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FL46CH05-Spelt ARI 20 November 2013 14:26

Numerical Simulations of Flows


with Moving Contact Lines
Yi Sui,
1
Hang Ding,
2
and Peter D.M. Spelt
3
1
School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London,
London E1 4NS, United Kingdom
2
Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China,
Hefei 230027, China
3
Laboratoire de M ecanique des Fluides et dAcoustique, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully
69134, France, and D epartement M ecanique, Universit e Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne
69622, France; email: peter.spelt@univ-lyon1.fr
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2014. 46:97119
First published online as a Review in Advance on
August 7, 2013
The Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is online at
uid.annualreviews.org
This articles doi:
10.1146/annurev-uid-010313-141338
Copyright c 2014 by Annual Reviews.
All rights reserved
Keywords
capillary ows, droplet spreading, wetting, two-phase ows,
thermocapillarity
Abstract
Computational methods have been extended recently to allow for the pres-
ence of moving contact lines in simulated two-phase ows. The predictive
capability offered by these methods is potentially large, joining theoretical
and experimental methods. Several challenges rather unique to this area need
to be overcome, however, notably regarding the conditions near a moving
contact line and the very large separation of length scales in these ows.
We rst summarize the main models for moving contact lines and follow
with an overview of computational methods that includes direct continuum
approaches and macroscale models that resolve only the large-scale ow by
modeling the effects of the conditions near the contact line using theory.
Results are presented for contact-line motion on ideal as well as patterned
and grooved surfaces and for extensions to account for complexities such as
thermocapillarity and phase change.
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ANNUAL
REVIEWS
FL46CH05-Spelt ARI 20 November 2013 14:26
MCL: moving
contact line
Thermocapillarity:
thermally driven
motion due to
temperature-
dependent surface
tension
Surfactant:
surface-active agent
that alters the local
surface tension
MD: molecular
dynamics
Static contact angle:
true contact angle at a
static contact line
measured on the
microscale
Dynamic contact
angle: true contact
angle at a moving
contact line measured
on the microscale
Apparent contact
angle: angle measured
on the macroscale of
the entire ow
1. INTRODUCTION
Flows with moving contact lines (MCLs) form an important class of two-phase ows that appear
in nature and in industrial applications. This includes droplet impact, spreading and splashing
phenomena (Yarin 2006), coating ows (Schweizer & Kistler 1997), microuidics applications
(Darhuber &Troian2005), two-phase ows inporous media (Adler &Brenner 1988), and nucleate
boiling (Dhir 1998). In these systems, the entire ow is often driven by MCLs or is so strongly
coupled with the conditions at MCLs that changing the latter can result in different ow regimes
(e.g., Ding et al. 2012). Well-grounded physical modeling of MCLs is therefore required for
the analysis or simulation of such systems. The rich physics governing the statics and dynamics
of contact lines is, however, the subject of long-standing debate, which is motivated also by the
challenges posed by the MCL stress singularity, and a range of models has been proposed for the
conditions in the vicinity of MCLs (Bonn et al. 2009, Snoeijer & Andreotti 2013). Furthermore,
complexities often arise in practice, such as thermocapillarity, the presence of surfactants, phase
change, complex geometries, and effects of substrate inhomogeneities.
The ongoing rapid improvement of methods to simulate two-phase ows numerically has
therefore resulted in attempts to also represent MCLs. One type of approach is to directly re-
solve all regions of the ow, such as in molecular dynamics (MD). This requires a prohibitively
large computational effort and thus is restricted to very small systems [a typical linear dimen-
sion being O(10
2
) times the molecular length scale] and very simple model uids. Even hybrid
approaches in which MD simulation around a contact line is coupled to a continuum model
still suffer from the same problem (Bonn et al. 2009). The subject of this review is a differ-
ent computational approach: one based on a continuum model. We consider those models that
solve numerical approximations of the full Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian uids with-
out limitations to a long-wave regime or lubrication theory for thin lms, creeping, or potential
ows.
Various types of such computational approaches exist for two-phase ows without contact
lines (Tryggvason et al. 2011), and most in principle can be modied to account for any MCL
model. A main concern, however, is the wide range of MCL models available; it is not generally
accepted that a single model is universally valid. Furthermore, these models still involve a large
range of length scales when realistic ow conditions are to be simulated. Despite these difculties,
some impressive results and important new insights in the interplay between the macroscopic
motion and the contact-line dynamics have been obtained recently with such methods, and some
approaches have been proposed that successfully resolve the ow solely on the macroscale.
2. DYNAMIC WETTING CONDITIONS ON IDEAL SURFACES
2.1. Denitions of Contact Angles and Length Scales
We rst consider the description of MCLs (without further complexities) on ideal surfaces that
are perfectly clean, smooth, and at. To facilitate the presentation below, we introduce the fol-
lowing denitions for the wetting phenomena (Figure 1). When observed at the smallest length
scale within the continuum limit, herein referred to as the microscopic length scale (the inset in
Figure 1), the static contact angle
e
is naturally dened as the angle the interface makes with
the wall when the contact line is stationary; this angle satises Youngs equation (Young 1805).
Under dynamic conditions, the corresponding microscale angle is referred to herein as the dy-
namic contact angle,
d
. Depending on the contact-line model chosen, this angle may depend
on the contact-line speed or on other details of the ow (see Section 2.3). We use the term ap-
parent contact angle,
a
, to refer to the angle at which the interface appears to contact the wall
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FL46CH05-Spelt ARI 20 November 2013 14:26

