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Theme Nr.

7
Man-made Tourist Resources of the
Republic of Moldova


SUBJ ECTS:

1. Historic erections;

2. Religious erections;

3. Cultural, sports and economic erections;

4. Monuments, statues, commemorative plaques;





S1. Historic erections

Keywords:Fortress


Learning objectives:
O1. To describe fortresses of the Republic of Moldova


O1.Fortresses
A network of fortresses was built in the medieval Moldova to protect it from
enemy attacks. The building material for some of the fortresses was stone and
bricks, and their remains have lived to these days; others were constructed from
wood so no trace is left of them. Moldovan fortresses were mainly small in size,
with walls of up to 5m thick.
Soroca fortress was part of a huge Moldovan defensive system in the medieval
times, which comprised four fortresses on the Nistru river, two on the Danube and
another three in the northern part of the country. With this "stone belt of
fortresses", the country borders were well protected. Soroca fortress was built at
the Nistru river crossing, on older fortifications. In 1499, on the order of Stefan cel
Mare, a square wooden fortress was built, on the site of a former Genovan fortress
called as Olihonia (Alciona).

Between 15431546, while Petru Rares ruled the country, the fortress was
completely re-built in stone, and in the shape one can see it today a perfect circle,
the diameter of which is 37,5 m and with 5 bastions situated at equal distances.
When designing the fortress the builders incorporated the supreme law of harmony
the golden section, which makes the fortress unique among examples of
European defensive architecture.
Sorocas fortress is also famous for being the place where the Moldovan army,
commanded by the famous statesman Dm. Cantemir, and the Russian army, led by
the Tsar Petru I, met and consolidated their forces during the Prut campaign
against the Turkish hordes in 1711. Along history, the fortress has been visited by
Bogdan Hmelnitski, Timush Hmelnitski, Alexander Suvorov, and others. The
fortress is the only medieval monument in Moldova, which has been preserved
entirely as it was designed by its builders. Above the entrance gate one can visit
the small military church.

Visitors to Soroca can also visit the stone hermitage located in the Bechir canyons,
which dates from the IX century; the "The hill of sedentary gypsies" the gypsy
quarter with its eccentric houses; the county hospital (XIX century); girls
gymnasium (XIX century); the museum of the Soroca region; T. Stratilat church
(XIX century, eclectic architecture); and "Adormirea Maicii Domnului" church
(1842). Only 7 kms to the North lies a famous village of stonemasons.

