Sie sind auf Seite 1von 138

Marine Corrosion

& Coatings
Module K
Basics of Corrosion
Environmental Effects
Forms and Mechanisms of Corrosion
Survey Equipment and Methods
Choosing a Paint System
Diploma in
Marine Industry
Surveying
K
2008/09
AUTHOR
Mr. Peter Morgan
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 1
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
MPI Group, as a body, are not responsible for any opinions expressed in this module by contributors. All rights reserved. No
part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of MPI Group.
Marine Publications International Ltd and Lithgow Associates 2007
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 2
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 1
Author
Mr. Peter Morgan
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 1
Marine Corrosion & Coatings Module K
CONTENTS
1.1 Corrosion Costs and Economics. 5
1.2 Definition of Corrosion 5
1 ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY 6
1.3 Atomic Structure and Ion Formation 6
1.4 Electrolytes, Electron Flow and Batteries 7
1.5 Electron Flow 8
1.6 Half Cells 9
1.7 Redox Reactions 9
1.8 Cell Potentials 10
1.9 Corrosion Potentials / Electro-chemical Series 10
1.10 Cell Voltage 11
1.11 pH and Acidity. Hydrogen Ion Concentration 12
2 CORROSION PROCESSES 13
2.1 Corrosion Sites, Anodes and Cathodes 13
2.2 Passivation 13
2.3 Process Factors affecting Corrosion Mechanisms 14
2.4 Temperature 14
2.5 Concentration Effects 14
2.6 Conductivity Effects 14
2.7 Velocity Effects 14
2.8 Pressure 14
2.9 Galvanic Effects 15
2.9a Anode size effect in Galvanic Corrosion 15
3 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 16
3.1 Marine Atmosphere and Seawater Corrosion 16
3.2 Dirt Deposits and Cargo Deposits 16
3.3 Condensation Corrosion 18
4 FORMS AND MECHANISMS OF CORROSION 19
4.1 Oxygen Concentration Cell Formation 19
4.2 Mechanism of Oxygen Corrosion 19
4.3 Crevice Corrosion 20
4.4 Pitting corrosion 21
4.5 Galvanic Corrosion 22
4.6 Carbon Dioxide Corrosion 24
4.7 Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion 24
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 2
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 2
4.8 Environmental Stress Cracking 24
4.9 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC) 25
4.10 Other Mechanisms and Types of Corrosion 26
5 METHODS OF CORROSION CONTROL 28
5.1 Materials selection for corrosion protection 29
5.2 Steels and Irons 29
5.3 Non-Ferrous Materials 30
5.4 Thermosets and Thermoplastics 31
6 COATINGS 32
6.1 Types of Coatings 32
6.2 Surface Preparation and Application of Coating 32
6.3 Coating Types and Application 33
6.4 Effect of Coatings on Cathodic Protection Design 36
6.5 Coating Evaluation and Inspection Measurements 36
7. CATHODIC PROTECTION 38
7.1 Theory 38
7.2 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) 39
7.3 Protective Potentials and Potential Measurements 41
7.4 Cathode Current Density 42
7.5 Importance of Coatings for CP 43
7.6 Over Protection / Under Protection 43
7.7 Types and Properties of Anodes. Anode Weight, Shape and Life 45
7.8 Calculations for Design 46
7.9 Impressed current cathodic protection 48
7.10 Power Sources 48
7.11 Types and Selection of Anodes 48
7.12 Calculations for Design 49
7.13 Interference Current 49
7.14 Transformer / rectifiers 51
7.15 Potential Surveys 51
7.16 C.P. Maintenance Factors 52
7.17 CP SAFETY 53
8.0 CORROSION PREVENTION MAINTENANCE 55
9.0 IDENTIFICATION OF DEFECTS 56
10.0 SURVEY METHODS AND EQUIPMENT 57
10.1 Non-Destructive Inspection Methods. 57
11.0 CASE HISTORIES 59
Service History 59
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 3
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 3
12 METHODS OF CORROSION CONTROL - COATINGS 64
12.0 Minimising Corrosion Effects 64
12.1 Corrosion Prevention using Protective Coatings 64
12.2 What are Coatings? 64
13 CHOOSING A PAINT SYSTEM 71
Exposure Testing of Paint Films 71
Performance Expectation of Coatings 71
Coating Systems and their Selection 71
14 COATING SPECIFICATIONS 78
15 PRACTICAL PAINTING CONSIDERATIONS 80
16 SURFACE PREPARATION - ALTERNATIVE METHODS 82
Blast Pots/Hoses/Nozzles 85
17 PAINT APPLICATION: QUALITY CONTROL 93
18 PAINT FAULTS 95
19 FURTHER INFORMATION 101
Corrosion Societies 101
APPENDIX A 102
APPENDIX B 112
Marine Terminology and Construction 112
Naval Vessels 112
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 4
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 4
1 BASICS OF CORROSION
1.1 Corrosion Costs and Economics.
UK Industry Cost in Million
Building and Construction 250
Food Industry 40
General Engineering 110
Marine Industry 280
Government 55
Metal refining / fabrication 15
Oil, Gas and Chemical Industry 180
Power 60
Transport 350
Water 25
Total 1365 million
Table showing cost of Corrosion in the USA 1995 compared with 1975
Since 1995 it is estimated that real term corrosion costs for the oil and gas industry have been reduced
by 50%. However the above Table for corrosion costs averaged through all industries in the United States
shows a saving between 1975 and 1995 of only 14%
1.2 Definition of Corrosion
Corrosion is the deterioration of a substance, usually metal, or the deterioration of its mechanical
and metallurgical properties due to its reaction with the environment.
In some cases there is no visible evidence of this deterioration that can lead to the sudden failure
(environmental cracking) of the material for no immediately apparent cause.
Iron, the main component of steel is thermodynamically unstable and tends to return to its oxide state.
Most other metals including aluminium and zinc show this tendency to return to an oxide ore state or
other thermodynamically more stable compound.
All Industries 1975 (US $ Billion) 1995 (US $ Billion) Ratio 1995 /1975
Total 82.5 296.0 3.59
Avoidable 33.0 104.0 3.15
GNP 1683.7 7033.6 4.18
Total % of GNP 4.90 4.21
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 5
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 5
ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY
1.3 Atomic Structure and Ion Formation
Atoms are the minute building blocks of all matter and consist of a nucleus and circulating electrons. The
diameter of the path for circulating electrons can be a factor of 10,000 x larger than the diameter of the
nucleus.
The nucleus consists of uncharged particles called Neutrons and positively charged (+ve) Protons. The
orbiting electrons have an equal negative (-ve) charge to the Protons and the atom is electrically neutral.
Corrosion reactions and processes are ordinary chemical reactions in which the atoms gain or lose
electrons.
If the atom gains or loses one (or more) of its electrons it becomes an ION with an electrical charge. Loss
of n electrons equals a gain of n positive charges on the atom nucleus that becomes a CATION.
Gain of n electrons equals a loss of positive charge and the atom becomes an ANION.
(n can be 1, 2 or 3)
Chemical and corrosion processes are actually the exchange of the -ve charged electrons between the
various atoms involved.
Ion Examples: Na
+
Sodium cation, Ca
++
Calcium cation,
Fe
++
Ferrous cation, Fe
+++
Ferric cation,
Cl
-
Chloride anion, SO4- - Sulphate anion
Molecules
Molecules are formed when two or more atoms combine together with a strong bond between them.
Nearly all gases occur normally in the form of molecules. Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N) and
Chlorine (Cl) occur as pairs of atoms (Molecules) and their formulae are written as H2, O2, N2 and Cl2.
Other gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and Water Vapour (H2 O) also occur
as molecules.
For example the Carbon Dioxide Molecule Formula is: O=C=O
The water molecule H2O is formed from a hydrogen cation H
+
and an anion OH
-
Water Molecule, Hydrogen & Hydroxyl Ions
Ionic Compounds
A large group of substances known as inorganic salts exist as solids in an ionic form.
Ordinary salt. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) consists of sodium cations regularly arranged next to chlorine
anions.
The +ve and -ve charges on the ions attract them together and the charges also neutralise each other so
that the solid sodium chloride is electrically neutral as shown in the following diagram..
Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl-
Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Cl- Na
+
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 6
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 6
Arrays of these unit cells are built up to form crystals.
The way in which the atoms of a metal are bonded together is different to that in the molecule or in the
ionic crystal.
Apart from the regular arrangement of unit cells the atoms share their electrons between every other
atom in the crystal.
Electrical neutrality is still maintained because the electrons stay within the crystal, and their charges are
still neutralised by the charges on the protons in the atomic nuclei.
It is this special atomic and electron arrangement in metals which gives them their special properties of
electrical conductivity, hardness, brightness and formability.
1.4 Electrolytes, Electron Flow and Batteries
To create corrosive conditions at normal environmental temperatures corrosion cell is required. The
corrosion cell works in the same way as the well-known dry battery cell. A typical corrosion cell is shown
in Figure 1
For low temperature corrosion (< 200
o
C) to take place, an electrically conductive solution that will allow
cations and anions to move freely through its bulk must be present. A solution of this type is called an
electrolyte. Water containing dissolved ionic salts is the most common and the best electrolyte, and is
always present in electrolytic corrosion. Seawater is on of the best electrolytes and is the main cause of
marine corrosion. Water corrosion is greatly increased if it contains dissolved oxygen.
The formation of ions in solution and the movement of the ions towards one or other of the electrodes
(anode or cathode) are called electrolysis.
The movement in the electrolyte occur as a result of the difference in electrical potential between the
anode and the cathode. This is the driving force. (Electro-motive Force. EMV or Volts)
If there is no difference in potential there is no driving force between the anode and the cathode and
corrosion cannot occur.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 7
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 7
FIGURE 1 ELECTROLYTIC CELL-BATTERY
In the battery cell, shown above, the electrolyte is a paste of zinc chloride in water. On closing the electric
circuit there is a chemical action and a flow of electrons in the circuit caused by the potential difference
of 1.5 volts between the cathode and anode.
1.5 Electron Flow
Two different metals or conductors must be connected in the battery or corrosion cell to enable current
to flow.
Negative charged electrons flow from the part of the cell which starts corroding, called the Anode, through
the metallic part of the circuit to the part of the cell which does not corrode, called the Cathode. This flow
of electrons produces a measurable electrical potential difference across the circuit.
Due to the flow of electrons the electrical neutrality of the electrodes is lost. The anode becomes
positively charged because it loses electrons through the metal portion of the circuit.
This +ve charge will attract the flow of -ve charged anions in the electrolyte.
In the same way the cathode gains electrons through the metal path and becomes negatively charged.
The cathode now attracts +ve charged cations in the electrolyte.
e-
Fe++
Fe++
H+
H+
H+
H+
CORROSION
ANODE
CATHODE
ELECTROLYTE: DILUTE
In any corrosion reaction the loss of electrons at the
anode must equal the gain of electrons at the cathode
METALIC CONNECTION PATH
ELECTROLYTE LEVEL
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 8
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 8
Corrosion occurs at the anode because atoms of the metal at the surface lose electrons and become
positively charged. These positively charged ions go into solution, and are transported towards the
cathode under the influence of its negative charge.
1.6 Half Cells
In Figure 1 the anode reaction is a half-cell. The cathode reaction is also a half-cell and the two together
(cathode + anode) make a complete cell.
The total reaction occurring is the sum of the reactions of the half cells.
For example.
The anode reaction is: Zn = Zn
++
+ 2e
-
The cathode reaction is: 2H
+
+ 2e
-
= H2
The sum of the reaction is: Zn + 2H
+
= Zn
++
+ H2
The concept of half-cells is important in the measurement of corrosion potentials and in cathodic
protection where special copper/copper sulphate half-cells are used. These uses will be discussed in
greater detail later.
1.7 Redox Reactions
Where any two half-cells are coupled together they form a complete cell.
The loss of electrons or gain in +ve charge by a metal is known as Oxidation and this type of reaction
always occurs at the anode.
The process does not necessarily form oxides. Chlorides and other salts may also be formed, but
oxidation is one of the fundamental corrosion processes.
Only one type of reaction occurs at the anode. M = M
++
+ 2e
For an iron anode this reaction is: Fe = Fe
++
+ 2e
-
At the anode, metal is always dissolved as cations with
the loss of electrons and oxidation.
At the cathode however, any one of three reactions may take place:
1. 2H
+
+ 2e
-
= H2 (Hydrogen gas bubbles)
2. O2 + 4H
+
+ 4e
-
= 2H2 O (Water)
3. O2 + 2H2O + 4e
-
= 4OH
-
(Hydroxyl ions)
Reaction 1. is the reduction of hydrogen ions and is very common in acid solutions. (The H
+
comes from
the acid)
Reaction 2. is called the reduction of oxygen and occurs in acid solutions containing air or oxidising
agents.
Reaction 3. is also reduction of oxygen but occurs in neutral or alkaline solution.
1. 2. & 3 are called Reduction reactions. The Hydrogen ions are reduced to hydrogen gas. Oxygen
molecules are reduced to water or hydroxyl ions.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 9
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 9
The first reaction takes place quite rapidly in acid solutions, but very slowly in alkaline or neutral media.
It can be speeded up by dissolved oxygen (O2) as shown in Reaction 2.
In a complete cell oxidation occurs at one half cell and reduction at the other cell. The overall reaction is
known as a Redox Reaction (Reduction / Oxidation)
1.8 Cell Potentials
The driving force of a corrosion cell is determined by the difference in electrical potential (volts),
measured between the anode and the cathode in the metallic path of the closed circuit, with a high
resistance voltmeter. The potential difference is measured across the cell as shown in Figure 2
FIGURE 2: MEASURING CELL POTENTIAL
Measured potential differences (E) can range from zero up to 3 volts. A zero voltage indicates that no
chemical (corrosion) action will occur, or that an equilibrium condition will exist. A few millivolts show a
low corrosion driving force and the possibility of corrosion occurring. A potential of several hundred
millivolts or more indicates a very high corrosion driving force and the possibility of very high,
unacceptable corrosion rates.
1.9 Corrosion Potentials / Electro-chemical Series
In laboratory work the corrosion potential of a metal is usually measured against a standard half-cell
called a platinum-hydrogen electrode. This technique allows the corrosion potentials of various metals to
be compared with a standard reference.
The cell is used to define a galvanic series of metals arranged in order of their potentials as measured
against the reference standard. This series is also known as the Electrochemical Series of Metals.
A table of potentials for different metals in seawater is shown in the electrochemical series. (Table 1) In
practise cells such as the saturated calomel cell, copper sulphate cell and the silver/silver chloride cell
are used in the field.
ANODE CATHODE
Electrolyte
V
Electron
Flow
Electrictity Conventional Flow
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 10
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 10
Electrochemical Series (sea water) reference a saturated calomel electrode (SCE)
TABLE 1
METAL POTENTIAL (v)
PURE MAGNESIUM -1.65
MAGNESIUM ALLOY -1.53
ZINC -1.03
ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 7072 and 6065 -0.95 to -0.85
PURE ALUMINIUM -0.9
MILD STEEL -0.6 to -0.55
GREY CAST IRON -0.55
HIGH SILICON CAST IRON -0.4
18:8 STAINLESS STEEL, ACTIVE -0.4
LEAD -0.3 to -0.2
ADMIRALTY BRASS, -0.35
COPPER -0.35
ALUMINIUM BRONZE -0.30
SATURATED CALOMEL (REF. CELL) 0.00
18:8 STAINLESS STEEL, PASSIVE -0.1 to +0.1
DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL PASSIVE +0.15 .
INCONEL 625 +0.2
HASTALLOY C +0.24
TITANIUM 0 to +0.15
GRAPHITE +0.3
SILVER +0.8
GOLD +1
TABLE 1
The more negative the potential of the metal the more reactive (easily corroded) the metal is likely to be.
e.g. Magnesium is much more easily corroded than copper.
Potentials between Dissimilar Metals
Using the above Table or similar Tables that use the Hydrogen reference Electrode, the Copper / Copper
Sulphate Electrode (CSE) or other standards, the potential of a cell is easily calculated by simple
subtraction between the half-cell potentials.
Example: The Electrochemical series potential difference between the SCE reference electrode and
Aluminium is: 0.00 - (-0.9) = +0.9 volts
Example: Between Grey Cast Iron and Aluminium Bronze the potential difference is:
-0.30 - (-0.55). = +0.25 volts
1.10 Cell Voltage
The potential (volts) of a corrosion cell indicates the corrosion driving force and the amount of current
flowing (amps) gives an indication of the volume of metal corroding in unit time. Current flow is measured
with a low resistance ammeter.
The amount of metal lost in a corrosion reaction can often be found by applying the law that the mass of
a substance liberated at an electrode is proportional to current flow time. (Faradays Law). One Amp
for one second = one Coulomb and 96,500 Coulombs will liberate or dissolve the gram equivalent weight
of a metal.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 11
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 11
The most reactive metals such as Potassium (K) Magnesium (Mg) Aluminium (Al) and Iron (Fe) have
negative electrode potentials and are anodic in character when related to the Pt/H2 Electrode. In the
presence of hydrogen ions these anodic metals will more readily corrode than the less reactive and more
noble metals such as platinum and gold that have positive electrode potentials.
If two metals in the galvanic series are coupled in a corrosion cell, the driving force or tendency for
corrosion to occur in the anodic metal is proportional to the potential difference between them.
For example, if zinc and steel are coupled the potential difference between the metals is:
-0.5 - (-1.03) = +0.53V.
The zinc corrodes at a moderate rate and the steel does not corrode. If, in the same cell, the steel is now
replaced by silver the potential difference is:
+ 0.8 -(-1.03) = +1.83V.
The zinc is at a more -ve electrode potential and its potential has greatly increased.
In this case the actual corrosion rate of the zinc also increases considerably although the silver does not
corrode.
This principle is important in design to prevent dissimilar metals contacting one another and causing
corrosion and in the application of sacrificial corrosion protection to be discussed later.
1.11 pH and Acidity. Hydrogen Ion Concentration
The symbol pH is a chemical shorthand for a method of measuring the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
The acidity of an aqueous solution is a measurement of the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion
concentration. This is better known as the pH value.
The symbol p is derived from the German word potenz, and means the logarithmic exponent, or power of
concentration.
The letter H is the chemical symbol for hydrogen.
A pH scale of 0 to 14 has been adopted. 0 is a very strong acid. (High H
+
ion concentration) and 14 is
a strong alkali with a very low H
+
ion concentration.
Pure water is considered to be neutral, neither acid nor alkaline and it has a pH of 7.0.
The pH of a liquid is extremely important as most acid solutions with low pH values (acids) are very
corrosive to metals, and if very acid they can also damage the skin and eyes of operators unless
precautions are taken.
Alkalis are often beneficial in improving the corrosion resistance of steel, but can be very damaging to
metals such as zinc and aluminium. Strong alkalis also damage the skin and eyes.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 12
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 12
2 CORROSION PROCESSES
Corrosion occurs due to the anode and cathode reactions in electrolytic cells as already discussed. On
any given piece of metal such as pipes or tanks the corrosion cells form at numerous microscopic sites
on the surface.
2.1 Corrosion Sites, Anodes and Cathodes
The anodic sites corrode as shown in Figure 3 with the loss of metal ions. The usual reaction at cathodes
is the production of hydrogen gas in acid solutions, reduction of oxygen to form water in oxygenated
slightly acid solutions or the production of hydroxyl ions (OH-) in neutral oxygenated solutions.
FIGURE 3 CORROSION SITES ON A METAL SURFACE
Corrosion (oxidation) of metals usually produces a soluble or easily detached corrosion product that is
lost from the surface to expose new metal, which continues to corrode.
In some cases the corrosion product forms a thin adherent film that protects the metal from further
attack, as in stainless steel. The metal is then said to be passivated.
Corrosion rates are measured in mm per year or, in USA practise, in mils (thousandths of an inch) per
year and the rates are affected by process variables.
2.2 Passivation
Metals that can be passivated corrode normally in moderate concentrations of oxidising agent but may
suddenly show a 10
-3
o 10
-6
decrease in corrosion rate as the oxidising agent concentration is increased
still further into the Passive region. Eventually at very concentrations of oxidant the corrosion rate will
increase again in the transpassive region.
ANODE
ANODE
CATHODE
CATHODE
CATHODE
ELECTROLYTE
Fe++
H+
H+
H+
Cl-
Cl-
CORROSION CELL ON STEEL PLATE
POSITIVE CURRENT FROM ANODE TO CATHODE
THROUGH ELECTROLYTE
CORROSION SITES ON METAL SURFACE
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 13
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 13
Metals showing this effect include stainless steels in mild oxidising agents and carbon steels in
concentrated sulphuric or concentrated nitric acid.
The passivation effect of Stainless Steel is due to a thin layer of inert chromium oxide on the steel
surface. Other passivation effects are due to thin oxide or other inert chemical layers. Sometimes the
film is easily destroyed by moderate mechanical damage or by changes in oxidising conditions. Rapid
corrosion may then occur.
2.3 Process Factors affecting Corrosion Mechanisms
2.4 Temperature
Corrosion rates generally increase with temperature and may double for every 20
o
C increase in the
reaction system temperature.
2.5 Concentration Effects
Increased chemical concentration usually increases corrosion rates up to a limiting value. Further
increases in the concentration may cause no further increases in the corrosion rate or may even cause it
to decrease.
2.6 Conductivity Effects
Increased electrical conductivity in a solution (or a soil) indicates increased ionic activity, and therefore a
probable increase in corrosion rate. Seawater with a high conductivity or low resistivity is much more
corrosive than fresh water.
Conductivity = 1 / resistivity and resisistivity is the property usually measured in corrosion with a value in
ohm cm. Seawater has a resistivity of 30 ohm cm.
The corrosion pattern occurring on a ship is rather different due to the ships movement. The ship is
continually passing through new supplies of oxygenated water so the supply at the ships hull surface is
never used up in the corrosion reactions.
Instead of occurring in the splash zone the maximum corrosion occurs at or just below the water line
where the oxygen content and is high and the movement of water is greater than occurs in the splash
zone of a static structure. The band of maximum corrosion occurs over a depth ranging from the unloaded
to fully loaded water lines.
2.7 Velocity Effects
It can be seen from the above statement that Increased velocity can cause increased corrosion due to
increases in the amount of corrosive substance passing over the surface in a given time.
At high velocities and in turbulent conditions fluids may also cause mechanical damage to materials,
accelerating corrosion effects and producing severe attack known as erosion corrosion. This occurs
particularly on ships propellers and on various pump impellers that may be used for pumping water,
controlling ballast tanks or loading cargoes.
2.8 Pressure
An increase in pressure increases the amount of gas such as oxygen or carbon dioxide that can be
dissolved in the electrolyte (usually water). This gives an increase in the concentration of corrosive gases
and causes increased corrosion rates. This is not normally a problem in marine corrosion.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 14
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 14
2.9 Galvanic Effects
Dissimilar metal contacts in an electrolyte can accelerate the corrosion of the more active metal. This
effect occurs frequently in marine design and maintenance such as where brass fittings are screwed into
a steel structure, steel components are fixed to an aluminium hull; bronze propellers are connected to
steel shafts. Materials such as admiralty brass or bronze fittings are commonly attached to steel
structure and can accelerate the corrosion of the steel. Pipefittings and heat exchanger tubes are other
items commonly affected by galvanic corrosion. The less noble material will be at risk of corrosion and
requires additional protection. (Refer to Table 1 )
2.9a Anode size effect in Galvanic Corrosion
If the anodic material (material at a risk of corrosion) has a large surface area in relation to the area of
the cathodic (non-corroding metal) then the amount of corrosion should not be severe because the
electrical current causing the corrosion is distributed over the large area of the anode and produces a low
current density. Since current density is directly related to corrosion rate the corrosion rate should be low.
However if the exposed anode area is small in relation to the cathode area the corrosion rate can be very
high.
The classic example of this effect occurred over 200 years ago when the Royal Navy tried to protect its
wooden ships from marine fouling by cladding the hulls with copper.
The copper sheet was attached to the hull by iron rivets. This produced very large cathodes (Cu) and
small anodes. Within a few months the rivets corroded away causing the copper to disbond from the
hulls.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 15
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 15
3 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
3.1 Marine Atmosphere and Seawater Corrosion
The commonest form of atmospheric corrosion is the uniform rusting of steel due to the combination of
iron with water and oxygen from the air.
Rusting of iron to form various oxides.
Fe + 2H2O + O2 = 2Fe(OH)2 (Unstable, oxidises)
2Fe(OH)2 + H2O + O2 = Fe(OH)3 (Ferric hydroxide)
Fe(OH)3 = H2O + FeO(OH) (usually yellow)
2FeO(OH) = H2O + Fe2O3 (orange dehydrated oxide)
Reaction rates are modified by the following:
The amount of water in the air (humidity) and rainfall, contaminants in the air, salt spay and blown sand
in marine environments or sulphuric acid in industrially polluted areas. Many harbours in industrial ports
can suffer from the double affect of marine salt and industrial air pollution.
Corrosion rates in coastal areas have been measured at 400 times the corrosion rate in desert
atmospheres and corrosion on specimens 25m from the seashore has been measured at 12 times the
corrosion rate at locations 250m from the shoreline.
High air and metal surface temperature can also increase corrosion. Chemical reaction rates, including
corrosion usually double for every 10 to 20
o
C increase in temperature. High surface temperatures can
cause rapid evaporation of water and then of course the corrosion stops. Remember there cannot be any
electrolytic corrosion without an electrolyte (water). However the evaporation can cause salts to
concentrate on the surface. At some later period when the surface is again wetted the concentrated salts
will be dissolved and may form exceptionally high concentrations of salt or sulphate that can then have
an increased corrosion effect.
3.2 Dirt Deposits and Cargo Deposits
Accumulation of dirt or mud deposits on metal surfaces can attract moisture and set up corrosion cells
that can cause severe corrosion often in crevices or corners where the corrosion can be very damaging.
Many ships carry corrosive cargoes that are held in specially designed holds. If these cargoes spill in the
wrong areas such as on deck they can cause severe deposit corrosion problems. The corrosion in these
cases occurs as pitting and the mechanism by which it occurs is usually an oxygen concentration cell as
described in the next chapter.
Cargo holds are subject to severe environments including corrosive and abrasive wear due to the loading
of bulk materials through inlet pipes, wear due to tractor movement within the holds and salt water that
may be deliberately added as ballast or accidentally leaked into the hold.
The worst conditions apply when a corrosive cargo is saturated with seawater through hatch leakages.
Corrosive cargoes include salt, gypsum, organic and inorganic fertilizers, iron ore and numerous other
materials.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 16
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 16
Sea Water Immersion Corrosion
Sea water can only dissolve some 15 parts per million of oxygen, however oxygenated sea water is
extremely corrosive to iron and carbon or low alloy steels which need to be well protected by coatings. The
pattern of seawater corrosion and the effect of oxygen are shown in Figure 4.
Where oxygen content is less than 0.1 ppm as in deep quiet water or sea mud the corrosion can be
negligible. The sections of harbour sheet piling that are buried in the mud are often uncoated and do not
corrode significantly.
FIGURE 4 SEA WATER CORROSION OF STEEL AT VARIOUS DEPTHS
Static Structure
Ships hulls are subject to heavy general corrosion at and above the waterline due to continuous expose
to oxygenated water. Well below the waterline the corrosion is more likely to be local pitting associated
with marine growths, deposits or variations in the metal plate composition, as at welds.
Seawater corrosion of ballast tanks is a major problem on ships. The movement of the water in the tanks
and by transfer pumps can cause the water to be saturated with oxygen and be extremely corrosive. Lack
of drainage in some designs allows local stagnant areas to develop where corrosion cells under deposits
can form and where bacterial activity can also increase corrosion rates. (Bacteria / microbiological
effects are discussed later))
High standards of painting are required to prevent corrosion with special formulations to reduce marine
growth.
Typical protective systems are heavy duty (200 to 300 microns) epoxy based coatings for hulls and tanks.
Galvanised steel is often used for submerged and splash zone steel structures.
Seawater usually causes general corrosion in carbon and low alloy but can cause pitting under deposits
and marine growth or bio fouling. Pitting corrosion is the standard form of failure in type s 304 and 316
stainless steels and in aluminium alloys. The extent of pitting can be severe and is usually greatest in the
higher strength copper containing aluminium alloys.
SEA WATER CORROSION OF STEEL AT VARIOUS DEPTHS
Static Structure
Marine
atmosphere
Splash zone
High tide
Low tide
Quiet
seawater
Mud line
Typical corrosion rate of steel, mpy
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