a
y
d
x
Figure 1
Denitions of angles, length scales, and coordinates used in the review. (Main panel ) The ow on the
macroscale, with an apparent contact angle
a
. (Inset) Close-up view of the ow on the microscale with a
dynamic contact angle
d
. The ratio of the micro- and macrolength is denoted by . The intermediate
asymptotic region corresponds to the matching between the macroscale ow (main panel ) and the microscale
ow (inset). The velocity eld and interface shape shown were obtained from a level-set method using slip for
a spreading droplet: = 0.001, Ohnesorge number Oh = 0.0316 (see Section 4.2), and
d
= 30

. Figure
taken from Sui & Spelt (2013b), copyright Cambridge University Press.
when observing the contact line on a macroscopic length scale of the entire ow (Figure 1).
The precise denition of an apparent angle typically varies in different studies: It may refer to
the maximum interfacial angle or an angle at a xed distance to the wall. With both
d
and
a
possibly depending on the contact-line speed, care must be taken to avoid confusion between
them.
We denote the ratio of micro- to macrolength by . Usually the interface shape at the macro-
and microscale does not match directly, and an intermediate layer associated with a length scale
O(1/| ln|) times the macroscale is observed experimentally (e.g., Dussan V. et al. 1991, Ram e
et al. 2004, Shen & Ruth 1998) and arises in a matched-asymptotic analysis (Cox 1986, Hocking
& Rivers 1982). Direct matching between macro- and microscale descriptions does occur in the
limit of vanishing capillary number Ca U
CL
/ such that Ca

