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Submitted in partial fulfillment of

Guided By: Submitted By:
Dr. R.P. DAS Ankit Pathak

Institute of Management,
Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.).


I hereby firmly declare that this project work CONSUMER BEHAVI OR TOWARDS
MALLS submitted by me for the partial fulfillment of MBA 2nd semester 2009-11 at
Institute of Management, Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla Raipur (C.G.).This report is an
original work carried out by me.

Date : Ankit Pathak
Place: Raipur
MBA 2 Semester
I nstitute of Management,
Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla University,
Raipur (C.G.).


I would like to acknowledge deep sense of gratitude to Dr. R.P. Das who has provided
me an opportunity to do a project research.
I express my sincere gratitude to the faculty and staff members of the Institute of
Management, who have been very supportive and encouraged me in various ways. For
this kind of management development activity. I would like to acknowledge deep sense
of gratitude to, whose encouragement cooperation and keen interest coupled with
valuable suggestions helped a lot in the successful completion of this work.
I am thankful Dr. G.K. DESHMUKH to Institute of Management, Pt. Ravi Shankar
Shukla, Raipur (C.G.).

Ankit Pathak

MBA 2 Semester
I nstitute of Management,
Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla University,
Raipur (C.G.).


This is to certify that the research report
Has been successfully carried out by MISS ANAMIKA BANERJEE in the partial
fulfillment of the degree of Master of Business Administration during academic year

Project Guide:

( Dr.R.P.Das)
Institute of Management
Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University
Raipur (C.G)


1.1 Basic concept
1.2 Consumer behavior
2.1 Statement of the Problem
2.2 Purpose of the Study
2.3 Objectives of the Study
2.4 Population
2.5 Sample
2.6 Sampling method
2.7 Sources of Data
2.8 Data Collection
2.9 Data Collection Instrument
2.10 Statistical techniques used

3.1 Analysis Table and Figures



1.1 Basic Concept

The study started with the literature survey conducted through the guide line of my mentor
Dr. R.P. DAS and various journals, Magazines that helped to comprehend the various
factors of Malls.
This project is related with the study, which deals with the behavior of consumers towards
Just a few years back people had to make a choice among shopping, movies or hanging out
on holiday out on a holiday but thanks to our mall, all these jobs can be performed at the
same time, under the same roof and that too with a wonderful experience. And it is basically
the experience and not the intention that counts when it comes to malls.
When we hear the word mall then suddenly clicks in our mind that shopping, food,
movies, entertainment or may be time pass. The word may bear different meanings to
different people but it definitely stands for more than any of these things.
Mall culture in India started especially in 1
grade citys Like Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad,
and Bangalore but now trends are completely changing. Due to change in the living standard
of people, their demands are also changing. Thus Indias retail sector looks towards the small

The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies
by understanding issues such as how
The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives
(e.g., brands, products);
The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture,
family, signs, media);
The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions;
Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and
marketing outcome;
How consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their
level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and
How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to
more effectively reach the consumer.
One official definition of consumer behavior is
"The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and
dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes
have on the consumer and society." Although it is not necessary to memorize this definition, it brings up
some useful points:
Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g., friends influence
what kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization (people on the job make decisions as to
which products the firm should use).
Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they
are purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this may influence
how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption. Since many
environmental problems result from product disposal (e.g., motor oil being sent into sewage
systems to save the recycling fee, or garbage piling up at landfills) this is also an area of interest.
Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible products.
The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For example, aggressive
marketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing of easy credit, may have serious
repercussions for the national health and economy.

There are four main applications of consumer behavior:
The most obvious is for marketing strategyi.e., for making better marketing campaigns. For example, by
understanding that consumers are more receptive to food advertising when they are hungry, we learn to
schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. By understanding that new products are usually
initially adopted by a few consumers and only spread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the
population, we learn that (1) companies that introduce new products must be well financed so that they
can stay afloat until their products become a commercial success and (2) it is important to please initial
customers, since they will in turn influence many subsequent customers brand choices.
A second application is public policy. In the 1980s, Accutane, a near miracle cure for acne, was introduced.
Unfortunately, Accutane resulted in severe birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Although
physicians were instructed to warn their female patients of this, a number still became pregnant while
taking the drug. To get consumers attention, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) took the step of
requiring that very graphic pictures of deformed babies be shown on the medicine containers.
Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something. Marty
Fishbein, a marketing professor, went on sabbatical to work for the Centers for Disease Control trying to
reduce the incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use. The best solution, obviously,
would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop. This, however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was
also determined that the practice of sharing needles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be stopped.
As a result, using knowledge of consumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbein created a campaign that encouraged the
cleaning of needles in bleach before sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic.
As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. Common sense
suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64 liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, you should pay less
per ounce than if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, you often pay a size premium by
buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case, knowing this fact will sensitize you to the need to
check the unit cost labels to determine if you are really getting a bargain.