o
f

s
t
e
e
l
p
i
l
n
g
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 17
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 17
3.3 Condensation Corrosion
Condensate corrosion is a particularly aggressive form of atmospheric corrosion in empty or partly filled
storage tanks. The moisture-laden air is sucked into the tank and the tank cools at night. Condensation
forms on the interior walls and roof.
Frequent cycles of condensation and drying concentrates dissolved salts and can cause severe corrosion.
High quality coatings, sealed tanks, and inert atmosphere blanketing are techniques used to control this
type of problem. Tanks on land may also be designed with a floating roof that allows no air space above
the tank contents.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 18
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 18
4 FORMS AND MECHANISMS OF CORROSION
Atmospheric rusting and external corrosion of all metal structures are subject to accelerated corrosion
due to oxygen in contact with an electrolyte (water)
Air and water are the two items that cause the greatest amount of corrosion damage due to their
abundance in the natural environments.
Iron oxides FeO(OH), Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 are formed by steel corrosion and heavy localised corrosion pitting
occurs in soil and under deposits where oxygen concentration cells can occur.
4.1 Oxygen Concentration Cell Formation
This is one of the commonest causes of pitting corrosion and is the cause of pitting corrosion in the oil
and gas industry. It is also a major cause of internal corrosion in systems wherever oxygen can be
introduced.
4.2 Mechanism of Oxygen Corrosion
Figure 5 shows a very common corrosion problem at a point where some form of local deposit blocks of
the possibility of air contacting the surface while the surrounding area is still in contact with the air. The
deposit may be dirt, bacteria slimes, residual cargo remains. (Iron ore causes severe problems) or items
left after maintenance work.
e.g. Gloves left in a hold or tank has been a source of this type of problem.
The differential concentration of oxygen in the water or soil causes an electrolytic cell to form.
The cell reaction causes oxygen to be reduced at the cathode.
2H2O + O2 + 4e
-
= 4OH
-
For every anode reaction there must be a corresponding anode reaction. Therefore the area deprived of
oxygen becomes the anode and corrodes.
Fe = Fe
++
+ 2e
-
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 19
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 19
FIGURE 5
The problem is usually overcome by ensuring the area is kept free of debris or by painting. Problems
frequently occur under residual deposits left in cargo holds or even
on ships decks. Cleaning, hosing and regular maintenance are helpful.
4.3 Crevice Corrosion
Crevice corrosion can occur on pipe flange joints and under gaskets or under the heads of nuts and bolts
as shown in Figure 6.
The crevice corrosion reaction mechanism is generally considered to be another form of the oxygen
concentration cell reaction. There is also evidence that in many cases the corrosion mechanism is
actually the same as that in pitting corrosion.
Metals, which have protective oxide layers on the surface and are prone to pitting corrosion, such as
304 / 316 type austenitic stainless steels, are also prone to crevice corrosion, particularly in seawater.
Crevice corrosion is controlled by sealing the crevices or by opening them to sufficient width for flow to
occur and reduce the differential concentration effects.
OXYGEN CONCENTRATION CELL
FORMED BY DIRT DEPOSIT ELECTROLYTE
High oxygen at
deposit surface
Cathode
High oxygen at
deposit surface
Cathode
Salt, mud,water
low oxygen at
centre Anodic area
Steel Plate
Corrosion
Steel Plate
This type of corrosion cell occurs under deposits
and in crevice corrosion and in pitting
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 20
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 20
FIGURE 6 CREVICE CORROSION
4.4 Pitting corrosion
A wide range of environments and mechanisms, each of which may form different types of pits, can cause
pitting. Oxygen concentration cells and CO2 corrosion cause wide interconnecting pits.
Chlorides in oxidising solutions cause the formation of deep small diameter pits in metals that are
covered with partially protective surface films. This type of corrosion occurs frequently and can be very
damaging to plant and pipelines.
Pitting can be caused by several sets of circumstances as follows:
localised differences in metal composition, which create a galvanic action between grains and grain
boundaries in the metal surface.
A local break down of the protective coating on a surface. This is particularly common in austenitic
stainless steels that normally have a thin protective oxide layer over the exposed surfaces. This layer
provides the steel with its corrosion protective properties and is known as the passivating surface.
If the passivation film is removed rapid corrosion can follow.
In practise local small areas of film damage occur frequently.
In oxidising conditions the damage on stainless steels may be self-healing but if shielded under deposits,
cells are set up in which the unprotected area is strongly anodic to the surrounding cathodic area and
pitting commences.
As the pit deepens metal is lost as Fe
++
and oxygen reduction takes place on surrounding surfaces.
As reaction proceeds an excess +ve charge builds up in the pit and attracts Cl ions from the electrolyte.
A high concentration of ferric chloride, FeCl3 develops and the product hydrolyses.
FeCl3 + 3H2O = 3HCl + Fe(OH)3
The acid HCl concentration increases in the pit and the reaction rate accelerates.
The mechanism is known as an autocatalytic reaction and explains the rapid penetration rates that occur.
Rates of +500 mils/year (12.5mm/year) are common and thick pipeline sections can be penetrated in
less than one year. See Figure 7.
CREVICE CORROSION
ANODE AREA
(ACTIVE)
NUT
WASHER
CATHOD AREA
(PASSIVE)
STAINLES STEEL
OXYGEN
STARVATION
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 21
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 21
FIGURE 7 PITTING CORROSION MECHANISMS
4.5 Galvanic Corrosion
The Table of the Electrochemical Series lists metals in an order according to the ease with which they
corrode. If any two dissimilar metals are electrically connected in a corrosive solution, the one that is
most active, and has the most -ve potential, will corrode. The driving force of corrosion on the least noble
metal is directly proportional to the potential difference between the metals.
The actual rate of corrosion is proportional to the amount of current passed.
Accelerated corrosion, or in some cases decreased corrosion, of a metal caused by bringing it into
electrical contact with a dissimilar metal, is called Galvanic Corrosion.
In Figure 8 there is an open circuit between the metals in the first cell and no flow of electricity. The zinc
corrodes fairly rapidly and the iron corrodes at a slower rate.
If the pieces of metal are connected through an external circuit the corrosion pattern changes. Zinc
corrosion increases and iron corrosion is stopped. The galvanic effect with the zinc protecting the iron is
the principle of cathodic protection.
The lower part of the Figure shows typical practical problems that occur when dissimilar metals are in
contact in a corrosive environment
In engineering structures, many different metals come into contact with each other. This is particularly
true of process vessels and heat exchangers.
Conditions for galvanic corrosion to occur can be summarised as follows:
Presence of dissimilar metals in electrical contact
Presence of a corrosive electrolyte
Small anode and large cathode
Small cathodes and large anodes, as in the copper rivet example, create cells with lower anode current
densities and, consequently, lower corrosion rates than occur with large cathodes and small anodes as
in the aluminium example.
PITTING CORROSION MECHANISMS
O2
O2 O2
CL-
OH-
OH-
OH-
OH-
CL-
CL-
CL-
CL-
CL-
Fe++
Fe++
Na+ Na+
Fe++
Fe++
ALKALI
ALKALI
CATHODE
PRECIPITATE
PRECIPITATE
CATHODE
ACID
ACID
ANODE
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 22
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 22
The smaller the difference between dissimilar metals on the electrochemical and galvanic series table,
the lower is the corrosion driving force and the lower is the potential for corrosion to occur.
Prevention of Galvanic Corrosion
Dissimilar metals should be separated with suitable electrical insulating material. When insulation is not
possible, make the more anodic metal the easier to replace when corrosion becomes evident. Otherwise
ensure that the anodic metal is thicker and of larger surface area than the cathodic metal to reduce
corrosion rates.
FIGURE 8 GALVANIC CORROSION
V
CLOSED CIRCUIT OPEN CIRCUIT
GALVANIC EFFECT OF ZINC COUPLED TO IRON
IN A CORROSIVE ELECTROLYTE
Zinc corrodes more rapidly than iron
(Sacrificial Protection)
GALVANIC CORROSION OF STEEL UNDER COPPER RIVET
GALVANIC CORROSION OF ALUMINIUM RIVET
IN CONTACT WITH STEEL PLATE
Zinc corrodes rapidly, iron is protected
COPPER RIVET
STEEL
ALUMINIUM RIVET
STEEL
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 23
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 23
4.6 Carbon Dioxide Corrosion
Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas forms only 1% of the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) readily dissolves in water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), a weak acid that in
saturated solution at 15
o
C and 1 bar (14.5 psi or 000kPa) pressure, has a pH of 3.6. due to dissociation
to produce hydrogen ions.
H2CO3 = H
+
+ HCO3
-
The solubility of CO2 is increased by pressure and decreased by temperature.
Solubility of dissolved minerals, particularly calcium carbonate, is increased by the presence of carbon
dioxide in water. This increases the conductivity of the electrolyte and therefore increases the corrosion
tendency.
CO2 corrosion is not a significant gas in marine environments.
The gas may be present in natural gas and liquefied gas carried by special transporters but does not
normally present a corrosion risk.
4.7 Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is a colourless, inflammable and highly toxic gas. It is heavier than air and has
a very strong smell of rotten eggs. Quite low concentrations are sufficient to cause rapid death.
H2S can occur in fresh or salt waters containing large amounts of rotting vegetation.
The gas is often present in sewers, sewer outfalls and in rotting organic matter in shallow waters. However
the concentration is rarely enough to cause safety problems or the accelerated corrosion of steels.
4.8 Environmental Stress Cracking
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
This type of corrosion is one of the most important and dangerous causes of failure in metal structures
and vessels. It is a combination of corrosion and mechanical stress and can only occur when the
structure, in the area of the corrosive substance, is under a tensile stress.
The stresses may be due to many sources:
mechanical loads
internal pressure
weld restraint
thermal stresses
residual surface stresses
Cracking may proceed slowly at first, but when the load bearing capability of the metal has been reduced
sudden complete failure occurs due to mechanical overload. This rapid failure, and the fact that SCC is
often difficult to detect, makes this type of corrosion very dangerous.
Brasses undergo stress corrosion in ammonia solution.
Carbon steel is susceptible to stress corrosion in contact with carbonates, in strong, hot caustic soda and
in nitrates (NO3-) solutions.
Ships cargoes that may contain nitrates or carbonates can sometimes cause a risk of stress corrosion
cracking if they become wet and are in contact with steel surfaces. Inspectors and surveyors should be
aware of the risk.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 24
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 24
Austenitic Stainless Steel Stress Corrosion Cracking
Stainless steels of the 18% chromium and 8% nickel type are readily stress corroded in brines or sea
water at temperatures above 60
o
C. The Chloride Ion (Cl-) in association with oxygen or oxidising agents
usually causes this type of attack on stainless steel.
Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking. (CSCC)
CSCC in stainless steel often has a characteristic branched appearance, like an aerial view of a river
estuary system, when studied under a microscope. The cracks can be intergranular or transgranular in
form. A stress of 60% of the ultimate tensile strength and a temperature of 60
o
C is normally required to
induce this type of cracking.
One of the principle areas of stainless steel CSCC has been on heated and insulated pipes and vessels
where chloride from the environment or from the insulation, concentrates on the steel surface and
causes cracks to form.
On board ship there are may be a number of stainless steel systems that could be affected by this type
of failure. Heat exchangers and hot water pipework may be affected. Some specialist ships have
extensive cargo areas and pipes in stainless steel for carrying foodstuffs or special corrosive chemicals.
A pipe that is not heated can still be at risk. For example piping on a deck may heat up to well over 60
0
C
in hot sunlight. Small amounts of salt water left in the pipe could also heat up and then cause cracking
at weld joints or bends.
Hydrogen Embrittlement
The presence of atomic hydrogen in some metals, particularly in high strength steels and in titanium,
reduces the metal ductility rendering it brittle. This phenomenon is known as hydrogen embrittlement.
Until a steel containing hydrogen actually cracks, there is no permanent damage and in many cases the
original properties of the steel can be restored by suitable heat treatment to bake out the hydrogen.
Stress raisers increase the effect of hydrogen embrittlement.
Hydrogen from corrosion reactions and electro-plating processes is a cause of hydrogen embrittlement.
Cathodic over protection is also thought to pose a risk to high strength quenched and tempered steels.
Chromium plated and cadmium plated high strength steels can fail due to this effect.
4.9 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)
Many types of bacteria can live in tanks, vessels, cargo holds, and pipelines in the slimes that often coat
submerged pier supports and sheet piling. Bio-fouling, the build up of small shell fish, crustaceans and
barnacles on submerged structure and ships hulls can also act as centres for bacteria growth.
In optimum environments the organisms reproduce rapidly and large colonies can grow in a few days.
During growth the bacteria can convert nutrients into highly corrosive chemicals including hydrogen
sulphide and sulphuric acid.
Colonies of bacteria can also act as deposits and create concentration cells. All of these activities can
lead to increased corrosion in a system. Bacteria slimes can also grow to an extent where they can
completely block pumps and process pipes.
Two principle forms of bacteria are encountered.
Anaerobic Bacteria. These bacteria live and grow where there is no free oxygen. The commonest types
are known as Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRBs). These bacteria absorb sulphate from water or other
nutrients such as sewage, various oils and even bitumen coatings. They then reduce the sulphate to
sulphite and finally to hydrogen sulphide that is then free to cause corrosion.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 25
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 25
Conditions for the reproduction of anaerobic bacteria are generally a Temperature range of 20
o
C to 40
o
C,
a pH of 5.5 to 8.5, adequate nutrients and absence of oxygen.
Many corrosion problems encountered inside fuel tanks, ballast tanks, sewage systems and pipework are
due to a combination of agents, including bacteria, which all combine and accelerate the corrosion rate.
Corrosion effects can include sulphide stress cracking and the formation of large diameter localised pits
that often have an appearance similar to miniature lakes.
Problems of pipe blockage can occur due to colony growth and the deposits can also cause hot spots and
insulating conditions in heat transfer.
Aerobic Bacteria
These are bacteria that can only grow in conditions where oxygen is present.
Control of Bacteria
Methods of control include design to avoid stagnant areas, manual washing where accessible, additions
of biocide dosing and sterilising of water in tanks and vessels.
Gluteraldehyde is a major biocide applied in batch doses.
Chlorine is commonly used to sterilise all types of water.
4.10 Other Mechanisms and Types of Corrosion
Erosion Corrosion
At high velocities corrosive fluids and gases impinging on a metal surface will increases the rate of attack
due to mechanical wear which is superimposed on the corrosion process. Ships propellers, rotating at
high speed in a corrosive environment are particularly prone to this type of problem. The effect is called
erosion corrosion and it can be very rapid. It is shown schematically for a pipe in Figure 9.
Clean gases or pure water alone can cause erosion corrosion if the velocity is very high, and particularly
if the flow is turbulent or perpendicular to the metal surface. The presence of sand or sediments greatly
increases the rate of attack and lowers the
An example of this is use of 90:10 Cu:Ni alloy tubes in seawater heat exchangers. The tubes perform well
in clean seawater at velocities up to 3 metres/second. At higher velocities they may suffer from erosion
corrosion.
However if the water contains mud or sand, as in an estuary water, the velocity at which attack occurs is
reduced dramatically, and may be meter/second or less.
Erosion corrosion occurs on sharp pipe bends, tee pieces, pump impellers and on ships propellers.
Erosion corrosion is controlled by increasing the bend radii, reducing angles of tees to form shallow angle
Y inlets, increasing pipe diameter to reduce velocity, smoothing out irregular surfaces, removing sand or
deposits and also by changing material.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 26
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 26
FIGURE 9 EROSION CORROSION OF PIPE ELBOW
Cavitation
Cavitation is a special form of erosion corrosion. This is caused when vacuum bubbles are created in
turbulent flow of high velocity; these bubbles collapse creating small areas of high stress and severe
pitting can occur as pieces of metal are torn out of the surface by the mechanical forces involved in the
implosion of the bubbles.
Cavitation occurs at places where there are large and rapid changes of pressure.
Typical examples are on the trailing edges of impellers and ships propellers or on downstream areas of
high pressure reducing or proportioning valves.
Corrosion Fatigue
Fatigue is the failure of a metal at a stress considerably below its normal yield strength when it is
subjected to continued cyclic stress. If this cyclic stress is imposed in a corrosive environment the fatigue
life of the metal will be substantially reduced. Failure often occurs by intergranular cracking.
The time to failure by fatigue is related to the amplitude of the cyclic stress and the number of stress
cycles that occur. This is shown in Figure 10.
FIGURE 10 FATIGUE AND CORROSION FATIGUE
CORROSION FATIGUE
100
%