ln

1 (see Cox 1986),


where U
CL
is the contact-line speed, which may differ from the uid velocity eld at the contact
line, depending on the model used; is the coefcient of the surface tension; and is the shear
viscosity.
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2.2. The Challenge of Moving-Contact-Line Singularities
In two-dimensional (2D) Stokes wedge ow (in which one side of the wedge is a moving no-slip
wall and the other is a free surface), the wall stress exhibits nonintegrable singularities at the
contact line. As uid particles on the free surface reach the MCL, they experience an innite
acceleration in order to adjust to the velocity of the wall, and an innite force would be required
to move the wall past a contact line in such a model; both the wall shear stress and pressure are
then inversely proportional to the distance to the contact line (Moffatt 1964). This is also found
when extending the analysis to the two-uid case (Huh & Scriven 1971). The analysis for this
specic, idealized model predicting stress singularities may seem not necessarily conclusive, but
Dussan V. & Davis (1974) established that the integrated shear stress of an incompressible ow of
a wetting Newtonian uid subject to a no-slip condition is unbounded and that the velocity eld
must be continuous at the contact line for singularities to vanish.
Similar singularities had been identied earlier by Taylor (1962) in scraper ows after work on
owpast a sharp corner (Dean &Montagnon 1949, Rayleigh 1911). Even when both boundaries of
a 2D corner ow are stationary solid walls, stress singularities may arise at sharp corners, although
these are integrable and do not occur in wedges (Anderson & Davis 1993). This is of further
interest, as it raises additional concerns in computations when a contact line arrives at a corner
(we return to this in Section 5.3).
The elimination of stress singularities should somehow be accounted for in numerical simu-
lations. Even if one is interested only in the large-scale ow behavior, the ow in the immediate
vicinity of the contact line is in fact intertwined with the ow on a large scale in a manner that
is not easily modeled under general ow conditions that are typically the subject of numerical
simulations. We consider here computational models that attempt to address these issues, as well
as macroscale models in which one uses the analysis result in the vicinity of a contact line and
assumes a simplied interaction between owaway fromthe contact line and that in its immediate
vicinity. In the subsequent sections, we rst briey summarize various approaches that have been
developed in the former category before discussing the development and use of the models in the
latter category.
2.3. Contact-Line Models
Various continuum models have been proposed for MCLs. Therefore, it is advisable to test the
sensitivity of computational results obtained to the model used; one may expect no signicant
differences despite differences in the physical modeling used (as discussed in Section 2.4). Con-
versely, if differences in results do exist, computations can be used to test the various formulations
against experiments not readily accessible to theoretical analysis. They can also be used to for-
mulate and benchmark macroscale formulations. We briey outline the main methods here rst;
further details and methods can be found in Bonn et al. (2009); Snoeijer & Andreotti (2013); and,
for surface-tension relaxation models, in Shikhmurzaev (1993) and Sibley et al. (2012). It should
be kept in mind that when a (nonmacroscale) contact-line model is used, the choice of model
parameters and resolution are expected to represent an appropriately large range of length scales
in the problem, unless very small systems are simulated. Otherwise, one should use macroscale
models, which are formulated toward the end of this section. Results obtained with the methods
described here are discussed in subsequent sections.
2.3.1. Slip conditions. A classical model approach is to allow for slip (e.g., Dussan V. 1979),
notably in the form proposed originally by Navier (1823) for single-phase ows past a stationary
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DI: diffuse interface
surface,
u =

u
y

at y = 0, (1)