Tighina Fortress was first mentioned as an important customs post in a commerce
grant issued by Moldavian hospodar Alexandru cel Bun to merchants from Lvov
on October 8 1408. The document is written in Old East Slavic and the place is
named - Tyagyanakacha. The name Tighina is seen in documents since the second
half of the 15th century.
In 1538, the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the fortress and
renamed it Bender. In the 18th century, the fort's area was expanded and
modernized by the prince of Moldavia Antioh Cantemir, who carried out these
works under the Ottoman supervision. In 1713, the fortress was the site of a
skirmish (kalabalik) between Charles XII of Sweden, who had taken refuge there
with Cossack leader Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa after their failed attack on Russia,
and Turks who wished to take him hostage and exploit the political difficulties of
central Europe. Tighina fell three times to the Russians during the Russo-Turkish
Wars, was annexed alongside with Bessarabia to Russia in 1812 and remained in
Russian hands until 1918. As a part of Bessarabia, Tighina belonged to Romania
between 1918 and 1940, temporary also between 1941 and 1944. During the War
of Transnistria most of the fighting was concentrated in the city for its key strategic
location defending Tiraspol from the right bank of Dniester river. Tighina is
controlled by the breakaway Transnistrian government.
In the XVth century the system of fortifications situated along the Dnister banks
played an important role in medieval Moldavia, because they served as defence
line against the invasion on the eastern frontiers (Hotin, Soroca, Tighina, Cetatea
Alba).
The fortress of Tighina is one of the oldest fortifications included in this system.
Built on remains of an ancient settlement, Tighina Fortress is mentioned in the
documents dating back to the times of Alexandru cel Bun (1408) as an important
customs post. The frontier fortress was fenced with stone walls during the rule of
Petru Rares in conformity with a special design which envisaged round and
rectangular walls.
In 1538 the fortress was conquered by Suleiman the Magnificent, and was
reconstructed to the design of architect Sinan, being turned into an Ottoman
residence named Bender (turk. "port").
In 1705 - 1707 the fort's area was expanded and modernized by the prince of
Moldavia Antioh Cantemir who carried out these works under the Ottoman
supervision.
Consequently, the fortress of Tighina makes an architectural ensemble with a lay-
out in the shape of an irregular rectangle fenced by wide (2,5-3 m) and high walls
made of limestone and brick, with ten artillery bastions at the corners and eleven
towers. The lower part of the citadel is reinforced by three walls and two towers of
middle size. Inside the fort there are: a palace, dwelling house, shops, three
mosques, artillery barracks and other structures and annexes.
During the Russian - Turkish wars the Tighina Fortress was three times conquered
by the Russian armies (in 1770, 1789 and 1806). After the Bucharest Treaty was
signed in 1812 Bessarabia was annexed to the Russian Empire and the fortress
came in the possession of the Russian military authorities. Not far from the fortress
there remained up till now the remnants of the war camp of Swedish King Charles
XII who took his refuge here after the Poltava battle.
Nowadays Tighina fortress shelters Russian 14th army troops remained here with
the rest of ammunition since last war between Moldova and Transnistria in early
1990th.



Conclusion:The fortresses of Republic of Moldova represent a true
treasure for tourists.Their beauty and amazing history makes them to attract
many visitors.

Bibliography:
http://echip99.md/424


S2.Religious erections

Keywords:Monastery,church,


Learning objectives:
O1. To describe the most famous monasteries of the Republic of Moldova


O1.Monasteries
Capriana monastery is one of the oldest monasteries in Basarabia. It is situated
only 35 km north - west of Chisinau, at the Isnovat locality, on the bunch of the
river with the same name (Isnavat).

For the first time it was mentioned in charters of Alexander the Kind in the 30's of
the 15 th century. The first official document which contains data about Capriana
Monastery is the Alexander the Kind royal charters dating from April 25, 1420
where the following was mentioned: for our really devoted servant and nobleman
Mr. Oana Vornic we offer our country which is Moldova the villages: Cornestii
and Miclausestii, and Lozova, and Sacarenii, and Vornicenii, and Dumestii, and
Tiganestii, and Lavrestii, and Sadova, and Homestii. And the boundaries of these
villages which represent Barcovat beginning with the territory of Varnet
monastery, the Acibco apiary, the top of Lozova, the Carlanici bridge, the Fontana
Mica and Fontana Mare and namely with the Tarnaucai glade, from the Chiprians
glade with the Bac mill, from the large river meadow towards Poroseci.

The royal legacy charter dating from February 10, 1429 is the second document
which tells about Capriana Monastery from the times of Alexander the King reign:
I am Alexander Voievod - the ruler of Moldova and I mention in this charter the
fact that we gave Vasnevat monastery where Chiprian is the Superior, to our wife -
princess Merena.
Initially, the monastery was named after Isnovat, which is a river flowing near the
monastery; later it was renamed into Capriana, thus honoring the name Chiprian
who was the first Superior of the monastery.
In the Grigore Ureche (the chronicler) papers the following is mentioned: Petru
Rares the ruler of Moldova (1527 1538), (1541-1546) would have built the first
stone church in locality Capriana with the Holy Virgin Dormition titulr saint.
Grirore Ureche offered to the monastery a Gospel written in Slavonic language on
parchment, banded with wooden covers and blown with silver. At the first page the
following text was written: Devoted and loving God Ioan Petru Voievod, with the
God forgiveness becoming the ruler of the whole Moldovan land and his wife
Elena, and his sons Ilias Voievod, Shtefan and Constantin embellished this
Gispel and in October 7053 (1545) gave it to the newly built Holy Virgin
Dormition Monastery which is Capriana.

