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1

ATOMS, MOLECULES AND


STOICHIOMETRY
Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Everything around
us consists of matter.
Matter is classied into two main groups, elements and compounds.
Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler
substances. They contain only one type of atom. The particles in elements
can be atoms or molecules. For example, sodium and magnesium contain
atoms while oxygen and nitrogen contain molecules.
Compounds are substances that contain more than one type of atoms
combined chemically. The particles in compounds can be molecules or
ions. For example, water and carbon dioxide contain molecules while
sodium chloride and magnesium oxide contain ions.
Subatomic particles were discovered during the 1800s. We will concentrate
only on the fundamental subatomic particles, which are the protons,
neutrons and electrons.
We will also study how atoms combine in simple ratios, that is, the
stoichiometry of reactions.
Concept Map
Atoms
Subatomic
particles
Proton number and
nucleon number
Stable and
unstable isotopes
Relative charge
and relative mass
Behaviour in
electric field and
magnetic field
Relative atomic
mass based on
12
C
Mass spectrometry
Mass spectrum
Mole and Avogadros
constant
Mole concept of
gases and solutions
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1 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry 3
Solution
1 mol of
12
C has a mass of 12 g.
1 mol of
12
C contains 6.02 10
23
atoms.
Mass of 1 atom of
12
C =
12
6.02 10
23
= 1.99 10
23
g
Effect of an Electric Field on Subatomic Particles
1 When a beam of protons, neutrons and electrons is passed through
an electric field, the observations are shown in Figure 1.1.

+
protons

neutrons
electrons
beam of protons,
electrons and
neutrons
2 The positive protons are deflected towards the negative plate. The
negative electrons are deflected towards the positive plate while
the neutrons, being electrically neutral, are undeflected.
3 The lighter electrons are deflected more than the heavier protons,
that is, < .
Effect of a Magnetic Field on Subatomic Particles
1 When a beam of protons, neutrons and electrons is passed through
an electric field, the observations are shown in Figure 1.2.
South
pole of
magnet
electrons
neutrons
protons
beam of protons,
electrons and
neutrons
North
pole of
magnet
Left Hand Rule
direction
of force
magnetic
field
direction
of current
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.2
2003/P2/Q1
LINK TO STPM
The deflections of the protons
and electrons in a magnetic
field can be determined by
using Flemings left hand
rule.
TAKE NOTE!
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ACE AHEAD Chemistry First Term 8
14 The stability of radioisotopes is measured by its half-life. The
shorter the half-life, the less stable the radioisotope.
15 The half-lives of some radioisotopes are given in Table 1.6.
Radioisotope Half-life
Iodine-131 8.14 days
Carbon-14 5760 years
Uranium-238 4.51 10
9
years
Radium-226 1602 years
Table 1.6
EXAMPLE 1.4
Uranium-235 decays by emitting an alpha particle.
Determine the proton number and the nucleon number of the isotope
formed.
Solution
Proton number = 92 2 = 90
Nucleon number = 235 4 = 231
235
92
U
231
90
Th +
4
2
He
1 The fundamental particles in an atom are protons, neutrons and
electrons.
2 Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged
and neutrons are neutral.
3 Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus while electrons
move around the nucleus in specific energy levels.
4 A neutral atom has an equal number of protons and electrons.
5 A positive ion is formed when an atom or molecule loses electrons.
A negative ion is formed when an atom or molecule receives
electrons.
6 Isotopes are atoms of an element that have the same number of
protons but different number of neutrons.
7 Unstable isotopes decay spontaneously.
REFRESHER
1 Determine the number of subatomic particles of the following species.
(a)
2
1
D
2
16
8
O (b)
18
8
O
2
(c) [
14
7
N
16
8
O
3
]

2 A beam of
1
H
+
and
16
O

ions is passed into an electric field as shown in the diagram below.


+

path X
x
y
path Y
beam of
1
H
+
and
16
O

ions
Checkpoint 1.1
Radium was discovered in
1898 by Marie S. Curie
and her husband Pierre.
Radium has 33 isotopes, with
nucleon numbers 202 to
234 and all are unstable.
226
Ra has the longest half-life
of 1602 years.
CHEM FILE
When a tree is alive, C-14
is continually disintegrating,
and it is continually being
replaced by photosynthesis.
However, when the tree dies,
photosynthesis does not take
place. Only disintegration
is occurring and the C-14
concentration in the tree
begins to decrease. By
measuring the C-14 level in
the tree, it is possible to
tell how long the tree has
been dead. This is called
carbon dating.
CHEM FILE
Radioactive disintegration
is a first order reaction. The
half-life of a radioisotope is
independent of the amount
of the radioactive substance
present and is not influenced
by catalyst or changes in
temperature and pressure.
TAKE NOTE!
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ACE AHEAD Chemistry First Term 24
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Focus on Exam 1
1 Which combination shows the correct
number of electrons and neutrons of the
respective species?
Species Number of
electrons
Number of
neutrons
A
14
6
C

6 8
B
18
8
O
2
10 10
C
24
11
Na
+
10 11
D
37
17
Cl
2+
19 20
2 An atom P has a nucleon number of 48.
P forms P
2+
ion which is isoelectronic with