s
t
r
e
s
s
Cycles to Failure
Steel test piece cycles to failure in
a non-corrosive environment
Steel test piece cycles to failure in
a corrosive environment
80
60
40
10 10
2 3 4 5 6
10 10 10 10
EROSION CORROSION OF PIPE ELBOW
Laminar Flow
Turbulence
Internal
Erosion Corrosion
Velocity + 25m/second, Gas
Velocity +5m/second, Liquid with sand, debris
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 27
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 27
FIGURE 11 CYCLIC STRESS
A distinguishing feature of corrosion fatigue is the presence of numerous cracks in addition to the one
that caused failure.
Fatigue failures can occur in all types of structures and rotating equipment.
Catastrophic failure of several bulk tankers in recent years has been attributed to corrosion fatigue by a
mechanism similar to that shown in Figure 11.
If considerable structural corrosion has also occurred in the critical stress areas fatigue cracks can
develop and spread until eventually there are so many cracks that the load bearing capability of the
structure is exceeded and a rapid complete failure ensues that can cause the ship to break in half. The
corrosion may be a result of a cargo getting wet or leaking in poorly protected holds.
CYCLIC STRESS
Constant amplitude reverse cyclic stress pattern
Exagerated diagram of wave actions on hull stress and fatigue
(S)
Stress
MPa
n = No. of cycles
+
_
Wave Wave
Bending Moment
Wave
Bending Moment in opposite direction
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 28
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 28
5 METHODS OF CORROSION CONTROL
5.1 Materials selection for corrosion protection
A number of internationally recognised specifications exist for selecting materials. The American Society
produces these for Testing Materials, ATM. The American Iron and Steel Institute AISI. British Standards
Institute BSI and European Standards Institute Euronorm.
5.2 Steels and Irons
Over 80% of ships, marine structures, pipelines and vessels in marine associated industries are made of
carbon or low alloy steel, usually with application of some form of protective coating.
British Standard, Euro Standard and ASTM Specifications are the primary documents for the purchase of
carbon and low alloy steels.
Carbon increases strength but decreases ductility in steels.
Alloys such as manganese confer strength; chromium and molybdenum confer corrosion resistance.
Other alloy elements assist in grain refining and improving machinability.
Some high strength load bearing steels e.g. AISI4340, high strength steel plates and duplex stainless
steel forgings require heat treatment to achieve optimum properties.
ANNEALING; Slow cool in air from a high temperature.
NORMALISING: Natural cool in air.
QUENCHING AND TEMPERING: Produces tough, high strength structures.
Safety critical and very high pressure pump casings and valve bodies are generally made from high
integrity low alloy steel forgings.
For less critical items cast irons can be used. A range of high (15%) nickel cast irons known as Ni-Resists
are excellent for moderately corrosive conditions.
Steels containing more than 12% chromium are classed as stainless steels. 12% to 14% chromium steel
(AISI 405) without any nickel is a typical ferritic stainless steel.
Steels with higher alloy content and many non-ferrous materials are considerably more expensive and
their use has to be fully justified.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 29
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 29
Typical Stainless Steel Compositions:
Austenitic stainless steels are prone to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride waters, especially in the
absence of oxygen which maintains the passive film surface.
5.3 Non-Ferrous Materials
Nickel based Alloys
Chromium free nickel alloy such as Alloy 400 63% min. Ni, 28-34% Cu.
(Monel 400) and the higher strength K-Monel 63% min Ni, 27-33% Cu and 2.3 -3.3% Al are suitable for
service in neutral and reducing conditions.
They are excellent for use in seawater, fire water systems and many heat exchangers as shafts, impellers
and tubes. They are susceptible to failure in moderate to strong oxidising conditions. Nickel copper alloys
are also susceptible to corrosion by sulphur compounds.
Chromium containing nickel alloys can be used in oxidising conditions and very severe environments,
pump shafts, valve trim and other critical areas.
Suitable materials for these conditions include the following:-
Inconel 600 (UNS N006600) 75%Ni 16%Cr 8%Fe
Inconel 625 (UNS N006625) 61%Ni 22%Cr 9%Mo 5%F
Incoloy 825 42%Ni 21.5%Cr 30%Fe 3%Mo 2%Cu
Hastalloy C276 (UNS 102761) +50%Ni 16%Cr 5%Fe 16%Mo 4%W
High strength Alloy X750 is used extensively for springs in corrosive service.
Copper Alloys
Cartridge Brass 70% Cu, 30% Zn ,
This is very ductile and used for low strength, low corrosion resistant fittings and tubing. Finished items
must be stress relieved at 280
o
C otherwise they are susceptible to stress corrosion.
Admiralty Brass 70%Cu. 29%Zn, 1%Sn has improved corrosion resistance and is used extensively in heat
exchanger tubes.
Aluminium Bronze
Copper aluminium alloys Cu + 2-12% Al have good resistance to corrosion and erosion corrosion and are
very useful in seawater as castings and forgings.
Type of Steel
A ISI or UNS No
Grade
Composition %
Cr C Ni Mn Mo Si N
Austenitic 304L 18-20 0.03 8-12 2 - 1 -
Austenitic 316L 16-18 0.03 10-14 2 2-3 -
Duplex S310803 21-23 0.03 4.5-6.5 2 2.5-3.5 0.08-2
Duplex
(Feralium 255)
S32550 24-27 0.04 4.5-6.5 1.5 2.9-3.9 0.1-0.25
Super Duplex
(Zeron 100)
S32760 24-26 0.03 6-8 1 3-4 0.2-0.3
Super Austenitic N08028 26-28 0.03 39.5-42.5 2.5
3-4
(Sanicro 28)
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 30
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 30
Copper Nickel
Copper Nickel 90/10 CuNi and 70/30 CuNi alloys are widely used for seawater piping, condenser tubing
and firewater pipework.
Aluminium Alloys
Lightweight alloys with a wide range of strengths are available. They have moderate corrosion resistance
to seawater. All are susceptible to acid and alkali corrosion with susceptibility increasing with increasing
strength.
lightweight makes aluminium attractive for ships deck housings and structures and some fittings.
Aluminium is also extensively used for the complete hulls of small boats.
Its comparatively low strength and low modulus of rigidity makes it unsuitable for the hulls or highly
stressed sections of larger ships of (say) plus 100 tons dead weight.
Zinc, Cadmium and Magnesium.
Zinc is used extensively in the form of hot dipped galvanizing for the protection of steel in seawater and
in marine atmosphere environments. It corrodes at a linear rate directly related to coating thickness and
also provides sacrificial protection to the steel. Galvanizing is more commonly applied on static structures
than on ships. Bolts and fasteners that are galvanized can seize up in seawater due to zinc corrosion
products filling the threads.
Magnesium alloy is sometimes used for fittings on high cost racing boats because of its lightweight and
relatively high strength. High cost and high susceptibility to corrosion make it impractical for most ship
applications.
Zinc and magnesium bars and other shapes are also used as sacrificial anodes on ships hulls, propellers
heat exchangers, subsea piping and marine piling.
Cadmiun
Cadmium is an excellent marine atmosphere protective electro-plating for steel. High toxicity during the
plating process and production of toxic fumes if vaporised by welding has caused it to be replaced by zinc
tin alloys and other materials, less toxic but with generally poorer performance.
5.4 Thermosets and Thermoplastics
Thermoset plastics such as glass, aramid or carbon fibre reinforced epoxies are extensively used in the
manufacture of hulls and deck structures on a wide variety of small to medium sized boats and yachts.
Royal Navy mine sweepers have been made of these materials to avoid magnetic fluxes triggering mines.
The Worlds biggest Composite ship, the yacht Mirabella V with a 75m long fibreglass hall and 90m tall
fibreglass mast was completed in 2003.
The materials have very high resistance to sea water corrosion but cost, strength and fabrication
problems make them unsuitable for very large commercial ships, except as parts of deck structures,
cable trays, walking grids, storage tanks, rigid piping and instrument housings.
Thermoplastics
Thermoplastics such as PVC and polyethylene are used for flexible piping and cable ducting..
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 31
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 31
6 COATINGS
6.1 Types of Coatings
Corrosion management by coatings has been used extensively since the mid 18th century when natural
bitumens were the common protective material.
Major advances in the 20th century were the development of sophisticated epoxies, improved pigments,
faster drying and curing to meet demands for improved performance and faster application and re-coat
times.
Since the 1970s there has been a big demand for improved high performance marine coatings. However
these demands have coincided with new requirements to reduce the toxicity of pigments and solvents
and also to reduce the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) given off to pollute the atmosphere
during coaing application and drying.
These needs conflict with one another, and consequently a large amount of coating and process has had
to be undertaken to develop the wide range of modern coatings.
The main recent development milestone areas are:
Improved resins for chemical and water resistance
Moisture tolerant coatings for applying to wet surfaces
High solids coatings for applying >250m DFT in one coat
100% solids low viscosity resin coatings for high build and low volatile organic compound
(VOC) emission
Chromate and Lead free coatings of low toxicity
Tin free low toxicity environmentally friendly coatings for the protection of ships hulls. These modern
coatings are also designed to keep the hulls free from bio-fouling and achieve low friction in the water,
thereby saving fuel and allowing increased speeds.
Epoxy and polyester powder coatings for high build and zero VOC emission
Glass flake filled epoxies and polyesters for exceptional chemical and abrasion resistance.
Water based high performance coatings for low VOC emissions
Improved quality control and quality assurance on materials and application procedures
There is now a wide choice of both general purpose and highly specialised coatings available to the
Specifier.
6.2 Surface Preparation and Application of Coating
Ship coatings, offshore structures and all steel systems requiring a high standard of corrosion protection
requires abrasive blasting using iron shot, copper slag or grit before being painted.
Abrasive blasting cleans and roughens the metal surface to provide a key for the adhesion of the paint.
If the surface is too smooth the paint will not adhere. If the surface is too rough, then high points may
stick up through the surface of the coating and reduce its efficiency.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 32
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 32
Surface Profile
Selecting the correct grade of blasting grit produces the surface profile or peak to valley height. The
profile is required to obtain good paint adhesion even when the surface is clean.
The surface profile is measured as peak to valley height or as a centre line average between the peaks
and valleys as shown in Figure 11.
The profile should be varied to suit the type of coating. Heavy-duty coatings of
+ 250microns dry film thickness need a profile of 50 to 75 microns.
See Section 8 for methods of measuring the profile.
FIGURE 11a
Surface Cleanliness
Surfaces must be properly cleaned, by using blasting, grinding, wire brushing, mechanical sanding and
chipping, or solvent washing techniques.
Cleanliness of the surface profile is necessary to get a good bonding of the primer coat. Bare metal
surfaces easily corrode in any humid or moist atmospheric conditions. This type of corrosion results in
the formation of an oxide film, which is not bonded to the metal and interferes with the paint bonding.
Blasting Standards
Steels Structures Painting Council of America S.S.P.C.
NACE Standards for surface preparation by Abrasive Blast Cleaning
ISO STD.8501 Standard for Painting Steel Surfaces
British Standard Specification for Surface Finish of Blast Cleaned Steel for Painting. B.S.
7079
Dry Film Thickness (DFT)
Once a coating has been applied and has dried, it is necessary to monitor the thickness to ensure that
the specified amount has been applied to the surface.
6.3 Coating Types and Application
Heavy duty two pack coating and lining systems, based on organic resins, are one of the most frequently
used forms of controlling corrosion.
Virtually all external steel work is painted. Underwater and splash zone areas are coated with high build
paint systems. Interiors of many tanks and vessels are lined or coated with specialised resin systems.
SURFACE PROFILE
Peak
Trough
Rogue Peak
Amplitude
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 33
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 33
Additional coating systems used are the metallic coatings, such as, hot dip galvanising, metal spraying
and electro or electroless plating.
Systems based on organic (carbon containing) resins can be paint coatings or linings.
Paint Coating Systems
Paints are made up from a mixture of solvent resin and pigments. Sometimes special additives called
catalysts and hardeners also have to be added to the paint just before it is used. This depends on the
systems chosen. All paint must be thoroughly mixed to make the paint flow correctly.
Many paint systems consist of three different layers as follows:
a. Primer Coat,
b. Undercoat,
c. Finishing Coat.
Thickness is usually specified in microns (m) or mils (thousandths of one inch) for the dry film thickness
(DFT).
1 mil = 0.001inch = 25 m. 40mils = 1mm
Typical heavy duty coating thickness may vary from 200 to 500 m (5 to 20 mils) in thickness.
Special bituminous coatings, glass flake coatings and 3 layer FBE / PE coatings may be up too 3mm
thick.
Specifying Paints
A European Standard ISO 12944 provides a classification of environments and the paint types and
thickness needed to give various life times in the given environment.
The Standard is not clear for requirements on immersion service and internal pipelines. Some typical
coatings that might be used are as follows:
Ships hull Coating
2 coats of Epoxy to a DFT of + 500microns + 1 coat of antifouling paint.
Note: Modern antifouling paints are highly specialised. They contain compounds that are toxic to bio
fouling organisms but have much lower toxicity than the Tri Butyl Tin compounds that were used before
2000. Some coatings rely on self-polishing to retain freedom from bio-fouling. This is the gradual
deliberately engineered loss of paint during service. The paint loss also carries away the fouling
organisms and maintains a clean surface.
It has been estimated that severe fouling of a ships bottom can add 30% to the fuel bill.
Sea water Piling and structures Immersion and Splash Zone
1. 3 coat epoxy to a Total Dry film thickness (DFT) of 400 microns
2. 1 coat epoxy primer + 1 coat high build epoxy to a DFT of + 400 microns
3. Coal tar epoxy to 400 microns
4. 2 coats epoxy glass flake to 500 microns (+15 year life)
Marine Atmosphere Coatings
1. 2 coats epoxy mastic + 1 coat polyurethane to 350 microns DFT
2. 2 coats epoxy + 1 coat polyurethane to 350 microns DFT
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 34
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 34
Marine Immersion
1. 2 coats of epoxy to a DFT of +500 microns
Buried or Immersed Pipeline External Coating
1. Fusion Bonded Epoxy 650 microns
2. Coal Tar Enamel 3mm
3. 3 layer FBE + adhesive + polyethylene (2.5 to 3mm)
Tank Interiors
1 coat Epoxy High Build 350 microns DFT
Note. Potable water tanks must have coating certified for use by relevant authority
Pipe Interiors
1. Epoxy
2. FBE
3. Cement
4. Polyethylene Liner
The above are only general examples and should not be used for specification purposes.
Some paints and their uses are:
Zinc Silicate Primer: Used in damp corrosive conditions where a lot of mechanical damage may occur.
Also heat resisting. Not for permanent immersion.
Epoxy Coatings: Most commonly used high performance systems for external coatings and
many tank linings. Epoxies are sometimes loaded with granite or silica fillers
and applied as non slip abrasion resistant surfaces for decks and floors.
Polyurethane: Used as topcoat on hulls, tank exteriors and platforms to give durable good
appearance. Phenolic / Epoxy Phenolic: Used on the interior of tanks
containing hot solutions.
Alkyds: General purpose paints.
Glass Flake Polyester: Modern Chemical (acid) resistant coatings for vessels and tanks. (Expensive
but long life)
Chlor -rubber: Fairly cheap but soft chemical resistant coating. (now being phased out due
to environmental unacceptability)
Fusion Bonded Coatings
These coatings consist of dry powdered resins. Epoxy is the most commonly used type of resin in a
system called fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE).
In order to apply the coating, the components have to be pre-heated by an electrical induction heater and
the powdered resin is sprayed onto the surface. The resin melts and spreads over the pipeline as a
viscous liquid before it hardens off due to chemical reactions.
Coating thickness is usually about 70 m (3mils) dry film thickness for indoor metal furniture and up to
800m for severe immersion exposure. (32 mils).
The equipment required to apply the coating is complex and costly and almost all fusion-bonded coatings
are applied to pipe lengths, at a pipe coating mill, before despatch to the site.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 35
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 35
Metallic Coatings - Galvanising
Dipping steel articles in a bath of molten zinc forms galvanised coatings. The zinc layer formed on the
surface is sacrificial to steel and protects it by galvanic action, even if there is a scratch in the coating.
Although zinc corrodes in air or seawater it does so at a fairly slow rate. Galvanised coatings are used in
industrial and marine atmospheres for steel protection. Heavy duty galvanized coatings are also suitable
for full immersion service. They are not satisfactory in acid or alkaline conditions.
6.4 Effect of Coatings on Cathodic Protection Design
Coatings are usually the principle corrosion protection on submerged or buried structures. However the
coating always contains defects or damage areas and deteriorates further with time. Cathodic protection
(CP) provides the protection required for the damaged coating areas.
The coating also reduces the current demand on the hull or other component to be protected by up to
98% with a very high-grade coating.
6.5 Coating Evaluation and Inspection Measurements
It is often necessary to monitor the condition of a surface as it is being prepared for a coating, as the
coating is being applied, and after the coating has dried and weathered.
The different monitoring conditions need the use of different inspection instruments.
The coating thickness criteria being measured include the following:
a. surface profile
b. surface cleanness
c. wet film thickness
d. climatic conditions
e. destructive thickness
f. dry film thickness
g. porosity or holiday detection
h. adhesion quality
Surface Profile Monitoring
The blasting surface profile can easily be measured in the field by visual comparison with a special
standard set of profiles or by a profile gauge. The latter method uses a plastic film that is pressed on the
surface and then peeled off to provide a replica of the surface.
The replica is then measured for a change in thickness from its original condition, by a special
micrometer. This thickness change corresponds to the peak to valley height of the actual surface.
Surface Cleanliness
Surfaces must be properly cleaned, by using blasting, grinding, wire brushing, mechanical sanding and
chipping, or solvent washing techniques.
Dry Film Thickness
Once a coating has been applied and has dried, it is necessary to monitor the thickness to ensure that
the specified amount has been applied to the surface.
Magnetic dry film gauges are able to measure the thickness of non magnetic coatings such as paint,
epoxy resin, glass, zinc and plating substances, and of non-conductive coatings such as glass fibre,
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 36
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 36
rubber, plastic, and polyurethane sheeting on magnetic surfaces (carbon steel, but not stainless steel).
These gauges work on the principle that magnetic forces are reduced as the magnet is moved further
away from the steel.
Another type of thickness measuring devise is the Eddy Current Gauge that can be used on magnetic or
non-magnetic substrates.
Porosity or Holiday Detection
Ideally, the finishing coat should provide a nonporous protective shield of durable thickness and quality
that will resist penetration by moisture to any undercoats.
The coating may contain pores due to solvent bubbles trapped inside it or due to areas of contaminated
metal surfaces that prevent the coating from bonding.
Holiday detectors are non-destructive test instruments which show the position of pores or very thin
coatings. The technique is used mainly on high performance coatings for water immersion or buried
service.
The painted item to be examined has to be electrically earthed in order to carry out the test. After
earthing the coated area is traversed by a metal brush or metal loop (various designs exist) that is
supplied with a very high voltage input. The voltage can be varied depending on the thickness of the
coating.
When a holiday or thin area is located the electrical insulation of the coating breaks down and a spark
passes from the holiday detector to the suspect area that is marked out for rectification.
Adhesion Testing
Adhesion Testing is a form of destructive testing that determines the adhesive or bonding quality of a
coating system. The technique used is based upon the principle of pulling off the coat from the protected
surface material.
Two such methods are; the loaded spring tool that exerts a specific pull on a test dolly that has itself been
glued to the coating surface, and the crosshatch cutting tool.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 37
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 37
7. CATHODIC PROTECTION
Cathodic protection (CP.) is one of the most important methods of corrosion control on Ships, jetties,
sheet piling, tanks and pipelines.
7.1 Theory
Some of the theory of CP has already been covered in the Sections on General Corrosion and Electro-
chemistry. The Battery Cell as shown in Figure 8 is a simple example of an anode and cathode
For cathodic protection to work there must be an electric circuit for the transport of electrons. This circuit
is usually the metal to be protected, a suitable metal anode, a connecting wire and the soil or water
(electrolyte) in which the system is buried.
Seawater has a very low electrical resistance of 30 ohm cm. Soils have a relatively high electrical
resistance value. Typical values may be 300 - 1,000 ohm cms and 2,000 - 21,000 ohm cms for low and
high resistivity soils respectively.
The composition of the metal surface, such as the presence of mill scale and variations in chemistry
determine where anodes and cathodes will be present in the corrosion risk areas of the structure.
When corrosion is taking place electrons flow through the metal circuits that exist in the different
compositions of metal grains in the plate metal.
The electrons flow through the metal from the anodes to cathodic areas of the pipe surface, the anode
areas corrode as iron ions are released into the water or soil whereas the cathodic areas are protected.
Pitting occurs at the anode areas and eventually the pitting undercuts some cathodic grains that then fall
out of the body of the metal even though they are not corroded. Corrosion then is a continuous process
of actual dissolution of anode areas and undermining and breakdown of cathodic areas.
The electrical potential established between a steel surface and adjacent water or soil is generally in the
range of -0.4V to 650mV when measured against a standard copper/copper sulphate reference cell.
This is the natural corrosion potential of the steel. (Reference cells are discussed later)
If a new metal could be introduced into the corrosion circuit and controlled at a potential that causes the
current flow to be reversed on all of the most negative area found on the metal structure that requires
protection, it follows that the new metal would become anodic to the whole of the pipeline.
In this case there would be a flow of positive current from the new metal, through the water or soil onto
the metal that requires protection. The new metal would become the anode and the whole of the system
would be cathodic to it, with the result that the corrosion of the structure would cease. This condition can
be obtained if the structure metal to water or soil potential can be changed to be equal to, or more -ve
than 850mV (-0.85V) with reference to the standard Cu/CuSO4 electrode.
Highly electro-negative metal sacrificial anodes are made from zinc, aluminium or magnesium.
Aluminium is the most popular seawater anode, If zinc is used the weight of nodes required is much
higher than for aluminium. Magnesium produces a higher potential against steel ( - 1.4 to -1.7V) and is
generally only used in soil with a high resistivity.
Positive current flows from the protected structure through insulated wiring to the anode. From the anode
the current flows back through the conductive electrolyte (sea water or soil) onto the surface that is
protected.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 38
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 38
The current can be masked by coatings or by corners in the structure. In the following illustration no
current would reach the back of the structure and a separate anode, or set of anodes would be needed
to protect the back.
Also the current only protects the face of the metal that sees the current. The inside face is not
protected all.
The sacrificial anodes are consumed by corrosion instead of the protected structure and the require
replacement at calculated time intervals.
7.2 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP)
This is the system used for large boats or large structures.
In this case the anode may be graphite, cast iron, coated titanium or metal oxide.
Applying a DC current to the system, which pushes the electrons around the circuit, creates the flow of
electrons.
The anode material is not consumed by corrosion and ca have a long life. Also it is possible to use much
smaller and lighter anodes than are required for sacrificial protection.
Typical CP installation schematics are shown as follows:
FIGURE 12 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SACRIFICIAL CP
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SACRIFICIAL CP
+ve current flow
Zn or Al
Anode
Sea Water
Boat or
Structure
Note: Only the outer surface is protected
as shown. Also the protective current will
not flow around the back faces of the
boat or structure.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 39
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 39
A number of rectangular aluminium anodes are distributed around the hull, below the water line and
attached to the hull by bolting or through a welded doubler plate. Several anodes concentrated around
the stern of the boat can be used to protect the rudder and propeller. Special connections have to used
to ensure a complete electrical circuit. The
propeller requires conductive slip rings on the shaft to ensure a good connection.
FIGURE 13 IMPRESSED CURRENT CP Plan view
A range of reactive metals such as zinc, aluminium and magnesium can be used to provide sacrificial CP
systems while silicon iron, platinised titanium or mixed metal oxides are typical low corrosion rate
impressed current anodes.
Impressed current CP is applied to the hulls of most large ships. Two to six anodes are bolted on the
outside of the hull at carefully selected points. The connecting cables are fed through watertight
insulating glands in the hull to an adjustable direct current source (Transformer /Rectifier or TR) inside
the ship.
The anodes are usually bars, plates or discs of platinised titanium or mixed metal oxide construction.
Relatively small anodes can carry the amp current loading necessary to protect the hull and the anodes
breakdown very slowly by self corrosion. Mechanical damage is one of the main risks and designs must
take this into consideration.
Anode shields, as shown in Figure 13 are important in the design. The dielectric insulators are 3 to 5
times the anode length and their purpose is to prevent the majority of current flow taking the shortest
route to the metal and causing and depleting the flow to points further along the hull.
From ships
Power Supply
-ve return path
+ve +ve
-ve return path
Anode bolts insulated from hull
DC from TR
Anode shield - Fibreglass or paint
ships hull steel plates
Anode
Anode shield - Fibreglass or paint
Conductive path to
return current to TR
Transforma Recliner
+ve current flow onto hull +ve current flow onto hull
+ve current flow onto hull
Anode Anode
IMPRESSED CURRENT CP - Plan view
Impressed current CP for ships hull
Anode installation detail
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 40
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 40
FIGURE 14
For details of anode assemblies see BS7631 Cathodic Protection. Part 1. 1991.
7.3 Protective Potentials and Potential Measurements
To achieve corrosion protection on steel the specified potential between the ship or structure to be
protected and the surrounding water is generally accepted as being
between -800mV and -1250mV as measured with a silver / silver chloride reference electrode, also
known as a half-cell. The design objective is to try and get all areas of the protected structure to meet
these requirements.
If the structure is in soil a copper / copper sulphate electrode is used instead of the silver chloride type.
This electrode is more stable in soil use.
The potential required against the copper / copper sulphate electrode is between -850 and -1300 mV.
The reference electrodes are used to measure the structure to soil potential.
The structure / water or earth junction forms one half cell and the reference electrode/ water or earth
junction is the other half of the complete cell.
To achieve accurate results a high impedance 10 or 20 meg ohm digital Voltmeter must be used and the
connecting cables must have a low resistance. The Structure is always connected to the +ve connection
of the voltmeter.
reduced current
density
reduced current
density
high current
density
high current
density
LARGE CURRENT FLOW VARIATION WITHOUT ANODE SHIELD
IMPRESSED CURRENT CP
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 41
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 41
FIGURE 15 Measuring CP Potentials in Sea Water
Achieving the Potential
A suitable anode has to be selected to achieve the potential. The type depends on mainly on the water or
soil resistivity and the area or length of structure to be protected. High soil resistivity may require use of
Magnesium anodes with a potential of -1.5V with reference to a C/CS electrode. For lower resistivity soils
and salt water Zinc anodes with a potential of -1.1 V may be used. Protection of large areas such as the
hull of a +1000 ton deadweight ship or a long length of pipeline may be by inert silicon or metal oxide
anodes with the DC current supplied from a mains rectifier / transformer.
7.4 Cathode Current Density
In order to achieve the correct potential the current flow onto the structure must be of an adequate
current density in mA/m
2
. Values have been given to different types of waters and soils some of which
are as follows: (Typical values from the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, NACE Handbook)
NACE current density values for coated steel are:
Soils: 50 to 500 ohm cm resistivity 1 to 2 mA /m
2 (WELL COATED)
Soils: 500 to 1500 ohm cm resistivity 0.5 to 1.0 mA /m
2 (WELL COATED
Soils: 1500 to 4000 ohm cm resistivity 0.1 to 0.5 mA /m
2 (WELL COATED)
Sea water (quiet) 2 to 5 mA/m
2 (WELL COATED)
Sea water (fast flowing) 250 to 1000 mA/m
2 (NOT COATED)
Sea mud 25 to 50 mA/m
2 (NOT COATED)
Cathode Area
A large cathode area in low resistivity water or soil can require a lot of current (current density x bare
area. Large numbers of sacrificial anodes may be required or it may be necessary t use impressed
current to provide the current.
The total area of cathode to be protected is massively reduced by application of high duty coatings.
MEASURING CP POTENTIALS IN SEA WATER
Reference Cell
Silver Rod
Silver Chloride
solution
Porous plug
CABLE Voltmeter
Anode
HULL
Silver/
Silver Chloride
ref. cel
Method of Measuring Potential
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 42
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 42
7.5 Importance of Coatings for CP
Coatings are usually the principle corrosion protection on ships, submerged or buried structures.
However the coating always contains defects or damage areas and deteriorates further with time. CP
provides the protection required for the damaged coating areas.
Steel ships usually have their hulls cathodically protected.
For ships the current required is usually 250mA / m
2
of bare metal. The area of bare metal on a well
painted ship is taken to be about 0.5% to allow for damage and porosity. Therefore the total current
required would be:
Submerged area of hull x 250 x 0.,5/100 = Total immersed area x .125mA.
However this requirement increases as the water temperature increases and also as the average ships
speed increases. Loss of paint also increases the current demand and has to be taken into account.