where u is the velocity component tangential to the wall, is the slip length, which is usually
estimated to be of nanometer scale (e.g., Eggers & Stone 2004); the coordinates used here are
denedinFigure 1. Alternatively, this is writtenina forminwhichthe right-handside corresponds
to the wall shear stress, thereby placing a proportionality constant on the left-hand side instead,
which is then referred to as the friction coefcient. Such a boundary condition for the velocity eld
is used either in conjunction with a prescribed dynamic contact angle or as part of more elaborate
contact-line models, which are reviewed in subsequent subsections.
Slip has been observed widely in MD simulations of single-phase ows of model liquids in
channels. The value of is sensitive to the surface properties of the walls, as is
e
(determined
from equilibrium MD), and the results for both are typically related (e.g., Huang et al. 2008). Slip
is also observed in MD simulations of model two-phase systems, in which it extends over a rather
large distance away from the contact line (Qian et al. 2004, Ren & E 2007). A boundary condition
in the immediate vicinity of the MCL was proposed by Qian et al. (2003), and tested against MD,
taking the form of a generalization of Equation 1, but in the context of a diffuse interface (DI)
model. Ren & E (2007) proposed a sharp-interface approach instead, using a different slip model
at the MCL, in which an integrated force balance was imposed, taking the form of a relation
between
d
and the contact-line speed (of the form discussed further in Section 2.3.2).
Flow analysis based on Equation 1 and a prescribed dynamic contact angle has been widely
developed and used as an MCL model. Although this type of MCL model does not lead to a
singularity in the shear stress, a singularity in the pressure remains at the contact line when
Equation 1 is used with a prescribed dynamic contact-angle value (e.g., Huh & Mason 1977). The
remaining pressure singularity is then integrable, and numerical tests showthat the pressure peaks
only signicantly on a length scale substantially smaller than the slip length (Sui & Spelt 2013b).
Various other slip models have been proposed, including a class that eliminates the singularities in
both the shear stress and pressure by replacing the slip length in Equation 1 with a factor
2
1
/H ,
where H is the local distance of the interface to the wall (Ruckenstein & Dunn 1977) (for small
contact angles; other negative powers of H also could be considered). Essentially, the equivalent
slip coefcient becomes innitely large at the contact line, making the owshear-free there. Other
slip models have been proposed (e.g., Huh & Mason 1977, Zhou & Sheng 1990) that signicantly
alter the dynamics at a slip length scale near the contact line including the ow eld (Sheng &
Zhou 1992). However, on the macroscale, the ow and meniscus shape are usually predominantly
affected by the interfacial angle in the intermediate region (Bazhlekov & Chesters 1996, Kafka &
Dussan V. 1979, Sui & Spelt 2013a).
2.3.2. Models for the dynamic contact angle. The boundary condition for the velocity eld
normally must be accompanied by a model for
d
(not to be confused with
a
). The simplest
approach is to assume the dynamic angle to be equal to the static angle (
d
=
e
) and a slip condition
or equivalent. Such a basic approach has the advantage that a substantial body of theoretical work is
available, which can also provide direct benchmark tests, although the remaining weak singularity
in the pressure discussed in the previous section should be kept in mind.
However, there is evidence that the dynamic and static angles differ. In attempts to t the
corresponding asymptotic theory for the apparent angle to experimental data, the inferred slip
lengthvalues are found to be unphysically small (substantially belowmolecular scales) (see Sheng &
Zhou 1992, Sui &Spelt 2013b). Sheng &Zhou (1992) analyzed experimental data for the apparent
angle to extract any dependence of the dynamic angle on the contact-line speed by assuming that
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FL46CH05-Spelt ARI 20 November 2013 14:26
the microscale length is constant, which revealed a power-law dependency of
d