Consumer behaviour theory prior to the Second World War was based on accepted economic theory of
the "rational man" model of decision making. The central idea of economics is that people make
decisions by weighing costs and benefits in a rational manner. The consumer's objective is therefore to
select a set of product quantities that maximize satisfaction (or utility), subject to available income.
Utility in this context means the ability of a product to meet functional needs. The consumer then
expends their income (budget) and selects specific amounts of the two products. Product prices and
income are predetermined and, consequently only the quantities of the two products purchased are
varied to maximize utility. Rational therefore means the "explainable" processes of consumer

Current approaches suggest that behavioural underpinnings in consumer decision processes are
beyond pure rational dimensions and stem from both innate and acquired needs that involve a
complex combination of conscious and unconscious processes as well as rational and emotional factors.
Thus consumer rationality is mediated by dynamics such as personal.

1.2 Consumer behaviour

Donal Rogan (2007) explains the relationship between consumers behaviour and marketing strategy.
He states that
strategy is about increasing the probability and frequency of buyer behaviour.
Requirements for succeeding in doing this are to know the customer
and understand the consumers needs and wants.
Chisnall (1995) points out that human needs and motives are inextricably linked and that the
relationship between them is so very close that it becomes difficult to identify the precise difference
which may characterize them. People may buy new coats because it protects them against the weather,
but their real underlying dominant need may be to follow the latest fashion trend.
Buyers characteristics are important theories from Kotler and Armstrong (2007) and it explains the way
that the consumer interprets and receives stimuli from advertisements. The decisions of consumers are
influenced by a number of individual characteristics that are linked to the consumers specific needs
(Kotler & Armstrong, 2007).
paradigms and perceptual distortion, risk tolerance, and power relations which in turn are subject to
cultural and intellectual prejudices such as gender, age, and ethnicity. This contributes to the notion of
marketing as a normative discipline with elements of art rather than science in its practice. Arguably as
research "explains" the complexity of the dynamics of consumer behaviour, it will expand the
definition of what constitutes a rational consumer. This behavioural component allows marketers to
identify prospective customers' needs and wants, and influence the exchange, perception, and
satisfaction dynamics of the purchasing decision process.

Consumer characteristics















1.3 Consumer characteristics:-

Consumer characteristics are explained by: Cultural characteristics,Social characteristics, Personal
characteristics, and Psychological Characteristics. These characteristics are identified, by the marketer, in
order to identify the consumer and to be able to decide on the strategy to what kind of consumer to
target. Hence, these characteristics are used in order to segment the market and target specific
consumer groups.
I. Cultural Characteristics:-
The Cultural Characteristics are recognized as the main influencer of consumer behaviour. These
characteristics are developed by three features underpinning consumer behaviour: Culture, Subculture,
and Social Class.

1. Culture
It is mentioned as the most basic cause of a persons wants and needs. Kotler and Armstrong (2007)
argues that human behaviour is mostly learned and that we are exposed to different sets of values and
beliefs from a young age, and that these values influence our behaviour and decision making. Hence,
these characteristics are interesting for marketers and important indicators of certain consumer
behaviour and taste.
2. Subcultures
are small group formations with a certain number of people that share values and beliefs such as
nationalities, religions or geographic regions. An identified subculture can serve as an important
and effective market segment which can be targeted. Social class is recognized by Kotler and
Armstrong (2007) as a class structure, consisting of a combination of factors which gather different
types of members. Some identified factors are income, age, education, and wealth.

II. Personal characteristics
These personal characteristics are categorized into: Age and Life-Cycle Stage, Occupation, Economic
Situation, Lifestyle, Personality and Self-Concept.

1.The Age and Life-Cycle Stage
These stages explain different periods in life that the consumer experiences as he goes through life.
These different stages also represent different changes that the consumer may
experience when reaching a new stage. According to Kotler and Armstrong (2007) marketers, therefore,
define their target markets in terms of the different stages in order to develop appropriate marketing
The occupation tends to have an effect on the products and services bought by the consumers. This
leads to the possibility of developing different types of products or services that suits interests
identified to be above average within an occupation.
3.The Economic Situation
Wealth will affect a consumers product choice. A consumer may be price-sensitive or not depending
on the level of income, level of savings, level of interest rates, and also the product or service itself.
This is identified to be a persons way of living which is recognized by the activities, interest, or
opinions he or she has and it also explains the way a consumer interacts in the world.
This is mainly explained by the terms self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy,
defensiveness, adaptability and aggressiveness. These psychological factors are a result of ones
environment. Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by
a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviours in various
situations (Ryckman, 2004).
6.Self-concept or Self Image
Is the conceptual understand that peoples possessions reflect their personalities. This concept does
bring some conflict since people may have an image that satisfies who they
are but does not agree with who they want to be (the ideal self concept), the question then arises which
one we would want to satisfy.

III. Psychological Characteristics
The psychological characteristics are divided into the following concepts: Motivation, Perception,
Learning, and Beliefs and Attitudes.