Ships propellers that are moving very fast can require 400mA /m2.
Example: A bare metal ships hull requires 250mA / m
2
for protection. The hull is well coated with a new
epoxy that is assumed to have 0.5% holidays. (holes in the coating)
The area of bare pipe is now reduced to 0.5/100th of the original area and the current requirement is
also reduced to 0.5/100 of the original demand = 125mA/m
2
based on the total area.
Note. The CP Engineer must always check and state whether current density calculations are based on
bare metal or based on the coated pipe.
A good high performance coating is a requirement in conjunction with CP. As time passes an increased
% of coating breakdown is expected and has to be accounted for in the CP. calculations.
7.6 Over Protection / Under Protection
Under protection occurs where the cathodically protected structure or ships hull potential to the
surrounding soil or water is more +ve than -850mV when measured with suitable reference electrode.
There is also a potential limit where if the potential is too negative it can cause damage to the pipeline
coating and even to the pipeline steel.
At potentials more -ve than -1500mV evolution of hydrogen at the cathode can cause damage to coatings
and may also cause steel embrittlement. Over protection is only a problem with impressed current
systems and occasionally with sacrificial magnesium anodes.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 43
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 43
FIGURE 16 POTENTIAL VARIATIONS ON A STRUCTURE
Highest -ve potentials occur at the points where the pipeline, structure or ships hull is closest to the
anode.
At these points on an impressed current system, or where high voltage magnesium anodes are used, the
potential may be high enough to create damage risk.
As the distance from the anode increases so the potential falls (becomes more +ve) until a point is
reached at which it is no longer protective. Another anode may then be needed to boost it back to -
850mV. The typical curve produced by a series of anodes is a Catenary Curve. (This is the type of curve
a chain forms when hanging from two points)
POTENTIAL VARIATIONS ON A STRUCTURE
Potential v Distance Caternary Plots
Anode
Ships hull
Low protection
-1250mV
TR
Anode Anode
Anode
Ships hull
Low protection
-1250mV
-800mV
-800mV
TR
Anode
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 44
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 44
7.7 Types and Properties of Anodes. Anode Weight, Shape and Life
When sacrificial anodes are selected the type of anode chosen also depends on the driving force.
Driving force = (Potential output of Anode ref. C/CS cell - 850mV)
Material* Potential Driving Force
Mg (high Pot) 1.7V 850mV > 1500 ohm cm
Mg (Low Pot} 1,5V 650mV > 1000 ohm cm
Zn 1.15V 300mV < 1500 ohm cm
Al (in water) 1.1V 250mV ** Water only
Materials are actually proprietary alloys rather than pure metals. Typical alloys are shown in the
Appendix.
Shape and Size.
The larger the surface area of an anode, the lower the electrical resistance to the environment and the
greater the current the anode can supply. Typical formulae indicate that the anode resistance is inversely
proportional to the square root of the anode area. The geometry at an individual anode is selected to
ensure that each anode has sufficient surface area to provide the required current for the section of the
pipe or structure that is protected by the individual anode.
Anode sizing is taken from tables provided by the anode manufacturer or from calculation of a readily
available resistance formula.
The weight of each anode must be sufficient for the anode to last the required design
Life. This also determines the geometry and size of the anode.
Anode types
Ships hull Anodes Usually rectangular or trapezoidal
On shore Pipeline Anodes; Usually short cylindrical type.
Off-shore Pipeline Anodes; Bracelet type
Tank Internals Long cylindrical type
Large Plate Structures; Bolt on Anodes, often rectangular
Tank Bottoms Bolt on Anodes rectangular or spherical
Deep Ground Beds Long cylindrical
Anode Life
The life is based on the number of amps per Kg of material that the anode can produce. This is derived
from Faradays Law that:-
The Electrolytic Dissolution of one Equivalent Weight of a Metal will produce 96,500 coulombs of
Electricity.
One Coulomb = one Amp flowing for one second.
Example. Zinc. Equiv. Wt. = Atomic Wt /2 65.4/2 = 32.7g Zn produces 96,500 coulombs.
Therefore 1kg produces (1000/32.7) X 96,500 = 2,951,070 coulombs.. This is 2,951,070 /
3600 = 819Amp hours per kg of Zn.
In practise the proprietary alloys are not pure zinc and may produce rather less than this amount. A
typical minimum output is 780 amp hrs / kg of Zinc
This is known as the Anode Capacity.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 45
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 45
Anode Weight
The weight and number of the individual anodes for protection is determined by the amount of current
that each anode can put out. The current depends on the internal resistance of the anode and that in
turn depends on the anode weight, size and shape.
The subject is covered in detail in a later Section.
7.8 Calculations for Design
The first calculation is to determine the current demand for the CP system. This is generally done by
estimating the current demand on the basis of well-established values that have been determined for
various soil resistivities.
The current demand is determined on the amount of bare steel estimated to be present at various stages
in the pipe or structure life.
Estimates for coating breakdown vary tremendously. There is no precise figure, however the following
date is often used:
Initial Coating Damage
0.5% for a modern coating, 2% for a coat and wrap or fusion bonded epoxy and 5% for poorer coatings.
Damage after 20-year life
1% for 3 layer, 5% for Coat and wrap or FBE. 20% for poorer coatings. Coating damage is increased
where pipes / tubing have been forced through the earth in crossings or wells.
The next step is to multiply the bare area by the current density required, say 25mA/m
2
for a corrosive
Subkha area, 5mA/m
2
for a fairly dry high resistance desert area. This gives a total current value, ( I)
Sacrificial anodes are selected on the basis of a well known formula:-
W = I x 8766 x Y / Z x U
Where W= Total Weight of Anodes in kg
I = Total Current in Amps
Y= Required Design Life of the Anodes
Z= Anode Capacity in Amp hrs / kg
U= Utilisation Factor (a decimal fraction)
8766 = No.of hours in a year.
I is known from the initial calculation, Y is the design life. Z = can be found in proprietary data
for any type of anode. Z = See Appendix.
U is usually taken as 0.9.
The basic design procedure is shown on the next page,
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 46
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 46
Courtesy of Impalloy. (Now Corrpro Europe)
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 47
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 47
The number of anodes are selected to satisfy two criteria:
1. Total Anode weight / Individual anode weight = Number
2. Total Current required / Individual Anode output = Number
Once the total weight has been obtained an individual type anode type is selected for material, shape and
weight. The individual output is calculated from Ohms Law I = E / R and the internal resistance ( R )
is found from the Dwight formula as shown on the next page.
7.9 Impressed current cathodic protection
Criteria for Selection
The size / length of the sructure or hull will indicate whether impressed current should be selected.
Other factors are the driving force to obtain the required potential on the pipeline, and the availability of
electrical power .
7.10 Power Sources
Mains electricity is always the preferred power source. The mains supply is connected to a Transformer
/ Rectifier (TR) which reduces the voltage and provides a direct current (DC) output to the anodes.
The DC output may be from 5 volts to 50 volts depending on the driving potential which in turn depends
on soil resistivity and the length of pipe to be protected.
The amp output is also based on the required current density and the area to be protected. A 20%
contingency allowance is usually added to the ratings.
Cables
DC cables shall be single core multi-strand copper, double insulated and sheathed for protection against
the aggressive soil environment. Minimum cable size shall be 10mm
2
. Bonding cables and main DC
current carrying cables shall generally be 50mm
2
.
7.11 Types and Selection of Anodes
Anode materials that are used for the impressed direct current methods of cathodic protection include:
a. Graphite
b. Magnetite
c. Silicon alloy iron
d. High Chromium Silicon Iron
e. Platinised titanium
f. Metal oxide coated metals
Graphite anodes are less commonly used as they are brittle and will tend to flake.
Silicon alloy iron anodes are rather less brittle than graphite and are more expensive.
In salt water conditions deep pits develop to severely shorten their design life and they are only suitable
for buried conditions. In soils with high chloride the high chromium type of silicon iron should be
specified for resistance to chloride attack. ( in salt marsh / subkha areas) or wherever high chloride
content exists.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 48
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 48
Platinised titanium anodes are less brittle than either the graphite or silicon alloy iron anodes. The basic
titanium metal is electrically plated with an extremely thin layer of platinum, about 2.5 microns (0.000 1
inch) thick. These anodes are expensive but have low weight and good long term current output
characteristics.
One anode or a cluster of anodes in a ground bed can protect long lengths of pipeline from a kilometre
up 50Km in ideal conditions.
Mixed metal oxide anodes are more recent developments and are capable of carrying high current
loadings with very low self corrosion rates.
Anode sizes and types are selected on capability to carry the current required for the selected life and
cost.
A major advantage of impressed current systems is that because they are mains driven the driving
potential is not limited to 250mV as for zinc, or 700mV as for magnesium sacrificial anodes.
In areas where no mains supply is available thermoelectric generators or solar powered systems can be
used.
It is important to site the inert anodes in moist soils that have low resistivity levels and, in consequence,
less potential is required for the needs of the cathodic protection system.
7.12 Calculations for Design
Detailed calculations are outside the scope of this course but can obtained from books referenced at the
end of the Course notes (1) (2)
7.13 Interference Current
Current from a protected structure can flow onto other structures in the area and set up corrosion cells
as shown in Figure 17 when it tries to return to the protected section of the structure by the shortest low
resistance return route to the source supply.
In bad cases, the corrosion is quite severe in positions close to the point where the current leaves the
foreign structure.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 49
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 49
FIGURE 17 STRAY CURRENT INTERFERENCE
Foreign CP interference is a major concern on ships as follows:
A
Two ships moored together, one protected by CP, the other unprotected or only partly protected.
Current from the anodes on the protected ship flows on to the unprotected ship and helps to provide it
with some degree of cathodic protection. However because the current from one ship is now trying to
protect two ships the current supply is probably insufficient to protect either ship properly and corrosion
may occur on the protected vessel. Also where the current leaves the unprotected ship (foreign
structure) this point becomes an anode area and corrosion cells can be set up.
To prevent the setting up of a corrosion cell by stray current flow between two ships an electrical resistance
bond is connected between them. This can be a heavy duty cable or chain well earthed to the two hulls.
B
Ship moored to a pier or jetty with cathodically protected piling or structure.
Current from the piling can pass onto the ship hull and then find a return path from the ship through the
water back to the piling. At the point where it leaves the ship the current can cause concentrated corrosion.
The problem is generally only serious if the ship is going to be moored for days rather than hours. Here
again prevention is by bonding the ship to the protected area (piling etc.) by a chain or cable.
Note. Normal mooring bollards may not be electrically connected to the piling and may not provide the
type of connection required.
STRAY CURRENT INTERFERENCE
Current leaving
unprotected ship
Unprotected ship moored close to
protected ship
Use chain or cable to connect
the ships hulls and carry the
current back through a metal
path to stop corrosion on the
unprotected hull
Anode current flowing on to unprotected ship
Corrosion
Anode
Anode
Anode
Anode
Corrosion
Current leaving
unprotected ship
Anode current flowing on to unprotected ship
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 50
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 50
Stray current and foreign structure problems have been a source of considerable pipe corrosion on land.
The situation occurs when a new pipeline with C.P. is laid in the vicinity of an existing line or other
underground structure such as a tank. Current flows onto the old structure and causes it to corrode at
the newly created anode sites.
7.14 Transformer / rectifiers
The transformer rectifier (TR) is a vital part of any impressed current cathodic protection system with the
function of reducing mains voltage, usually 240V, to a usable level for the CP system and changing the
AC sine wave amplitude to full or half wave rectification. .17CP monitoring and maintenance
7.15 Potential Surveys
The pipe to water or soil potential is the most important method on monitoring CP. to ensure the - 0.85
to -0.90V is attained.
This reference electrode for buried pipelines and structures is the Copper / Copper Sulphate half cell that
has already been described. The half cell is connected to the buried steel structure through a high
resistance voltmeter that indicates the potential level. For ships and marine structure a silver / silver
chloride cell is used.
The positive side of the voltmeter is connected to the reference electrode.
The connection to the structure is made through a special test point. This may be special box that
contains spade terminals that can be disconnected and reconnected through a test meter.
If the observed potential is less negative than -650 mV, corrosion attack may be freely occurring.
Between -650mV and 750mV some degree of protection would normally be expected and full protection
would be expected at 850mV.
If the observed potential is more -ve than 1500mV, as can occur with impressed current, then a condition
called over potential may occur leading to hydrogen embrittlement of steel and / or disbonding of coatings.
FIGURE 18. POTENTIAL SURVEY
The above short survey shows an area with a sharp drop in potential to a level that is close to the natural
corrosion potential. This indicates a problem that needs investigating. If there are sacrificial anodes
along the structure it may be that local anodes are not connected. Alternatively there may be a serious
V
Distance m
Close interval potentials along
the length of a marine structure
Unprotected area
-850
-750
-650
20 40 60 80 100 120
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 51
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 51
coating defect or a current drainage point in this area.
If the whole structure is below the protection level then the number of anodes may need to be increased
or if it is an impressed current system the TR output may not be sufficient. Additional possibilities are that
the coating is much poorer than allowed for in the calculations or the pipeline is contacting another
structure that increases the area beyond the calculated area. (Foreign interference)
If the whole structure is more -ve than -1.5V (only possible on impressed current) then it may be
necessary to reduce the TR output or introduce resistors into the system.
Instant Off Potentials
The potential measured at the ground surface is not accurate because the reference electrode is remote
from the metallic item
The reference electrode is measuring the potential gradient at the earth surface and this includes an Ir
component.
The measured value can be calculated if the soil resistivity is known and the current flux estimated, but
this is cumbersome and usually inaccurate. Instead the TR is switched off. The potential falls within
milliseconds to the actual structure potential and then decays slowly as the capacitance charge across
the interface leaks away.
The off potential is recorded immediately after the TR is switched off. This can be done manually but
nowadays the switching is made automatically by a quartz-based timer which is synchronised with a
similar clock on a recording voltmeter package. The meter records the on and off potential automatically.
An instant off potential shift of 100mV in the +ve direction indicates that a structure is adequately
protected. (Ref. NACE Standard RPO 169-96)
FIGURE 19 POTENTIAL OFF
7.16 C.P. Maintenance Factors
Monitoring and maintenance of the coating is important in corrosion management and the operation of
a protective CP system. Excessive loss of coating will cause a fall in the current density and a consequent
+ve potential shift to an unprotected condition.
Coating loss can occur through poor substrate preparation or poor application procedure. Mechanical
damage may occur and cathodic disbonding of the coating is a risk at high -ve potentials.
CP switched off
Protected potential
Corrosion potential
Ir drop (>100mV)
-0.9V
-0.5V
Time (hrs)
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 52
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 52
Tape applications often fail due to embrittlement or blistering of the material that might not have been
the correct choice for the temperatures involved.
The survey methods described above provide the indications of coating breakdown. When a problem
area has been identified it is necessary to investigate for signs of coating failure, anode failure, poor
circuit or inadequate power source output.
Prompt repair is required.
7.17 CP SAFETY
Safety factors are always a primary requirement in any activity related to corrosion control and cathodic
protection. There do not appear to be any National or International specifications or procedures on the
subject.
Some practical considerations are given below.
CP Safety in fire risk area. (Zones 1 and 2)
Care has to be taken to avoid sparks or flames during construction and installation of all systems.
In general zinc and aluminium sacrificial anode systems do not present a risk of sparking during
operation. However magnesium and aluminium anodes may spark if dropped. Zinc should be specified
for high risk areas . Magnesium anodes may create sparks under adverse conditions due to their higher
potentials.
All test points, electrical equipment and isolation joints should be positioned outside the high risk zone
where possible.
Impressed current systems present much higher spark risk. If such a system has to be used a detailed
risk assessment should be carried out. The TRs, test points and terminals should be outside the risk
area. All equipment within the area should be flame proofed,
CP Safety near parallel high voltage lines
Installers should ensure pipe lengths are grounded. Tests should be made on the pipes to check induced
or stray potentials.
CP Safety near known or suspected buried electrical cables.
Pipelines or structures should be checked for current pick up and should be grounded.
Bonding
Bonding of a CP system to any structure associated with the grounding system of an electricity supply
network should be avoided.
Loading Lines and Ship to Shore Lines in hazardous area.
Connecting and disconnecting loading lines to tankers, barges or gantries in fire risk areas can be
hazardous.
Gantry supply pipeline that connected to CP should be fitted with isolating joints before the Gantry.
Ship to shore bonding of the tanker and jetty CP systems is not good practise because the differences in
the current demand of the two systems can allow substantial currents to flow between them. Isolating
joints should be installed in the loading lines.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 53
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 53
In order to provide protection against arcing during connection and disconnection of cargo hoses it is
necessary to fit an isolating joint or flange or a single length of non-conducting hose in each of the metal
arms or cargo hose strings to ensure electrical isolation between the ship and shore. All metal on the
seaward side of the isolation should he electrically continuous with the ship and all metal on the land side
continuous with the jetty grounding system.
Isolating joints or flanges should be designed to avoid accidental short circuits. Where the loading line
is wholly flexible the isolation should be fitted at the jetty manifold. Where the line is partly flexible and
partly a metal loading arm, the isolation should be inserted between the flexible hose and the metal arm.
For an all metal arm care should be taken to ensure that the isolation cannot be short circuited by guy
wires or tools.
For tankers at submarine Line berths at least two sections of non-conducting hose should be inserted
into the string of flexible hoses at the end of the rigid line. These should preferably be the second and
third hoses from the tanker manifold.
Switching off the CP systems is not considered advisable due to loss of protection and the difference in
polarisation times might create bigger potential differences than leaving the system operating.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 54
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 54
8.0 CORROSION PREVENTION MAINTENANCE
Preventive maintenance is very important in all marine operations.
Some of it is relatively simple, such as keeping decks free from corrosive dusts and cargo residues.
Carrying out regular re-painting schedules and greasing or cleaning proprietary equipment to the
manufacturers recommendations.
On large vessels and particularly on tankers one of the problems is knowing where to look for corrosion
and structural damage.
Corrosion will occur where water or wet deposits can collect. The effects can be particularly bad if the
area is poorly painted, if is a warm location or if the water or deposits are allowed to remain for a long
period.
Ships hulls are relatively easy to inspect and maintain at dry dock periods.
The hulls suffer from general corrosion and may have localised pitting but do not suffer from external
cracking unless a mistake has been in material and welding specifications.
The main difficulties occur inside the ship, on internal hull support structure and in storage tanks and
cargo bays.
Ballast tanks, frequently holding salt water, are high risk areas requiring regular inspection and
maintenance.
Cargo holds for corrosive or abrasive chemicals are metal ores are exceptionally high-risk locations. The
movement of heavy loading vehicles and cranes inside the holds damages coatings. The pouring and
movement of abrasive ores also cause damage. Once damage has occurred to the protective or to the
metal then corrosion occurs rapidly in the cargo becomes at all wet.
These are areas requiring very high standards of inspection and maintenance.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 55
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 55
9.0 IDENTIFICATION OF DEFECTS
Visual inspection is the most important aid to identifying defects. Experience and intelligent use of
simple devises such as a strong knife, a coating thickness gauge, a pocket lens, pH papers and a pit
depth gauge can reveal a vast amount of valuable information.
Coating Defects: Visual Inspection or simple Instruments required
Poor surface preparation prior to blasting. Use Profile Test Gauge
Coating below specification thickness Use Thickness Gauge
General Loss of adhesion Visual
Blistering Visual
Metal Defects
Deformation of Structure Visual
Loosening of Rivets and Bolts Visual
General corrosion Visual
Pitting Visual and Pit Depth Gauge
Large weld defects Visual and Hand Lens
Macro -cracking of metal Visual and Hand Lens
Defects requiring specialised Instrumental Techniques
Coating cure condition Visual indication and then Laboratory test.
Coating Adhesion. Test with knife, then Specialised Adhesion
Tester Kit
Confirmation of Correct Material Specification Sample required for
spectrographic analysis
Identification of micro cracks or internal cracks Ultrasonic Testing
Identification of Laps, Inclusions or Pores Ultrasonic Testing (or X ray)
Identification of Structure Failure as it Occurs Acoustic Emission Monitoring
Identification of Damage under Marine Fouling High power water jet clean,
Visual Inspection and Pit Gauge
For detailed identification of paint defects and marine fouling see Fitzs Atlas of Coating Defects.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 56
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 56
10.0 SURVEY METHODS AND EQUIPMENT
10.1 Non-Destructive Inspection Methods.
Ultrasonic Methods
Ultrasonic sound waves generated by a transducer can travel through very thick sections of metal.
The ultrasonic sound wave is a mechanical energy wave and is transmitted, via a liquid interface, into the
metal. It then travels through the metal until it reaches a discontinuity that may be a crack, void or the
other side of the metal. At this point the wave is reflected and travels back to the transducer that, in some
designs, can be made to operate as a receiver and detects the reflected wave.
The principle of ultrasonic techniques is shown in Figure 20.
Here, part of the signal generated is reflected at a crack in the metal. The remainder of the signal waves
are reflected at the back surface.
The time taken from emitting the signal to receiving the reflected waves is obviously less for the waves
returning from the crack than for the wave penetrating to the back surface. This time difference due to
defects in the path of the signal can be shown up on cathode ray tube.
Ultrasonic measuring equipment is used regularly in oil producing operations to monitor the quality of
welds and determine the presence of cracks, voids, corrosion or stress corrosion cracks.
The simplest ultrasonic meter is the D-meter, a hand-held portable instrument that does not use a
cathode ray tube, but simply records metal thickness on a digital display.
It is useful to confirm specification thickness, detect large amounts of general corrosion or large size pits
on the inside of a pipeline or vessel.
FIGURE 20 PRINCIPLE OF PULSE-ECHO ULTRASONICS
Specimen
Flaw echo
d
Flaw
Back wall
Back wall
Zero line
Transmitter
receiver
Impulse Flaw echo
1
d
2
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 57
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 57
X ray Methods
X-rays are high energy electromagnetic radiation.
X-rays will penetrate metals, but are gradually absorbed as they pass through. The amount of absorption
is proportional to the thickness of the metal and to its density. (A thick lead foil will absorb most X-rays
because it is very dense).
The determination of corrosion or the presence of cracks in metal by X-rays is based on the use of a
photographic film on the opposite side of the metal to the X-ray source.
This plate, after development, shows the intensity of the X-rays. If the metal has a local thin area, less
radiation is absorbed than in the thicker area.
Cracks voids and corrosion spots show up as dark areas on the plates.
Acoustic Emission
Acoustic emission is a new technique being used experimentally on the main structural components of
large bulk tankers.
The technique involves installing a large number (+100) sensitive microphone systems on critical
structures. Sounds created by strain in the structure are channelled to a data logger and computer.
Variations in noise output can be interpreted as plastic strain or cracking and can alert the Inspector to
the problem. The large number of instrument heads enables the location of the suspect noise to be
found. Additional NDT tests can then be used to define the risk .
Further studies recommended / Practical exercises
Sections 5 to 10 Appendix B
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 58
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 58
11 CASE HISTORIES
Service History
A medium sized bulk carrier spends its time plying up and down a large overseas river carrying iron from
a terminal 300 miles upstream to a large storage ship permanently moored at sea near the river estuary,
ore from this ship is then unloaded onto ships for destinations all over the World.
The river carries a lot of iron ore sediment and has one 50km shallow stretch where the flat-bottomed
bulk carrier stirs up mud, creates turbulence and sometimes scuffs the bottom of the ship on the
riverbed.
The Carrier ship is cathodically protected but has had a number of severe hull corrosion problems.
Corrosion has also occurred on the cargo deck and deck fittings.
Principle problems identified with the CP system have been as follows:
1 Under Protection. Potentials on some parts of the submerged hull have been measured
as more +ve than -600mV to a silver / silver chloride electrode in seawater.
2 Frequent complete shut down of the CP system by the automatic overload sensor. This
problem occurred particularly while under way in seawater.
3 Failure of the CP survey procedure with a silver / silver chloride reference cell to
measure true potentials when the ship was moored at the river dock. Readings of -
200mV were often obtained which appears false because this value is more +ve than
the natural corrosion potential of steel in fresh water, which is about -400 to -500mV.
Cause of CP Problems.
The CP system appeared to be designed for 10 - 12% coating failure which would be quite normal.
However below water coating failure is estimated as considerably more than this due to damage by
turbulent water and scuffing on the riverbed.
When anchored the protection requirement is less than 100mV / square metre bare metal. Under way
in seawater this could increase to 300mV / square metre and the transformer rectifiers could not provide
enough current to achieve this because of the amount of bare metal on the hull.
The hull was under protected. The system then cut out due to overload and all protection stopped until it
was manually re-started.
At the dock side there appeared to be stray current interference from the DC power supply to a large
conveyor. However this was not considered a major problem. The problem with the silver chloride
reference cells appeared to be that they became contaminated with iron from the iron ore in the water
and gave false readings. In these conditions use of pure zinc reference cells are more likely to give true
readings. When using zinc the readings appeared to be satisfactory.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 59
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 59
Deck Corrosion
Considerable exterior pitting of Deck piping. Holes in thin wall pipe. Some pitting of hatch covers.
Corrosion of mechanical equipment.
Cause of Deck Corrosion Problems.
Iron ore -Iron oxides are very cathodic to steel and when wet can set up galvanic corrosion cells and
oxygen concentration cells. Considerable ore spillage occurred on the decks and pipe surfaces which
were often wet and pitting corrosion started.
Iron Ore in Holds.
The iron ore in the holds could be a severe corrosion problem if wet, but fortunately the product is always
stored dry.
Possible Solutions to the Problems
CP
1 Increase the Amp output on the T /Rs.
2 Improved damage resistant coating on the lower hull. (Glass flake coating could be a
suitable coating to be applied at refit).
3 Alarm system on CP cut out with easy access reset switch to ensure minimum down
time if overloaded.
4 Use of zinc reference cells when at or near the Ore Port.
Deck
5 Rigorous cleaning and washing programme on deck after loading and unloading to
remove ore dust.
6 Improved coatings on deck fittings.
Cargo Holds
7. Ensure good maintenance and safety procedures keep the cargo hatches operational,
watertight and closed during voyages.
Considerations on the Storage Ship permanently moored at sea.
This ship is always stationary. It has been subject to the same deck corrosion problems as the Carrier but
the hull corrosion and CP performance is quite different.
The ships hull is well protected.
Reasons for good CP Protection on the Stage Ship.
1 No river movement to cause excessive coating damage.
2 Stationary ships are protected by lower voltages than moving ships and therefore draw
far less current. The requirement is easily supplied by the TRs.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 60
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 60
3 Polarisation effect. This is the build up of chemical species, hydrogen gas, chalk scale
or even marine growths that occur on stationary cathodically protected objects that
block out bare metal areas and reduce the current demand.
In the above case a high level of polarisation occurred, reducing current demand to a very low level and
providing full protection at very low amperage output.
BULK CARRIER
IRON ORE CARRIER, EXTENSIVE PAINT LOSS ON BOTTOM DUE TO FREQUENT GROUNDING REDUCED
EFFECTIVENESS OF CP PROTECTION.
IRON ORE DOCKS
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 61
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 61
DECK PIPING PERFORATED DUE TO EXTERIOR IRON ORE CORROSION
HEAVY DECK PIPE PITTING DUE TO IRON ORE CORROSION
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 62
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 62
LOADING THE IRON ORE
























Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 63
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 63
12 METHODS OF CORROSION CONTROL - COATINGS
12.0 Minimising Corrosion Effects
Although corrosion cannot be totally prevented, it can be limited. By attempting to control some of the
major factors that influence corrosion, we can slow the rate at which it occurs.
Relative Humidity.
If the relative humidity can be kept below approximately 50%, the corrosion rate will be reduced to
insignificant levels. The use of de-humidification equipment is particularly useful in an enclosed
environment such as the hold of a ship undergoing maintenance, or simply laid up.
Material Choice
The design life of a structure can be significantly varied by the choice of construction materials. Corrosion
potential of materials is only one factor in their choice, alongside strength, weight, cost etc. It is desirable,
however, that sufficient consideration is given to the possible rates of corrosion.
Construction materials may be corrosion resistant alloys at relatively little extra cost. Consistency and
homogeneity within a metal are important, and different metals (even different similar grades of steel)
should not be used together without consideration of the corrosion possibilities.
Coating
Corrosion will occur when the metal substrate comes into contact with the environment. A coating
applied to the metal protects that substrate in the following ways:
Barrier Prevents or restricts contact between the environment and the substrate.
Inhibitive Releases substances, (inhibitors) which repel attack from the environment.
Sacrificial Produces an electric current that protects the substrate (in a similar manner as a sacrificial
anode).
Cathodic Protection.
Zinc-Rich paint coatings are primers that operate on the principle of cathodic protection, protecting the
substrate metal by sacrificial corrosion.
12.1 Corrosion Prevention using Protective Coatings
12.2 What are Coatings?
Paint is a fluid suspension, which is spread in thin coats to decorate and/or protect a surface. It consists
of pigment, or colouring matter, and the binder in which the pigment is suspended. Usually, the binder
is diluted by the addition of a solvent and these two together become the vehicle that carries the pigment
to a surface. It is the function of the vehicle to change its nature (i.e. solidify) and bind the pigment to
the chosen surface.
Binder
The binder consists of oils or resins, or a blend of oils and resins. Its essential function is film formation,
the ability to change from a liquid film that flows to a more or less hard plastic film. The choice of binder
plays the major part in deciding the properties of the paint film. Among the most important properties of
the paint film are the following:-
Adhesion to the surface which is painted (usually called the substrate).
Gloss: different binders show a different degree of glossiness.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 64
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 64
Mechanical Properties: these include such things as hardness, flexibility, resistance to
abrasion, impact, or expansion and contraction due to temperature changes. It is
important to note here that the mechanical properties of a paint film are much
influenced by the nature of the substrate, and that a coating with ideal characteristics
for a steel substrate may perform very poorly on, say, a wooden substrate.
Pigments
Pigments consist of small crystalline particles that are insoluble in the solvents that may be used.
They are added to a paint film for many reasons, among which may be:-
To provide colour and to hide the surface.
To protect the film and the surface from the effects of Ultra-violet light and weather.
To decrease the permeability of the film.
To provide rust-inhibiting properties.
To add body, i.e. to thicken the paint so that higher film can be achieved.
To decrease gloss.
To aid storage properties.
Many pigments are metallic salts (e.g. Iron Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Chromate), which were initially
chosen by artists and decorators for their colouring ability. Pigments that do not have this colouring ability
are usually called extenders, and are added to paints because of their ability to add thickness and solids
to paint films at relatively low cost. Some have other properties; for example, mica is a transparent
material that breaks up into flat plate-like particles that will lie flat in a paint film and decrease the
permeability of the film. Other examples of extenders are chalk, china clay and talc.
Types of Paint
Paint consists of pigment distributed in a binder. Most types of pigment are compatible with most types
of binder, but it is usually from the binder that we take the name used to describe a type of paint. Hence
we may recognise the following types of paint:-
Acrylic
Phenolic
Alkyd
Polyester
Chlorinated Rubber (currently being phased out)
Polyurethane
Coal Tar
Silicone
Epoxy
Inorganic Silicate
Vinyl
Although it is the binder that has the greatest influence on the ultimate characteristics of a paint film, it
is important to realise that the pigments also play their part.
For example, a pigment such as Micaceous Iron Oxide has a very distinctive and characteristic effect
upon a paint film to which it is added, and for this reason, it is usually named in conjunction with the film
binder (e.g. paints known as Chlorinated Rubber M.I.O. or Epoxy M.I.O.).
Barrier Coatings
Industrial coatings are mainly employed to protect a surface rather than to decorate. The major function
of a protective coating is to form a barrier between the surface being protected and the environment.
These coatings, therefore, are designed to prevent the passage of water and oxygen, together with other
specific contaminants. In this way, the surface is protected from the corrosion influence, and maintained
in good condition.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 65
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 65
Unfortunately, no paint material is able to completely exclude water or air. As a result, even the best
paints fail to protect steel by eventually failing to prevent the passage of these corrosive agents.
In practise, it is necessary to ensure that the barrier coatings are firmly adhered to the metal surface, and
that the coatings are as impermeable as possible. This can be achieved by:-
Selection of pigments
Increasing thickness of coating
Ensuring that coating does not have physical flaws (e.g. pinholes, voids).
Inhibitive Coatings.
If corrosion enhanced conditions exist beneath a barrier coating of the type described above, the general
tendency will be for corrosion to take place at the steel surface, travelling sideways along the surface. In
this process, the barrier coatings become progressively disbonded from the steel surface, despite the
apparent integrity of the coating. For this reason, it is common to include, as part of a multi-coat system,
a coating which will inhibit the corrosion process. These coatings are commonly known as primers, since
they are mainly effective when used as the first or priming coat against the steel surface.
Inhibitive primers, in addition to having good adhesion and good resistance to the passage of corrosive
agents such as water, will contain rust inhibitive chemicals.
Temporary Coatings
Many coatings are employed to give temporary or short-term protection to a structure. Amongst these
are:-
Pre-fabrication primers, designed to allow large quantities of steel to be cleaned and
coated by machine prior to erection of the structure concerned.
Rust converters, which transform rust into a more chemically inert material on a partially
corroded surface, and are able to protect the surface over a limited period of time.
Wax based coatings, which are often used in relatively enclosed and static corrosion
situations, such as ships tanks, but require frequent renewal if they are to remain
effective.
Anti-fouling paints, which have a limited life by design and need to be renewed at
regular intervals.
Solvents
Solvents are volatile organic liquids used in paints to reduce the viscosity or consistency of the material
and so facilitate the application for the oil or resin present. After application, the solvent is no longer
required and should evaporate completely from the film.
Solvents are readily organised into chemical groupings, and some of the more common solvents are listed
below as part of their relevant chemical grouping.
Hydrocarbons: Include Turpentine, White Spirit, Benzene, Toluene and Xylene
Alcohols: Include Methyl Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol and Isopropyl Alcohol
Ketones: Include Acetone, Methyl Ethyl Ketone (M.E.K.)
Esters: Include Methyl Acetate, Amyl Acetate
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 66
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 66
Other Important Features of the Solvent.
The evaporation rate affects the process of application, the film formation and fluidity of
the paint. E.g. Cellulose enamel, if sprayed with Acetone as the solvent, can cool the
surface so rapidly that the dew point is reached and condensation on the surface
causes blushing. Too slow evaporation can cause running or sags. Too fast evaporation
can cause dry spray.
The Flash Point - is the temperature at which a liquid produces a combustible vapour.
Solvents whose Flash Point is below 21?C are highly inflammable. The risk of fire is
usually small, but naked lights and sparks should be avoided when a solvent of low
Flash Point is being used.
Most solvent vapours are toxic, but if sufficient ventilation is maintained then it should
not constitute a health hazard. When extremely toxic vapours are present, then masks
and external air supplies should be utilised. Solvents can also cause Dermatitis and
skin rashes. Gloves should be worn when dealing with most solvents.
The cost of most solvents is high as they are derived from the petroleum industry.
Paint Curing
For the great majority of paints, one or more of the following processes are involved in the drying of the
applied film:-
Evaporation of a solvent from the vehicle, leaving behind a film of solid material.
Conversion of constituents of the vehicle (e.g. linseed oil) to the solid state by chemical
changes involving mainly oxidation by atmospheric oxygen. Paints often contain additives
known as driers to hasten these changes.
Polymerisation, or reaction between components of the vehicle, brought about by putting
a curing agent in the paint, or by the application of heat.
Very few paints contain no solvent at all, and many will therefore combine solvent evaporation with the
chemical change through oxidation or polymerisation. Hence it becomes apparent that the timing of the
drying process is critical, and this must be an important consideration during the formulation of the paint.
Some chemically cured resins are capable of use as coatings material, without the addition of solvent. In
general, these will be used either in their natural paste form, applied by hand, or applied in the usual way
after heating the components to reduce viscosity. One of the major values of solvent free materials is
their ability to cure in situations where solvent would not evaporate readily, e.g. underwater. These
materials are capable of application at very high film thickness. They do not change their volume on
curing and cannot suffer from solvent entrapment. Chemically cured resins can also be applied to a
surface in the form of a powder. The powders that are in general use have been developed in such a form
that polymerization reaction (chemical cure) is triggered by heating.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 67
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 67
Simplified Schematic of the Polymerisation Process
Stage 1 - Material unmixed and as delivered in can. Individual chemical constituents are un-bonded or
unlinked.
Stage 2 - Cure agent is added and mixed to base material. Cross- linkage or chemical bonding starts to
take place.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 68
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:12 Page 68
Stage 3 - Completion of the chemical bonding that takes place in Polymerisation. A highly chemical
resistant matrix is formed.
Polymerisation is affected by the following factors.
1) Temperature - The higher the ambient temperature the faster or more rapid the
polymerisation process. Lower ambient temperatures retard the process. Always check
with the manufacturer or material data sheet mixing temperatures.
2) Potlife - refers to the time and temperature that the materials are at a workable
consistency.
3) Cureing Agent addition - Always refer to the data sheet regarding mixing ratios.
4) Induction or Sweat in time - Some products require a short time after mixing to start the
chemical reaction process - usually this is stated in the manufacturers product data
sheets.
Coating Systems
There are many types of coating materials and many variations within a single type. Each coating is
formulated for a specific purpose, and it has been discovered that the best coating system for long-term
protection is a multi-coat system in which the individual coatings are selected for their ability to fulfil a
certain role.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 69
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 69
Some of these roles are:
Priming Paints, which secure good wetting and adhesion for the entire system, form a suitable ground
for, and to hold, the remainder of the system, and play a special role in controlling the corrosion of steel.
Undercoats, which form a suitable ground for, and hold, the remainder of the system, and act as barrier
to corrosive elements.
Finishing Paints, which adhere to and must be compatible with preceding coats, protect the preceding
coats against the effects of the environment (i.e. sunlight, atmospheric pollution), and give the system
required physical and chemical properties, such as abrasion resistance, water impermeability, chemical
resistance, colour, and gloss.
The complete system usually comprises priming, undercoating and finishing paints, although, to an
increased extent, undercoating and finishing paints are interchangeable and even priming paints are
omitted; but, where this happens, care must be taken to ensure that the paint performing the dual
function is really able to do so satisfactorily.
Compatibility of Coatings
Many paint failures are due to the incompatibility of the individual costs, each of which may be good of
its kind, but unsuitable for use with the remaining coats in the system. This makes a powerful argument
for making sure that any coating system is regarded as a unit and that consideration is given to any
possible interaction between the coating materials used within the system.
Problems associated with compatibility (or lack of it) are generally derived from the solvents that are used
in a coating. In addition to fulfilling its prime function as a solvent, the volatile content of a coating must
be strong enough to soften the underlying coating without being so strong as to destroy it. Some coatings
have little or no problems in this direction, others are well known for their adhesion faults, or generally
poor compatibility.
One way of minimising compatibility problems is, wherever possible, to adapt a coatings system of a
single manufacturers products, in line with recommendations made by the manufacturer. This course of
action has the additional benefit of allowing only one source of redress should the system fail due to a
coating material defect.
Where different coating types are used as part of a coating system (e.g. Epoxy coatings over a zinc silicate
primer) great attention must be given to the potential problems of incompatibility.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 70
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 70
13 CHOOSING A PAINT SYSTEM
Exposure Testing of Paint Films
To account for structural variables, service tests of organic coatings are sometimes conducted on actual
structures in service. More often, test panels are prepared, since greater control of surface preparation
and exposure conditions can be exercised.
Critical parts of the test programme are the preparation of test specimens, the selection of the exposure
conditions, and the selection of significant coating properties to be evaluated as a measure of
deterioration with time.
Performance Expectation of Coatings
Practical coatings are a compromise between the maximum protection that can be extracted from a
system and how much money is available to pay for protection. As the effective life of a coating system
increases, its cost usually increases also. How long the coating will last depends upon:-
Which coating is chosen - different situations require different coatings, so selection is
important.
The correct surface preparation chosen and achieved.
Method and standard of coating application.
Inspection is carried out at all times.
When long term performance is desired, it is often more economical to choose a high initial cost coating
rather than a complex maintenance programme which uses an initially cheaper coating.
Since the coatings industry is continually developing new and improved coatings, it is necessary to
decide whether the new coatings are suitable for use. Performance testing may be by:-
Natural exposure
Accelerated weathering tests
In either case, it is important to realise that accurate prediction of coatings performance is not generally
possible.
Coating Systems and their Selection
Environmental Considerations
The ultimate performance of a properly applied coating system will depend to a large extent on the
environment to which it is exposed. Five environmental conditions are generally recognised:-
Rural: Open country - remote from industrial areas or from sea
Industrial: Areas where industry is concentrated
Chemical: Areas within or immediately surrounding chemical or heavy engineering works
Coastal: Fringe areas near coast
Marine: Areas where air carries sea-water spray, usually restricted to the vicinity of high water
mark
Of these environments, it is sometimes very obvious which applies. For example, an oil production
platform will undoubtedly encounter a marine environment, although certain parts will also encounter
chemical pollution.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 71
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 71
Long Term Performance
The long-term performance capability of a coating system is often not thoroughly tested. New and
relatively untried materials are produced at regular intervals, and few coating systems have become
accepted through many years of trials. Unfortunately, fashion in the paint industry often dictates the
selection of a coating system.
There is no doubt, however, that certain types of coating material offer the potential of a substantially
longer life as a protection against corrosion.
It is well known that flame-sprayed metal coatings or zinc-galvanised coatings offer good long-term
protection. Used in conjunction with a follow-up coating system, extremely long life can be achieved. Set
against this fact must be the difficulty, often, of applying metallic coatings, and the relative difficulty of
proper maintenance.
Alternatively, a coating system may be chosen for its ease of application, with long term performance as
a secondary consideration. In this case, it should be recognised that low initial costs may well be offset
against more regular requirements for maintenance (and therefore costs) in the future.
Each coating system, properly applied has a maximum potential life span, during which time it will give
adequate protection against corrosion.
The many factors which affect the life span of a coating system may help either to achieve that maximum
or may contribute to the premature failure of the system. Selection of a coatings system must consider:-
Design life of a structure
Ease of maintenance
Quality of initial application
Economics of coating operations
Factors Affecting Coating Life
The life expectancy of a properly applied coating system will depend upon:-
The type and quality of the coatings
The environment to which the coatings are exposed
Choosing a Coating System.
Many attempts have been made to compare the various coating systems that are available. One of such
comparisons of three coating types is made here:-
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 72
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 72
Note - Chlorinated Rubber coatings are now being phased out and replaced with water based or Acrylic
binder type materials. Thes materials are VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) compliant.
It can quickly be seen, however, that a listing of this type can only be of limited value. Very few paint
manufacturers will wish to list the minus features of their product. There can be a great many different
ways of evaluating a particular product, and a certain quality may be either an advantage or a
disadvantage, depending on the requirements of the engineer who is making the decision!
However, once basic decisions relating to the above factors have been made, it is the quality of the
application process that is important. It has been estimated that the quality of a coatings application
process depends upon the following factors and in noted percentages of importance:-
Surface Preparation: 55%
Coatings Application: 25%
Quality of Coatings: 20%
* Indicates that at the most recent inspections, the painting scheme had not failed on all the surfaces
concerned.
Naturally, it is also important that high quality is sought from both the application procedures and the
coating materials. Simple though it may sound, the rules of good painting practice are often ignored. One
major corrosion report published in the U.K. suggested that the cost of corrosion to the nation (many
millions of per year) could be reduced by up to 20% simply by ensuring that painting work was
supervised with the aim of achieving a quality standard of workmanship.
How then, does an engineer select a coating system?
Experience
The experience of an engineer, or his department, or his company, will often give a good indication of
whether a coating system is suitable for the engineers purposes. This naturally supposes that similar
coating work has been undertaken before, and that accurate and detailed analysis of coating
performance has been made.
Often, an engineer will gather information from his colleagues in a different company who may have
experience that he does not have.
Plus Features Minus Features
Alkyd
Excellent Exterior durability
Good Flexibility
Good Re-coatability
Excellent adhesion to most
surfacesEase of Application
Poor Chemical and Solvent
Resistance
Fair Water Resistance
Poor Heat Resistance
Chlorinated Rubber
Fast Drying
Good Chemical resistance
Good Water Resistance
Good Exterior durability
Limited Heat resistance
Poor solvent resistance
Blast-cleaned surface required
Epoxy
Excellent chemical and solvent
resistance
Excellent adhesion
Good high-build capabilities
Good long-term performance
Poor gloss in exterior exposure
Difficult to over-coat
Mistakes possible in mixing and
application
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 73
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 73
Research
Surprising results can often be achieved from apparently familiar coatings, if a detailed approach is made
to the evaluation of performance. A systematic appraisal of premature failures will often indicate how
similar failure can be avoided. In this way, consistent results can be achieved and the engineer becomes
familiar with specific coatings and learns to achieve long term protection with those coatings.
Expert Advice
Advice is available from many sources, including the paint manufacturing companies. In the main, the
advice will be good, provided that the advisor takes the time to assess both the requirements of the
engineer and the reality of the situation. Local knowledge and experience is useful. It is wise for the
engineer to evaluate advice and to ask questions.
Coatings on Zinc Surfaces
When coatings are applied to non-ferrous substrates, such as sheet zinc and zinc-galvanised steel, special
precautions are necessary. When new, the surfaces should be degreased before painting, to ensure removal
of foundry acids and adequate adhesion of the paint film. Adhesion would be improved if the surface were
modified by chemical treatment or by the action of the weather, or use of a recommended priming paints.
Zinc may react with many types of conventional paint to form water sensitive, brittle compounds at the
paint/metal interface, and the various forms of pretreatment prevent these interactions taking place. In
some cases, calcium plumbate primer may be used without surface treatments.
The most satisfactory pretreatment for zinc is by using, in the factory, specially formulated phosphating
and/or chromating solutions, followed without delay, by a suitable priming coat. Further coats can be
applied onsite after cleaning down the primer and touching up any damaged parts.
If this is not possible, then the following methods of treatment can be adopted:
By the use of wash or etch primers.
By treatment with an etching solution, after which the surface should be rinsed with
clean water to remove acids and salts.
If the zinc or galvanised steel is allowed to weather up to three months before painting it
creates a roughened surface, through corrosion, which is suitable to receive paint
without having to degrease or etch, although dirt and loose corrosion products do have
to be removed.
The surface can be abraded with emery cloth (lubricated with a suitable grease solvent)
to produce a uniform, fine, matt surface, and subsequently wash with clean solvent.
This process is only suitable for small areas as it is rather slow.
Light blast cleaning is possible, and produces a good key for coating. Some engineers
allow application of a regular coating system, others like to use an etch primer prior to
application of the remainder of the system.
Coatings on Aluminium Surfaces
If the aluminium has a smooth polished surface, it does not provide a good key for paint, and special
treatment is essential to secure good and permanent adhesion. Etching primers are essential.
Factory pretreatment and priming is preferable, involving chromic, sulphuric or phosphoric solutions
initially, followed rapidly by priming and possibly one coat of undercoat.
Anodizing is an electrolytic method that results in the formation of a dense film of oxide on the surface
of the metal. Although an anodized surface is an excellent key for paint, it is seldom used for this purpose
owing to its cost. Anodizing is more often used for aluminium surfaces that are to be protected by clear
finishes.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 74
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 74
As with Zinc surfaces, light blast cleaning may be used to provide an anchor profile for subsequent
coatings, although the use of an etch primer may still be beneficial to adhesion of the coating system.
Specialist Coatings for Special Purposes
There are a great number of coatings that have been developed for particular special purposes. Some of
these coatings are discussed below.
Thermoplastic Coatings
The use of Plastics for corrosion resistant coatings is a relatively recent innovation. It allows the
combination of the mechanical strength of metal and the corrosion resistance of plastic.
Coatings are normally applied by dipping, spraying or by extrusion.
Heavy Duty Bituminous Coatings for Pipeline
The types of coating traditionally used are based on coal tar or asphalt bitumen enamels. To aid bonding
to the pipe surface, a thin layer of primer coat is applied. This may be a solution of the coal tar or bitumen
enamel, or based on chlorinated rubber. The enamel is applied to the pipe as a flood coating, with
simultaneous application of a tape wrap, normally of glass fibre. This wrap sinks into the enamel, and
should be neither in contact with the primer nor exposed to the air. A second tape is also applied at the
same time, again normally of glass fibre, probably impregnated with enamel.
This overlay is intended to function as a protective shield, resting more or less on the surface of the
enamel coating, although bonded to it.
Recent developments have seen the production of cold-applied, self-adhesive wrapping tapes. Based on
PVC or polyethylene backing, with a rubber-based adhesive, they are applied over a primer to give
thicknesses in excess of 500 microns.
The tapes are normally overlapped by 50% or more to give a double thickness. The same is true generally
of the reinforcing tapes mentioned above.
Cold-applied wrapping tapes may be applied over a wire-brushed surface (coated with primer) and are
used primarily for protection of field-welded joints and for repair purposes where speed of repair is
important.
Fire Retardant Coatings
For domestic purposes, a fire-retardant coating may be a coating that resists burning or the passage of
flame for a certain period of time (normally 30 minutes or an hour). In the oil industry, the fire retardant
coating has the same requirement, but would need to resist the higher temperatures of an oil/gas fire.
Intumescent paint coatings provide protection by foaming under the effect of heat to form an insulating
layer. In practise they are handled and look like an ordinary paint coating.
Insulation coatings provide better long-term fire protection than paint coatings. This type of material is
generally a concrete reinforced with an insulator (e.g. vermiculite). Spattered onto a surface, it provides
a thick coating (up to 4 inches) held in place by riveted studs and re- inforcing wire. It is a difficult coating
to clean, and has a tendency to crack, when its fire retardant properties are reduced.
All fire retardant coatings are required to be tested and issued with a fire certificate showing a satisfactory
performance.
Anti-Fouling
The growth of marine organisms (or fouling) is a hazard or nuisance on all underwater structures. Of
particular interest are:-
Fouling on ships bottoms may significantly reduce the speed of the vessel through the
water (or increase fuel usage).
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 75
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 75
Fouling on an offshore structure may severely affect the design calculations related to
loading and wave action, etc.
In general, anti-fouling coatings are more commonly used on ships. These coatings are designed to resist
marine growth by releasing a poisonous material (pigment) into the surrounding water at a controlled rate.
This means, of course, that the coating will have a limited life and will need to be replaced at regular
intervals. This service interval may be as little as 15 or 18 months in some climates, and requires
expensive dry-docking for re-coating.
A recent development is the production of self- polishing coatings which gradually dissolve away whilst
maintaining a smooth surface on the ships bottom.
Non-Skid Deck Coatings
On surfaces which are commonly used by personnel, and which may become slippery due to
contamination by oil, water, etc., the use of non-slip coatings is required. In addition to their normal anti-
corrosion properties, suitable coatings are impregnated with sand or other sharp grit. This is only
normally done with the topcoat of a multi-coat system.
Typical applications are the decks of ships and oil production/drilling platforms. In the case of tankers or
oil/gas platforms, it is important that the non-slip additive is non-sparking.
Insulation Materials
Insulating materials are often applied to pipes and vessels for one of two reasons:-
To maintain the temperature of the pipe/vessel when it is significantly different from the
environment, e.g. to keep oil flowing in an Arctic pipeline.
To reduce noise levels.
In both cases, the cause of corrosion concern lies with the potential problems caused by a
microenvironment within the insulated space.
Insulation materials are either expanded foam or pre-formed sections of material, typically glass-fibre or
mineral wools. Both have a low value for thermal transmission, and would normally be contained by a
metallic (aluminium or stainless steel) sub-structure.
The likely cause of corrosion is a wet or condensing environment inside the insulation barrier. It is
important, therefore, that the spaces are sealed, and that attention is given to the vapour-seal as part of
maintenance procedure.
Glass-Fibre Reinforced Products
When a coating is required to have considerable structural strength in its own right, such as when
repairing a weakened steel structure, it is common to reinforce the coating material by incorporating
woven glass-fibre matting. Suitable materials for this reinforcing technique are generally polymers such
as epoxy and polyester resins.
Coatings for Application on Wet Surfaces.
The increased use of coatings for corrosion protection below sea-water level at maintenance, and the
development of various techniques of blasting with water have led to the production of coatings suitable
for application on wet surfaces. These are generally of two types:-
Moisture Tolerant - Coatings which can be applied under conditions where the steel
surface is wet, but not dripping with water, and water condensation may occur. This
does not include seawater.
Typical of these are coatings that will displace a certain quantity of water, but also
absorb a proportion of water that is incorporated into the curing mechanism.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 76
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 76
Water Tolerant - Coatings which can be applied when the steel is dripping with water,
underwater, or alternately wetted. The water source may be condensation, fresh water
or seawater.
Typical of these are two-pack epoxy coatings of 100% solids, whose cure is determined totally by their
content at mixing, and virtually impervious to outside influence.
Both types of coating need to have superior wetting properties in order to ensure displacement of the
water from the steel surface.
Thermal Sprayed Metal Coatings
Many metallic or ceramic coatings can be sprayed onto steel, either to provide corrosion protection, to
modify the surface characteristics, or to rebuild a surface that has worn away. The most common
corrosion resistant coatings applied by metallizing are aluminium or zinc; typically, zinc is chosen for
atmospheric service, and aluminium for water immersion service.
The process of metallizing projects a stream of melted metal (aluminium or zinc) onto the prepared
surface that is to be coated. The conventional method of surface preparation is grit blasting, and a high
standard - usually white metal - is required.
The aluminium or zinc may be may be supplied as a wire or as a powder, and can be melted in a gas flame
(wire), by creating an electric arc (two wires) or in a plasma flame (powder).
Each of these methods creates different characteristics in the coating, and is generally chosen for
convenience and/or portability when used to apply corrosion resistant coatings.
The coatings created are likely to have a rough surface and may be somewhat porous, and should be
sealed using a penetrative organic coating to achieve maximum performance from the coating. The
coatings are often selected and used as the primer coat of a coating system, although aluminium
metallizing has been used by some companies for its cathodic capability when immersed in seawater.
Extremely good performance has been reported using this kind of metal coating for corrosion prevention.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 77
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 77
14 COATING SPECIFICATIONS
It is essential for the coating chosen for a particular purpose to be applied correctly, and in order to
ensure this, a coating specification is used, which is usually part of the set of contract documents.
Essential Considerations.
What is a Specification?
A specification is the means of communicating requirements regarding the quality of materials and
standards of workmanship necessary to provide a good protection to ferrous construction materials and
components against deterioration by corrosion.
Why do we need a Specification?
In order to ensure the potential life of the protective system, we must:-
Choose the correct system.
Make sure the materials used in the system can be supplied when required and with the
properties attributed to them when making the choice.
Apply the materials in the correct conditions and with the required standard of
workmanship.
Handle, store and transport the materials in such a way that their properties are
unaffected.
Ensure that any erection procedures do not damage any coatings in such a way that the
coatings cannot be repaired to the required standard.
Because every project is different, with many factors at work, the specification should always be included
in the contract documents.
Specification for Maintenance Coatings
A complete set of schedules should be prepared if maintenance coatings are part of the specification.
This is necessary as there may be fluctuation in conditions compared with the original first coatings
application.
Definition of Responsibilities
A large number of people may be involved with the coating specification, each with their own
responsibilities; some examples might be:-
Client/Engineer Preparation of Specification
Contractor/Sub-Contractor Carrying out the schedules correctly
Paint Inspector Ensures that all the coating specifications are adhered to; maintenance of
records etc.
Safety Officer Control over dust, fumes, disposal of waste etc.
As well as these, there are a large number of other processes occurring on site and these all have to be
taken into consideration for a successful operation.
Paint Guarantees
Many clients ask for guarantees that the protective coating system will successfully protect the steel for
a specified period. There are various ways of setting up guarantees.
Ask for successful performance over a long period of time, e.g. 5 years. This is often
combined with some method of limiting contractors liability. i.e. It may be stated that in
the event of coating failure, the guarantor would be liable for the:-
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 78
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 78
Full cost of repair after 1 year
90% cost of repair after 2 years
65% cost of repair after 3 years
An alternative form is to ask for a 100% perfect job after 1 year, with the guarantor
responsible for repair should repair prove necessary at the 1 year inspection period.
Both of these methods and many others suffer from the same problems.:
In the event of coating failure, it is difficult to determine liability as contributory factors
to failure may include:-
Defective paint materials
Weather conditions at application
Poor application techniques
Mishandling of materials - poor storage conditions
Neglect of good working practises
In-service conditions to which the coatings were subjected
In order to institute the guarantee, it is necessary to establish the reasons for coating
failure
Paint Inspection
In order to ensure that a coating project meets the specification, it is essential to use a form of quality
control. However, painting and metal coating differ from many other industrial processes in that they
are susceptible to operator abuse or adverse environmental influences throughout all stages of the work.
Furthermore, it is generally difficult to deduce from examination of the completed work what has
occurred. Consequently, the coating may fail prematurely, but more often the effect is a reduction in long-
term durability.
Inspection is not a substitute for adequate supervision and proper specification. Its primary purpose is to
check that the coating specification is being properly followed, and where, for any reason, this is not so,
the inspection should lead to the instigation of immediate remedial action. The specification should state
the type and degree of inspection that is to be carried out so that the contractor is fully aware of its
implications before the tendering stage.
The duties of a Painting Inspector are difficult to define; he should, however, be in no doubt as to what
those duties are. Duties may include:
Understand specifications
Know his authority
Enforce specification
Check materials
Maintain required records
Make sure all items are completed
Have all test instruments (in good working order) and standards required
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 79
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 79
15 PRACTICAL PAINTING CONSIDERATIONS
Painting Before Fabrication
When steel is stored for any length of time prior to fabrication, it should be protected against corrosion.
A typical example of this situation is found in the shipbuilding industry where ships plate is bought in
large quantities, and delivered to the shipyard for storage prior to use. Unless corrosion is prevented, long
periods of storage may lead to deterioration of the plate, perhaps to the point where it steel structure,
such as an oil/gas platform.
It has become common practise to prepare the surface of such steel and apply a protective coating as it
is received at the place of storage, and prior to the storage period. In particular, fixed shot-blasting
machines (often known as wheelabrators) may be used, followed by the application of a pre-fabrication
primer, or even a substantial part of the final coating system.
Any coatings that are used should be:
(a) Tough, to withstand handling during the fabrication stage
(b) Capable of being overcoated after fabrication
(c) Nontoxic when welded, if welding is to be used as the method of fabrication
It is also useful if the coatings are rapid drying, in order to permit handling fairly soon after the coatings
are applied.
The two main advantages of coating prior to fabrication are:
1. Steel is protected during storage
2. Surface preparation and coating methods are easier and faster (therefore more
economical) whilst the steel is in relatively small and simple units
The main disadvantages of coating prior to fabrication are:
Coatings may be damaged during fabrication
Deterioration of coatings and/or surface contamination acquired during storage or
fabrication may mean that the coatings have to be fully or partially removed before
subsequent painting operations
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 80
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 80
Storage and Handling
Steel to be stored on site in a partially painted condition, should be dealt with so as to avoid deterioration
in handling, transport and storage by employing the following rules:
Allow adequate time for full hardening of coating.
Use nylon slings and ropes for lifting (not metal)
Plan to reduce movements to a minimum.
Use special supports and lashings on vehicles.
Allow good ventilation of components when stacked.
Inspect at monthly intervals and deal with any deterioration as it arises.
Maintain good discipline during erection to avoid damage and contamination.
Painting at Site
In a situation where structural steel arrives at site in a partially painted condition, consideration should
be given to several factors:
Is the coating clean and in good condition?
Is there any handling damage?
Is the steel stored properly prior to fabrication.
The same consideration apply to the steel after fabrication has taken place, but prior to full painting. It
is essential also at this stage to remove all traces of weld flux and spatter, and to effectively clean the
weld areas.
Coatings used for this twostage type of coating process should necessarily have an indefinite overcoating
period.
Access (via scaffolding/cradles etc)
A major coating consideration, particularly at the maintenance stage, is the provision of access for the
surface preparation and coating application procedures.
This can be a major cost factor in any coating project, and can also be a major hindrance if the design of
the access is poor. A particular problem arises with the preparation and painting of the scaffold support
points, which may be numerous. Another problem may be caused by mechanical damage whilst the
scaffold is removed.
If cradles are used for painting suitable areas, problems may be generated by difficulties with coatings
overlapping (or not overlapping) or by lack of access to some areas.
The safety of all access points is also a major consideration. For the first time in 1982 in the North Sea,
full time scaffolding Inspectors were employed on major coatings projects.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 81
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 81
16 SURFACE PREPARATION - ALTERNATIVE METHODS
Steel Surface Defects
It is not widely appreciated that surface preparation does not just mean the removal of all millscale, rust
and contaminants, but suitable dressing of the steelwork to remove all surface defects that could break
through the paint film or prove difficult to protect adequately by painting.
It should be remembered that where defects are exposed by blastcleaning and subsequently removed by
grinding, it is necessary to reprepare the immediate area in order to retain the surface profile.
Surface Laminations and Shelling
The commonest type of surface defect on steelwork is surface laminations, generally caused by the
rolling process. It is important that all such defects are removed by grinding as no painting system,
however, thick, can effectively protect them.
In the case of small shelling and surface laminations, even if these do not project above the surface, they
may later curl upwards and penetrate the painting system.
Cracks and Crevices
Any form of crack or deep crevice will form a danger to the protective treatment, as it cannot be effectively
filled by the painting system. It will contain impurities, and gather entrapped moisture and air, then form
a galvanic cell leading to a painting system failure. All such cracks and crevices should be ground out,
unless too deep for such treatment, in which case, they should be filled by welding and then ground
smooth.
Inclusions
All forms of surface inclusions, such as rolled in millscale should be removed by chipping and the surface
ground (with weld filling if necessary).
The Painting Specification
To obviate any possible dispute as to whether surface defects should be removed, it is strongly
recommended that a clause be included in the painting specification covering the dressing of surface
defects.
Manual Cleaning
Manual cleaning is the slowest and least satisfactory method of surface preparation. Normal tools used
are wire brushes or scrapers or chipping hammers. The process is slow, laborious and costly, with the
end result still far from satisfactory. It is impossible to remove all rust and millscale by this method.
A further complication these days can be the reluctance of labour to engage in arduous manual tasks.
Manual cleaning should only be used when weather or some other factor precludes the use of any other
process.
Power Tool Cleaning
The principal tools used are the grinder and the rotary wire brush. Whilst quicker than hand tools, the
work is very laborious and expensive.
The biggest drawback to the use of power tools is the burnishing effect that arises on the metal. This
polishing effect, inherent with power tools, is the most unsatisfactory feature of this method. A polished
surface seriously affects paint adhesion and should be avoided at all costs. In addition, no amount of
polishing will remove the rust from the bottom of pits etc.
A more sophisticated type of power tool is the needle gun. This tool consists of a number of hardened
steel rods that are vibrated against the surface. It is slow in operation and suffers from the same defect
as other power tools as it has a burnishing effect when producing a relatively clean surface.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 82
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 82
Blast Cleaning: Equipment and Materials
Abrasives
The degree of surface roughness and the rate of cleaning depend primarily on the characteristics of the
abrasive grit used.
Although the blasting abrasives in general use range widely from crushed walnut shells, glass and
crushed slag, to various metallic shots and grits, and even ceramic grits, there are only three main types
of grit that find general acceptance for the gritblast preparation for painting. These are:
Chilled Iron Grit
Crushed Slag
Ceramic Grits
Attention is particularly directed to the fact that, despite the widespread use of the term sand blasting,
sand is not listed as a grit blasting abrasive. Sharp sand or flint is indeed a cheap and highly effective
abrasive, but increasingly cannot be used (nor any abrasive containing free silica) on factory premises
throughout the world, due to the very real danger of Silicosis.
Permission to use sand is very occasionally given for site work in the open air, but only when the
operators and other personnel are carefully protected from the dust created and the Local Factory
Inspector approves the site and blasting conditions.
Chilled Iron Grit
This is by far the most widely used abrasive for surface preparation in a coatings application facility.
Chilled iron grit is available in a variety of grades and to a specific minimum hardness. It is an excellent
general purpose abrasive, due to its relatively high density which gives high particle energy, and its slow
but effective rate of breakdown which maintains sharp cutting edges on the grit particles.
Crushed Slag
While chilled iron grit is used extensively for grit blast preparation in works or on site where grit
reclamation and recirculation can be practised, it is too expensive an abrasive to be used where grit
reclamation is not possible, as on many site jobs.
With the nonavailability of sand, certain crushed slag from metallurgical processes have been made
available as relatively cheap expendable abrasives. Copper slag and Aluminium slag are common. While
quite effective grits for 'once only' use, by reason of their rapid breakdown to dust, they are not generally
suitable for grit reclamation and reuse.
Ceramic Grits. (Aluminous Oxides and Silicon Carbides)
These are relatively expensive grits, but their use is often justified by special considerations.
Due to the retention of sharp cutting edges on the particles in use, their cutting action is particularly
effective, especially on hard base materials which may resist effective blasting by chilled cast iron grit.
Additionally, this effective cutting action is shown at blasting pressures considerably lower than normally
employed for other abrasives. These ceramic grits are particularly well suited to blast preparation of thin
metal surfaces, which show buckling or distortion if blasted with chilled iron grit at conventional blast
pressures.
Finally, as these ceramic grits are essentially inert to normal corrosive influences, they can be safely used
to grit blast stainless steel or nonferrous material surfaces, without causing rust staining or
discolouration.
Shot
Types of blasting abrasive that are rounded in shape are known as shot. Their common use during the
development of blastcleaning techniques leads to the common misuse of the term 'shotblasting'.
The use of shot will prolong the life of blasting equipment and machinery because it has less cutting
effect. The disadvantage here is that less cutting effect gives a less rough surface, often below the
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 83
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 83
requirements of today's high performance coatings. One use of shotblasting may be to 'workharden' a
metal surface by 'peening', a process which can reduce the incidence of stresscorrosion cracking.
Chemical Analysis of typical Copper Slag Abrasive
A typical analysis of Copper Slag abrasive may show the chemical content to be similar to the following
table:
SiO
2
38.40% Silicon Oxide
Al
2
O
3
3.35% Aluminium Oxide
TiO
2
0.35% Titanium Oxide
FeO4 1.55% Iron Oxide (II)
Fe
2
O
3
3.15% Iron Oxide (III)
MnO 0.27% Manganese Oxide
CaO 5.86% Calcium Oxide
MgO 2.15% Magnesium Oxide
K
2
O 0.53% Potassium Oxide
Na
2
O 0.40% Sodium Oxide
CuO 0.47% Copper Oxide
PbO 0.04% Lead Oxide
ZnO 1.68% Zinc Oxide
S 0.96% Sulphur
Total 98.84%
Notice that there is very little copper in any form, since the slag is the by-product of copper extraction from
ore. Notice also that most of the contents are oxides of one metal or another.
Compressors
Compressed air is a common source of power for blasting machinery, paint spray equipment, power tools
etc. It is favoured on site because it is relatively safe, being less dangerous than, say, electricity. In order
to produce quantities of compressed air, it is necessary to use a compressor. Normally driven by a diesel
motor, a compressor draws in atmospheric air, pressurizes it, and feeds the air into a pressure vessel
(known as a receiver). The air is then held in the receiver until demanded by the equipment in use.
The production of compressed air gives two problems to the surface preparation process. These are:
Any change in atmospheric pressure may result in the release of water vapour from the
air.
Because compressed air in the receiver is stored by pressurizing an oil reservoir, there is
a possibility of oil vapour being retained by the air as it is released.
Both of these factors require that adequate vapour traps are fitted to blastcleaning equipment in order to
remove the contaminating oil and water.
Compressors are rated for:
Air pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (p.s.i.) or bar.
Air pressure is normally set at a maximum of 100 p.s.i. For portable compressors (in the U.K.) and this
pressure, if successfully maintained, is capable of producing an efficient blastcleaning operation.
Capacity, measured in cubic feet per minute (c.f.m.) or litres per minute.
The capacity of a compressor will determine the quantity of air it is able to deliver at its working pressure.
For blastcleaning purposes, it is better to have a large capacity compressor working below its maximum
level rather than a smaller compressor that is working at or near to its maximum level.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 84
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 84
Blast Cleaning Cabinets
It is sometimes desirable to blastclean individual items in an enclosed space so that other trades can
continue to work in the immediate vicinity. If this is a regular requirement, many factories will buy or build
a blastcleaning cabinet. The size of typical cabinets may vary from the very small 'cupboard' where
blasting is done from outside the cabinet, with hands inserted through holes in the side to the relatively
large blasting room. The more sophisticated blast rooms may have a rail system to transport large items
into the room, and will have grit recovery and recycling systems. In general, the blast cleaning apparatus
is similar to that used for on site blasting.
The most complex of the blastcleaning cabinets are designed for large quantities of steel to be
blastcleaned on a regular basis, such as all plate received by a shipbuilding yard. These machines, often
known as 'Wheelabrators', are designed to work on a continuous basis, and include a conveying system
that will carry items through the cabinet continuously.
It is usual for these cabinets to use a system of rotating vanes to propel the abrasive, from which the term
wheel-abrator has been adapted for general use. These cabinets too have an abrasive recovery and
recycling system, and are capable of very high rates of cleaning.
Blast Pots/Hoses/Nozzles
Grit Blasting Equipment
Particles of abrasive may be projected by direct feed of the particles from a pressurised container into a
high-pressure air stream 'Pressure Blasting'; or by centrifugal projection from rapidly rotating impellers
'Centrifugal Blasting' or 'Airless Blasting'.
Hoses and Nozzles
Owing to the inevitable pressure drop within air lines, pressure hoses should be kept as short as possible,
the blast hose preferably not more than 20 ft. Restrictions in internal diameters at couplings should also
be carefully avoided. Hose diameters should also be of an internal diameter at least three or four times
that of the nozzle bore. All joints should be carefully maintained fully pressuretight and any leaks quickly
rectified.
Nozzle Size
Other factors being constant, the speed of blasting is directly related to the size of the nozzle used. So
also is the air consumption. Accordingly, the maximum nozzle size that can be used must depend upon
the capacity of the compressor feeding it. The following table gives guidance on this, showing the volume
of air required at the various pressures to feed different sizes of nozzles.
Nozzle Qualities
Maintenance of nozzle size is of considerable importance and can be a problem if normal cast iron
nozzles are employed, as these wear oversize quite rapidly. More efficient blasting can be obtained by
the use of nozzles produced in special wearresisting alloys or in such materials as tungstencarbide or
ceramics. Although of higher initial cost, these nozzles are more economical in practice.
Nozzle Design
The internal profile of the blast nozzle is also an important factor. Venturi nozzles are generally preferred
to the parallel bore nozzles formerly used, as they last longer, give higher grit velocity at more economic
air consumption, and result in an overall increase in blasting efficiency.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 85
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 85
Operating Clothing/Air Supply
For the safety and comfort of the blastcleaning operator, it is essential that good quality working clothes
are used. Typically these would include:
Safety Boots (with steel insert toecap).
Overalls.
Strong Leather Gloves.
Airfed Blasting Helmet, incorporating a replaceable visor and leather cape.
It is important that the operator has a good supply of clean, fresh air for breathing. Two common ways of
achieving this are:
A supply of air at low pressure is delivered from the blastpot via a filter. This method has
the disadvantage of the air being the same as that used for blasting.
A separate supply of air, also at relatively low pressure, is fed from a remote airdriven
pump, well away from any contaminated or dust laden atmosphere.
Water Blasting
A significant recent development in the area of surface preparation has been the adoption of
blastcleaning methods using water. This usually takes one of three different forms:
High-pressure waterblasting, using water only
Gritblasting with a water shroud
Slurry blasting, with a water/abrasive mix
High Pressure Water Blasting
Commonly used for the cleaning of buildings, pure water blasting is seldom used for surface preparation
prior to painting. It is, however, in common use underwater for the removal of marine growth on ships
and oil related structures.
The cleaning of marine growth from a ships hull or offshore structure is normally achieved at pressures
between 200 bar and 600 bar.
The performance depends upon two main factors:
The maneuvrability of the diver and his visibility
The density of the fouling and degree of barnacle or shell growth
On ships hulls in dry dock, a cleaning rate of up to 200m2/hour can be achieved with high pressure
water jetting. However, many other factors must be taken into consideration underwater and the
performance is usually reduced as a result. To give an indication of underwater jetting rates, the legs of
a drilling platform in the North Sea were covered with weed and mussel growth up to 600mm thick, were
cleaned at the rate of 20m2/hour this of course was exceptionally heavy fouling.
However, as there is no reaction force with an underwater gun, the operation is carried out with
considerably less physical effort compared with work above the surface.
Underwater concrete cutting is another application for water jetting and equipment has been employed
for this purpose at a depth of 450 ft. A section of damaged concrete coating on a 30 inch steel pipeline
beneath a rig in the North Sea was successfully cut and jet blasted away without damage to the
underlying steel pipe. Pressures of 760 Bar were employed on this occasion and one diver at a time from
the team in saturation was employed to handle the gun and to perform the cutting.
Where steel must be brought to a white finish, a special underwater gun has been developed using
abrasives.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 86
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 86
Grit Blast with Water Shroud
One of the advantages of the use of water in a blastcleaning operation is the reduction of the dust hazard.
For this reason, equipment has been developed which will provide a shroud of water around a normal flow
of grit carried in compressed air. Other advantages of this system include the ability to remove soluble
contaminants from the surface, and to use sand as an abrasive.
Disadvantages include the problem of removal of the spend abrasive (in its wet form) and the necessity
of using an inhibitor in the water to prevent surface rusting.
Slurry Blasting, with Water/Abrasive Mix
Many of the comments made above relate also to the use of slurry blasting equipment, although these
specialised units have certain extra advantages. Because the slurry is pumped as slurry, the pressure can
be easily contained. This means that the cutting effect of the abrasive can be increased or reduced at
will, to allow special effects such as removal of only the top coating, or feathering back the coating edges.
The use of water blasting has created a great deal of controversy. There is no doubt that the control of
the system (with its ability to reduce pressure etc.) is valuable, and that reduction of contamination of the
surface is important. On the other hand, the need to use inhibitors and thereby set deposits on the steel
surface, and the problems of disposal of the spend abrasive may be matters which require considerable
justification.
There is also, as yet, some doubt about the quality of the new coatings which have been developed for
application to wet surfaces.
Blast-Cleaning on Site
Operator Safety
Abrasive blastcleaning at high pressure is a dangerous operation. It is essential that steps are taken to
protect both the operators and any spectators or other site personnel. Some considerations would be:
No-one but the operator should be allowed within the vicinity of the blastcleaning operation
Warning notices should be displayed
A lookout (or potman) should be on the alert
All equipment should be tested for safety in operation
A Dead-Mans Handle cut out device should be fitted and used
Practical Methods of BlastCleaning
For practically every coating process, such as phosphating, galvanising, electroplating or painting the
initial cleaning and preparation of the surface to be coated is a process step on which the subsequent
success of the actual coating application virtually depends.
The most generally established method of surface preparation for the application of coatings is by
'GritBlasting' as defined below. Indeed, when modern sophisticated coatings are applied for surface
protection, there is no truly satisfactory alternative process.
The fundamental principle of the gritblasting process is the removal of rust, millscale, or other surface
contaminant (and obtaining a suitably roughened surface) by projecting a highly concentrated stream of
relatively small abrasive particles at high velocity against the surface to be cleaned.
Blasting Technique
Manual blasting should systematically cover the entire surface to be cleaned, by moving the nozzle at
fairly constant speeds in straight paths, each succeeding pass overlapping the preceding one and
exposing clean mental without any evidence of patchiness. The nozzle should be held at an angle close
to 90 to the surface, though not so as to allow the abrasive to bounce right back at the operator.
Speed of nozzle traverse is dictated by rate of cleaning and should be as fast as will clean thoroughly
without unnecessary dwell.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 87
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 87
Masking Off
Where areas have to be left unblasted for any reason, these can be masked off by suitable templates of
metal or rubber, or by suitably tough masking tapes firmly secured to the surface requiring protection
from the blast stream.
Surface Cleaning
B.S. 7079 outlines the surface preparation requirement that 'the surface shall be thoroughly cleaned and
roughened by compressed air or centrifugal blasting with a suitable abrasive grit, or by other suitable
means. Immediately before spraying, it shall be free from grease, scale, rust, moisture or other foreign
matter'.
It is also essential that surface cleanliness should not be impaired during the actual grit blasting process.
This can arise from oil vapour or droplets carried over in the air from the compressor, or from moisture
entrapped in the high-pressure air, or again, from residual dust arising during blast cleaning.
Accordingly, precautions should be taken to ensure that compressed air supplies are oil and moisturefree,
by the installation and adequate maintenance of suitable aftercoolers, moisture traps and filters in the
airlines.
Moist air can also cause clogging of the abrasive lines or blastpot, and rust contamination of the blast
cleaned surface.
To remove residual dust, on completion of blasting, the blasted surface should be blown over with a high
pressure jet of clean dry air, or even better, vacuum cleaned or brushed over with a clean dry brush until
thorough inspection ensures no traces of residual dust or grit.
Care of Prepared Surface
Obviously, a surface prepared for coating should not be allowed to deteriorate or to be contaminated in
any way between grit blasting and spraying.
A clean grit blasted surface should never be handled or touched unless hands are protected with clean
gloves. It should also not be exposed for prolonged periods nor, indeed, exposed at all to atmospheric or
storage conditions of high humidity, as under such conditions spontaneous oxidation and rusting proceed
very rapidly.
As far as practicable, any storage should be in a warm, dry environment and, ideally, spraying should
follow grit blasting as quickly as possible. These points are very adequately covered in B.S. 5493, which
indicates a maximum delay of 4 hours and requires that If visible deterioration has occurred, the surface
preparation shall be repeated.
Blasting Efficiency
The condition of the material to be blasted very significantly influences both the rate at which blasting
can be done and the quality of blast finish obtained.
Heavy rusted or corrosionpitted steel is difficult to clean thoroughly because of the extra blasting time and
attention necessary to remove deep-seated scale and injurious corrosion products. Somewhat heavier
grades of grit and highblasting pressures are advantageous for such surfaces. Certain heat-treated alloy
steels also acquire a particularly tenacious oxide scale, again requiring heavier grit and highblasting
pressures for most efficient cleaning.
Air Pressure
In general, air pressure for grit blasting depends on such factors as grit quality and grade, type of material
being blasted and overall production requirements.
Expendable grits are better blasted at high pressures above 90 p.s.i. to obtain maximum cleaning rates,
as grit breakdown after impact is of little consequence other than creating something of a dust problem.
Increased pressure materially increases rates of blast cleaning, due to greater grit throughputs and higher
particle velocities. Labour costs per areas blasted, can be considerably reduced, although grit losses
tend to increase significantly above about 70/75 p.s.i.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 88
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 88
Also, at high blasting pressures - above 80/85 p.s.i. - Operator fatigue can limit productivity on long
blasting "stints".
Nevertheless, it is usually recommended that blast pressure as measured at the nozzle be kept as high
as is possible, with the provision that it cannot normally exceed 100 p.s.i. for safety regulations. The
reasons are related to efficiency and production rates:
Work done is directly proportional to the air pressure at the nozzle.
Quantity of air is measured in c.f.m. (cubic feet per minute).
Pressure of air is measured in p.s.i. (pounds per square inch).
Note: Nozzle pressure may be measured with hypodermic needle gauge.
100 p.s.i. at the nozzle gives 100% efficiency.
80 p.s.i. at the nozzle gives 66% efficiency.
66 p.s.i. at the nozzle gives 50% efficiency.
e.g. At 60 p.s.i. nozzle pressure, only half of the area would be cleaned, compared to the
area cleaned at 100 p.s.i. (in the same time of course).
The main reasons for inability to maintain high nozzle pressures are:
Inadequate air supply. Theoretically, a 3/8 nozzle (one of the popular sizes) required
196 c.f.m. Normally a compressor of at least 240 c.f.m. would be employed. For a
larger nozzle more air would be required, hence a bigger compressor would be needed.
Too small air hoses; friction losses are expensive.
Internal couplings can cause 15% loss of efficiency . External couplings and nozzle
holders are a must.
Badly designed machines have a significant pressure loss through the machine.
Too small piping on the machine again causes friction losses.
Air lines should be kept straight and as short as possible.
Other important factors affecting blasting performances are:
Correct choice of nozzles. The Venturi types are twice as efficient as straight bore
nozzles.
Air must be dry.
Rates of cleaning cannot be quoted definitely. There are so many variables affecting a blasting operation,
e.g. air availability, nozzle size and type, type of equipment, state of surface to be cleaned, surface
cleanliness required, degree of manoeuvrability, lighting standard, distance of nozzle from job, skill of
operator, type and size of abrasive being used etc., that it is difficult to quote definite figures. As a very
general guide only, high cleaning rates can reach 30 square metres per hour, low rates can fall to as low
as 4 square metres per hour. It must be stressed that these speeds are indications only and should not
be applied to any specific job. Similarly, the consumption of abrasive can be variable, and calculation of
quantities used, etc. is very much a matter or trial or experience. As a general guide, a consumption of
50 kilos of abrasive per square metre is common for irregular structures.
Quality Control of Blast-Cleaning
Blast Cleaning Standards
A major advantage of blast cleaning is that it is the only economical process whereby a surface can be
cleaned adequately and at the same time, etch the surface to provide a key for the subsequent coating.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 89
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 89
Blast cleaning for painting ranges from 'brush off' blasting merely superficial removal of the loose
millscale, rust and dirt, through 'Commercial Blasting' and 'Second Quality Blasting' to 'First Quality' or
'White Metal' finish.
It is apparent that in order to be both economical and effective, both contractor and client must agree on
the standard of surface cleanliness required. For the purpose of judging these standards, the industry
has adapted one of three major international standards for blastcleaning. These are:
Structural Steels Painting Council of America S.S.P.C.
NACE Standards for surface preparation by Abrasive Blast Cleaning.
Swedish Standard: Pictorial Surface Preparation Standards for Painting Steel Surfaces.
SIS 05 5900.
British Standard Specification for Surface Finish of Blast Cleaned Steel for Painting. B.S.
7079.
The standards produced by these four bodies have an equivalence which is expressed in the table below:
It should be remembered that these preparation standards refer to surface cleanliness only, and not to
surface roughness or amplitude.
Surface Profile and Measurement.
The surface profile of a blast cleaned surface is the shape of the actual peaks round or angular. The
surface amplitude is the size of the peaks, measured from the peak to the trough.
Some surface roughness is a great advantage in providing a physical key for the primer to adhere to.
However, the degree of roughness should not be excessive or peaks of steel (rogue peaks) may project
through the paint film and rust very quickly.
The surface amplitude can be measured in various ways, either by direct reading or by using Testex Tape,
a new method of measuring surface profile after abrasive blasting.
Press-O-Film

