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# Heinemann Physics 12(3e)

Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
1
Worked solutions
Chapter 11 The nature of light

11.1 Review of light and waves

1 Both involve the transfer of energy without a net transfer of matter.

2 Mechanical waves involve the physical transfer of vibration from particle to particle within the
medium. Denser materials have closer particles and so this transfer occurs more readily.

3 f = 40/02.5 = 160 Hz
T = 1/f = 1/160 = 6.3 ! 10
3
s

4 f = 3.0 Hz
" = 1.80/3 = 0.60 m
v = f"
= 3 ! 0.60
= 1.8 m s
1

5 " = v/f
= 345/1200
= 0.288 m

6 Decrease the frequency of the generator, allowing more time and therefore more distance
between wavefronts.

7 A. Newton predicted that corpuscles of light would travel faster in air than in a vacuum.

8 D. Diffraction and interference effects are properties of waves and not particles.

9 A wave can reflect part its energy at the glass (creating the image of yourself) and allow part of
its energy to continue through the glass to be reflected from the items within. Particles cannot
split themselves up.
Worked solutions Chapter 11 The nature of light

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
2
11.2 The wave model established

1 a A coherent light source produces plane parallel wavefronts.
b As they pass through each slit, the plane waves will diffract, and emerge from the slits as
two sets of circular wavefronts.
c The term in phrase refers to the fact that if a crest is emerging from one slit, then the
wavefront simultaneously emerging from the other slit will also be a crest.

2 a The path difference at M is zero. This means constructive interference will occur at this
point.
b A point of minimum intensity occurs when a crest and a trough meet, producing
destructive interference.
c i A nodal position corresponds to a point of minimum intensity, which will appear as
a dark fringe on the screen.
ii An antinodal position corresponds to a point of maximum intensity, and will
appear as a bright fringe on the screen.

3 a A dark fringe, since for destructive interference the path difference = (n + 0.5)" , where n
= 0, 1, 2, ...
b A bright fringe, since for constructive interference the path difference = n", where n = 0,
1, 2, ...
c A dark fringe, since for destructive interference the path difference = (n + 0.5)", where n
= 0, 1, 2, ...

4 a The fringes are closer together and brighter.
b Since fringe spacing increased, the wavelength must have increased. Therefore, frequency
was decreased.
5 A and C. The fringe spacing W = "L/d. Since red light has a longer wavelength than orange
light, W will increase. Increasing L will also produce an increase in W.

6 B is the correct answer, using the formula W = "L/d.

7 a Interference. This occurs when colours of a particular wavelength interfere destructively
or constructively.
b The central band will be wider than the others and brighter.

8 a Laser light is best as monochromatic coherent light will result I constructive and
destructive interference effects in a regular pattern of bright and dark fringes
b B, D

9 Due to diffraction effects the smallest object that could be imaged in a light microscope would
have a size similar to that of the shortest wavelength of the visible light used. This would be of
the order of 10
7
metres.
.

Worked solutions Chapter 11 The nature of light

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
3
11.3 Photoelectric effect: Counterevidence for wave model

1 a c = f
and = c/f
= 3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
/5.60 ! 10
14
Hz
= 5.4 ! 10
7
m
b E = hf
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(5.60 ! 10
14
Hz) = 3.71 ! 10
19
J
= 3.71 ! 10
19
J/1.60 ! 10
19
C
= 2.3 eV

2 For each metal there is a threshold (minimum) frequency which must be used for electron
release to occur; the rate of electron release s proportional to the light intensity; the is no time
delay in the release of electrons.

3 All statements are true.

4 a Since 1 eV = 1.60 ! 10
19
J, then 3.68 ! 10
19
J =
19
19
3.68 10
1.60 10
!
!
"
"
= 2.30 eV
b 2.65 eV = 2.65 ! 1.60 ! 10
19
= 4.24 ! 10
19
J

5 a E
k
(max) (in electronvolts) is given by the stopping voltage, hence E
k
(max) = 1.95 eV
b Since 1 eV = 1.60 ! 10
19
J, then 1.95 eV = 1.95 ! 1.60 ! 10
19
= 3.12 ! 10
19
J
c E
k
(max) = ! mv
2

therefore v =
k
2 (max) E
m
=
19
31
2 3.12 10
9.11 10
!
!
" "
"
= 8.28 ! 10
5
m s
1

6 a f = c/
= 3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
/1.5 ! 10
8
m
= 2.0 ! 10
16
Hz
b E = hf
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(2.0 ! 10
16
Hz) = 1.33 ! 10
17
J
= 82.8 eV

7 The same as Figure 11.24a. The brighter light results in a greater photocurrent but the same
stopping voltage since the metal cathode and the incident light frequency are unaltered.