e
on the
capillary number. A similar relation for the dynamic angle was found by Sui & Spelt (2013b)
to lead to good agreement with experimental data for droplet spreading with signicant inertial
effects (see also Section 4). Ram e et al. (2004) simultaneously extracted the velocity dependence
of the microscopic length scale and angle, nding no universal dependencies but conrming the
need for at least one of these parameters to depend on the capillary number.
In the energy argument that leads to Youngs equation (e.g., de Gennes 1985), the additional
term (cos
e
cos
d
) that arises owing to a difference between dynamic and static angles would
be accounted for by dissipation in the contact-line region due to contact-line motion. Assuming
this dissipation scales with the contact-line speed (at least for small differences
d

e
), then we
obtain a relation of the form
U
CL
=

(cos
e
cos
d
), (2)
where is a factor (with the dimensions of dynamic shear viscosity) that arises in the physical model
proposed and may depend, for instance, on
d
. We refer to (cos
e
cos
d
) as the unbalanced
Youngs force for brevity (in some studies, this is referred to as the uncompensated Youngs force),
without presuming the interpretation of Youngs equation as a force balance. Various physical
arguments of otherwise apparently unrelated origin lead to a relation of the form of Equation 2.
We briey summarize these here; further details regarding the underlying physical arguments can
be found in Snoeijer & Andreotti (2013). We reiterate that Equation 2 should be accompanied
by a boundary condition for the velocity eld, which may involve a slip model, to avoid stress
singularities as described above; a concern regarding Equation 2 is that it introduces yet more
parameters.
In the molecular kinetic theory of Blake & Haynes (1969) (see also de Ruijter et al. 1999), it
is proposed that the contact-line motion is caused by the thermally driven jumping of molecules
from one uid phase to the other across the contact line. A driving force upsets the balance
of the molecular displacements between the two uids, leading to the contact-line motion and
consequently the dissipation of the work of the driving force. The driving force is then assumed
to be the unbalanced Youngs force at the contact line, in other words, (cos
e
cos
d
). A
simplied version of the full kinetic model (de Ruijter et al. 1999) for small values of cos
d
cos
e
can be written in the form of Equation 2, where is a constant. This model has been widely
used in theoretical analysis and in comparisons to experiments and was recently implemented
as the dynamic wetting condition in numerical simulations (Keshavarz-Motamed et al. 2010). A
disadvantage is that several parameters in the model need to be tted from experimental data, and
some details of the model at the contact line (e.g., grid-convergence performance in terms of the
interfacial prole in computations) are still unknown.
A related formulation is based on a DI model, in which some diffusion is assumed to occur
between two phases. Aboundary condition in the DI models proposed by Jacqmin (2000) and Qian
et al. (2006) can be written in the form of Equation 2, with now including a factor 1/ sin
d
(see Yue & Feng 2011).
Finally, models of contact-line motion over heterogeneous surfaces typically predict, after an
averaging procedure over a distribution of defects, the unbalanced Youngs force to be a nonlinear
function of Ca instead of Equation 2. These include the models of Joanny & Robbins (1990),
who obtained a quadratic dependency on the contact-line speed, and the capillary-wave model of
Sheng &Zhou (1992). Furthermore, just above the depinning transition (i.e., a critical unbalanced
Youngs force), contact lines are predicted to advance in avalanches triggered by depinning from
small surface heterogeneities. Analyses along these lines result in the prediction of a nonlinear
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FL46CH05-Spelt ARI 20 November 2013 14:26
DNS: direct
numerical simulation
dependency of the unbalanced Youngs force on the contact-line speed (e.g., Ertas &Kardar 1994).
Contact-line motion over large surface heterogeneities is discussed in Section 5.
2.3.3. Precursor lms. At small interfacial angles, long-range intermolecular (van der Waals)
forces between a uid and the solid wall may lead to the formation of a precursor lm ahead
of a nominal contact line (de Gennes 1985). The lm is of nite extent, being truncated above
molecular dimensions and typically reaching a thickness of O(10 nm) at the nominal contact
line, unless the lm is in equilibrium with a vapor phase. The precursor-lm model has been
implemented naturally mainly in lubrication-theory simulations (e.g., Pismen & Pomeau 2000,
Thiele & Knobloch 2006), but incorporation into a full direct numerical simulation (DNS) code
seems feasible. This would require representing a disjoining pressure, which has been done in
droplet coalescence simulations ( Jiang & James 2007), in the form of an additional interfacial
force that depends on the distance from the wall. However, small contact angles may result in
highly skewed interfaces near the wall, which is always a challenge in numerical implementation.
Precursor-lm models have been found to lead to similar leading-order results as in slip models
if the lm thickness and the slip length are of the same order (Savva & Kalliadasis 2011), but van
der Waals forces can otherwise lead to complex dynamics (Erneux & Davis 1993).
2.4. Macroscale Models
In practice, the overall (macroscale) ow is usually the main interest in ows with MCLs. An
efcient approach could be to resolve only this part of the ow, modeling the effects of the
microscopic region near the contact line on the large-scale ow by using hydrodynamic theories.
Several approaches have been developed in which boundary conditions approximate the effect