is a replica tape composed of an incompressible Mylar backing of known thickness (2 mils)


coated with a compressible material.
The tape is placed against the metal surface and the Mylar backing is rubbed with a blunt instrument.
The pressure applied to the tape causes the compressible material to replicate the blasted surface. By
measuring the resultant tape thickness with a specially adapted spring micrometer, the maximum
peaktovalley height can be obtained by subtracting the thickness of the Mylar backing from the total
micrometer reading.
Press-O-Film offers some advantages over alternative methods. It was found that when PressOFilm was
compared with other available site methods of measuring blast profile, the results obtained corresponded
more closely with those of the standard optical microscope than any other. PressOFilm will also work
accurately on convex and concave surfaces, e.g. inside and outside pipes, where other methods do not.
It may also be convenient to retain the tape and have a permanent record of the blast profile.
Description SSPC
Swedish Standard ISO
8501-1 & BS 7079
Nace
White Metal SP 5 Sa3 Nace 1
Near White Metal SP 10 Sa2 Nace 2
Commercial SP 6 Sa2 Nace 3
Brush-off Blast SP 7 Sa1 Nace 4
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 90
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 90
Inspection of Surface Cleanliness.
The rust which forms on steel surfaces exposed to either industrial or marine atmospheres may contain
significant quantities of sulphate and chlorides. If these compounds are not removed, they can give rise
to premature paint failure. Spot tests have been developed to detect the presence of soluble iron,
sulphates and chlorides on blastcleaned shipplate. In these spot tests, colour reactions are used to
indicate the sites of contaminated rust. Each method employs pieces of chemically treated filter paper
that can be dried after use to provide permanent records. The papers are pressed against the steel
surface that has been wetted with distilled water. After a short time in contact with the surface, the
papers are removed and examined for colour changes.
Test for Soluble Iron.
A filter paper is saturated with potassium ferricyanide solution (orange) and dried. When pressed against
a wet steel surface it will show a blue colour wherever soluble The water has dissolved iron salts.
Test for Soluble Sulphates.
For this test, papers are prepared by being soaked in a barium chloride dehydrate (6%w) solution and
dried. The dry paper is then pressed against the test surface, backed by a second paper soaked in
saturated potassium permanganate. Contamination is absorbed and held in the barium sulphate
lattice, imparting a pink colour to those parts of the paper that contacted sulphates.
Test for Soluble Chlorides.
In this test, a filter paper is wetted with silver nitrate (2%w) solution and then pressed against the steel
surface for about 20 seconds. It is then peeled off and thoroughly washed with chloride freewater.
Any silver chlorides formed remain in the paper and can be detected by immersion in photographic
developer. Chloride sites show as brownblack areas. The paper can be washed and dried for record
purposes.
ISO8502-1 also defines a suitable method for the determination of soluble iron salts.
Test for Millscale.
An acidic solution of copper sulphate, applied to a blastcleaned surface, will deposit bright copper on
clean steel, but will show a black colour on millscale.
Quantitative Test for Soluble Iron.
The Merckoquant test provides an indicator paper that reacts to the quantity of dissolved iron in water. A
measured quantity of distilled water is used to wash 15 cm square of blastcleaned steel. The water is
retained, and tested with the indicator paper, which changes colour according to the quantity of iron.
Test for Oil Contamination.
Oil that is present in small quantities on blast cleaned surface may be detected by:
Shining an ultraviolet light source on the surface, causing the oil to fluoresce.
Pouring solvent across the surface. The solvent should form a continuous flow and not
break into droplets.
Relative Humidity Dew Point.
Relative humidity is defined as the amount of moisture (water vapour) in air, compared with the maximum
possible in the air. In other words, as the amount of water vapour which air will support approaches the
saturation level, relative humidity approaches 100%.
If R.H. reaches 100%, then the air will not support any more water vapour, and a surplus would appear
as condensation. For that reason, most coating specifications have a requirement that coating is not
carried out if R.H. exceeds a certain limit, usually 85% or 90%.
Dew point is defined as the temperature at which condensation occurs.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 91
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 91
As air temperature falls, its ability to carry water vapour also falls, and R.H. rises. Sooner or later, a
temperature is reached at which the air is effectively saturated. This temperature is dew point.
If the temperature falls below dew point, or if a piece of structural steel has a temperature below dew
point, then condensation will occur. Coatings applied over a wet surface will generally not achieve
adequate adhesion to the substrate.
For this reason, coating specifications normally have a requirement that coatings should not be applied
if the temperature of the steel or the surrounding air is less than 3?C above dew point. Relative humidity
and dew point are both calculated by making temperature measurements with a hygrometer.
Dehumidifiers
One way to ensure that ambient conditions are suitable for painting is to dehumidify the air. This is
naturally only possible in an enclosed space.
A dehumidifier works by drawing ambient air across a desiccant such as Silica Gel, and delivering the air
at a lower R.H. to the desired space. A separate stream of air is heated and passed over the desiccant
to remove the moisture and revitalise it.
This second stream of air is vented to the atmosphere. The attainment of very low humidity is possible
in large spaces. This technique is commonly used in ships tanks and crude oil storage tanks.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 92
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 92
17 PAINT APPLICATION: QUALITY CONTROL
Paint testing on Site
The range of paint tests that may be successfully carried out on site is limited by both the difficulty of
handling complex laboratory equipment, and by the lack of laboratory experience of most site personnel.
In practise, the common tests that are performed are:
Viscosity Check to check suitability of flow characteristics.
Density Check to test quantity of added thinners.
Wet Film Thickness Check to ensure that the film will achieve the desired DFT.
Visual Checks on: condition of paint, batch numbers, storage time, condition of paint
container, label details, etc.
Paint Mixing.
In most paints, especially heavily pigmented primers, red lead, etc., there is a tendency for settlement to
occur on the bottom of the container and, unless the paint is thoroughly mixed before use, it will not
perform satisfactorily. Poor opacity, slow drying, poor gloss and other troubles often result from failure to
mix the paint properly before use.
When mixing the paint, a properlymade stirrer should be used, long enough to reach the bottom of the
container and with a broad, chisellike edge and a comfortable handle. Stirring, using a beating and lifting
action, should mix all settlement. If large quantities of paint are being mixed, it is advisable to us a
mechanical mixer, preferably of the type which is driven by compressed air. Many spray pumps are
equipped with a builtin mechanical stirrer. If thinning of the paint is required, this should be done under
supervision, and with the correct solvent.
Where the paints are to be applied by spray, a certain amount of thinning may be required. It will not
normally be necessary to add more than 10% of the recommended thinner to bring the paint to a suitable
consistency; overthinning should be avoided because the thin coating which will result will have poorer
durability and a lower resistance to corrosion than one applied at the correct thickness. In general,
thinning of paints should be avoided unless necessary
In the case of two-pack (or multipack) paints, it is important that materials are mixed in the correct ratio.
Manufacturer's instructions should be followed with respect to induction period of pot-life requirements.
It is generally not recommended that part quantities of supplied materials (e.g. 2_ litres from a 5 litre tin)
be mixed. If this method is adopted, it is important that the materials are stirred before being measured
out, and important that the measuring is done accurately.
Only the required amount of paint should be mixed and any remaining over after the job is completed
should be thrown away and not returned to the tin.
Brushes, spray equipment etc. should be cleaned out with the recommended solvent immediately after
use, and at work breaks, because the paint may quickly harden causing unnecessary damage and delays,
especially to airless spray equipment.
Wet Film Thickness Checks
Measurement of wet paint film thickness provides a useful guide for inspectors or paint sprayers to
ensure that a correct and even film thickness is being applied to the article being coated. Use of a wet
film comb at this stage of a paint application operation, helps to prevent reject work which in itself is
time consuming and therefore costly.
Weather Conditions
Application of Coatings during poor weather conditions is likely to lead to a reduced quality of protection.
Quality Control on site should monitor Relative Humidity, Dewpoint Temperature and the temperature of
the surface being coated, to avoid problems with :
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 93
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 93
Coatings being applied to a damp surface
Freshly applied coatings becoming affected by moisture soon after application
Coatings being applied when the temperature is too low for the curing reaction to
proceed
Coating solvents being unable to evaporate, due to high partial vapour pressure (i.e.
water vapour in the air)
As a general guide, a specification is likely to require that the air temperature is greater than 5
o
C, that the
surface be dry, and that the Relative Humidity is lower than 90%.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 94
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 94
18 PAINT FAULTS
There is a great variety of paint faults, which may occur before, during or after application. The analysis
of paint faults and their cause is, perhaps, best left to the experts.
Some common faults are described below:
Bleeding
This term describes the discoloration or staining of newlyapplied paint by a constituent of the old paint,
or other material, over which it is applied. It is commonly encountered when painting over bituminous or
tar products. The new paint develops brown stains and its drying may be affected.
Blistering
Blistering is usually caused by the evaporation of moisture or solvent trapped beneath or in the paint film.
Soluble iron salts on the substrate prior to painting can be a major cause of blister formation. If surfaces
are painted shortly after washing down, even if time is allowed for surface drying, blistering may occur as
a result of moisture absorbed into the old paint.
Painting in the direct heat of the sun may result in rapid skin drying, causing solvent to be trapped in the
film. Recoating before the previous coat is hard dry may cause blistering for the same reason.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 95
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 95
Blooming (Haze, Milkiness)
Blooming is the formation of a surface mist or haze considered to be due to the presence of moisture or
impurities in the atmosphere or on the newly painted surface. Epoxy coatings often suffer a blush if
moisture is allowed to affect the surface in the early stages of the drying and curing process.
Brush marks
Brush marks result from the failure of the paint to flow out after application.
Chalking
This term is used to describe surface powdering of the paint film, leaving a fine, white, powdery film. It
can occur when paint deficient in binder or vehicle is used on surfaces exposed to the attack of weather,
and is common in epoxy coatings.
The powdery layer can be easily removed, leaving the colour and gloss of the paint film unimpaired,
although the thickness of the film will be reduced. The process will continue throughout the life of the
paint coating. Some paints are formulated to chalk in this way, thus continually presenting a clean surface
and minimizing the amount of preparation required before repainting.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 96
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 96
Cissing (Fish-eyes)
Cissing is the shrinkage or drawingaway of the new coating from large or small areas of the work. It may
become apparent as small 'craters' or circles, or it may result in almost complete lack of adhesion over a
large area, where the paint gathers in blobs. It is nearly always due to the presence of oil or grease on
the surface.
Crazing (Cracking)
Crazing is the breakdown of a paint or varnish, usually due to ageing. The first sign can be fine checking
or hair crazing of the surface coat that develops to a coarser crocodiling. It may then develop further
into peeling or flaking.
Curtaining, Running or Sagging
This defect is due to careless or inefficient workmanship resulting in an uneven coat. Over application
on moulded or riveted surfaces will often result in 'runs' or 'tears' developing.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 97
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 97
Discoloration
Rapid discoloration is nearly always caused by agencies outside the paint itself, and may be due to a
variety of causes, a few of which are mentioned here.
Discoloration is often the result of attack by salts in solution. Usually, the oil of vehicle in the paint is affected
and this gives rise to an apparent change of colour, even when the pigments are unaffected. Pigments such
as Prussian blue, yellow chromes, Brunswick greens and some reds, can be discoloured by alkali.
Dry Spray (Over Spray)
Dry spray gives a rough, gritty finish with a dust of dried paint on the surface. It is caused by atomised
paint particles being dry before they strike the surface, either because the spray gun is being held too far
away from the surface, or because the solvent balance in the paint material is incorrect. It is frequently
found on windy days, due to wind diverting the spray.
Drying Problems
Certain types of paint naturally take longer to dry than others. Straight oil paints, for example, usually
require longer drying periods than modern gloss paints. If paint dries more slowly than it should, the
cause will usually be one or more of the following:
Application in unsuitable weather, such as frost, low temperature, fog, rain or excessive
humidity, or in a fumeladen atmosphere.
Application over bituminous products or wax polish.
Application over dirt, oil or grease, or over an undercoat or primer which has not been
allowed to harden sufficiently.
Using unsuitable thinners or too much driers.
Gelling (Livering)
Gelling is the changing of paint, partially or completely, into a jellylike state. It should not be confused with
thickening resulting from partial evaporation of the thinner or volatile content.
Grinning (Poor Opacity)
This is the term used when the undercoat or substrate shows through the finished coat, and may be due
to the use of an undercoat of an unsuitable colour, poor workmanship, or an endeavour to carry out a
wide colour change with too few coats.
Lifting (Picking Up, Working Up)
Lifting denotes the disturbance of the previous coat on the application of new material. It can be due to
insufficient drying of the earlier coat, particularly with paints drying by evaporation.
It can also occur when strong solvents in the new material attack the old paint underneath; this is usually
manifested by wrinkling. In such cases it may be necessary to remove the old material entirely before
proceeding.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 98
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 98
Loss of Gloss (Sleepiness, Matting)
When loss of gloss occurs immediately or soon after application, it is seldom due to a fault in the paint
itself. It is most likely to arise form atmospheric conditions at the time of application frost, fog, moisture,
lack of ventilation, etc. or because of a porous undercoat, or the omission of an undercoat. It can
sometimes result from painting over greasy or waxy surfaces, or from the use of unsuitable thinners, such
as paraffin.
Loss of gloss after long exposure may be due to these causes, to the start of chalking or to normal
ageing. A very fine surface shrivelling can also give the appearance of low gloss.
Misses (Holidays)
These are gaps in the coating caused by careless workmanship, which may be exaggerated by the use of
too thick a paint, or application over greasy or moist surfaces.
Mud-Cracking
Mud-cracking is the splitting of a coating (particularly inorganic zinc silicate) that has been applied at too
great a film thickness. The dried film has the appearance of a driedup river bed, and does not adhere to
the substrate. It is particularly common at welds and in corners.
Opacity - Lack of
Lack of 'body' or opacity in a paint (that is, its ability to obliterate or hide) is usually due to
underpigmentation. This may be caused by failure to stir the paint properly before use or by overthinning.
(see Grinning).
Orange Peel
Sprayed coating which dried to a textured finish resembling the skin of an orange. This effect is caused
by inadequate paint flow.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 99
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 99
Peeling
This is a defect similar to flaking. Whereas flaking is normally confined to relatively small individual areas,
peeling may be described as the detachment of large sheets of paint from the surface.
Saponification
Saponification means the formation of soap, and it occurs when alkali attacks the oil content of paint in
the presence of moisture. The paint film loses gloss and colour; becomes soft and sticky. Affected areas
often exude, in drops or runs, a sticky brown liquid that looks like oil.
Settling
This is the separation of pigment from the paint vehicle on standing or storage. Certain pigments are
particularly prone to settling, as are some heavy extenders such as barytes. The effect is most noticeable
in heavily pigmented or flat paints, particularly when stored for a long period.
When storage of these paints is necessary it is advisable to invert the containers at regular intervals, in
order to counteract this tendency. Special attention should be paid to the stirring of such paints.
Wrinkling
The development of wrinkles inn paint causes swelling, blisters and lifting.
The pictures contained within this section are protected by copyright. All rights reserved. No part of these pictures may
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of MPI Group.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 100
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 100
19 FURTHER INFORMATION
Corrosion Societies
Several Corrosion Societies exist which the user can join to keep up-to-date with developments in the
Industry; these include:
The Institute of Corrosion (UK) - ICorr: Based in Leighton Buzzard, the Institute focuses on all aspects of
Corrosion, and has more than one thousand members in the UK, and approximately 100 members
outside the UK. The bi-monthly magazine of the Institute is called Industrial Corrosion, and is supplied
either to subscribers or to members of ICorr. Contact ICorr, telephone 01525-851771,
fax 01525-376690
The National Association of Corrosion Engineers - International - NACE: Based in Houston, Texas, NACE
caters for all aspects of Corrosion, and has several thousand members mostly in the USA, but also in
other parts of the world. There are NACE chapters in South-East Asia, in England, in the Middle-East and
in Europe. NACE publishes a monthly magazine called Materials Performance, which has one section
specifically devoted to Coatings. NACE publishes the results of its many committees, either as Standards,
Test Methods or Recommended Practises.
NACE has been operating a Certification scheme for Coating Inspectors since 1982, called the NACE
International Coating Inspector Training and Certification Program (NICITCP), and more than 2,000
people have participated at one level or another (1993).
NACE also operates other training qualifications and offers professional recognition for various grades of
Corrosion Technicians, Specialists and Engineers. Contact NACE at PO Box 218340. Houston, Texas,
77218, telephone 713-492-0535.
Steel Structures Painting Council - SSPC: Based in Pittsburgh, USA, SSPC caters only for coatings-related
aspects of corrosion, and has several thousand members with an interest in the coatings industry. SSPC
publishes books and standards related to coatings, and has a monthly journal devoted to Coatings called
The Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. Contact SSPC at telephone 412-687-1113.
Oil & Colour Chemists Association (UK) - OCCA: Based in Middlesex, England
British Standards Institute - BSI: Based in London
The National Corrosion Service is funded by the DTI (Department of Trade and Industry) the NCS Helpline
offers UK Industry free and impartial advice on all matters relating to Corrosion. The National Corrosion
Service is based at the National Physical Laboratory Teddington UK. The function of the NCS Helpline is
as follows: To support UK industry in its efforts to control corrosion. The helpline staff provide a fast
technical response to UK companies with questions relating to corrosion. Examples of the support offered
are:
Solutions to corrosion problems that have already occurred
Advice on how to prevent and control corrosion
Guidance on sources of information
Provision of good practice guides
Advice can also be provided on a consultancy basis when appropriate. The NCS website provides
guidance that you can use to control corrosion. It is set out in a checklist format to enable you to better
consider how you can control corrosion. www.nationalcorrosionservice.org
Fitzs Atlas of Coating Defects - ISBN 0 9513940 2 9: This publication illustrates the range of coating
and surface defects likely to be encountered, and gives advice on probable causes, prevention and repair.
Contact MPI Group on telephone +44 (0)1252 732220 (see inside back cover for full contact details).
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 101
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 101
APPENDIX A
Glossary of Corrosion and Paint Terms
ABRASION RESISTANCE: resistance to being worn away by rubbing or friction; related to toughness, rather
than the hardness of a paint film.
ABRASIVE: material used for abrasive blast cleaning, such as mineral grit, steel shot or steel grit.
ACCELERATED CORROSION TEST: Corrosion test, carried out under more severe conditions that will yield
results in a shorter time than in service.
ACTIVE-PASSIVE CELL: Corrosion cell, with anode and cathode formed by active and passive surface
areas of the same metal.
ADHESION: degree of attachment between a paint film and the underlying material, either substrate or
another coating film.
AGITATE: to stir or shake.
AIR COMPRESSOR: a machine which draws in air and compresses it, thus providing high pressure and
volume of air required for abrasive blasting and spray painting.
AIRLESS SPRAY: method of paint application using fluid pressure to atomise paint by forcing it through a
fine orifice (spray tip).
ALKYD (PAINT): alkyd resin modified by combination with a vegetable oil or fatty acid, then pigmented.
ALKALI: substance such as caustic soda, or lime with pH greater than 7, that can be highly destructive to
paint films; opposite of acid; caustic.
ANODE: one electrical component of corrosion cell, the point at which positive current enters an
electrolyte, and metal loss occurs.
ANODIC OXIDE COATING: Protective, decorative or functional coating, formed by conversion of the surface
of a metal in an electrolytic oxidation process (see ISO 2080 : 1981).
ANODIC PROTECTION: Electrochemical protection by increasing the corrosion potential to a value
corresponding to the passive state.
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: temperature in immediate vicinity, natural temperature or temperature of
surroundings.
ANCHOR PATTERN: rough pattern of peaks and valleys created by abrasive blasting; surface profile.
ANTIFOULING: coating applied to ship bottoms or other immersed structures to prevent marine growth.
ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION: Corrosion with the earths atmosphere at ambient temperature as the
corrosive environment.
ATOMIZE: to reduce a liquid to a mist of fine droplets; to break a stream of paint into small particles.
BIMETALLIC CORROSION: CONTACT CORROSION (DEPRECATED): Galvanic corrosion, where dissimilar
metals or other electronic conductors form the electrodes.
BINDER: film-forming material; the nonvolatile material forming a paint film; it binds pigment particles
together and holds them in place on a surface.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 102
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 102
BITUMINOUS (PAINTS): class of coating material consisting of natural bitumen dissolved inorganic
solvents - often contains softening agents, pigments and inorganic fillers. Usually black or dark in colour.
Within recent years the term bituminous has, by common usage, come to include bitumen like products,
such as petroleum asphalt; the term is not used for paints based on coal tar or coal tar pitch.
BLAST PATTERN: the surface area hit by the abrasives; during blast cleaning.
BLISTERING: the formation of swellings on the surface of an unbroken paint film, cause by moisture,
gases or the development of corrosion products between the substrate and the paint film.
BONDING: attraction between two surfaces, such as two coats of paint or paint and a substrate. see
adhesion
BOUNCEBACK: spray paint rebound from the surface.
BOXING: manual mixing of paint by pouring back and forth from one container to the other.
BREAKDOWN CHARACTERISTICS: the extent to which an abrasive pellet is damaged after striking the
work surface; related to the recyclability of an abrasive and degree of dusting.
BRONCHITIS: an inflammation of the mucous lining of the bronchial tubes.
BURNISH: make shiny by rubbing or polishing - Burnished metal is a poor surface for paint bonding.
BURR: rough edge, generally caused by mechanical damage or impact - which will interfere with coating
adhesion.
CATALYST: substance that promotes a chemical reaction; often called curing agent; hardener.
CATHODE: part of a corrosion cell at which positive current leaves the electrolyte and enters the metal;
electrically opposite to anode.
CATHODIC PROTECTION: Electrochemical protection by decreasing the corrosion potential.
CAVITATION CORROSION: A process involving conjoint corrosion and cavitation. NOTE -Cavitation
corrosion may occur, for example, in rotary pumps and on ships propellers.
CFM: cubic feet per minute; the capacity, or the air volume, of an air compressor is measured in CFM
units.
CHALKING: friable, powdery coating on the surface of a paint film caused by disintegration of the binder
due to action of ultra-violet light or weather.
CHECKING: hair line cracking of a dry coating film, generally due to the effects of aging or poor flexibility
characteristics. see also crazing, crocodiling.
CHLORINATED RUBBER (PAINT): a pigment solution of plasticised (chlorinated) rubber which cures (dries)
mainly by evaporation of the solvent; convertible coating.
COAL TAR/EPOXIDE: combination of coal tar pitch and epoxide resin with an amine or polyamide curing
agent; coal tar improves the water resistance (permeability).
COBWEBBING: stringy spray pattern, with the appearance of a spiders web. This effect is frequently seen
in hot weather when a fast solvent is used in chlorinated rubber or vinyl paints. The solvent evaporates
before the paint is deposited resulting in fingers or cobwebs of paint being delivered to the surface.
CONCENTRATION CORROSION CELL: Corrosion cell in which the potential difference arises from a
difference in concentration of the corrosive agent(s) near its electrodes.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 103
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 103
CONDENSATION: moisture resulting from temperature or atmospheric pressure changes; changing from
a gaseous (vapour) to a liquid state.
CONTAMINANT: dirt, oil, grease, loose rust, paint, or millscale or any other matter which is considered
detrimental to good coating adhesion.
CONVERSION COATING: Coating produced by the reaction of a metal or of its corrosion products with
components of a selected environment (see ISO 2080 : 1981).
CORROSION: Deterioration of a metal due to an electro-chemical reaction with its environment.
CORROSION CELL: Short-circuited galvanic cell in a corrosion system, the corroding metal forming one of
its electrodes.
CORROSION CURRENT: Current due to an electrode reaction, directly causing corrosion. NOTE - The
corrosion current density is equivalent to the rate of electrochemical corrosion.
CORROSION DEPTH: Perpendicular distance between a point on the surface of a metal affected by
corrosion and the original surface of the metal.
CORROSION FATIGUE: A process involving conjoint corrosion and alternating straining of the metal. NOTE
- Corrosion fatigue may occur when a metal is subjected to cyclic straining in a corrosive environment.
Corrosion fatigue may lead to cracking.
CORROSION INHIBITOR: Chemical substance which decreases the corrosion rate when present in the
corrosion system at a suitable concentration, without significantly changing the concentration of any
other corrosive agent. NOTE - A corrosion inhibitor is generally effective in a small concentration. In
commercial applications additives are sometimes named as inhibitors.
CORROSION POTENTIAL: Electrode potential of a metal in a given corrosion system. NOTE - The term is
used whether or not there is a net electrical current flowing to or from the metal surface under
consideration.
CORROSION PRODUCT: Substance formed as a result of corrosion.
CORROSION PROTECTION: Modification of a corrosion system so that corrosion damage is mitigated.
CORROSION RATE: Corrosion effect on a metal per unit of time. NOTE - The type of corrosion rate to be
used will depend on the technical system and on the type of corrosion effect. Thus corrosion rate may
be expressed as an increase in corrosion depth per unit of time, or the mass of metal turned into
corrosion products per unit area of surface or per unit of time, etc. The corrosion effect may vary with
time and may not be the same at all points of the corroding surface. Therefore, reports of corrosion rates
should be accompanied by information on the type, time dependency and location of the corrosion effect.
CORROSION RESISTANCE: Ability of a metal to withstand corrosion in a given corrosion system.
CORROSION SYSTEM: System consisting of one or more metals and all parts of the environment that
influence corrosion. NOTE - Part of the environment may be coating, surface layer, additional electrode,
etc.
CORROSIVE AGENT: Substance that when in contact with a given metal will react with it.
CORROSIVITY: Ability of an environment to cause corrosion in a given corrosion system.
CRACKING: generally the splitting of a dry paint or varnish film, usually as the result of ageing.
CRAZING: resembles checking but the cracks are deeper and broader.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 104
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 104
CREVICE CORROSION: Corrosion associated with, and taking place in, or immediately around, a narrow
aperture or clearance.
CROCODILE OR ALLIGATORING: advanced type of crazing producing a pattern like the hide of a crocodile.
CURING: chemical reaction to produce a dry paint film; the process of polymerisation of resins by heat or
chemical means.
CURING AGENT: chemical additive which promotes curing of paint films.
DE-AERATION: Removal of air from environment. NOTE - If only oxygen is removed the term
deoxygenation is more appropriate.
DEADMAN VALVE: shutoff valve at the blast nozzle, which allows the blaster to start or stop the abrasive
flow.
DEHYDRATION: loss of moisture or fluid; to dry out.
DERMATITIS: skin irritation or rash.
DETERIORATION: gradual decay of a material; worsening of physical or chemical properties.
DEW POINT: temperature at which atmospheric moisture condenses; when air is cooled below a certain
temperature, some of the atmospheric moisture forms as dew on any surface below this temperature.
The actual temperature at which this happens depends mostly on the relative humidity of the air.
DFT: Dry Film Thickness - see film thickness
DIFFERENTIAL AERATION CELL: Corrosion cell, in which the potential difference arises from a difference
in the concentration of oxygen near its electrodes. NOTE - In some cases the differential aeration cell may
result in an active-passive cell.
DRIERS: substances which, when incorporated (in relatively small proportions) in drying oils, paints or
varnishes, reduce their drying times. Driers are usually compounds of lead, manganese or cobalt.
DRYING: the process of change of a coat of paint from the liquid to the solid state, due to evaporation of
solvent, physiochemical reactions of the binding medium, or a combination of these causes. When the
drying process takes place during exposure to air at normal temperatures, it is called air drying. If it is
accelerated by the application of a moderate degree of heat (normally not exceeding 65 degrees C.) it is
termed forced drying as distinct from stoving which involves higher temperatures up to 300 degrees C.
DRY TO HANDLE: time interval between application and ability to receive next coat satisfactorily.
EFFLORESCENCE: a deposit of soluble white salt found on the surface of brick, concrete, plaster and
other masonry; caused by passage of water through the porous material, bringing salts to the surface,
particularly during the initial drying phase.
ELECTROCHEMICAL PROTECTION: Corrosion protection achieved by electrical control of corrosion
potential.
EPOXIDE RESIN: polymer resin, frequently used in coatings for high performance applications, particularly
when good chemical resistance is required. Epoxy coatings are amongst the most common protective
coatings in general use.
EPOXY ESTER: a pigmented solution of an epoxide resin that has been modified by combination with a
fatty acid, to allow curing by combination with atmospheric oxygen. This type of epoxy is a single pack
material.
EROSION: wearing away of a surface, generally due to friction and impact, as in a pipe carrying slurry
materials.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 105
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 105
EROSION-CORROSION: A process involving conjoint corrosion and erosion. NOTE -Erosion-corrosion may
occur in,, for example,- pipes with high fluid flow velocity;- pumps and pipe lines carrying fluid containing
abrasive particles in suspension.
ETCH PRIMERS: Priming paints which contain a proportion of acid to aid adhesion to smooth surfaces
and non-ferrous substrates, such as zinc galvanised or metal-sprayed surfaces. They are generally based
on phosphoric acid, and can be very sensitive to water during and immediately after application. also
known as wash-primers.
EVAPORATION: change from liquid to a gas (vapour); the release of solvents from a paint fluid into the
atmosphere.
FILM THICKNESS: depth of applied coating film, usually expressed in microns (metric system) or mils (USA
and related countries)
FLAMMABILITY: ability to burn.
FOOTNER PROCESS: acid pickling process involving the successive immersions of steel in three
seperate solutions; sulphuric acid at 50-60?C (120-140?F), Hot rinsing water at 60-65?C (140-150?F),
phosphoric acid at not less than 85?C (185?F).
FOULING: growth of attachments, such as weeds or barnacles, to hulls of ships or other marine
structures.
FRETTING CORROSION: A process involving conjoint corrosion and oscillatory slip between two surfaces
in contact. NOTE - Fretting corrosion may occur, for example, at mechanical joints in vibrating structures.
GALVANIC CORROSION: Corrosion due to the action of a corrosion cell. NOTE - The term has often been
restricted to the action of bimetallic corrosion cells, i.e. bimetallic corrosion.
GENERIC: a general class or group; generic paint types most often take their name from the kind of resin
in the formulation alkyd, epoxy, etc.
GLOSS: ability to reflect light; shininess; lustre.
GROUND BED: buried or submerged conducting mass which is connected to the positive terminal of an
independent source of DC current to pass Cathodic Protection Current into soil or water.
GROUNDING: dissipation of electrical or electrostatic charge.
HARD DRY: paint film that has reached the condition when the surface is not easily marked by physical
contact.
HEAT REACTIONS: Chemical reactions, usually taking one of two forms:
Exothermic Heat is generated (given out) during reaction, this takes place when curing
agent is mixed with epoxy base.
Endothermic Heat is absorbed (taken in) during reaction, this takes place as solvents
evaporate.
HIGH BUILD (PAINT): modified coatings with thixotropic qualities, which can be applied at a higher
thickness, typically with single coat DFT in the range of 120 microns upwards.
HOLIDAYS: areas left uncoated during painting operations; flaws detected by testing with holiday detector.
HYDRO-BLASTING: water blasting; surface cleaning by the use of water pumped to extremely high
pressures (5,000-20,000 p.s.i).
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 106
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 106
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT: A process resulting in a decrease of the toughness or ductility of a metal
due to absorption of hydrogen. NOTE - Hydrogen embrittlement often accompanies hydrogen formation,
for example by corrosion or electrolysis, and may lead to cracking.
HYPODERMIC NEEDLE: a gauge inserted in to the blast hose GAUGE close to the nozzle to measure air
pressure at the nozzle.
IMPERMEABLE: not permitting the passage or penetration of moisture, air, vapour or other substance.
IMPRESSED CURRENT PROTECTION: Electrochemical protection in which the protecting current is
supplied by an external source of electric energy.
INDUCTION TIME: the length of time that a mixed catalysed paint must stand before it is ready to apply;
also called setting up or sweat-in time.
IRON OXIDE: a combination of iron (Fe) and oxygen O
2
); rust is a common form of iron oxide.
INHIBITIVE PIGMENTS: pigments mixed into priming paints that enable them to retard or prevent the
corrosion of metals by chemical (electrochemical) means. Red lead, zinc phosphate and zinc chromate
are examples of inhibitive pigments.
INTERGRANULAR CORROSION: Corrosion in or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal.
LOCALISED CORROSION: Corrosion at discrete sites of the metal surface exposed to the corrosive
environment. NOTE - Localised corrosion may result in, for example, pits, cracks, grooves, etc.
MEDIUM: in paint the continuous phase in which pigment is dispersed. When applied to liquid paint, the
term includes the solvent and is synonymous with vehicle: when applied to the dry film it is synonymous
with binder.
MICROBIAL CORROSION: Corrosion associated with the action of micro-organisms present in the
corrosion system.
MICROCLIMATE: the collective physical conditions, such as temperature and humidity, in a contained,
specific environment
MIL: one onethousandth of an inch; .001; 1/000 inch.
MILD STEEL: steel with carbon content not exceeding 0.25%, most commonly used for structural
fabrication.
MILLSCALE: layer of iron oxide, bluish in appearance, formed on the surface of steel while still hot during
manufacture.
MIST-COAT: a heavily thinned coat of paint applied in a thin film to reflow the previous coat of paint; also
used on porous films such as inorganic zinc to seal porosity prior to over-coating.
ORIFICE: opening or hole, as in a spray gun fluid tip.
OLEORESINOUS: generally refers to varnishes composed of vegetable drying oils in conjunction with
hardening resins.
OVERSPRAY: fluid that is lost by missing the surface to be painted.
PASS: motion of the spray gun in one direction only; one stroke.
PASSIVATION: Decrease of corrosion rate by the formation of a corrosion product on the metal surface.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 107
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 107
PEEN (PEIN): to beat a surface with a rounded tool, leaving rounded indentations; in blast-cleaning refers
to the results of shot-blasting, providing a rounded anchor pattern.
PERMEABLE: allowing passage or penetration.
pH: index of the acidity or alkalinity of aqueous solution, using a scale of 0 to 14. A value of 7 towards 0
denotes increasing acidity; values ranging from 7 to 14 denote increasing alkalinity.
PHENOLIC RESINS: Phenolic resins are the products of condensation reactions between phenols and
aliphatic aldehydes, usually formaldehyde. Used as paint resins, Phenolics provide excellent chemical
resistance, and are widely used for protection of inside of chemical containing vessels. Widely used as
stoving paints
PHENOLIC (PAINT): a paint containing as binder a phenolic resin, either alone or modified by combination
with for example, drying oils, alkyd resins or epoxide resins.
PIGMENT: insoluble solid particles dispersed in a paint, which give the dried film its characteristic
properties of colour, gloss and opacity and influences durability in various environments.
PITCH: black or darkcoloured residue that results from the distillation of tar and similar materials.
PITTING CORROSION: Corrosion resulting in pits, i.e. cavities extending from the surface into the metal.
PLASTICISER: nonvolatile substance, incorporated with film forming materials in a paint, or lacquer, to
improve the flexibility of the dried film.
POT LIFE: the period after mixing, during which a twopack paint remains usable and fully effective.
POLYURETHANE (RESIN): polymer used in coatings for its high gloss and colour retention. Often used with
di-isocyanate or a poly-isocyanate curing agent, use is restricted in some cases by concern over the
carcinogenic effects of the curing agents.
POLY-VINYL-CHLORIDE (PVC): a colourless thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl chloride.
POTABLE WATER: drinkable water.
PRE-FABRICATION PRIMER: fast-drying primer applied to steel prior to fabrication, which will not emit toxic
fumes when welded and does not have to be removed prior to welding. Although intended only to provide
temporary protection it should be compatible with the permanent protective systems.
PRIMER: the first complete coat of a painting system, often using inhibitive or sacrificial pigments to
actively combat corrosion.
PROFILE: surface contour of a blastcleaned surface as viewed from the edge; improves the ability of the
paint to bond to the surface.
PROTECTIVE COATING: Layer(s) of material applied to a metal surface to provide corrosion protection.
p.s.i: pounds per square inch; a measure of force, such as the air pressure at the blast nozzle.
PSYCHROMETER: instrument with wet and dry bulb thermometers for measuring relative humidity and
dewpoint; also called a hygrometer.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY: amount of water vapour in air, compared to the maximum quantity the air could hold
if saturated (at same temperature and atmospheric pressure), expressed as a percentage.
RESIN: major ingredient of paint which binds the other ingredients together and creates the protective
film; usually a polymer.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 108
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 108
RESPIRATOR: a device worn over the mouth and nose to prevent inhaling harmful substances such as
dust, solvent vapours, fumes, etc. Respirators may be cartridge, filter, or air ed.
RUST: Visible corrosion products consisting mainly of hydrated iron oxides.
SAPONIFICATION: decomposition of an organic compound by reaction with alkali - typically affects alkyd
coatings in alkaline exposure.
SCALE: Solid layer of corrosion products formed on a metal at high temperature. NOTE -The term scale
is also used in some countries for deposits of hardness salt from water.
SHELF LIFE: period that a paint will stay in good condition in storage.
SHERARDISING: process of coating iron or steel with zinc by diffusion. The material is packed in zinc dust
and heated at about 370
0
C (700
0
C)
SILICONE RESIN: a class of synthetic resin produced from organic compounds containing silicone,
generally used as a binder for coatings used in high temperature applications.
SILICOSIS: type of respiratory disease caused by free silica particles lodged in the lungs.
SIMULATED CORROSION TEST: Corrosion test conducted under simulated service conditions.
SKIDDING: a paint roller sliding across a surface leaving roller tracks; caused by too little or too much
paint on the roller cover.
SOLIDS (IN PAINT): the nonvolatile components in a coating formulation that, after drying, constitute the
dry film. see also Volume Solids.
SOLVENTLESS PAINTS: term used to describe organic coating materials which contain little or no volatile
thinner.
SOLVENTS: liquids which are used in the manufacture of paint to dissolve or disperse the film forming
constituents, but which mostly evaporate during drying. Also used to modify viscosity and regulate
application properties.
SPRAY FAN: shape of the spray pattern.
SPRAY PATTERN: description of the shape and size of the paint mist when it strikes the surface; varies
from a circle to a long narrow oval.
SPREADING RATE: surface area covered per unit volume of paint applied. May be used to calculate paint
requirements, and depends on volume solids and film thickness applied
STRAY-CURRENT: Current flowing through paths other than the intended circuits (see ISO 2080 : 1981).
SUBSTRATE: surface to be painted.
SURFACE PROFILE: surface contour of a blast cleaned surface improves the ability of the paint to bond
to the surface. see Anchor Pattern
STAINLESS STEEL: a steel containing sufficient chromium, or chromium and nickel, to render it highly
resistant to corrosion and give a characteristic bright, shiny finish. Prevents corrosion by formation of an
ultra-thin surface layer of oxide
STRESS CORROSION: A process involving conjoint corrosion and straining of the metal due to residual or
applied stresses.
STRESS CORROSION CRACKING: Cracking due to stress corrosion.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 109
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 109
STOVING: the process of curing paint film by heating, usually at temperatures over 65C (150?F) in an
oven or by exposure to radiant heat.
SURFACE PREPARATION: cleaning a surface prior to painting; all operations necessary to prepare a
surface to receive a paint coating.
TEMPORARY PROTECTIVES: materials used to protect metallic surfaces during fabrication, transport and
storage, and which are easily removable, by stripping or cold application of common solvents. The
significance of the term temporary lies in the easy removal of the protective and not in the duration of
its protection efficiency.
THERMIT REACTION: Explosive effect which occurs when aluminium and iron oxide are heated.
Aluminium pigmented paints associated with rusty steel are susceptible to the effect - leading to potential
problems in hazardous environments such as live gas, fuel oils, etc.
THINNER: volatile liquid which may be added to paints and varnishes to facilitate application or aid
penetration by lowering the viscosity. Thinners should only be added by the user in limited quantities and
in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
THIXOTROPIC (PAINT): materials with modified viscosity; paint with a modified (high) viscosity or body
that undergoes a temporary reduction in consistency during application. This allows the paint to be
spread easily but to resist the formation of runs, drips or sags when heavy films are applied; may be called
nondrip.
TIE-COAT: low viscosity paint materials, applied to aid adhesion; used with zinc silicate primers to seal the
porosity and provide a base for application of further coatings.
TOXIC: poisonous.
TWO PACK PAINT: paint for which the materials are supplied in two parts, usually in the correct relative
proportions.
UNDERCOAT PAINT: the coat or coats applied to a surface after primer, filling, etc., or after the
preparation of a previously painted surface, and before the application of a finishing coat. An undercoat
should possess good covering ability and a colour leading up to that of the finishing coat, and should be
compatible with the other paints in the system.
UNDERGROUND CORROSION: Corrosion of buried metals, soil being the corrosive environment. NOTE -
The term soil includes not only the naturally occurring material but also any other material, ballast,
backfill, etc., used to cover a structure.
UNIFORM CORROSION: Corrosion proceeding at almost the same rate over the whole surface of the metal
exposed to the corrosive environment.
VEHICLE: liquid portion of paint in which the pigment is dispersed; it is composed of binder, solvent
(thinners) and other liquid additives such as plasticizers.
VENTURI NOZZLE: nozzle with a tapered lining shape having a waist- it accelerates through-flow,
increases abrasive speed and creates a more consistant blast pattern.
VINYL RESIN: class of synthetic resin formed by the polymerisation of chemical compounds containing
the vinyl group; used to make convertible coatings.
VISCOSITY: internal resistance to flow possessed by a liquid; measure of the shear strength within a
liquid; liquids with high viscosity have low flow rates and appear to be thick.
VOLUME SOLIDS: percentage of the total volume of paint occupied by nonvolatiles (paint solids).
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 110
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 110
WEATHERING: the deliberate exposure of new steelwork to weather, allowing the corrosion process to
release millscale and other contaminants prior to painting - now rarely used as a form of surface
preparation.
WEATHERING STEEL: A low-alloy structural steel which develops a rust layer with improved protective
properties, when freely exposed in certain natural atmospheres.
WELD FLUX: acidic fluxing (flowing) agent used to aid the welding process; thought to be responsible for
early coating failure on the welds, through failure to remove all traces.
WELD SPATTER: beads of metal scattered next to a weld seam by the welding process.
WHITE SPIRIT: commonly used thinner for alkyd or oleo-resinous paints and varnishes. It consists of
straightrun or blended petroleum hydrocarbons.
ZINCRICH PAINT: priming paint in which the predominant pigment is finely divided metallic zinc, often
having a total zinc content up to 95% by weight.
ZINC SILICATE: paint in which the predominant pigment is metallic zinc, and the binder is inorganic
silicate.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 111
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 111
APPENDIX B
Marine Terminology and Construction
Naval Vessels
Harbour craft
Tugs
Rope Handling
Pilot Cutters
Harbour masters
Bunker Barges
Water Barges
River Barges
Naval Pinnaces Admirals Barge
Harbour Ferries
Offshore
Supply Vessels
Standby Boats
Lifeboats
Ferries
Anchor Handling
Heavy Lift Cranes
Pipelay Barges
Patrol Craft
Military Protection Fast Craft and Patrol
Coastal
Cargo
Chemicals
Bulk
Tankers
Containers
Multi Purpose
RoRo
Ferries Passenger, Freight, Railway.
Minesweepers
FPBs
Fishery Protection
RFA
Deep Sea
Cargo
Chemicals
Bulk
Tankers
Containers
Multi Purpose
Ro-Ro
Container
Lash
Frigates, Destroyers, Corvettes, Aircraft Carriers Submarines etc.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 112
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 112
Classification Inspection Intervals
Usually in 5 year cycles from new
1
st
Special Survey 5 yrs
2
nd
Special Survey- 10 yrs
3
rd
Special Survey 15 rs
4
th
Special Survey- 20 yrs
5
th
Special Survey 25yrs
If conditions warrant a Poor - Classification an annual survey and restrictions imposed
New Building Issues
Access
Production
Fabrication
Environmental Issues
Post Construction Modifications
New World Construction
New Technology
Use of Alloys
Maintenance Factors
Drydocking -Operational Constraints
Charter parties
Environment
Compatibility
Time
Engineering Pressures
Regional Location
En Passage Conditional Restraints
Environment & Weather
Accommodation Restrictions
Supplies
Cost
Safety and Vessel Operation
Offshore Construction and Operation
Lack of bed space
Weather logistics
Safety/survival qualifications
Interaction with other trades
Operations
Safety
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 113
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 113
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
You have a 25-year-old General Cargo Vessel 15000 tons DWT that trades up the Orinoco River and the
Caribbean with at least two voyages annually across the Atlantic to Europe. The vessel is fitted with a
sacrificial anode system of cathodic protection. The vessel is expected to stay in service for a further
five years before either being sold or scrapped.
The vessel will dry dock in Hamburg after three years of trading.
You are responsible for inspecting he outer hull as soon as dry dock is drained.
What would you look for and report to the owners on condition?
What would be your approach to recommending the surface preparation and coating of the immersed
areas of the hull?
Participants taking the full Diploma option and Certificate must complete the tutor marked assignments
for each module. Each tutor marked assignments will attract 5 marks, giving a total of 30 marks. This
leaves 70 marks for the examination
A Pass is 75%
A Merit is 85%
A Distinction is 95%.
Each assignment must reach a standard. Tutors may ask for you to re-submit an assignment if this
standard is not met.
The assignments must be typed and NOT hand written. It is preferred that they are sent in hard copy. In
this way the presentation of the answers can be properly assessed. The tutor may accept fax or email if
this is the most expedient method due to logistic/geographical problems.
But remember if the tutor is not satisfied with the Assignment he may ask for this to be submitted in hard
copy format.
It is NOT necessary to submit tutor marked assignments in strict order. Although it is easier for the
participant to co-ordinate their work if they are done in sequence.
The main objective must be to complete ALL assignments BEFORE sitting the examination.
ALL tutor marked assignments must be sent to the following :-
Diploma in Marine Surveying Course Administrator.
c/o International Institute of Marine Surveying.
The Administration Office
Stone Lane, Gosport, Hampshire
PO12 1SS
UK.
Fax: +44 (0) 2392 588 002
E-mail education@iims.org.uk
The participant will receive a TMA result sheet with comments as appropriate from the tutor and /or
course director. This will be sent by ordinary mail.
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 114
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 114
Module K Marine Corrision & Coatings
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Page 115
of coating defects