Motivation refers to a person needs that must be satisfied. These needs are of different kind; some are
biological, such as hunger, thirst and discomfort, and some are psychological such as the need for
recognition, esteem and belonging. Needs are not satisfied until they reach a certain point of intensity
and become a motive for the consumer to satisfy them. Kotler and Armstrong (2007) discusses several
motivation theories, among them are Freuds and Maslows theories of
motivation. Freud argued that a person does not really and fully understand his or her motivations.
Maslow on the other hand wanted to understand why some people set out to satisfy some needs before
others. He then came to the conclusion that human needs are arranged in a
hierarchy from the most pressing to the least pressing, as Kotler and Armstrong (2007) explains it.
These needs are listed as psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-
actualization needs. When one need has been satisfied, a person moves on to satisfy
the next.
This characteristic is based on the understanding of how differently we perceive the same situation or
the same stimuli. Kotler and Armstrong (2007) explains perception as the process by which people
select, organize, and interpret information. There are three different processes that decide how we
interpret certain information. These are Selective Attention, Selective Distortion, and Selective ,Retention.

Learning is, according to Kotler and Armstrong (2007), an act that changes peoples behaviour because
of their experience. It occurs through drives: strong internal wants that call for action, stimuli: object that
drives for certain action, cues: small stimuli that determinate
when, where and how the person will respond and reinforcement: when the response and stimuli
towards an object is experienced more than once.
4.Beliefs and Attitudes
These are acquired by people through learning and experiencing. They influence the buying behaviour
by making up brands and product images in the consumers heads. A belief is
explained by Kotler and Armstrong (2007) as a descriptive thought about something and is based on
real knowledge, opinions or faith. Beliefs can also be emotionally charged. Attitudes are described as a
persons evaluations, feelings, and tendencies towards something, but also determinations of people
such as like and dislikes.

IV. Social characteristics
The Social Characteristics are divided into three different categories, namely Reference Groups, Family and
Social Role and Status.

1.Reference Groups
According to Kotler and Armstrong (2007) the effects of the Reference Groups is mainly based on the
belief that a persons behaviour is influenced by many small groups. When a group
has a direct influence it is called a Membership Group, for example: family, neighbours and co-workers.
Reference Groups are the groups to which the person often wants to belong to and to be a part of but is
not. These groups indirectly and directly form a persons behaviour and
attitudes. There are three different ways by which these groups influence a persons behaviour; they
may expose a person to new behaviours and lifestyles, influence a persons attitudes and self concepts
and also create a pressure of confirmation by Reference Groups. Another influence of importance is the
opinion leader. An opinion leader is a person that influences others to follow his believes and attitudes
towards certain issues, products or areas (Kotler & Armstrong, 2007).
Family members have a great influence on the buying behaviour. The involvement and influence by
different family members varies, both to which degree but also in what way. Therefore, it is
important for marketers to understand which role is played by whom in the family and direct the
advertisement towards the main influencing part of the family.
3.Roles and Status
Each person belongs to different types of groups and also plays different roles whilst having different
positions in the various groups. Roles are identified by Kotler and Armstrong (2007) as
what activities people are expected to perform from other members of the group.


Consumers do not make their decisions in a vacuum. Their purchases are highly influenced by cultural
social, personal, and psychological factors. For the most part, they are non controllable by the
marketer but must be taken in to account. We want to examine the influence of each factor on a buyers
The basic belief of marketing-oriented company is that the customer is the hub around which the
business revolves. Therefore, understanding what makes people in general buy and what makes your
customer in particular buy is a vital part of business success. Market itself means customer, around
whom all marketing strategies are formulated and implemented. In order to meet competition at the
market place, the marketing managers are using various methods to add value to the final product
which will reach the hands of the consumers. It means in ever changing marketing environment, there
is agrowing concern or awareness among marketers to go for a careful study of the consumer
behaviour around which all marketing activities are made.
Following are the key marketing implications of consumer behaviour.

Family Structure
The purchase and consumption of many products are driven by the household life cycle. The reason for
this is that each stage in the family poses unique problems or opportunities to the family members; and
the resolution of these problems often requires the consumption of products. The implication for the
marketer is to decide which segment the product has to be focussed i.e. on which house hold life cycle
stage the product has to be marketed. In the sample group selected for our research we found that most
of the respondents lay in the full nest I category in the age group of less than 35 years, married, having
a child of age less than 6 years. In this category the decision initiators or opinion leaders were family
members in most of the cases where the decision was targeted towards Lifestyle casual /sports attires.
Respondents were middle classes , brand loyal and fashion oriented.Opportuniy for the marketer lies
in innovating fashionable products and focus on opinion leaders. Building brands is important as most
of the respondents are brand loyal and have different perceptions on various brands.

Cultural Factors
In a diversified country like India cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest influence on
consumer behaviour; we will look at the role played by the buyers culture, subculture, and social class.
Today, physical fitness, good health and smart appearance are on premium. Slimming centres and
beauty parlours are mushrooming in all major cities of the country. Cosmetics for both women and
men are being sold in increasing numbers. Even exclusive shops are retailing designer clothes Cross-
cultural marketing is defined as the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more
nations is similar or different. This will facilitate marketers to understand the psychological, social and
cultural aspects of foreign consumers they wish to target, so as to design effective marketing strategies
for each of the specific national markets involved.
Marketer should look into following categories to analyze products on casual/sports attire in the

1. Product selection: The marketer going for cross cultural marketing has to select the customers/
market not on the basis of the superficial similarities of age or income, but by using the real motivating
factors that prompt them to accept or reject products. Cultural influences like colour play an important
role in marketing of casual and sports attire. Colours like red were found to be symbols of joy and
celebration whereas colour white was found to be a symbol of death and mourning. Sports attire are
generally wore in leisure times and hence colours like red would be targeted in this segment.