of the microscopic region near the contact line. In one approach, one calculates the contact-line
speed from theory (e.g., that of Cox 1986) and moves the contact-line accordingly. Otherwise, the
effect of the contact-line region is modeled by imposing an interfacial angle.
A simple way forward would be to impose a theoretical relation between the apparent angle
and contact-line speed from such a theory, in either of these two ways (some example results are
also in Spelt 2005). But the unresolved contact-line region is then rather large, at least O(1/| ln |)
times the macroscale for slow MCLs (see Section 2.1). However, by drawing an analogy to the
viscous theory of Cox (1986), Afkhami et al. (2009) developed a mesh-dependent contact-angle
boundary condition and obtained good mesh convergence.
Kafka & Dussan V. (1979) established that, if no inertial effects are present, the macroscopic
dynamics is affected by the microscopic inner regime mainly through the interfacial angle at the
intermediate length scale. Furthermore, for a nanometer slip length, an interfacial angle at a
distance to the contact line ranging from O(10 nm) to O(10 m) leads to no signicant differences
in the outer region. These ndings are important for practical simulations of MCLs, as they
signicantly increase the length scale that needs to be resolved in a numerical simulation.
The most promising approach thus far is to theoretically determine the interfacial angle
using an asymptotic theory, with an estimate in the theory for the actual distance from the grid
node to the contact line (which could be approximate; if the grid node is half the grid spacing
removed from the wall, this length could possibly be used). If this distance is reduced down to
the microscale, the full continuum model is resolved; if this is based on slip, a slip boundary
condition is only then imposed. After earlier work by Dupont & Legendre (2010) (who instead
used a xed distance for different grids and imposed substantial slip but obtained good agreement
with experiments), this has recently been shown to lead to good superposition of results from
different grid spacings and favorable quantitative agreement with full-scale simulations and with
www.annualreviews.org Numerical Simulations of Flows with MCLs 103
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LS: level set
experiments in both viscous and inertial regimes (Sui & Spelt 2013a). Here, the viscous theories
of Hocking & Rivers (1982) and Cox (1986) were used. For ows in which inertial effects enter
[this starts, of course, at the outer region but may penetrate well into the intermediate region of
the scale O(1/| ln|)], the theory of Cox (1998) was used, which has been validated and modied
based on simulations that resolve the ow down to the microscale in Sui & Spelt (2013b). The
results indicate that for accuracy, lowest-order theories may be insufcient.
Currently existing macroscopic models should be used with care in three dimensions: For a
highly curved MCL, such as in a droplet sliding down a wall, the ow close to the MCL may
be strongly 3D, and the asymptotic results (Cox 1986, 1998) on which the macroscale models
are built are not applicable. Further research would be needed to establish the effects of the
strong curvature of MCLs and when these effects become signicant. Also, the understanding of
the rupture, coalescence, and formation of MCLs is still developing; direct simulations using a
nonmacroscale model are much needed (including establishing numerical convergence), also with
a view of formulating macroscale models.
3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION AND ADAPTIVE
MESH REFINEMENT
3.1. Discretization Methods and Boundary Conditions
Most common computational uid dynamics methods have been employed for ows with
MCLs, including nite-volume methods (Afkhami & Bussmann 2008, Dupont & Legendre
2010, Josserand et al. 2005, Renardy et al. 2001) and nite-element methods (Bao et al. 2012,
Christodoulou & Scriven 1992, Hadjiconstantinou & Patera 2000, Lowndes 1980, Wilson et al.
2006). Instead of being restricted to a certain type of dynamic wetting condition, these methods
can be coupled with different MCL models to specify the boundary conditions at solid walls for
the evolution of the interface and for the velocity eld, as seen in the preceding subsections.
In practice, a slip condition is normally readily implemented if necessary. The contact-line
position is determined either by the identication of the contact-line speed or from an imposed
contact angle. To ensure this is done accurately, especially when using a model for
d
that de-
pends on the contact-line speed or when using a macroscale model, one normally updates the
contact-line position iteratively. The extension from two to three dimensions can normally be
achieved without signicant difculty (Ding & Spelt 2007a, Ding et al. 2010), although the ve-
locity is needed to advance the MCL when using a dynamic angle or macroscale model; typi-
cally, the velocity components tangential to the wall at the nearest grid node are used for this
purpose.
3.2. Interface-Capturing/Tracking Methods
This section summarizes the main methods for evolving interfaces, along with ways to implement
MCL models in these methods. In addition to the interface evolution, one must account for the
interfacial stress conditions; this can be achieved either by using a continuoussurface tension
approach (e.g., Brackbill et al. 1992) or by a method in which they are imposed in a sharp manner
(e.g., Kang et al. 2000). Further details can be found elsewhere (e.g., Tryggvason et al. 2011).
3.2.1. Level-set methods. In level-set (LS) methods, a signed distance function (x, t) from the
interface is utilized for interface capturing (Osher & Sethian 1988, Sussman et al. 1999), whose
104 Sui