Because of economical decline and cultural stagnation, the Capriana Monastery
experimented a difficult period in the XVIIth century.

Only after 1813, thanks to metropolitan bishop Gavriil Banu1escu-Bodoni, a
revigoration of monastic life was registered.

With the insistence of bishops, the Capriana Monastery was given to the Zograful
Monastery in 1837, the archbishop receiving the Harjauca monastery. The
monastery was under the leadership of Zograful monastery till March 9, 1873.
On June 29, 1940, a day after the conquest of Basarabia by Soviet troops, the
whole estate of the monastery was confiscated. The last abbot of the monastery
was the Superior Eugeniu (19521962) and the last church oration was
solemnized on October 25, 1962. a day after the activity which lasted more than a
half of the millennium, the monastery was closed, hieromonks tooking refuge in
other parishes, monks and brothers being driven banished.

The Soviet State declared the Capriana Monastery an architectural monument
governmentally protected, but at the same times the monastery begun to be foraged
and crashed.

After 1962, the monastery was transformed into a sanatorium for sick children.
The monastery refectory was transformed into a club where dancing parties, good
cheers and weddings were organized.

With the Republic of Moldova Council of Ministers decision, the Capriana
Monastery became again a place for orations; the first abbot of the monastery was
archimandrite Iosif Gargalac, who was an ex- abbot at the Soruceni Monastery.
With the retreating of the abbot Iosif, the monastery was conducted by hieromonk
Serafim, who continued the reconstruction of the monastery.

In 1994 1997 the refectory of the monastery was reconstructed and transformed
into church for winter orations.


Situated near the locality with the same name, Tipova Monastery is one of the
oldest monasteries in the Republic of Moldova. The monastery is spaded in stone
on the bunch of Nistru River.

The monastic complex portrays an image of an impressive museum. Between
Blanaritei and Valea Satului streams demolishment of an old town are cherished.
The demolishment represent an old town of Gets tribes inhabitants existing BC.
Tipova River is flowing down the Nistru River, it forms various waterfalls
attaining 10 16 meters length.

The monastery comprises three monastic complexes. First complex comprises
temple with Holy Cross festival and some cells; it is situated at a great distance and
it is hardly accessible. The foundation of the complex dates from XI XV
centuries. The second monastic complex includes St Nicholas temple, it was
spaded in rock stone in XIV XV centuries. The third complex dates from XVI
XVIII centuries and encompasses 18 separate rooms joined via interior passage.

According to an old legend, the Greek mythological poet Orpheus died at Tipova
Monastery. He was buried on the cascade valley and it is not difficult to recognize
his grave, as there are six apertures slabs on it.
Archbishop Visarion Puiu mentioned in a document edited in 1919 the following:
There are no precise data about the concrete year of the monastery foundation and
it remains unknown who built the hermitage initially. It is supposed that the
hermitage along with spaded in the rock caves served as a refuge for Christians
frightened by Tatars in XIII century. After the settlement of the conflict, friars built
the monastic husbandry which remained unchanged until now. And mainly, it
happened after 1756, when Radu Racovita offered the hermitage land to Dobrovat
Monastery, Vaslui County.

In 1776 the hermitage and its cells were renewed by monk Vortolomeu who was
the founder of Saharna Monastery

In 1842 the hermitage was destroyed. Since then, the monastery land was given to
Capriana Monastery and the hermitage itself to Saharna Monastery.
In a work edited in 1898 the XIX century, historian Zamfir Arbore related that at
those times Tipova hermitage comprised a big library including Romanian books
dating from XVII XVIII centuries. The monastic community comprised 16
monks, all of Romanian origin. The monastery estate comprised 420 dozens of
land; 20 dozens of land was cultivated, other 400 comprehending forests and
stone.