2. Promotion /marketing communication: Promotion and communications should be targeted to focus
not only on indusial respondents but also on influencers like wife, family members, friends who play
the role of opinion leaders.

3. Pricing: The marketer has to adjust his pricing policies according to the local economic conditions
and customers.

4. Distribution channel: Showrooms and malls have been found major places where the sample
respondents generally purchase .Marketing channels should be focussed on these areas where visibility
of the product plays an important role in individual decision making.
Some important characteristics of Indian cultural traits.
1. Homogenous Harmony to be valid and preserved,
2. Group, not individual, important
3. Ambiguous
4. General Hold back emotions in public
5. Product-oriented
6. Make a long story short
7. Nonverbal communication important
8. Interested in who is speaking

Cultural Variations & Non-Verbal Communication
In a culture we have many variations in non-verbal communications. Each
culture assigns a meaning to non-verbal signs utilised by it. There are some
variables in non-verbal communication. These are:
(a) Use of time
(b) Use of space
(c) Friendship
(d) Agreements
(e) Things
(f) Symbols
(g) Etiquette

Time is a resource which is distributed equally amongst everybody. Every
person has the same amount of time at his disposal. What view individuals and societies take of time
makes them different. In our category the role of time plays an important parameter for marketers as
people in India mostly purchase attires during occasions, festivals like Diwali, Holi etc.Marketters
should focus effectively in sport events like World cup , Olympics and other events which are
highlighted on electronic media. Promotion of attires through integrated marketing communications
should focus on these events.

Friendship plays an important role in business transactions. Good personal
Relationship and feelings matter most in a long term agreement. Social contacts developed by parties
gain priority over technical specifications. In India Personal ties, personal trust leads to cooperation
and a lot of transaction can take place between parties. Friends play the role of opinion leaders and
should be targeted by the marketers.

Media Information Search
Identified needs can be satisfied only when desired product is known and also easily available.
Different products are available in the market, but consumer must know which product or brand gives
him maximum satisfaction. And the person has to search out for relevant information of the product,
brand or location. Consumers can use many sources e.g., neighbours, friends and family. Marketers
also provide relevant information through advertisements, retailers, dealers, packaging and sales
promotion, and window displaying. Mass media like news papers, radio, and television provide
information. Now a days internet has become an important and reliable source of information. As a
Marketers we are able to under stand the exposure behaviour to the various source of media by a
person as in the case of our sample group that the person are highly computer savvy and internet
savvy so the product should made available to the internet also it is important to understand the
preference of channel like most of our sample respondent are prefer to watch some business news
channel like CNBC18 ,NDTV profit Etc.

Target Segment
For a marketer the opportunity to segmentise the product would be in a middle class segment with age
ranging from 30-35 years, income level 5 Lac 10 Lakhs. Having family, major decision taken jointly and
shopping location is mostly in showroom and malls. The focus should be on male who wear sports
attire and casuals frequently


A shopping mall or shopping centre is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops
representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit
to unit, along with a parking area a modern, indoor version of the traditional marketplace.
Malls are the battlegrounds where the brands, small, medium and big, the known, the not-so-well-
known, fight it out for the consumers attention. And the consumer and asking for more. Why the mall
culture is on rise in India?
GONE ARE the days when people had to buy different things at different places. Those were the
days when there were separate markets for various things. People used to visit general stores for
purchasing daily-required household materials. There were separate markets for buying clothes.
Shopping was never as convenient for people as it is now.

Now, the things have been changed completely and almost everything is available for all of us under
just one roof. Thanks to the beautiful malls opened across the country in last five years. The shopping
malls have made shopping an easy activity for people now. Irrespective of whatever you wish to buy,
just visit a nearby mall and you will find everything available at your fingertips. You just name
anything and the mall has it. Each of the malls has its own attractions
that make it a great crowd puller. Even in the remotest areas of any big city, you can find a mall.

Leading brands in apparel, watches, cafes, footwear and FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) had
made the Brand Owners Forum (BOF) in 2005, with a planning to open nearly 300 malls across the
country just in three years. The brands in BOF include Adidas, Cafe Coffee Day, Hi Design, Himalaya
Healthcare, ITC, Levi Strauss, Madura Garments, Nike India, Oyzterbay, Proline, Reebok India and
Titan. A massive investment is required to set up a mall as at least 200,000 sq ft of space is needed with
enough land for parking and free flow of traffic for the movement of hundreds of people near the mall.

And of course lots and lots of places for youngsters to hang out like Food zonea place for Indian as well
chinize food and of-course Inox, a four screen multiplex with a capacity of 1056 seats and the very
popular Red lounge to give a world class cinema experience. What can be anything better than this?