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VOF: volume of uid
sign is used to distinguish between the two uids. The evolution of is governed by an advection
equation. Because this is correct by the kinematic condition at interfaces only, it is necessary
to ensure that at points away from the interface remains approximately the signed distance
function by performing a redistance step (e.g., Russo & Smereka 2000) at regular time intervals;
otherwise, the relations for local uid properties and the interface curvature and normal vector are
no longer accurate. LS methods have recently been extended to ow problems involving MCLs,
including slip and a static contact angle (Chen et al. 2009, Ding & Spelt 2007a, Spelt 2005, Sui &
Spelt 2013b), a kinetic model (Deganello et al. 2011), and a macroscale model with contact-angle
hysteresis (Park & Kang 2012, Spelt 2005). The contact-line motion is achieved by updating the
value of at the solid wall according to the contact-line models during the redistance step at each
time step.
3.2.2. Volume-of-uid methods. Volume-of-uid (VOF) methods use the volume fraction of
the traced uid to track the interface position (Gueyfer et al. 1999, Hirt & Nichols 1981).
Again the advection equation is used for the interface evolution; however, the solution procedure
is rather different from LS methods and consists of the key steps of interface propagation and
reconstruction (Scardovelli & Zaleski 1999). Recent developments in VOF methods have allowed
the representation of MCLs in droplet impact ( Josserand et al. 2005, Yokoi 2011) or spreading
(Afkhami et al. 2009, Dupont & Legendre 2010, Renardy et al. 2001) and bubble generation
in microuidic T-junctions (Arias et al. 2012). Despite differences in the contact-line models
used, the implementations commonly impose a gradient of the volume fraction at the contact
line in terms of a prescribed contact angle ( Josserand et al. 2005, Renardy et al. 2001). Example
macroscale approaches are provided by Afkhami et al. (2009), Dupont & Legendre (2010), and
Yokoi (2011).
3.2.3. Front-tracking methods. Front-tracking methods employ a discrete set of linked
Lagrangian markers x
i
(i = 1, . . . , m) to represent the interface, of which the evolution is
explicitly related to the advection of these markers by the local ows u(x
i
). The Lagrangian
markers are redistributed regularly to remove grid-scale irregularities in the Lagrangian
grid. For MCLs, models for the dynamic or macroscale contact angle have been incorpo-
rated into front-tracking methods (Manservisi & Scardovelli 2009, Muradoglu & Tasoglu
2010). The contact-line position is determined by specifying either the velocity of the
markers on the solid wall (Manservisi & Scardovelli 2009) or the apparent contact angle
(Muradoglu & Tasoglu 2010).
3.2.4. Diffuse interface methods. DI methods replace the mathematically sharp interface with
an interface of nite thickness, which can be articially prescribed ( Jacqmin 1999). In addition
to advection, the interface evolution also includes a dissipative term to maintain the interfacial
prole. From the work of Seppecher (1996) and Jacqmin (2000) onward, DI methods have been
progressively adopted in simulations of MCLs, and various MCL models have been proposed
(Ding & Spelt 2007a, Qian et al. 2006, Yue & Feng 2011). The boundary condition for the phase
eld is either a partial differential equation (Qian et al. 2006, Yue et al. 2010) or a Neumann
condition (Carlson et al. 2009, Ding & Spelt 2007b). For the velocity eld, slip is sometimes
included but is usually left out, as the contact line can move by virtue of nite diffusion. When
one chooses the DI parameters accordingly, a sharp-interface limit is normally expected to have
been approached already away from the contact line, with only the rate of diffusion remaining
dependent on DI parameters; nevertheless, such a limit remains the subject of active debate (e.g.,
Shikhmurzaev 2011, Sibley et al. 2013, Yue et al. 2010).
www.annualreviews.org Numerical Simulations of Flows with MCLs 105
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AMR: adaptive mesh
renement
3.3. Adaptive Mesh Renement
In the numerical solution of MCLs, the use of a contact-line model such as that for
d
is justied
by sufcient resolution in the contact-line region so that the viscosity and surface tension are
the dominant forces on the scale of the grid spacing above the substrate. In other words, the
mesh must be able to resolve ows not only on the macroscale, but also simultaneously on the
microscale (see Figure 1), whichis easily belowO(10
4
) of the macroscale. But only a small fraction
of the entire domain (the interface and contact-line region) needs the very ne mesh resolution,
whereas the rest of domain can use a much coarser mesh to obtain satisfactorily accurate solutions.
These requirements make adaptive mesh renement (AMR) potentially highly suitable, as this
can dynamically place the locally rened patches in the regions of interest (e.g., the interface and
MCL).
Various AMR algorithms have been used in MCL simulations, with different ways of orga-
nizing the hierarchy of meshes. One algorithm uses unstructured meshes (Yue et al. 2006, 2010),
which allows for an irregular distribution of vertices and thus has advantages in simulations with
complex geometry, albeit with difculties in efcient parallelization. Another group of AMR al-
gorithms is based on successively rened patches (Popinet 2003, Afkhami et al. 2009) or blocks
(MacNeice et al. 2000, Sui & Spelt 2013b) on a Cartesian background mesh, organized in an
octree or similar manner. Specically, Sui & Spelt (2013b) incorporated an LS approach for
axisymmetric droplet spreading (with slip and
d
=
e
) with an open-source software package,
PARAMESH (MacNeice et al. 2000), and block AMR and parallel computing. A mesh resolu-
tion of O(10
4
) was achieved in the contact-line region. The results are discussed in the next
section.
4. BENCHMARK TESTS AND RESULTS FOR CLEAN
SMOOTH SURFACES
4.1. Capillary Rise
A rst, basic regime in which one uid displaces another in a capillary is that of a meniscus
of steady shape rising at a constant speed, with the displaced uid being passive. This serves as a
starting point, especially in nite-element methods with MCLs. Given the practical applications in
network models of porous media (Dias &Payatakes 1986), Stokes owhas usually beenconsidered.
Those studies present important benchmark tests, and the methods used can be readily extended
to include inertial effects. This has been pioneered by Lowndes (1980), who used a slip boundary
condition with a slip length of 1 nm, obtaining good agreement with the experiments of Hoffman
(1975). For methods for which these large ratios of length scales would be quite expensive, an
alternative test is to use the approximate theoretical analysis of Dussan V. et al. (1991) and Ram e
(1997), which agrees well with experimental and numerical results (e.g., Lowndes 1980, Shen &
Ruth 1998).
Inertial effects have beenstudiedextensively (e.g., Fries &Dreyer 2008, Qu er e 1997). They take
the form of inertial-capillary oscillations in the height of the liquid column about its equilibrium
state that dampen out in time. Numerical simulations using an LS method and a slip condition
(resolving the ow in both uids) have identied various ow regimes for cases in which the ow
rate of the displacing uid is xed, including a Hopf bifurcation to periodic and quasi-periodic
inertial-capillary oscillations that do not dampen out (Sui & Spelt 2011). Although the slip length
was varied and the results remained robust, it remains of interest to attempt simulations for more
realistic ow conditions.
106 Sui