From 1842 till 1919, Tipova hermitage was managed by Saharna monastery
husbandry. In 1912 the temple situated on the hill was restored by hieromonk
Inokentie. In 1919, under the leadership of Archimandrite Mitrophor Sofronie
Neaga who came from Saharna Monastery, the Tipova hermitage obtained
independence.

In 1949 the monastic complex was closed and dispossessed of land. Friars took
refuge at other monasteries. The monastic complex situated on the hill was taken
over by the agricultural local husbandry. The temple became a tobacco deposit, the
hermitage being cleared out and demolished.
In 1990, a group of archeologists from Saint Petersburg found a skeleton in the
monastery basement, dating from the end of the XV century. According to
historians, Stefan cel Mare si Sfint frequently was visiting these lands during his
battles against Tatars. An old legend tells that the great lord (Stefan cel Mare)
married to one of his wives in the Tipova monastery, who after her death was
buried at this holy place.

In 1994, Tipova Monastery was reestablished.

Only the exterior side of the Holy Virgin Assumption temple was restored. The
temple is of medium size having a rectangular plan. Above the entrance room,
belfry is located. Fresco can be observed on the walls highlighting floral
decorations.


Curchi Monastery is one of the most important architectural monuments of
Bessarabia, and it is also considered to be one of the most beautiful and famous
monasteries of the region.
It is located in Orhei forest near Curchi village, approximately 14 km southwest of
the town of Orhei. The monastery is situated in the Vatici valley on a bank of the
Vatic River between rich hills covered with forests, gardens and orchards. The
monastery is a real gem, offering silence and peace.
The monastery has a rich religious and cultural past spanning more than two
centuries. It was founded in 1773-1775 and became one of the richest, most
beautiful, and largest monasteries in Moldova.
Several churches were build on the monasterys premises: St. Demetrius, a wooden
church built in 1775 by Ioan Curchi; Naterea Domnului, a stone church built in
1810; the winter church of St. Demetrius built in 1844; the summer church
Naterea Domnului built in 1872; and the winter church of St. Nicholas
(unfinished), built in 1936-1939.
Monastery's main church, the cathedral Naterea Domnului (1872), was built in
baroque style, inspired by the church of St. Andrew in Kiev, which was designed
by Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli. The cathedral has the highest dome in
Moldova, rising to a height of 57 meters
During the World War II, a fire at the monastery destroyed the icons and gilded
iconostasis inside the church. In addition, two of the four original belfries were
destroyed. In 1943, the cathedral was repainted. Unfortunately, from 1959-1995
the monastery was used as a psychiatric hospital. During this time, some repairs
were made in 1993, but it was largely neglected until 1999.
The monetary was reopened in 2005, but still badly in need of repair. Then in
2006, under the patronage of the former President of Moldova, a large fund-raising
campaign, "Curchi Monastery: From Ruins to Elevation, was organized to support
the restoration of the monastery. Today the monastery is undergoing a complete
renovation.
Saharna Monastery is situated at the distance of 8 km from Rezina town, 45 km
from Orhei town and 120 km from Chisinau city. The monastic complex is a
natural reservation; it encompasses 670 ha and is under the government protection.

Initially the monastic complex embodied a small hermitage Horodiste and a
small temple spaded in rock stone celebrating the Annunciation festival. In 1776,
monk Vortolomeu Crungul along with other monks came from Russia and settled
the complex. They repaired the temple and its cells.

In 1863, at the times of abbot Serafim another temple for winter orations and a
series of cells were built. It celebrates Holy Virgin Mother of God Bearing
festival.

During the period of 1776 1919 the monastic complex was guided by 24 abbots.
Saharna Monastery was closed in 1964 and all monks were given chase. It had
been used as a store-house for a boarding school. The Holy Trinity temple has been
used as a hospital deposit, the temple for winter orations served as a place for
dancing parties. Thus it functioned until 1990 when at the request of local citizens,
monastery was reopened.