You will also find your favorite outlets like Raymonds, Cotton Cottage, Koutons, Globus, Lilliputfor
kids, Pantaloons and several other smaller clothes brands. For a pair of shoes, nothing can be better
than to visit Brands like Reebok, Nike, Adidas, etc. are also available at much affordable
rates.Youngsters will be delighted to find their favorite place, Archies,

You will also find a huge gaming zone on the third floor where kids can utilize the time at the
optimum. I spoke to some of the outlet owners to know their experience of having an outlet in malls
and the reasons behind having their outlets in mall. I also spoke to them about the changing trend in
todays society and how far does it help them to sustain in everyday increasing competition.

Most of the outlet owners are happy to be a part of any mall. Because, according to them, malls are
always being constructed at prime locations and in high profile areas. The changing trend, convenience
of shopping, getting variety of items under one roof attracts and induces people of all age group to
frequently visit malls. The changing lifestyle and increasing standard of living also plays a vital role.
According to them, due to the growing BPO industry in India, youngsters are financially more sound
and capable to spend more of their own and hence this is also of a great support to them.

There was a time when only youngsters used to be the only customers to visit mall. But gradually, the
mall culture has been successful to attract customers of every age towards it. However, as we all know
that every coin has two sides and so has this coin of the ever-developing culture of malls. We already
talked about how malls have proved to be like a dream come true for customers. Now let us have a
look at the other side of it. Are all the investors who rushed into the mall business happy? Are the
returns coming in? Going by the mall traffic on weekdays, this seems highly unlikely. Malls that have
proved themselves stable in the market have less to worry about as they have successfully built their
strong customer base.

At one hand, where customers have got so many benefits of the malls, they say that they have lost a
personal touch with the shop owners and a special relationship that they have with their local kirana
stores since last so many years. In malls, they definitely get good services but they lack after-sales
services. In malls, they feel they are being treated as just another customer whereas in the local kirana
store they are known by their names, their tastes, etc. Several times, evenpersonal problems are being
discussed at the local stores. If any item is found to be of undesired quality then they can easily get it
exchanged for a better one. And of course, at a local store, they enjoy their bargaining right for every
single product.

Of course the number of customers daily visiting the malls cannot be overlooked and hence it looks
almost impossible to know customers by their names, etc. However, there are many customers who
regularly visit their favorite mall and some selected shops in the mall. And this is when they expect
some more than usual treatments as a regular customer.

Malls are the battlegrounds where the brands, small, medium and big, the known, the not-so-well-
known and the wannabe ones, fight it out for the consumers attention. And the consumer is loving it
and asking for more. Yes, this is one culture that consumers are happy about. So happy that no one
seems to mind the unplanned expenditure incurred by an outing to such an enticing place. They enjoy
air-conditioned comfort, availability of a range of merchandise just under
one roof, and a one-stop family entertainment arena.

Given the rate at which malls are coming up, the commercial as well as residential real estate business
is spiraling upwards. The range and scope of the economic activity generated from mall culture
promises many things to many people. Other than offering shoppers more value for money, the scale of
operations generates employment opportunities, direct and indirect, for
thousands of people.

The mall culture is catching up gradually. These malls have given a new dimension to shopping
experience. Malls have transformed once compulsive and sober shopping into a family entertainment
and as a weekend pastime. With the entire products available under one complex, offering rich and
pleasant ambience, stocking and offering cornucopia of products and brands, these malls have already
bagged a major chunk of existing retail market share.

The Indian Retail Sector is booming and mall growth is being seen as a clear indicator of the economic
prosperity in India. These shopping cum entertainment options are getting bigger and better, sporting
multiplexes and food courts to woo shoppers. Dominant retail activity is visible in the top cities but tier II
and III cities are also witnessing change. Read about the huge investments in malls and what the future
holds for the customer.

Malls are springing up in every city and are fast becoming sought-after entertainment hotspots,
with shopping as the by-product. From a situation where there were no malls about a decade
ago, the country will have over 300 malls translating to over 100 million sq.ft. in available mall
space by the end of 2007.

The Indian Governments initiatives to aid growth in the retail sector are showing very
visible results. Investment in world-class infrastructure is expected to be close to USD 150 bn.
o The hitherto restricted retail real estate sector was opened up for Foreign Direct Investment in 2005. As a
result, malls of international scale and quality are expected to come up;
o Mall growth is being seen as a clear indicator of the economic prosperity in India. Significantly, the
number of malls in the country has increased at a fast pace. And they are doing brisk business. A trip to
the local mall (there will be one in every locality soon!) will bear this out
o From almost no malls existing in the country over a decade ago, there were 96 operational malls in
August 2005;
o Heres more good news. This phenomenon is not restricted to major cities of the country alone. It has
percolated to the Tier II and Tier III cities as well. The contribution of Tier II cities in organized retail
sales is expected to be about 20 25%.
o Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune and New Delhi are expected to have nearly 75% of the retail space
in the country
Niche, speciality malls, discount malls, highway malls are the new trends


The Trend!