Fitzs Atlas has been


compiled by coating and
corrosion specialists who
understand coatings and
their application. It
provides a comprehensive
and invaluable visual
reference for anybody
who uses or encounters
paint coatings, their
defects and failures.
I welding faults
I pre-surface conditions
I surface preparation standards
I dry abrasive blasting
I high pressure water-jetting
I coating and application defects
I marine fouling
I formulae and reference charts
TM
Fitzs Atlas of Coating Defects:
Fitzsimons, Weatherhead and Morgan ISBN 0 9513940 2 9
Published by: MPI Group
Peel House, Upper South View, Farnham,
Surrey, GU9 7JN
Tel: 01252 732220
Fax: +44 (0)1252 732221
View sample pages at
www.fitzsatlas.com
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 115
Page 116
Diploma in Marine Industry Surveying
Marine Corrision & Coatings Module K
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 116
ICCP HULL
CORROSION
PROTECTION
SYSTEMS
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 117
C-Shield impressed current cathodic
protection systems (ICCP) have now been
fitted to more than 4,000 vessels around
the world.
Since its introduction by Cathelco Ltd in
1991, the scope of the system has been
developed to include the option of
modular or thyristor control panels and an
unusually wide range of anode designs to
suit vessels of every type:-
Cruise Ships
Container Vessels
VLCCs
Ferries
FPSOs
Ice Class Vessels
The C-Shield modular control panel,
based on state-of-the-art computerised
electronics, remains at the forefront of
ICCP technology. As a result it has been
widely adopted by operators seeking to
protect the hulls of their vessels against
corrosion by the most effective and
economical methods.
In addition to innovative ICCP product
design, Cathelco offers a comprehensive
background of experience in marine
engineering and equipment manufacture.
The company is a world leader in
pipework anti-fouling and corrosion
suppression systems for ships and offers
a wide range of other services through its
Group members.
Corrintec Ltd, produce ICCP systems for
naval vessels, fast ferries and other high
speed craft including highly advanced
waterjet and bow thruster protection
equipment. They have also developed the
Minitek ICCP system which provides
effective protection for smaller craft.
Beyond this, the Groups interests
C-Shield ICCP systems
for vessels of every type
encompass marine electronics and
environmental services for ships.
Together, this provides an exceptionally
strong combination of expertise which can
be applied to customers particular
requirements.
Around the world, Cathelco is represented
by a network of over 50 agents/installers
who can provide technical advice and
immediate access to the Groups
complete range of services.
The Problem of Corrosion
Although modern hull coatings can
provide some protection against corrosion
they seldom offer a complete solution. For
this reason, most operators choose to
protect their vessels with a purpose
designed impressed current cathodic
protection system.
Using an arrangement of hull mounted
anodes and reference cells connected to
a control panel(s), the system produces a
more powerful external current to
suppress the natural electro-chemical
activity on the wetted surface of the hull.
This eliminates the formation of
aggressive corrosion cells on the surface
of plates and avoids the problems which
can exist where dissimilar metals are
introduced through welding or brought into
proximity by other components such as
propellers.
An essential feature of ICCP systems is
that they constantly monitor the electrical
potential at the seawater/hull interface
and carefully adjust the output to the
anodes in relation to this. Therefore, the
system is much more effective and
reliable than sacrificial anode systems
where the level of protection is unknown
and uncontrollable.
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 118
The C-Shield modular control panel,
based on advanced computerised
electronics, is designed for installations of
up to 450 amps.
As a breakthrough in ICCP technology, it
is extremely lightweight and compact in
design. It can be easily installed in an
engine room and requires the minimum of
attention from the crew. The outputs to
the anodes can be instantly checked by
referring to the digital read outs.
One of the major advantages of the unit is
that the modules are interchangeable and
can be quickly removed and replaced if
necessary, thereby offering greater
reliability.
The system can incorporate a variety
of safety features including under and
over protection alarms. In addition,
A choice of control panels for
high performance and reliability
information regarding the status of the
system can be fed direct to bridge
computers for continuous monitoring
purposes.
Modular
For ICCP systems of up to 450 amps.
Modular design for greater reliability
and flexibility.
Extremely lightweight and compact.
Clear digital output displays.
Incorporates under and over
protection alarms.
Can be linked to bridge information
systems.
Thyristor Controlled
Cathelco have taken proven thyristor
controlled technology and added another
dimension by combining it with the latest
computerised information systems.
This provides a cost effective solution to
the power requirements of the largest
ICCP systems.
The thyristor control panels can be used
for systems of up to 800 amps on
vessels such as cruise ships and VLCCs,
as well as the larger types of container
ships and cargo vessels. As with the
modular units, there are clear digital
output displays and data regarding the
performance of the system can be fed
directly to ships computers.
For ICCP systems of up to 800 amps.
Economical control for largest systems.
Combines computerised output
displays, alarms and information
systems.
Can be linked to ships computers.
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 119
a
Impressed Current Cathodic
Protection Systems
Linear anodes
Provide excellent current distribution on larger
vessels where anode weight is not a major
consideration.
Elliptical Anodes
The elliptical shape enhances current
distribution. Provides the flexibility to fit into
complex hull profiles.
Circular Anodes
Ideally suited to vessels where a smooth hull
profile is required. Can be flush mounted in
areas where space is limited.
Anodes to suit a wider range of hull profiles a
RUDDER BONDING
LINEAR
LOOP ANODE
REMOTE MONITORING UNIT
SHAFT EARTHING ASSEMBLY
CONTROL PANEL
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 120
Cathelco have developed an extensive range of anodes to suit
vessels of every type. Recessed anodes have the advantage of
maintaining a smooth hull profile with minimal drag and are
therefore ideal for ferries and other fast commercial craft as
well as vessels trading in icy waters. The introduction of
linear loop anodes with powerful outputs mean that
large vessels can be protected with a smaller
number of anodes, requiring fewer hull
penetrations. Their lightweight, semi-
flexible design also enables them to
be fitted more easily to hull
profiles. All of the anodes
are supplied complete
with mountings and
hull penetration
fittings.
Technologically advanced systems
to protect your vessels against hull
corrosion now and into the future
Linear Loop Anodes
Produce a powerful output from a relatively
small surface area. Lightweight and easy to
install.
and operating conditions
Diver Change Anodes
These anodes were specifically developed
for vessels such as FPSOs which have
long intervals between scheduled
drydocking. They can be changed from
the outside of the hull by a diver,
simplifying replacement. This is achieved
by using an installation insert which is
embodied in the anode resin during
manufacture and takes the place of
conventional wiring. In addition, a
watertight sealing plate and sealing ring
system has been designed to enable the
transfer to take place easily.
Shaft earthing and rudder
bonding equipment
To bring the propeller and rudder within
the scope of the C-Shield system they
must, at all times, be electrically
connected to the hull.
Once the propeller rotates, electrical
contact is lost and for this reason a
slipring with brush gear is fitted to the
shaft. To monitor performance the unit is
provided as standard with its own self
contained indicator.
Bonding kits for the rudder consist of
lugged flexible cables for attachment
between the top of the rudders stock and
the hull. A similar cable kit is also supplied
for bonding the control panel negative
connection to the hull.
These are essential to measure the
electrical potential at the seawater/hull
interface and provide the optimum degree
of protection. The readings are fed back
to the control panel which automatically
adjusts the current output to the anodes.
Made with elements of silver or zinc,
reference cells are generally recessed
and supplied with mountings and hull
penetration fittings to make the through-
hull cabling watertight.
Reference Cells
REFERENCE CELL
ELLIPTICAL ANODE
REFERENCE
CELL
CONTROL PANEL
a
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 121
C-Shield the
savings
Over a ten year period, significant capital
savings result from the use of C-Shield
impressed current cathodic protection.
Sacrificial anodes have to be renewed at
periodic drydocking intervals as they
become consumed, resulting in on-going
replacement costs. In contrast, C-Shield
anodes last for many years and achieve a
much more reliable level of protection,
without the extra weight or drag which is
inevitably associated with sacrificial methods.
In addition, major operational savings
result from the use of C-Shield. A smooth
hull, free from corrosion, ensures the
lowest fuel consumption for the vessel.
Data has shown that unprotected vessels,
after as little as 2.5 years, can require an
additional 30% increase in shaft power to
maintain service speed.
Throughout the design of the C-Shield
system, every care has been taken
to ensure the highest reliability
commensurate with minimal installation
time. The lowest cost system may leave
the installer with the highest work load.
Easier Installation
The installation of C-Shield systems
follows well established principles which
have been approved by all of the leading
classification societies. Depending on the
type of anodes being fitted, work begins
by cutting holes in the hull to
accommodate bosses or doubler plates.
These are welded in position ready to
receive cofferdams, enabling watertight
electrical connections to be made to the
anode. For surface mounted anodes, a
mounting plate or mounting studs are
welded to the exterior hull surface in
preparation for fitting the anode. At this
stage, the surrounding area is carefully
grit blasted to a white metal finish. Next, a
layer of mastic is applied to the anode
mounting surface in order to create a
watertight seal when the anode is fitted
and the studs are tightened. Finally,
mastic is applied to the area surrounding
the anode to produce a di-electric shield
which is essential to ensuring the
maximum spread of current over the hull
surface.
Combined Systems
Cathelco can combine C-Shield with their
marine pipework anti-fouling and
corrosion suppression system to provide a
complete protection package for vessels.
Cathelco anti-fouling systems are based
on the electrolytic principle and eliminate
blockages in pipes, valves and
condensers caused by the growth of
barnacles and mussels.
Minitek ICCP Systems
The Minitek system has been designed by
Corrintec Ltd to provide effective and
economical protection for smaller craft
such as fishing boats, work boats and
luxury yachts. With an extremely compact
control panel and anodes, Minitek is
completely automatic and significantly
reduces maintenance costs in comparison
with sacrificial anode systems.
100.000
75.000
5
0
.0
0
0
2
5
.0
0
0
10 Y
ears 8 Y
ears
6 Y
ears
4 Y
ears
2 Y
ears
C
o
s
t

i
n

U
.
S
.

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
B
S
A
C
B
IC
C
P
A
S
A
C
A
IC
C
P
500.000
375.000
2
5
0
.0
0
0
1
2
5
.0
0
0
10 Y
ears 8 Y
ears
6 Y
ears 4 Y
ears
2 Y
ears
C
o
s
t

i
n

U
.
S
.

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
B
S
A
C
B
IC
C
P
A
S
A
C
A
IC
C
P
Capital Cost
Comparison
Equipment
Installed
Comparison
of Additional
Fuel Required
to Maintain
Service
Speed
Notes
1. Ship Types: A - 25,000 dwt General Cargo,
B - 150,000 dwt Bulk Carrier
2. Design Basis: Sacrificial 15mA/m*m. Impressed 25mA/m*m
3. Escalation: Material & Labour 7% pa compound
Notes
1. Ship Types: A - 25,000 dwt General Cargo,
B - 150,000 dwt Bulk Carrier
2. Costings based on data for increased drag contained in BS CP1021
3. Escalation: 4% pa compound
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 122
A system specifically designed
to protect your ship
C-Shield systems are specifically
designed for the particular requirements
of individual vessels and their operating
conditions. They can be installed at
newbuilding or retrofitted to existing
tonnage during scheduled drydocking.
With comprehensive experience of ICCP
system design and the factors which
influence hull corrosion, Cathelcos
engineers will formulate the most effective
arrangement of hull anodes, reference
cells and control panel(s). An important
part of the service is the preparation of
detailed installation drawings and
instructions covering every aspect of the
system.
All systems are provided with
comprehensive manuals as part of the
standard package. These include sections
on theory, installation, operation,
maintenance, fault finding, drawings and
spare part listing.
Worldwide Service
Cathelco engineers based world-wide are
available to assist the system installer,
commission the equipment and provide
on-site instruction for operating staff.
To relieve operators of the need to
evaluate the performance of the system,
Cathelco offer a monthly review service.
Log sheets with daily readings completed
by the ships staff are analysed by our
engineers. Reports with comments are
then mailed back to the operator.
Specialised engineers are available to
attend service callouts as well as routine
drydocking.
Comprehensive Quality
Approvals
The manufacture of C-Shield systems
conforms to the highest standards of
quality. Cathelco Ltd has been assessed
by Lloyds Register Quality Assurance and
is registered under BS EN ISO 9002
(1994).
The on-going commitment to these
standards is verified at regular intervals
and is reflected by the commercial
success of the company in meeting the
quality requirements of some of the
worlds most prestigious fleets.
The C-Shield system fully complies with
all British and International Standards. In
particular BS 7361: Part 1:1991 Cathodic
Protection, and is approved by all leading
ship classification societies.
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 123
Marine House, 18 Hipper Street South
Chesterfield S40 1SS United Kingdom
Telephone 01246 207702 Fax 01246 206519
International
Telephone +44 1246 207702 Fax +44 1246 206519
E-mail: sales@cathelco.co.uk
Web site: http://www.cathelco.co.uk
Other products from
Cathelco
Marine pipework
anti-fouling systems
The Cathelco marine pipework anti-fouling
and corrosion suppression system has
been fitted to over 6,000 ships ranging
from cruise ships and container vessels to
ferries and fishing craft.
Recognised as world leaders in this field
with more installations than any other
individual manufacturer, Cathelco have
continued to develop and enhance the
system.
Based on the electrolytic principle, it
eliminates blockages in seawater cooling
lines caused by the growth of barnacles
and mussels. Easy to install, completely
safe in operation and requiring minimum
attention from the crew, the system
provides complete and continuous
protection.
To cover the requirements of smaller
vessels, luxury yachts and leisure craft,
Cathelco have now produced miniaturised
versions of the system with extremely
compact control panels and anodes.
These enable vessels of any size to
benefit from effective anti-fouling
protection at a very economical cost.
Replacement Anode
Service
C-Shield anodes can be used as direct
replacements for any impressed current
cathodic protection system currently used
in the world. They are also designed to be
totally compatible with the full range of
manufacturers control systems.
The service enables operators to
benefit from the latest developments in
anode technology, whilst providing
considerable cost savings in comparison
with replacement using conventional
designs from the original equipment
manufacturer.
Argentina
Australia
Bahrain
Brazil
Brunei
Canada
(East and West Coast)
China
(Dalian, Guangzhou, Shanghai
Hong Kong)
Croatia
Denmark
Egypt
Estonia
Finland
France
(Atlantic & Mediterranean Coasts)
Germany
Greece
Holland
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
International Service Network
Our international network of sales and service centres can provide immediate advice
and assistance on the complete range of Cathelco products.
Korea
Latvia
Lithuania
Malaysia
Mexico
Norway
Pakistan
Philippines
Poland
(Gdansk & Szczecin)
Portugal
Romania
Russia
Singapore
South Africa
(Durban & Cape Town)
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sweden
Taiwan
(Kaohsiung & Taipei)
Turkey
United Arab Emirates
USA
(East, West & Gulf Coasts)
Vietnam
Venezuela
Cathelco Group Companies
Corrintec Ltd
Specialists in ICCP hull protection systems for naval and high speed ships.
Subsea pipeline cathodic protection surveys.
Marine Equipment A/S
Design and installation of monitoring and alarm systems for ships ballast tanks
and cargo tanks.
MTB Environmental Ltd
Bilge, ballast and storage tank cleaning services for naval and commercial vessels.
Environmental services for petrochemical and other industries.
Proconics Ltd
Design and production of electronic control systems for marine and general applications.
Casting Repairs Ltd
Specialists in the repair of cast ironwork using the cold metal stitching technique.
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 124
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
L
i
g
h
t

c
o
l
o
u
r
e
d
,

a
b
r
a
s
i
o
n

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

p
u
r
e

e
p
o
x
y

B
r
o
n
z
e
6
0
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
o
f
f
e
r
i
n
g

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t

l
o
n
g

t
e
r
m

c
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m
6
0
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
3
0
0
1
1
.
8
2
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3
T
a
r

f
r
e
e
,

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

p
i
g
m
e
n
t
e
d

p
u
r
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
B
r
o
n
z
e
6
8
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3
G
r
e
y
6
8
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
3
0
0
1
1
.
8
2
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

4
0
0
T
w
o

p
a
c
k

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g
D
a
r
k

G
r
e
y
6
5
1
2
5
4
.
9
2
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

4
0
0
m
i
c
a
c
e
o
u
s

i
r
o
n

o
x
i
d
e
G
r
e
y
6
5
1
2
5
4
.
9
2
2
5
0
9
.
8
4
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0
H
i
g
h

s
o
l
i
d
s

t
a
r

f
r
e
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e

B
u
f
f
8
2
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0
G
r
e
y
8
2
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
3
0
0
1
1
.
8
2
*
*
*
*
N
O
A

1
0
F
T
a
r

f
r
e
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e

i
n
c
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
n
g

u
n
i
q
u
e

B
u
f
f
6
3
1
7
5
6
.
9
0
s
e
l
f
-
i
n
d
i
c
a
t
i
n
g

(
S
I
)
t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
1
7
5
6
.
9
0
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

S
c
h
e
m
e
s


C
a
r
g
o

H
o
l
d
s
*
*
S
t
r
i
p
e

c
o
a
t
i
n
g

i
s

a
n

e
s
s
e
n
t
i
a
l

p
a
r
t

o
f

g
o
o
d

p
a
i
n
t
i
n
g

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e

a
n
d

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

c
a
r
r
i
e
d

o
u
t

o
n

p
l
a
t
e

e
d
g
e
s
,

w
e
l
d
s
,

b
e
h
i
n
d

b
a
r
s
,

c
u
t

o
u
t
s

e
t
c
.
C
o
n
s
u
l
t

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

f
o
r

d
e
t
a
i
l
s

o
f

s
t
r
i
p
e

c
o
a
t
i
n
g

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
.
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

K
o
r
e
a
.
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

E
u
r
o
p
e
.
*
*
*
*
N
O
A

1
0
F

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

J
a
p
a
n
.

