t r e n d o f c r a c k - g r o w t h d a t a o n 2024- T 3 a l u m i n u m a l l o y

UL

e ye .

- 3

10 10

J o u r n a l o f Ba si c En g i n e e r i n g

D E C E M B E R 1 9 6 3 / 5 3 1

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where a and No are the initial crack size and cycl e number, re-

specti vel y. For final failure of a speci men, the number of cycl es

may be equated to N r , as a approaches infinity whereupon equa-

tion (37)reduces to

N P =

M

cr'on

(38)

which does in fact resemble an S-N diagram. The authors do not

wish to i mpl y that equati on (38) is di rectl y useful, but deri ve i t

here to show that such considerations do not i mmedi atel y lead to

the conclusion that equati ons (35) or (36) are in error.

D a t a F r o m W e d g e - F o r c e T e s t s

The results of wedge-force tests of the confi gurati on shown in

Fi g. 5 are useful in cri ti cal l y exami ni ng the dimensional analyses

of Frost and Dugdal e, and Liu in deri vi ng their crack-propagati on

laws. I f the sheet is infinite, the onl y characteristic dimension

of the probl em is a. As the crack grows, stri ctl y dimensional

arguments i mpl y that for di fferent crack lengths oi and a? the

incremental rates of crack extension are

dN Oi dN a.2

which mi ght be thought val i d for all crack lengths or

5 =

S a

<

40

>

dN

Thi s result is the basis of equati ons (5) and (18).

I n wedge-force tests Donal dson and Anderson [9] observe that

the crack grows slower as i t gets larger. Thi s is contrary to equa-

F i g . 5 W e d g e - f o r c e l e s t c o n f i g u r a t i o n

ti on (40) and hence weakens any arguments based on dimensional

analyses which do not include further considerations. Therefore

the crack propagati on laws of Head, Frost and Dugdal e, and Li u

must be considered as unclarified, if not total l y in error.

Moreover, Fi g. 6 is a graph, similar in form to Fi g. 4, but for a

di fferent materi al ; i.e., 7075T6 aluminum al l oy. The data shown

are from two i ndependent sources [3 and 9] and in addition

wedge-force test data from tests empl oyi ng confi gurati on of Fi g. 5

are also pl otted. No further comment seems necessary.

C o n c l u s i o n

The results here indicate that the practi ce of using data from

single test specimens is not a sensitive eval uati on of a crack-

propagati on l aw's val i di ty. Randoml y chosen data from single

specimens analyzed here leads to an apparent agreement of

several contradi ctory laws to the same test data.

For that reason the authors suggest that laws which correlate

a wide range of test data from many specimens are perhaps the

"cor r ect" laws. The results at least i ndi cate that hasty concl u-

sions have been drawn in many earlier works whi ch should be re-

examined before any gi ven crack-propagati on l aw is accepted as

valid.

A c k n o w l e d g m e n t

Thi s work was supported by the Boei ng Company, Transport

Di vi si on, Renton, Wash. Thei r encouragement, as well as

financial aid, is grateful l y acknowl edged.

R e f e r e n c e s

1 A. K . Head, "The Growth of Fatigue Cracks," The Philo-

sophical Magazine, vol. 44, series 7, 1953, p. 925.

2 N. E. Frost and D. S. Dugdale, "The Propagation of Fatigue

Cracks in Sheet Specimens," J ournal of the Mechanics and Physics of

Solids, vol. 6, no. 2, 1958, p. 92.

3 A. J . McEvi l y and W. I llg, "The Rate of Crack Propagation in

Two Aluminum Al l oys," NACA Technical Note 4394, September,

1958.

4 H. W. Liu, "Crack Propagation in Thin Metal Sheets Under

Repeated Loading," T HE J OURNAL OF BASI C ENGI NEERI NG, TRANS.

ASME, Series D, vol. 83, 1961, p. 23.

5 H. W. Liu, "Fati gue Crack Propagation and Applied Stress

RangeAn Energy Approach," J OURNAL OF BASI C ENGI NEERI NG,

TRANS. A S M E , Ser i es D , vol . 85, 1963, p. 116.

6 P. C. Paris, M. P. Gomez, and W. E. Anderson, "A Rational

Analytic Theory of Fatigue," The Trend in Engineering, vol. 13, no. 1,

J anuary, 1961, p. 9.

7 W. E. Anderson and P. C. Paris, "Eval uati on of Aircraft Ma-

terial by Fracture," Metals Engineering Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, Mav,

1961, p. 33.

8 P. C. Paris, "Crack Propagation Caused by Fluctuating

Loads," ASME Paper No. 62Met-3.

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9 D. R. Donaldson and W. E. Anderson. " Crack Propagation

Beha'ior of Some Airframe Materials." presented at the Crack Propa-

gation SympoRium. Cranfield. England. September, 1961: proceed-

ings to be published. Also available on request to The Boeing Com-

pany. Transport Division. Document No. D6-7888.

10 G. R. Irwin . "Fracture Mode Transition for a Crnck Travers-

ing 1\ Plate." JOURNAL OF BASIC ENGINEERINO, TRANS. ASME, Series

n. yol. 82. no. 2, June. 1960. p. 417.

11 P. C. Paris, "A Note 011 the Variables Effecting the Rate of

Crack Growth Due to C:vclic Loading," The Doeing Company,

Document No. 0-17867, Addendum N, September 12. 1957.

12 G. R. Irwin. II Analysis or Stresses and Strains Near the End of

fl Crark Traversing n Plate." Journal 0/ Apph'ed lIfechanin. vol. 24.

TRANS. ASME. Y01. 79,1957, p. 361.

13 D. E. Martin and G. M. Sinclair. "Crack Propagation Under

nepf'aled Loading," Proceedings of t he Third U.S. National Congress

of Applied Mechanics, June. 1958. p. 595.

14 H. F. Hardrath and A. J . McEvily. "Engineering Aspects of

Fatigue Cmck Propug-aUon," presented nt the Crnck Propagation

Symposi um, Cranfield, England, September, 1961.

Journal of Basic Engineering

DECEMBER 1963 I 533

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