Crowded streets, traffic congestion and mob of people flooding a chic looking building, is a popularly
visible scenario every Sunday. This plush building is none other than a mall in Gurgaon, NCR Delhi.
This brings to light that peoples perception has completely changed towards shopping. Congenial
atmosphere, world class environment, international brands, basic amenities and exotic cuisines, is what
the malls aspire to provide under one roof.

Nevertheless, people are welcoming this new trend with open arms, unaware of what just might be its
consequences. Moreover, sales and bargain deals, attractive prizes, and schemes are the success
formulae, the shopkeepers are trying to cash in, on consumers. This has made malls a mega hit
amongst the metro crowd, putting fuel to their ever increasing demand for a better living. This is a
result of the expanding Indian market and disposable incomes by the service class.

As an Alternative

Apart from being the shoppers paradise, malls are also acting as a good alternative, for the people to
escape from the otherwise poor living conditions. This brings the flipside of the mall culture into sight,
which enforces that though shopping is the modern mantra, people are looking for something more.
Malls act as great refuge from the scorching heat of the sun, in summers, as all the malls are centrally
air conditioned for the purpose.

Another reason for the malls being so crowded is that quite a number of people roam there aimlessly.
Their purpose can be anything from a get together with friends to simply window shopping, from
buying popcorns to buying cards. This explains that hot weather, frequent and prolonged electricity
and water cuts are some of the strong reasons, why the common man is attracted towards the
escalating shrines of consumerism.


Shopaholism is the name given to the addiction for shopping, which has joined the list after cigarette
and alcohol. A kind of a physiological disorder, it is constantly on the rise. It should be noted that it has
made its way not only in the lives of people, but also in the credentials of psychiatrists. According to
their unanimous belief, it can lead to serious problems, if not paid attention to. In severe cases, the
patient may even avert to shoplifting and stealing, in case the desired product is denied. Moreover,
shopping is also being termed as a means of escape mechanism.
This implies that the retail therapy gives the shopper a temporary high, corresponding to the feeling
that he possesses what he wants. Besides, the therapy seems to work wonders, not only for women but
also for men. The metamorphosis the society is witnessing, presents man as the evolving shopping
freak, shouldering the women with utmost grace. Hooked on the phenomenon, it gives them the sense
of power and control, pampering their mountain high egos. This can even go the extent, where people
end up wasting money, for the euphoria shopping provides.

Chapter 2


Research Methodology

2.2 Statement of the Problem :-
The Problem of Study can be Stated as Consumers behaviour towards malls A study in
Raipur city.

2.3 Purpose of the Study :-
To Study Consumers behaviour towards malls in Raipur city.

2.4 Objectives of the Study :-
1.) To find out the main reasons to visit malls by consumer in Raipur city.
2.) To identify the consumers opinion about selected items in the malls in Raipur city.
3.) To find out consumer satisfaction towards malls in Raipur city.
4.) To find out consumers suggestion regarding malls in Raipur city.

2.5 Population :-
All the people who visit malls in raipur city Constitute the Population of the Study.

2.6 Sample :-
The researcher has selected convenience sampling for the purpose of the Study. In total 50
respondents particularly housewives who posses either single or double or triple door
refrigerator have been Sampled in raipur city.

2.7 Sampling method :-
The researcher has used convenient sampling method to identify the sampled respondents.

2.8 Sources of Data :-
The data for Study was available both from primary and secondary sources. The major source
of data was primary. For the secondary data, various published documents, different news
papers, Magazines, journals, websites had been consulted.

2.9 Data Collection :-
The data was collected with the help of a questionnaire. The researcher personally visited the
respective respondents, dropped them a copy of questionnaire and requested them to fill the
questionnaire. Then the researcher went to collect the questionnaire after one or two days from
the respondents.

2.10 Data Collection Instrument :-
The Researcher has used QUESTIONNAIRE as the data collection instrument. The
questionnaire has been divided in two parts. Part 1 contains questions on demographic
information. Part 2 contains specific contents related with the topic of research. In total the
questionnaire contains 14 questions.

2.11 Statistical techniques used :-
The researcher has used percentage method to analyze the data.

2.12 Delimitation :-
There are some practical difficulties which the researcher faced while conducting the study,
following are the major delimitations of the study :
(a.) The reliability and validity of the finding depends upon reliability and validity of the

(b.) There are large number of factors that influence the brand choice behaviour of
consumers. The study includes only few factors so the generalization of the study
depends upon the totality of the factors of brand choice.

Chapter 3

Data Analysis

1. Analysis of Age of Respondents

Above table shows that majority of the respondent who visit malls in Raipur city belongs to Age
group 20-30 (63%), followed by age group 30-40 (20%), age group above 40 (11%), age group
below 20 (6%) respectively.

below 20
above 40
Analysis of age
Age of Respondents (In yrs). No. of Respondents % of Respondents
below 20 6 6%
20-30 63 63%
30-40 20 20%
40above 11 11%
Total 100 100%

2. Analysis of Occupation of Respondents-

The above table shows that majority of the respondent (57%) who visit malls are students, followed
by business man (27%) and employed (16%) respectively.