In 1992, all monastery cells including refectory, canteen and the priorship were
overhauled. One of the first monks of the reopened monastery was hieromonk
Neonil. In 1944, the priest came from Rudi Monastery (Romania), taking refuge at
the Saharna Monastery.

The Saharna Monastery is of medium size, its hermitage does not have any
architectural significance, but it posses an indisputable historical value. Recently it
has been renovated and new frescoes were painted.
The hermitage temple comprises an altar spaded in rock stone, separated from the
rectangular nave by a small iconostas. Some cells continue the building suite.
Because the frontage monastery wall was built from rock stone, the current wall
was made from stone blocks.

The hermitage temple, built in 1776 celebrated the Assumption festival; its founder
was Bartolomeu. The monastery size comprises 17m X 5m. A long terrace holds
together all the component parts of the hermitage thus forming a prolonged
complex. The Assumption temple takes a quadrilateral shape of 5, 3 m length, 4,
1m latitude and 2, 5 altitudes.

The rock monastery was restored in 1991 1994. Those four monastery cells
located at the temple were renovated in 1997. There is a narrow cave about the
monastery. According to a legend, hieromonk Vortolomeu the monastery
founder, took refuge in the stone cave.


Hincu monastery is located at a distance of 70 kilometers from Moldavian capital.
Located in the midst of hills and forests, Hincu monastery was built in the year
1678. In fact it happened to be one of the wealthiest monasteries of Moldova. A
large number of people visit this monastery especially in the month of October.

Tracing the history of the Hincu monastery reveals that Mihalcea Hincu, a noted
courtier of the 17th century got away from the attacks of the tartars and managed to
land in the clearings of the Codri forest. It was here that he vowed to build a
monastery if he along with his daughter, Paraschiva, managed to live the tartar
invasion. Following this came up the Hincu monastery.

The Hincu monastery witnessed some of the very tough times when it was attacked
by the tartars and parts of it were destructed. There were also times when due to
invasions the monastery remained abandoned. The year 1956 saw the closing of
the monastery and it was used by the Ministry of Health.

However, once again, the year 1990 saw the reopening of the Hincu monastery and
from then onwards the monastery has turned out to become one of the most visited
of the religious sites. There is the presence of a number of springs around the
monastery out of which one happens to have water rich in minerals.

The monastery is open to visitors all round the week. Local guides are available
and lodging facilities are also present here. An entrance charge needs to be pain in
order to visit the monastery.