I
S
O

3
2
3
3
:
1
9
9
8

(
A
S
T
M

D
-
2
6
9
7

-

N
o
r
t
h

A
m
e
r
i
c
a
)
.
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

N
a
m
e
D
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
l
o
u
r
V
S
%

D
F
T

(

m
)
D
F
T

(
m
i
l
s
)
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 125
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
m
o
o
t
h

3
6
5

E
c
o
l
o
f
l
e
x

S
P
C


3
6

m
o
n
t
h
s

<
6
0
0
0

s
e
a
m
i
l
e
s
/
m
o
n
t
h

(
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

S
i
d
e
s
)
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
m
o
o
t
h

3
6
5

H
i
g
h

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

T
B
T

f
r
e
e
,

r
o
s
i
n

f
r
e
e
,

s
e
l
f

p
o
l
i
s
h
i
n
g
D
a
r
k

B
r
o
w
n
4
0
1
3
5
5
.
3
1
E
c
o
l
o
f
l
e
x

S
P
C
c
o
p
o
l
y
m
e
r

a
n
t
i
f
o
u
l
i
n
g

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

d
e
s
i
g
n
e
d

f
o
r

I
n
t
e
r
s
m
o
o
t
h

3
6
5
c
o
a
s
t
a
l

v
e
s
s
e
l
s
D
a
r
k

R
e
d
4
0
1
3
5
5
.
3
1
E
c
o
l
o
f
l
e
x

S
P
C
2
7
0
1
0
.
6
2
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
m
o
o
t
h

4
6
5

E
c
o
l
o
f
l
e
x

S
P
C


3
6

m
o
n
t
h
s

<
9
0
0
0

s
e
a
m
i
l
e
s
/
m
o
n
t
h

(
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

S
i
d
e
s
)
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
m
o
o
t
h

4
6
5

H
i
g
h

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

T
B
T

f
r
e
e
,

r
o
s
i
n

f
r
e
e
,

s
e
l
f

p
o
l
i
s
h
i
n
g
D
a
r
k

B
r
o
w
n
4
0
1
2
0
4
.
7
2
E
c
o
l
o
f
l
e
x

S
P
C
c
o
p
o
l
y
m
e
r

a
n
t
i
f
o
u
l
i
n
g

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

d
e
s
i
g
n
e
d

f
o
r

I
n
t
e
r
s
m
o
o
t
h

4
6
5
d
e
e
p

s
e
a

v
e
s
s
e
l
s
D
a
r
k

R
e
d
4
0
1
2
0
4
.
7
2
E
c
o
l
o
f
l
e
x

S
P
C
2
4
0
9
.
4
4
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
l
e
e
k

7
0
0

S
y
s
t
e
m


6
0

m
o
n
t
h
s

(
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
o
r

t
o

l
a
u
n
c
h


c
o
n
s
u
l
t

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

f
o
r

d
e
t
a
i
l
e
d

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

p
r
o
c
e
d
u
r
e
s
)
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
L
i
g
h
t

c
o
l
o
u
r
e
d
,

a
b
r
a
s
i
o
n

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

p
u
r
e

e
p
o
x
y

B
r
o
n
z
e
6
0
1
2
5
4
.
9
2
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
o
f
f
e
r
i
n
g

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t

l
o
n
g

t
e
r
m

c
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m
6
0
1
2
5
4
.
9
2
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

7
3
7
S
i
l
i
c
o
n
e

e
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r

f
o
u
l

r
e
l
e
a
s
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
L
i
g
h
t

G
r
e
y
5
7
1
0
0
3
.
9
4
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

7
5
7
e
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
l
y

d
e
s
i
g
n
e
d

f
o
r

d
e
e
p

s
e
a

s
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
d

s
h
i
p
s
G
r
e
y
7
2
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
5
0
0
1
9
.
6
9
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
l
e
e
k

7
0
0

S
y
s
t
e
m


6
0

m
o
n
t
h
s

(
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
t

p
r
e
-
d
e
l
i
v
e
r
y

d
r
y
d
o
c
k

c
o
n
s
u
l
t

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

f
o
r

d
e
t
a
i
l
e
d

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

p
r
o
c
e
d
u
r
e
s
)
S
P
C

A
n
t
i
f
o
u
l
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
r
s
l
e
e
k

7
1
7
T
w
o

p
a
c
k

f
o
u
l

r
e
l
e
a
s
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

L
i
n
k
c
o
a
t
M
i
d

B
r
o
w
n
5
4
1
0
0
3
.
9
4
I
n
t
e
r
s
l
e
e
k

7
3
7
S
i
l
i
c
o
n
e

e
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r

f
o
u
l

r
e
l
e
a
s
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
L
i
g
h
t

G
r
e
y
5
7
1
0
0
3
.
9
4
I
n
t
e
r
s
l
e
e
k

7
5
7
e
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
l
y

d
e
s
i
g
n
e
d

f
o
r

d
e
e
p

s
e
a

s
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
d

s
h
i
p
s
G
r
e
y
7
2
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
3
5
0
1
3
.
7
9
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

S
c
h
e
m
e
s


U
n
d
e
r
w
a
t
e
r

H
u
l
l

(
A
n
t
i
f
o
u
l
i
n
g
s

a
n
d

F
o
u
l
i
n
g

C
o
n
t
r
o
l

S
y
s
t
e
m
s
)
*
D
e
p
e
n
d
i
n
g

u
p
o
n

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

i
n

s
e
r
v
i
c
e

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s
.
*
*
U
s
e

I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

2
6
4

i
n

N
o
r
t
h

A
m
e
r
i
c
a
.

I
S
O

3
2
3
3
:
1
9
9
8

(
A
S
T
M

D
-
2
6
9
7

-

N
o
r
t
h

A
m
e
r
i
c
a
)
.
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

N
a
m
e
D
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
l
o
u
r
V
S
%

D
F
T

(

m
)
D
F
T

(
m
i
l
s
)
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 126
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

N
a
m
e
D
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
l
o
u
r
V
S
%

D
F
T

(

m
)

R
a
n
g
e
D
F
T

(
m
i
l
s
)

R
a
n
g
e
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
L
i
g
h
t

c
o
l
o
u
r
e
d
,

a
b
r
a
s
i
o
n

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

p
u
r
e

e
p
o
x
y

B
r
o
n
z
e
6
0
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
o
f
f
e
r
i
n
g

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t

l
o
n
g

t
e
r
m

c
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m
6
0
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
2
5
0


4
0
0
9
.
8
4


1
5
.
7
4
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3
T
a
r

f
r
e
e
,

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

p
i
g
m
e
n
t
e
d

p
u
r
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
B
r
o
n
z
e
6
8
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3
G
r
e
y
6
8
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
2
5
0


4
0
0
9
.
8
4


1
5
.
7
4
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0
H
i
g
h

s
o
l
i
d
s

t
a
r

f
r
e
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
B
u
f
f
8
2
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0
G
r
e
y
8
2
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
2
5
0


4
0
0
9
.
8
4


1
5
.
7
4
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

4
0
3
T
a
r

f
r
e
e
,

l
i
g
h
t

c
o
l
o
u
r
e
d

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
B
u
f
f
6
8
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

4
0
3
G
r
e
y
6
8
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
2
5
0


4
0
0
9
.
8
4


1
5
.
7
4

N
O
A

6
0
T
a
r

f
r
e
e
,

l
i
g
h
t

c
o
l
o
u
r
e
d

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e

i
n
c
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
n
g
B
u
f
f
6
3
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7

N
O
A

6
0
u
n
i
q
u
e

s
e
l
f
-
i
n
d
i
c
a
t
i
n
g

(
S
I
)
t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
B
l
u
e
6
3
1
2
5


2
0
0
4
.
9
2


7
.
8
7
2
5
0


4
0
0
9
.
8
4


1
5
.
7
4
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

S
c
h
e
m
e
s


W
a
t
e
r

B
a
l
l
a
s
t

T
a
n
k
s
*
*
S
t
r
i
p
e

c
o
a
t
i
n
g

i
s

a
n

e
s
s
e
n
t
i
a
l

p
a
r
t

o
f

g
o
o
d

p
a
i
n
t
i
n
g

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e

a
n
d

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

c
a
r
r
i
e
d

o
u
t

o
n

p
l
a
t
e

e
d
g
e
s
,

w
e
l
d
s
,

b
e
h
i
n
d

b
a
r
s
,

c
u
t

o
u
t
s

e
t
c
.
C
o
n
s
u
l
t

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

f
o
r

d
e
t
a
i
l
s

o
f

s
t
r
i
p
e

c
o
a
t
i
n
g

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
.
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

K
o
r
e
a
.
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

E
u
r
o
p
e
.

I
S
O

3
2
3
3
:
1
9
9
8

(
A
S
T
M

D
-
2
6
9
7

-

N
o
r
t
h

A
m
e
r
i
c
a
)
.

N
O
A

6
0

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

J
a
p
a
n
.
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 127
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
L
i
g
h
t

c
o
l
o
u
r
e
d
,

a
b
r
a
s
i
o
n

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

p
u
r
e

e
p
o
x
y

B
r
o
n
z
e
6
0
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
*
I
n
t
e
r
s
h
i
e
l
d

3
0
0
o
f
f
e
r
i
n
g

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t

l
o
n
g

t
e
r
m

c
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m
6
0
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
I
n
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
e

9
9
0
T
w
o

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

a
c
r
y
l
i
c

p
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

f
i
n
i
s
h

w
i
t
h

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t
R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
7
5
0
1
.
9
7
I
n
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
e

9
9
0
d
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
n
d

l
o
n
g

t
e
r
m

o
v
e
r
c
o
a
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
7
5
0
1
.
9
7
4
0
0
1
5
.
7
6
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3
T
a
r

f
r
e
e
,

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

p
i
g
m
e
n
t
e
d

p
u
r
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
B
r
o
n
z
e
6
8
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
*
/
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3
G
r
e
y
6
8
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
I
n
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
e

9
9
0
T
w
o

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

a
c
r
y
l
i
c

p
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

f
i
n
i
s
h

w
i
t
h

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t
R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
7
5
0
1
.
9
7
d
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
n
d

l
o
n
g

t
e
r
m

o
v
e
r
c
o
a
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
3
5
0
1
3
.
7
9
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0
H
i
g
h

s
o
l
i
d
s

t
a
r

f
r
e
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
B
u
f
f
8
2
1
2
5
4
.
9
2
*
/
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0
B
u
f
f
8
2
1
2
5
4
.
9
2
I
n
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
e

9
9
0
T
w
o

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

a
c
r
y
l
i
c

p
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

f
i
n
i
s
h

w
i
t
h

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t

R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
7
5
0
1
.
9
7
d
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
n
d

l
o
n
g

t
e
r
m

o
v
e
r
c
o
a
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
3
0
0
1
1
.
8
1

I
n
t
e
r
t
u
f

2
6
2
T
a
r

f
r
e
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
R
e
d
7
3
1
5
0
5
.
9
1
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

7
4
0
T
w
o

p
a
c
k

e
p
o
x
y

f
i
n
i
s
h
R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
1
5
0
1
.
9
7
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

7
4
0
R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
1
5
0
1
.
9
7
2
5
0
9
.
8
5
*
*
*
*
N
O
A

1
0
F
T
a
r

f
r
e
e

e
p
o
x
y

a
n
t
i
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e

i
n
c
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
n
g

B
u
f
f
6
3
1
7
5
6
.
9
0
u
n
i
q
u
e

s
e
l
f
-
i
n
d
i
c
a
t
i
n
g

(
S
I
)
t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
*
*
*
*
P
o
l
y
u
r
e

M
i
g
h
t
y
l
a
c

M
P
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

f
i
n
i
s
h

w
i
t
h

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t

w
e
a
t
h
e
r

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
4
3
0
1
.
1
8
*
*
*
*
P
o
l
y
u
r
e

M
i
g
h
t
y
l
a
c

M
a
n
d

g
l
o
s
s

r
e
t
e
n
t
i
o
n
R
a
n
g
e

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
5
4
3
0
1
.
1
8
2
3
5
9
.
2
6
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

S
c
h
e
m
e
s


T
o
p
s
i
d
e
s

a
n
d

E
x
t
e
r
n
a
l

S
u
p
e
r
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

2
6
9
,

I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

2
6
8

o
r

I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

2
6
3

c
a
n

b
e

u
s
e
d

a
s

o
p
t
i
o
n
a
l

t
i
e

c
o
a
t
s

t
o

e
x
t
e
n
d

o
v
e
r
c
o
a
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

w
i
t
h

I
n
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
e

9
9
0

i
f

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
,

c
o
n
s
u
l
t

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
.
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

3
4
3

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

K
o
r
e
a
.
*
*
*
I
n
t
e
r
g
a
r
d

8
4
0

i
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

E
u
r
o
p
e
.
*
*
*
*
N
O
A

1
0
F

a
n
d

P
o
l
y
u
r
e

M
i
g
h
t
y
l
a
c

M

a
r
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

i
n

J
a
p
a
n
.

I
S
O

3
2
3
3
:
1
9
9
8

(
A
S
T
M

D
-
2
6
9
7

-

N
o
r
t
h

A
m
e
r
i
c
a
)
.

I
n
t
e
r
t
u
f

3
6
2

(
W
i
n
t
e
r

G
r
a
d
e
)

i
s

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

a
s

a
n

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
,

c
o
n
s
u
l
t

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l


e
x
c
e
p
t

N
o
r
t
h

A
m
e
r
i
c
a
.
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

N
a
m
e
D
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
l
o
u
r
V
S
%

D
F
T

(

m
)
D
F
T

(
m
i
l
s
)
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 128
No. 15
Care and survey of hatch covers of dry
cargo ships - Guidance to owners -
1. Introduction
1.1 Loss of weathertight integrity continues to be a constant factor leading to cargo damage which
could result in a threat to the safety of the crew, the ship and its cargoes, despite advances in
modern shipbuilding technology, construction, navigation and means of preventing ingress of
water into hold spaces.
1.2 We need only to look at cargo insurance claims to recognise the continued prominence of this
problem and the vigilance required from crews to ensure that instances of cargoes being spoiled as
a result of water ingress through hatch openings are minimised.
1.3 Although condensation can cause water to collect in holds, it is the problem of water entering into
cargo holds through the hold openings as a result of badly maintained or damaged closing
arrangements that this paper addresses.
1.4 The Classification Societies are concerned with this problem in particular through the Load Line
Convention. The experience of the Classification Societies confirms the importance of hatch cover
weathertightness and the reports of survey - class surveys as well as Load Line surveys - contain
frequent references to lack of maintenance of weathertightness of hatch covers.
1.5 Where there is any doubt in applying this Guideline, clarification should be obtained from the
individual Classification Society. Attention is directed to the separate published Rules of each
Society. This Guideline is not meant as a substitute for the Society's Rules or the independent
judgement and experience of Owners and Surveyors.

IACS Rec. 1986/Rev 2 1997


No. 15
(1986)
(Rev. 1
1989)
(Rev. 2
1997)
15-1
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 129
No. 15
2. Contributing factors to leaking covers
Lack of weathertightness may be attributed to several causes, which can be classed within two
different types:
2.1 Those which result from the normal use of the hatch cover system, such as deformation of the hatch
coaming or hatch cover due to impact, or the normal wear-and-tear of the cleating arrangement,
which may be corrected only through extensive repairs or overhauls.
2.2 Those which result from the lack of proper maintenance: corrosion of plating due to lack of
protection against corrosion, lack of adequate lubrication of moving parts, non-replacement of old
gaskets, use of cleats and gaskets which do not comply with the standards specified by the hatch
cover manufacturer and inappropriate repairs.
3. What can be done to reduce leakages of hatch covers?
3.1 The Classification Society Rule requirements for the construction and inspection of hatch covers,
cannot, alone, ensure that the hatch covers will be adequate at all times; improvement in the
performance of hatch covers can be achieved only through an effort by all parties concerned, which
will involve:
(a) owners, masters and crew in effective maintenance;
(b) feed back to the manufacturers and Classification Societies for improvement in original design
specifications;
(c) close and detailed inspections by Classification Society Surveyors.
3.2 The hatch covers designers should, perhaps, give less thought to the sophistication of the systems
and more to the sturdiness of the equipment, the ease of operation and the convenience of
maintenance. Adequate protection of the steel work should be ensured with high quality coatings,
or, alternatively, corrosion-resistant materials should be used.
3.3 The shipowners and their crews should apply a programme of maintenance to ensure that the steel
is not allowed to corrode, gaskets are periodically replaced, movable parts are kept properly
lubricated and fittings periodically overhauled. The crew should also make sure, at each operation
of the hatch covers, that the covers are sufficiently clean, especially at bearing surfaces, and that the
drainage holes are clear.
Since most problems occur at the peripheral and cross-joint gaskets, very strict control of the
condition of the components involved must be applied. This will involve not only the rubber but
the compression bars, the locking devices, the cleating, load bearing surfaces, and the general
condition of the coaming top plate.
In addition, in cases where the hatch panels are moved by hydraulic means then the manufacturer's
maintenance procedures must be adhered to in all respects.
When hydraulic cleating or securing is arranged, means are to be provided to ensure that the covers
remain closed and weathertight in the event of hydraulic failure.
3.4 The crew should however bear in mind that in extreme cases hatch cover protection may have to be
complemented by means of tarpaulins or adhesive tapes. This is a decision to be made by the
Master taking into account the nature of the cargo, expected sea-conditions, uneven load-
distribution on hatch covers and, above all, previous experience in similar circumstances. The use
of tarpaulins on mechanically operated steel covers must be considered an emergency temporary
measure.
3.5 Containers and cargoes should not be stowed on hatch covers unless they have been designed for
such carriage.

No. 15
cont'd
IACS Rec. 1989/Rev 2 1997
15-2
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 130
No. 15
Additionally, correct and adequate lashing systems are to be used at all times when stowing
cargoes; this is equally important for cargoes stowed on tween deck covers and that battening down
devices are correctly used to the hatch covers at the same time.
3.6 All securing devices should be checked and tightened by the crew as appropriate especially in case
where their ships may be subjected to unusually rough seas.
3.7 The crew should also make sure that not only the deck cargo, but also the derricks, etc. are properly
stowed and secured so that they will not be dislodged in a seaway and cause damage to hatch
covers.
3.8 The appropriate manufacturer's instructions with respect to the safe operation, inspection,
maintenance and repair of the type of the hatch cover fitted on the ship should be complied with in
all respects.
To this end a "Record of the Maintenance of Hatch Covers" should also be provided by the
Manufacturer together with the operation and maintenance manual to assist owners to carry out the
appropriate maintenance.
4. What is IACS doing?
4.1 Traditionally, hatch covers and hatch coamings are inspected every year, as prescribed in Article 14
of the Load Line Convention of 1966. This inspection is normally carried out by the Surveyor of
the Classification Society at the same time as the Class Annual Survey, the scope of which is not
much different as far as the closing appliances are concerned.
4.2 These inspections are usually carried out in port, while the ship is in operation, and very often
working cargo; their primary purpose being to ensure that no alterations have been made to the ship
which may affect the load line, and that the fittings and appliances for the protection of openings
are maintained in an effective condition.
4.3 This is only possible if a detailed examination of the hatch covers and fittings, which necessitate the
actual operation (closing and opening) of hatch covers, is carried out by Surveyors. Hose testing
should be carried out whenever the Surveyor is in doubt as to the weathertightness of a hatch cover.
Alternative methods of tightness may be considered.
4.4 The Surveyor can only assess the actual condition of the hatch covers at the time of survey and, in
between two inspections, the proper maintenance of the hatch covers must remain the responsibility
of the owner, master and crew.
4.5 Confronted with an increase in the number of reported cargo damages, the Classification Societies,
members of IACS, have decided to review the survey procedures issued to their Surveyors for the
survey of hatch covers and coamings.
4.6 A unified requirement prepared and approved by the Council of the Association during their June
1985 Meeting has been revised. This revised unified requirement Z4 "Survey of Hatch Covers and
Coamings", which will be updated as the necessity arises, is herewith enclosed for reference.
5. Defects to hatch covers and coamings
5.1 The purpose of this Section is to review the various types of defect found in hatch covers, which for
the most part are caused by a lack of proper maintenance or by improper operation.
5.2 Some defects affecting the weathertightness of hatch covers can be attributed to their design. Such
defects, a very small percentage of all defects found, are not dealt with here. The crew should be
attentive to them and report accordingly for eventual discussion with the designers and the
Classification Societies.

No. 15
cont'd
IACS Rec. 1989/ Rev 2 1997
15-3
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 131
No. 15
5.3 Hatch cover design
A hatch cover design may be categorised as being one of three general types:
mechanically operated steel covers, of folding, sliding, rolling, etc. types, fitted with gaskets
and clamping devices;
steel pontoon covers with tarpaulins and battening devices or with gaskets and cleats;
portable covers with tarpaulins and battening devices (usually wooden covers).
All types of hatch covers are basically of robust construction; under normal conditions of care and
operation they are fully adequate for their intended purpose.
5.4 Damages to hatch covers
5.4.1 Mechanically operated steel covers are affected by:
corrosion, which attacks the integrity of the cover itself and which also affects the moving
parts (wheels and rails, hinges between panels, cleats and batten screws, etc.);
deformation caused by faulty handling, shocks from cargo being handled (especially logs and
heavy loads), wear-and-tear on gaskets, and overloading with deck cargo;
incorrect maintenance, inadequate maintenance, incorrect repair, lack of adjustment, incorrect
operation;
incorrect and inadequate maintenance of the power system of the hatch covers i.e.
hydraulic and electric systems and safety devices.
5.4.2 Wooden covers, steel pontoons and tarpaulins are affected:
mainly by poor handling and bad stowage.
Portable beams also are frequently deformed by rough handling and their locking devices have
always been a source of considerable trouble due to lack of care in handling.
5.5 Damages to hatch coamings
Hatch coamings are affected by the following factors and defects:
corrosion aggravated by the presence of piping systems, utilising coamings as protection and
support, thus preventing normal access to the plating for painting;
deformation, both of the plating and of the various supporting members and brackets, mostly
due to cargo handling and aggravated by general corrosion;
build up of scale, rust, and cargo debris causing the blockage of drains, and the incorrect
support of the hatch covers;
fret and wear caused by incorrect adjustment of battening devices which in turn causes side
plate failures, cracking and stay buckling.
Consequences:
All such defects can be considered as due to repetitive accidental causes, which for various reasons
- cost or lack of facilities for instance - are not immediately repaired.
6. Crew's examination of hatch covers and coamings
6.1 Routine checks by the crew of hatch covers, gaskets and hatch coamings is the responsibility of the
Owner, master and crew. The inspections and surveys carried out by the Classification Society
and/or the Administration at yearly intervals are not intended to and cannot replace these routine
checks and proper maintenance.

No. 15
cont'd
IACS Rec. 1989/ Rev 2 1997
15-4
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 132
No. 15
NOTE:
The hatch covers and hatch coamings of ships engaged in the trade of carrying timber or heavy
parcels, also those of ships carrying deck cargoes such as containers on top of hatch covers, are
likely to suffer very rapidly from excessive deformations. The Owners should be aware that the
weathertightness of such hatch covers is difficult to maintain in service, and that, in consequence,
the greatest care should be exercised in the periodical checking of these hatch covers and coamings,
in particular when the vessel changes its trading pattern.
6.1.1 A thorough examination should include:
Checking that the Record of conditions of the freeboard assignment is available; the Record itself is
used when necessary to guide the checking.
Checking that significant changes not approved by the Classification Society have not been made to
the hatch covers, hatch coamings and their securing and sealing devices.
6.1.2 Hatch covers and coamings
6.1.2.1 Where mechanically-operated steel covers are fitted, checking the satisfactory condition of:
hatch covers (corrosion, cracks, deformations);
tightness devices of longitudinal, transverse and intermediate cross junctions (gaskets, gasket
lips, compression bars, drainage channels);
clamping devices, retaining bars, cleating;
chain or rope pulleys;
guides;
guide rails and track wheels;
stoppers, etc;
wires, chains, tensioners and gypsies;
hydraulic system, electrical safety devices, and interlocks;
end and interpanel hinges, pins and stools;
ramp profiles, and stowage area;
backup structure of wheels, guides and hinges.
6.1.2.2 Where portable covers or steel pontoons are fitted, checking the satisfactory condition of:
Wooden covers and portable beams, carriers or sockets for the portable beams, and their
securing devices;
steel pontoons;
tarpaulins;
cleats, battens and wedges;
hatch securing bars and their securing devices;
loading pads/bars and the side plate edge;
guide plates, and chocks;
compression bars, drainage channels, and drain pipes.
6.1.3 Checking of the satisfactory operation of mechanically operated hatch covers:
stowage and securing in open condition;
proper fit, locking and efficiency of sealing devices in the closed condition;
leakage of cylinders and hydraulic piping;
6.1.4 And checking the satisfactory condition of hatch coamings (corrosion, deformations of plating and
supporting members and brackets, connection to deck).

No. 15
cont'd
IACS Rec. 1989/Rev. 2 1997
15-5
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 133
No. 15
6.1.5 Spare parts
6.1.5.1 When hatches are fitted with mechanically operated steel covers checking the satisfactory
condition and number of:
spare rubber gasket material (sufficient to renew all cross-joints and peripheral joints of a
single hatch);
spare wheels;
spare seal kits;
spare sealant/adhesive;
spare cleats;
spare for hydraulic systems.
6.1.5.2 When hatches are fitted with portable covers or steel pontoons checking the satisfactory
condition and number of:
spare wooden covers;
spare wedges;
spare tarpaulins;
spare cleats.
Annex to Care and survey of hatch covers of
dry cargo ships - Guidance to owners -
IACS Requirement Z4. (Rev. 2 1996, V2.1)
Z4.1 Hatch covers, hatch coamings and their securing and sealing devices shall be submitted to surveys
as detailed in Z4.2 and Z4.3.
Z4.2 Annual surveys at yearly intervals (the Anniversary date according to the Class and Load Line
Certificate plus or minus three months whether the ship is under continuous survey or not). They will
normally be performed as part of the annual load line inspection.
The scope of annual surveys of hatch covers and the specific requirements to be satisfied are listed
under Z4.4.
Z4.3 Special Surveys [*] at maximum intervals of five years. They will normally be performed as part
of the hull Special Survey and/or renewal load line survey.
The scope of Special Survey [*] of hatch covers and the specific requirements to be satisfied are
listed under Z4.5.
Z4.4 Annual Survey
This survey consists of:
1. General
Checking that no unapproved changes have been made to the hatch covers, hatch coamings and
their securing and sealing devices since the last survey.
Note 1:
* Some member Societies use the term Special Periodical Survey, others use the term Class
Renewal Survey instead of the term Special Survey.

No. 15
cont'd
IACS Rec. 1989/ Rev 2 1997
15-6
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 134
No. 15
2. Hatch covers and coamings
2.1 Where mechanically operated steel covers are fitted, checking the satisfactory condition of:
- hatch covers;
- tightness devices of longitudinal, transverse and intermediate cross junctions
(gaskets, gaskets lips, compression bars, drainage channels);
- clamping devices, retaining bars, cleating;
- chain or rope pulleys;
- guides;
- guide rails and track wheels;
- stoppers, etc.;
- wires, chains, gypsies, tensioning devices;
- hydraulic system essential to closing and securing;
- safety locks and retaining devices.
2.2 Where portable covers, wooden or steel pontoons are fitted, checking the satisfactory condition of:
- wooden covers and portable beams, carriers or sockets for the portable beams, and their
securing devices;
- steel pontoons;
- tarpaulins;
- cleats, battens and wedges;
- hatch securing bars and their securing devices;
- loading pads/bars and the side plate edge
- guide plates and chocks;
- compression bars, drainage channels and drain pipes (if any)
2.3 Checking the satisfactory condition of hatch coamings plating and their stiffeners.
2.4 Random checking of the satisfactory operation of mechanically operated hatch covers:
- stowage and securing in open condition;
- proper fit, locking and efficiency of sealing in closed condition;
- operational testing of hydraulic and power components, wires, chains, and link drives.
Z4.5 Special Survey
This survey shall, as a minimum, consist of:
- a thorough inspection of the items listed in Z4.4; and in addition:
- checking of the satisfactory operation of all mechanically operated hatch covers:
stowage and securing in open condition;
proper fit, locking and efficiency of sealing in closed condition;
operational testing of hydraulic and power components, wires, chains, and link drives;
- checking the effectiveness of sealing arrangements of all hatch covers by hose testing or
equivalent as necessary;
- checking the residual thickness of coamings, steel pontoon or hatch cover plating and
stiffening members as deemed necessary by the Surveyor.
Note 2: The entire text of UR Z4 is reproduced and contained in Annex of Recommendation No. 15.
Any subsequent changes to UR Z4 need to be reflected with a corresponding change to the Annex of
Recommendation No. 15.

No. 15
cont'd
IACS Rec. 1997/ Rev 2 1997

15-7
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 135
674 08/09 V1
674 Marine Mod K 08-09:674 Marine Mod K 07-08.qxd 20/04/2009 11:13 Page 136

Verwandte Interessen