Analysis of occupation
Occupation of Respondents No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Employed 16 16%
Student 57 57%
Business 27 27%

3. Aanalysis of Marital Status of the respondents-

The above table shows that majority of the respondent visit malls in Raipur city are Unmarried
(61%), followed by married (39%).

Analysis of marital status
Marital Status No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Married 39 39%
Unmarried 61 61%

4. Responses regarding respondents visiting habbit in malls in Raipur city.

The analysis refers to question no. 1 Where we got the information about the frequency of
visiting in malls it shows that majority (93%) of the respondent agreed that they visit malls
frequently in Raipur city while rest do not visit malls frequently.

yes no
analysis of visiting of respondent
Status No. of Respondents % of Respondents
yes 93 93%
no 7 7%
5. Responses regarding at what frequency respondent visit malls in one month in Raipur city.

This analysis refers from question no. 2 where we got the information about the specific
frequency of visiting in mall it shows that majority of the respondent visit malls, atleast once
in a month(37%), followed by twice (42%), thrice (11%), weekly (6%), everyday(4%)

Analysis of frequency of visiting
Frequency No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Once 37 37%
Twice 42 42%
Thrice 11 11%
Weekly 6 6%
Everyday 4 4%
Total 100 100%
6. Responses regarding respondents main reasons behind visiting malls in Raipur city.

The above table shows that majority of the respondent (32%) visit malls in Raipur city to watch
movies , followed by just for movies (20%), to buy shoes (18%), to buy shoes and for any
other (15%) respectively.
Analysis of reasons behind visiting malls
Reasons No. of Respondents % of Respondents
To buy groceries 0 0%
To buy dress material 15 15%
To buy shoes 18 18%
To buy furniture 0 0%
To watch movies 32 32%
Just for change 20 20%
Any other 15 15%
Total 100 100%
6. . Responses regarding respondents visiting habbit at food zones in malls in Raipur city.

The above table shows that majority of the respondent (71%) visit food zone in malls in Raipur
city, while rest (29%) do not visit food zone in malls in Raipur city.

Yes No
Analysis of vsiting habbit at food zones
in malls
Status No. of Respondents % of Respondents
yes 71 71%
no 29 29%
7. Responses regarding at what frequency respondent visit at food zones in malls in Raipur city.

The above table shows that majority of the respondent (32.4%) visit once at food zones in malls in
Raipur city, followed by sometimes (28.1%), twice (22.5%), thrice (16.9%) respectively.

35 32.4
Analysis of frequency of visiting food zones
in malls
Frequency No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Once 23 32.4%
Twice 16 22.5%
Thrice 12 16.90%
Sometimes 20 28.1%
Total 71 100%
8.Responses regarding respondents preferences while purchasing readymade garments
from malls in Raipur city.

The above table shows that majority of the respondents purchase readymade garments from malls
in Raipur city because of any other reason, followed by all brands are available, rare brands are
available, high cost brands are available, low cost brands are available.

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
All brand are available
Rare brands are available
Low cost brands are
High cost brands are
Any other
Reasons 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5

All brand are available 71 16 13 - -
Rare brands are available 21 60 10 9 -
Low cost brands are available - 11 28 30 31
High cost brands are available 2 12 46 21 14
Any other 5 1 3 39 52
9. Responses regarding respondents preferences while purchasing glossaries from malls in
Raipur city.

The above table shows that majority of the respondent prefer to purchase groceries from malls in
Raipur city because any other reason, followed by all brands are available , quality goods are
available, home delivery, discounts are given respectively.

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Analysis of preference while purchasing grossaries from
All varieties are available
Discounts are given
Quality goods are available
Home delivery
Any other
Reasons 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5

All varieties are available 68 20 10 2 -
Discounts are given 20 40 13 4 2
Quality goods are available 12 24 56 2 6
Home delivery - - 21 61 18
Any other - 16 - 31 74
10. Responses regarding respondents preference while purchasing shoes from malls in Raipur

The above table shows that majority (42%) of the respondent prefers to purchase shoes from
malls because of best brands are available, followed by all varieties are available (33%), any
other are available (13%), and discounts are given (12%) respectively.

Analysis of reasons behind purchasing shoes
No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Best brand are available 42 42%
All varieties are available 33 33%
Discounts are given 12 12%
Any Other 13 12%
Total 100 100%
12. Responses regarding respondents opinion about sales people in malls in Raipur city.

The above table shows that majority (76%) of the respondent find sales people behavior good
and (9%) cant say anything, followed by very good (8%), bad(7%).

analysis of opinion about sales people's
opinion No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Very good 8 8%
Good 76 76%
Bad 7 7%
Very bad 0 0%
Cant say 9 9%
Total 100 100%

13. Responses regarding respondents attitudes towards activity centre present in malls in
Raipur city.

The above table shows that majority (61%) of the respondent visit activity centre in malls in
Raipur city, while rest visit activity centre sometimes (10%).