The Japca Monastery, situated on the shore of Nistru River at the distance of
10km from Camenca town, is the only monastery from Basarabia which was never
closed by the Soviet authorities.
This monastery has a rare location due to the beauty of the horizon that gladdens
tourists eyes. The rocks above the monastery, but especially above the old
hermitage, the Nistru windings, which can be seen from far away, the gardens that
surrounds it, makes up the special beauty of the monastery.
The Japca locality dates back to the 17th century. According to the majority of the
records, the estate and the hermitage are named Japca, some named Jabca or even
Sabca.
The first mention about the hermitage dates to the 25th of May, 1693; not being
registered in other historical records, this date remains a disputable one.
A.Zasciuc says the foundation stone of the hermitage was put by hieromonk
Iezechiil, who came from Lemberg in the 17th century. According to other records,
this monk came from Deleni Monastery of Moldova. He lived in the woods, at the
top of the hill, where he had built a little church and some cells in stone dedicated
to The Raise of the Saint Cross festival.
According to some sources from the archive, the hermitage existed before 1764.
There is a document which refers to a trial in 1796, when abbot Teodosie brought
as witness hieromonk Nicodim who lived before him in the hermitage. On the
other hand, freeholders estate Japca isnt that old, because the elder people which
owned the lands: Budeci, Malai-Rau and Furdui, had lived during the supervision
of Constantin-Voda Mavrocordat (1733-1735; 1741-1743; 1748-1749). It can be
concluded from here that before 1764 the hermitage was not well organized yet.
Being accepted by most of historicists, 1770 is the
Foundation year of the church, the time when the monks left their cells built in
stone and settled down the hill, where the actual monastery is standing now.
Hieromonk Nicandru, who came to Japca from the Metropolitan Church of Iasi,
was Teodosies successor in the period 1808- 1810.
Hieromonk Calist was the lead of the hermitage along the years 1810-1818. In
1818 Japca hermitage got the statute of monastery.
During World War I many nuns had taken refuge from the Russian Poland to
Lesna Monastery near the hill. Based on the decision of Saint Sinod from Sankt-
Petersburg, beginning with the 20th of April, 1916, archbishop Atanasie of
Basarabia told the nuns from the Lesna Monastery to settle to the Japca one. And,
the monks were transferred to the Harjauca Monastery.
In 1940 the nuns and sisters had been chased away from the monastery, the
authorities from Japca locality with the Soviets permission, confiscated all the
fortune of the saint place. Still, in 1941 with the arrival of the Romanian army, the
nuns came back to the monastery and got back all the goods.
The summer church built in 1915 has three sanctuaries situated in the East side:
centre-Raise of God festival, right-Changing of the Face, left- Saint Cross.
Japca Monastery follows Russian rules and traditions. Here, nobody eats meat and
the Psalm book is read.
The tourists who visit this monastery are impressed by the conservatism that reigns
all the place - there is no electric power, because it is considered to be evil, and the
tourists from abroad are welcomed with suspicion and coldness.

Conclusion:Moldova is an orthodox country and has a lot of religious
erections which represent a big potential for tourism.

Bibliography:
http://www.moldova.org/page/capriana-monastery-in-moldova-1009-eng.html
http://www.moldova.org/page/tipova-monastery-in-moldova-1015-eng.html
http://www.moldovaholiday.travel/en/attractions/culture/churches-monasteries/curchi-
monastery
http://www.moldova.org/page/saharna-monastery-in-moldova-1016-eng.html
http://www.mapsofworld.com/moldova/tourism/hincu-monastery.html
http://www.moldova.org/page/japca-monastery-in-moldova-1042-eng.html


S3. Cultural, sports and economic
erections

Keywords:Theatre,museum,sports erection


Learning objectives:
O1. To name and describe the most famous theatres of the Republic of Moldova
O2. To name and describe the most important museums of the Republic of
Moldova
O3. To name and describe the most important sports erections of the Republic of
Moldova


Introduction
The Republic of Moldova has a total of 22 theatrical performance institutions: 18
drama theatres, an opera and ballet theatre, an ethno-folkloric theatre and 2 puppet
shows. 17 are situated in the country capital and 5 in other areas. The most
important theaters successfully participate in festivals abroad, organize
international festivals inside the country, tours to France, Italy, USA, Russia,
Japan, China, Romania, other countries.

O1.Theatres
The National Opera and Ballet Theatre of Moldova in Chiinu, Moldova, is
one of the leading ballet companies in Eastern Europe. It is housed, together with
the National Opera, in a theatre building on the Boulevard Stefan cel Mare, one of
the main roads in Chiinu, the capital of Moldova.It was founded in the mid-
1940s and became a professional company in 1956.

The theater of A. P. Chekhov was founded in 1934 in Tiraspol, and since then
has become one of the best Russian theaters in Moldova. In the 60s the theater
moved to Chisinau and is currently located on Vlaicu Pircalab 75, which is
downtown. The auditorium has almost 500 seats. You can enjoy theater
productions of classical authors, such as Shakespeare, Gogol, Moliere, Pushkin,
and, obviously Chekhov.

The largest theater in Moldova is the National theater Mihai Eminescu. The
theater was founded in 1920 and used to be called the National Theater in
Chisinau.