40
20
Ar atom. Which of the following shows
the correct number of protons, electrons
and neutrons in an atom of P?
Protons Electrons Neutrons
A 20 20 28
B 22 20 26
C 22 22 26
D 22 22 22
Clone STPM 2004/P1/Q8
3 Which ion has the same number of protons
and neutrons but has more electrons than
protons?
A
2
H
+
C [
16
O
2
H]

B [
2
H
3
16
O]
+
D [
32
S
18
O
4
]
2
4 Silver has two isotopes,
107
47
Ag and
109
47
Ag. If
the relative atomic mass of silver is 107.87,
what is the percentage abundance of the
heavier isotope?
A 35.7% C 56.5%
B 43.5% D 59.2%
5 The symbol of a sulphur atom is
32
16
S. Which
statement is true regarding sulphur?
A The relative atomic mass of sulphur is 32 g.
B A sulphur atom has 32 electrons.
C 16 g of sulphur contain 6.02 10
23
atoms.
D There are 16 protons and 16 neutrons in
the nucleus of a sulphur atom.
6 The mass ratio of one atom of an isotope
of Q to one atom of carbon-12 is 1.50.
What is the relative isotopic mass of the
isotope of Q?
A 8.0 C 15.0
B 10.0 D 18.0
7 The function of the magnetic field in a
mass spectrometer is to
A vaporise a solid sample
B produce positive ions
C separate ions with different masses
D separate ions from neutral molecules
8 Which species will be deflected the most in
a mass spectrometer?
A
2
1
H
+
C
12
6
C
+
B
7
3
Li
+
D
14
7
N
2+
9 The nitrogen dioxide molecule, NO
2
,
consists of
14
N,
16
O and
18
O isotopes. How
many molecular peaks would there be in the
mass spectrum of a sample of NO
2
?
A 1 C 3
B 2 D 4
10 The mass spectrum of a compound showing
some major peaks is shown below.

m/e
28 14
r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
12
Which compound will give the above mass
spectrum?
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1 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry 25
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12; N, 14;
O, 16]
A N
2
C CO
B C
2
H
4
D NO
11 An element Y occurs naturally as
65
Y and
67
Y in the ratio of 2 : 1. Based on this
information, which graph could represent
the mass spectrum of Y
2
?
65
%

a
b
u
n
d
a
n
c
e
67
m/e
A
m/e
130
%

a
b
u
n
d
a
n
c
e
132 134 130
%

a
b
u
n
d
a
n
c
e
132 134
m/e
B D
m/e
130
%

a
b
u
n
d
a
n
c
e
132 134
C
12 The relative atomic mass of
90
Sr based on
the
16
O standard is 89.936. Based on the
12
C
standard, the relative atomic mass of
16
O is
15.995. What is the relative atomic mass of
90
Sr based on the
12
C standard?
A 89.908 C 89.964
B 89.931 D 90.000
13 The compound NCl
3
is formed from
14
N,
35
Cl and
37
Cl isotopes. The relative abundance
of
35
Cl to
37
Cl is 3:1. Which statement about
the mass spectrum of NCl
3
is true?
A The base peak corresponds to N
+
ion.
B The m/e value for the last peak is 123.
C The number of peaks for NCl
3
+
ion is 4.
D The relative abundance of N
35
Cl
3
+
ion to
N
37
Cl
3
+
ion is 3:1.
STPM 2010/P1/Q1
14 0.1 dm
3
of argon contains x atoms. How
many atoms are there in 0.2 dm
3
of
hydrogen gas under the same conditions?
A
x
2
C 2x
B x D 4x
15 The relative molecular mass of carbon
dioxide is 44. What is the mass, in g, of a
carbon dioxide molecule?
[Avogadros constant = 6.02 10
23
mol
1
]
A 44 6.02 10
23
C
44
6.02 10
23
B
6.02 10
23
44
D
1
44 6.02 10
23
16 The formula of a type of polystyrene
is Br
3
C
6
H
3
(C
8
H
8
)
n
. One sample of the
polystyrene contains 10.46% bromine.
What is the value of n?
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12; Br, 80]
A 3 C 19
B 12 D 22
17 0.85 g of magnesium powder is reacted
with 2.0 mol dm
3
hydrochloric acid. What
is the volume of hydrochloric acid required
for complete reaction?
[Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24.3]
A 17.5 cm
3
C 42.5 cm
3
B 35.0 cm
3
D 70.0 cm
3
A B C D
1 only 1 and 2 only 2 and 3 only 1, 2 and 3
18 Which statement(s) is/are true about the
isotopes
16
8
X and
18
8
Y?
1 They are isotopes of the same element.
2 The
16
8
X isotope has more neutrons per
atom than the
18
8
Y isotope.
3 They have the same density.
19 Which statement(s) is/are true of the
nuclides of silicon,
28
14Si and
30
14Si?
1 The mass spectrum shows two peaks.
2
28
14SiCl
4
and
30
14SiCl
4
molecules have different
shapes.
3 Isotope
28
14Si is more reactive than isotope
30
14Si.
STPM 2010/P1/Q41
20 Which statement(s) is/are true about the
isotope
A
Z
X?
1 Its relative isotopic mass is A g.
2 Its relative isotopic mass is based on the
12
C standard.
3 The isotope
A
Z
X and its ion
A
Z
X
2+
have the
same relative mass.
21 A sample of bromine gas contains
79
Br and
81
Br isotopes. Which mass/charge ratio(s)
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