Analysis of visiting habbit at activity centre
visiting habbit
Visiting habit No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Yes 61 61%
No 29 29%
Sometimes 10 10%
Total 100 100%
14.Response regarding transportation facilities used by respondent to visit malls in Raipur

The above table show that majority (57%) of the people prefer to visit malls by Scooter/bike,
while rest (43%) visit malls by car.

Analysis of transportation facility used
Transportation used No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Scooter/Bike 57 57%
Car 43 43%
Public Transport 0 0%
Total 100 100%
15. Responses regarding respondents opinion about the quality of good available in malls in
Raipur city in comparison with local shops goods.

The above table shows that majority of the people (58%) agreed that the quality of good
available in malls in Raipur city are better than goods available in local shops, while (20%)
respondent disagree with this, and (22%) says they cant say.

16. Responses regarding whether respondent feels the need of more malls in Raipur city.

58% No
Can't say
Analysis of opinion about quality of goods available in
Can't say
Opinion No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Yes 58 58%
No 20 20%
Cant say 22 22%
Total 100 100%
Opinion No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Yes 91 91%
No 9 9%
Total 100 100%

The above table shows that majority (91%) of respondent feel the need of more malls in Raipur
city, and rest only (9%) of respondent dont feel the need of more malls in Raipur city.

17. Responses regarding whether respondent feels good available in malls in Raipur city is
cheaper than goods in local shops.

Analysis of opinion about the need of more malls
Yes No
Opinion No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Yes 34 34%
No 22 22%
Cant say 44 44%
Total 100 100%

The above table shows that majority (22%) of the people feel that products in malls in Raipur
city are not cheaper than products in local shops, while (34%) feels that products are cheaper,
and rest (44%) have no opinion .

18. Responses regarding respondents satisfaction level with malls in Raipur city.

Can't say
Analysis of opinion about products price in
comparison with local shops
Can't say
Level No. of Respondents % of Respondents
Highly satisfied 8 8%
Moderately satisfied 50 50%

The above table show that majority (50%) respondents are moderately satisfied with the
facilities provided in the malls in Raipur city, followed by cant say (40%), Highly satisfied
(8%), and dissatisfied(2%) respectively.

Analysis of respondents satisfaction level
Cant say 40 40%
Dissatisfied 2 2%
Highly dissatisfied 0 0%
Total 100 100%
Chapter 4


4.1 Limitation :-

Following are the limitation we facing in the current research study-
1.Due to time and money constraints sample size is very small.
2. Sample size taken by researcher is 100 which is less than total population. It is assumed
larger the sample size more accurate would be the result.
3. Continuously changing environment.
4. No complete awareness about the facilities provided in malls.
5.Some question like Respondents income and their age respondents didnt provide
honestly answers.
6.Females are not freely or easily show their interest regarding research and
7. Researcher has applied percentage method so application of statistical tool is less in
8. Sampling method used by researcher is convenient sampling which can lead to biasness
as proportion of all the strata in the population is not covered.




1. Name
2. Contact no.
3. Age
4. Sex
5.Marital Status
7.Name of your company
8. Is it a Private/Public company?
9.Your position in the company
10. Your monthly income
11. Is your spouse employed?
12. Your no. of children One / Two / Three/More than three
13.Age of children Less than 5 / Less than10 / More than 10
14. Do you have a car yes/ no?
15. If yes how many? One / Two / Three / More


1. Do you frequently visit Malls in Raipur? (Yes / No)

2. If yes, how many times in a month? (Once/Twice/Thrice/weekly/Everyday)

3. Why do you visit Malls? (Please Tick)
a. To buy grosseries
b. To buy dress materials
c. To buy shoes
d. To buy furniture
e. To watch movies
f. Just for change
g. Any other

4. Do you eat food in the restaurants existing in the Mall? (Yes / No) If yes, how
often? (Once/ Twice/ Thrice/ Sometimes)

5. Why do you purchase readymade garments from Malls? (Please rank)

All brands are available
Rare brands are available
Low cost brands are available
High cost brands are available
Any other

6.Why do you purchase grosseries from Malls? (Please rank)

7. Why do you purchase shoes from Malls?
a. Best Brands are available at one
b. All varieties are available
c. Discounts are given
All varieties are available
Discounts are given
Quality goods are available
Home delivery
Any other
d. Any other

8. Who influence you most to go to Malls? (Please rank)

9. How do you find behavior of sales people in Malls?
a.-Very good b.-Good c.-Bad d.-Very bad e.-Cant say

10. Do you visit activity centre in Malls?
a.-Yes b.-No c.-Sometimes

11. How do you go to Mall?
a.-Scooter/ Bike b.-Car c.-Public transport

12. Do you feel the goods available in Malls are of better quality than local shops?
(Yes/No/Cant say)

13. Do you feel more Malls are needed in Raipur city? (Yes / No)

14.What more facilities should be provided in Malls?

Children Wife/Husband Guest/visitors Any other

15. Do you feel products are cheaper in Malls than local shops?
(Yes/ No/ Cant say)

16. How much are you satisfied with your shopping in Malls?
a. Highly satisfied
b. Moderately satisfied
c. Cant say
d. Dissatisfied
e. Highly dissatisfied