In 1960, as a result of the great political thaw and of the acute necessity to create a
theatre for children and youth, a new theatre was born in Chisinau - Luceafarul.

Satiricus Ion Luca Caragiale Theatre was founded in 1990 by Alexander Grecu,
a disciple of Constantine Raikin, the well known producer of Satiricon Theatre
from Russia. It is a theatre of a modern fashion it professes an exciting script,
mostly satire and humor, organically combined with dance, songs and outstanding
body expression.

Theatre Eugne Ionesco is one of the most important theatres in Chisinau;
founded shortly after Moldova has proclaimed its independence, on 11th of
September 1991.

Ginta Latina theatre was created on 1st august 1989 by Sandri Ion Scurea. It is
home to performances related to the interests of young people and children.

O2.Museums

The collections of Moldovas museums are an essential part of the nations cultural
heritage. The wealth of the national culture is concentrated in collections of diverse
museums throughout Moldova which form a network of over 65 museum facilities.
The majority of Moldovas museums are in its capital - Chisinau.

The National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History is the oldest
museum in Moldova. It is located in Chisinau,the capital of Republic of Moldova.It
was founded in October 1889.

The National Museum of Fine Arts is located in Chisinau.It was founded in
November 1939 by Alexandru Plmdeal and Auguste Baillayre.

The National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova takes place
among the most important museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in
terms of both its collection and scientific prestige. The Museum was established on
December 21, 1983.

O3.Sports erections
Zimbru Stadium is a football-specific stadium in Chiinu, Moldova completed
in May, 2006 with a capacity of 10,400 people, corresponds to all norms required
by UEFA and FIFA for national and international matches. It is currently used
mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of Zimbru Chiinu and
the Moldova national football team.

Sheriff Stadium is home to Sheriff Tiraspol, a football team based in Tiraspol.It
seats 14,300 spectators.It is eligible for international events, that is why Moldova
national football team plays some of their international home matches on this
stadium.

Olimpia Bli Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Bli, Moldova. It is currently
used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of FC Olimpia Bli. The
stadium holds 5,953 people.

Sport complex Orhei stadium was founded on 15 november 2007.It is the
stadium where Milsami Orhei football team play their home matches.The stadium
has a capacity of 2,539 seats.

Dinamo Stadium is a multi- use stadium in Chiinu, Moldova. It is currently
used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of FC Politehnica
Chiinu. The stadium holds 2,888 people.

Conclusion:There are many cultural and sports erections in the Republic of
Moldova which represent a big attractiveness for tourists.Most of all visitors
come to see matches of Moldova National team in the preliminary round of
the European and World cup.

Bibliography:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbru_Stadium
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheriff_Stadium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olimpia_B%C4%83l%C5%A3i_Stadium
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_History_Museum_of_Moldova
http://itravel.md/en/chisinau-the-capital-of-moldova/theatres-and-concert-halls/teatrul-
eugene-ionesco.html
http://www.worldofmoldova.com/en/article/museum-of-ethnography/
http://www.worldofmoldova.com/en/article/theaters-of-chisinau/


S4. Monuments, statues, commemorative
plaques

Keywords:monuments,memorial,statues


Learning objectives:
O1. To describe the most important monuments of the Republic of Moldova
O2.To describe the memorial of the Republic of Moldova


O1.Monuments
Our country has a rich history with many memorable personalities which left their
important mark in history.We have many beautiful
monuments,statues,commemorative plaques dedicated to such personalities who
brought their contribution to the protection and the development of this beautiful
country.