8 n = (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(4.0 ! 10
20
Hz)/(6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(4.0 ! 10
14
Hz)
= 1.0 ! 10
6

9 Power output = (number of photons emitted per second)(energy of each photon)
then P = nE
and n = P/E = 60 W/(6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(1.0 ! 10
14
Hz)
= 9.0 ! 10
20

10 E = P/n
= 200 W/1.89 ! 10
20
= 1.058 ! 10
18
J = (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)f
and f = 1.6 ! 10
15
Hz
Worked solutions Chapter 11 The nature of light

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
4
11.4 The dual nature of light

1 C

2 B, D

3 a false
b true
c false
d true

4 E

5 B, E

6 She can estimate Plancks constant using the gradient of a crude E
k
(max) versus frequency
graph. Gradient = rise /run = 2.1
14
0.9
(10.1 7.3) 10 ! "
= 4.3 ! 10
15
eV s.
The work function is then found by substituting a set of data into E
k
(max) = hf W.
Rearranging: W = hf E
k
(max) = (4.3 ! 10
15
! 7.3 ! 10
14
) 0.9 = 2.2 eV

7 a f
0
= 3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
/6.52 ! 10
7
m
= 4.6 ! 10
14
Hz
b W = hf
0

= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(4.60 ! 10
14
Hz) = 3.05 ! 10
19
J
= 1.9 eV
c E = hf = hc/
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
)/6.20 ! 10
7
m = 3.21 ! 10
19
J
= 2.0 eV
d E
k
(max) = 2.01 eV 1.91 eV
= 0.10 eV
e p = [2mE
k
(max)]
!

= [2(9.11 ! 10
31
kg)(0.100 eV)(1.60 ! 10
19
C)]
!

= 1.7 ! 10
25
kg m s
1

8 a (1.60 ! 10
19
C)V
0
= E
k
(max )
= 1.60 ! 10
20
J
and V
0
= 0.10 V
b The photoelectrons do not have sufficient kinetic energy to reach the anode.
c For yellow light, the energy of the incident photons E = hf
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(5.20 ! 10
14
Hz) = 3.45 ! 10
9
J
= 2.15 eV
Then E
k
(max) = 2.15 eV 1.91 eV
= 0.25 V = V
0

Worked solutions Chapter 11 The nature of light

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
5
Chapter review

1 The particle model predicted that as light sped up it would be refracted towards the normal, but
it is refracted towards the normal as it slows down as the wave model predicts.

2 A student constructs a set-up identical to Youngs double-slit experiment but she uses white
light instead of monochromatic light. Fully describe the resulting diffraction pattern.

3 E =
!
hc
, therefore " =
E
hc

=
3
8 15
10 40
10 00 . 3 10 14 . 4
!
! ! !
"

= 3.1 ! 10
11
m

4 The frequency is unaltered and the wavelength will be 50% longer.

5 a A series of alternate bright and dark fringes
b W = "L/d
= (580 ! 10
9
m)(2.0 m)/1.0 ! 10
4
m
= 1.2 cm
c i According to the formula W = "L/d, the width of the central bright fringe will
decrease.
ii According to the formula W = "L/d, the width of the central bright fringe will
increase.

6 a Fringe spacing will increase.
b Fringe spacing will decrease.
c Fringe spacing will remain unchanged.
d Fringe spacing will remain unchanged.

7 a E = hc/
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
)/580 ! 10
9
m
= 3.43 ! 10
19
J
= 2.14 eV
b p = E/c
= 3.43 ! 10
19
J/(3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
)
= 1.14 ! 10
27
kg m s
1

c P = nE
and n = P/E
= 500 W/3.43 ! 10
19
J
= 1.46 ! 10
21

8 a E = hc/
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
)/432 ! 10
9
m
= 4.60 ! 10
19
J
b p = E/c
= 4.60 ! 10
19
J/(3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
)
= 1.53 ! 10
27
kg m s
1

c P = nE
and n = P/E
Worked solutions Chapter 11 The nature of light

Heinemann Physics 12(3e)
Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2008 Teachers Resource and Assessment Disk
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) I SBN 9781442501263
6
= 230 W/4.60 ! 10
19
J
= 5.00 ! 10
20

d (230 W)(0.001 ! 10
2
) = 2.30 mW

9 A. E
k
(max) = hf W, where f = the frequency of the incident light and W is the work function of
the photosensitive surface.
B and D are incorrect since the intensity and angle of the incident light have no effect on the
energy of the incident photons.
C is incorrect because all photons travel at the speed of light.

10 a The wave model predicts that light of any frequency will emit photoelectrons from a
metallic surface.
b The wave model predicts that the energy delivered to the electrons by a light beam of
constant intensity will be proportional to time. This suggests that low-intensity beams of
light will take longer to eject photoelectrons from a surface.
c According to the wave model of light, a higher intensity beam will deliver more energy to
the electrons and consequently emit photoelectrons with a greater kinetic energy.

11 a Gradient = 6.6 ! 10
34
J s
b Plancks constant
c The threshold frequency corresponds to the x-intercept of the graph
= 5.0 ! 10
14
Hz
d No. The frequency of red light
= (3.00 ! 10
8
m s
1
)/680 ! 10
9
m
= 4.4 ! 10
14
Hz
and is below the threshold frequency for rubidium.

12 a W = hf
0

= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(5.0 ! 10
14
Hz)
= 3.315 ! 10
19
J
= 2.07 eV
b E
k
(max)
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)(5.6 ! 10
14
Hz) 3.315 ! 10
19
J
= 4.0 ! 10
20
J
c p = (2mE
k
)
!

= [2(9.11 ! 10
31
kg)(4.03 ! 10
20
J)]
!

= 2.7 ! 10
25
kg m s
1

d = h/p
= (6.63 ! 10
34
J s)/2.71 ! 10
25
kg m s
1

= 0.25 V