Stefan cel Mare monument is the most important monument in Moldova.It is the
symbol of our country. The monument was designed by architect Alexandru
Plmdeal in 1923.The monument was completed in 1927 and opened on 29 April
1928


Monument Ion and Doina Aldea-Teodorovici
The monument is dedicated to light music singers Ion (1954) and Doina Aldea-
Teodorovici (1958) died following a road accident in 1992.It is located in Chisinau
on A.Mateevici 77 str

Monument to poet Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889) was inaugurated on August 6,
1996, the anniversary of 560 years of the first official document of Chisinau city in
Public Garden "Stefan cel Mare ". He was transferred in 1997 to the House of
Writers' Union of Moldova. Sculpture of the poet is made in a traditional figurative
key and has no significant artistic facets.
Mihai Eminescu (January 15, 1850 June 15, 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist
and journalist, often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.
Eminescu was an active member of the Junimea literary society and he worked as
an editor for the newspaper Timpul ("The Time"), the official newspaper of the
Conservative Party (1880-1918). His first poems volume was published when he
was 16 and he went to Vienna to study when he was 19. The poet's Manuscripts,
containing 46 volumes and approximately 14.000 pages. Eminescu was
hospitalized on February 3, 1889 at the Mrcua Hospital of Bucharest and then he
was hospitalized at the Caritas Sanatorium. On June 15, 1889, around 4 a.m., the
poet died at Doctor uu's Sanatorium. On June 17 Eminescu was interred at the
shade of a linden in Bellu Cemetery. He was elected after his death (on October 28,
1948) as member of the Romanian Academy.

The Statue of Vasile Alecsandri
The Statue of classic poet of romanian literature, Vasile Alecsandri (1821-1890) is
located in front of the National Library of Moldova. The poet is presented in full-
length, keeping his stick in his right hand. It is located in Chisinau on 31 August
1989 Str.

The A.S. Pushkin monument is the oldest monument in Chisinau. It was
established in 1885 in Stefan cel Mare Park with money raised by the residents of
the city. It is an exact copy of the original top part of the Pushkin monument in
Moscows Pushkin Square.

The Alley of Classics is a sculptural complex located in the stefan cel Mare
Park in Central Chiinu,Moldova. The alley is decorated on both sides with red
granite busts of classic Romanian literary figures and political leaders
from Moldova.

Grigori Kotovsky Statue
Located on Negruzzi Square in front of the Cosmos Hotel is a monument to
Moldova born Soviet military hero who deserted the Russian Imperial Army to
join the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War.


O1.Memorials
Liberation Memorial Moldova
This memorial commemorates the Soviet liberation of Moldova in August 1944.

The Memorial to the victims of the Chisinau ghetto
Opened in 1993, the monument represent two red granite blocks that form the basis
of an inverted pyramid and in the gap between them is submitted a 6 pointed
star. It is located on bd.Grigore Vieru

Memorial complex Sons of the Native land - sacred memory was created in
memory of soldiers who died in Afghanistan.The memorial was opened on 20 May
2007.It is located on Miron Costin streed in Chisinau

Memorial Complex "Eternitate" Chiinu
This memorial complex commemorates the Soviet soldiers who fell for the
liberation of Chiinu and Moldova during the Second World War. The central
memorial with the five stylized rifles is 25 meters high and holds an eternal flame.

Conclusion:Our country has many monuments,statues,memorial which
represent an attractivity for tourists.

Bibliography:
http://www.black-sea-travel.com/en/moldova/chisinau/monuments-and-
statues/monument-ion-and-doina-aldea-teodorovici
http://www.informator.md/en/tourist-
attractions/moldova/monuments_statues/chisinau_region/53-
mihai_eminescu%60s_statue_in_front_of_the_building_of_the_writers/
http://www.black-sea-travel.com/en/moldova/chisinau/monuments-and-
statues/monument-poet-vasile-alecsandri
http://www.moldovaholiday.travel/en/attractions/monuments/alley-of-classics
http://www.informator.md/en/tourist-
attractions/moldova/monuments_statues/chisinau_region/55-
monument_to_victims_of_the_chisinau_ghetto/
http://en.tracesofwar.com/article/12117/Memorial-Complex-Eternitate-
Chi%26%23351in%26%23259u.htm