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10
0
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1
10
2
Outer region
Distance to the contact line, s
a b
()
10
3
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
10
20
30
40
50
0
10
20
30
40
50
Intermediate region
Inner region
Numerics
Figure 2
Results for axisymmetric droplet spreading obtained with a level-set method using slip. (a) Comparison against Hocking & Rivers
(1982) of the angle the interface makes with the wall as a function of the distance to the contact line (made dimensionless with the drop
diameter) at the instance at which Ca = 0.016, = 0.0001, Oh = 0.1, and
d
= 30

. The apparent contact angle is found to agree well


with theory when using the value extrapolated from the outer region (blue line in the inset) to the contact line, s = 0. The colored lines
represent the analytical result for the outer region far away from the contact line (blue), the intermediate region (dark yellow), and the
inner region close to the intermediate region (red ). Panel a taken from Sui & Spelt (2013b), copyright Cambridge University Press.
(b) Rapid droplet spreading resulting in second-stage pinch-off for Oh = 0.0066, We = V
2
a/ = 0.011 (with V the impacting
velocity),
d
= 35

(advancing), and
d
= 25

(receding), with time running from top to bottom, and then from left to right. Panel b
taken from Ding et al. (2012), copyright Cambridge University Press.
4.2. Droplet Spreading and Impact
Unlike in capillary rise, no quasi-steadily moving interface arises in droplet spreading and impact,
yet droplet spreading is well studied, useful benchmark tests can be considered, and fascinating
ow behavior has been observed. Recent simulations based on the LS method with slip, using
adaptive grid renement, have allowed direct comparison to asymptotic theory for slow spreading
based on the same formulation (Sui & Spelt 2013b) (Figure 2a). An advantage of considering
droplet spreading is that the higher-order terms are known in the theory, unlike for the capillary-
rise problem. The same study has validated and adjusted Coxs (1998) theory for rapid droplet
spreading, the results of which are useful in the formulation of macroscale models in the inertial
regime (Sui & Spelt 2013a).
The spreading behavior is characterized using the Ohnesorge number, Oh /

a (where
a is the size of the droplet and is the density), and a contact angle. For relatively large Oh, drops
spread gradually, following Tanners (1979) law for the contact-line radius R t
1/10
unless they
are close to their equilibrium shape. For low Oh, an inertial-capillary regime is observed instead,
R t
1/2
(Biance et al. 2004). These regimes have been observed in studies using LS and DI meth-
ods with
d
=
e
(Ding & Spelt 2007a) and a DI method with an evolving
d
(Carlson et al. 2009).
These computational studies have also revealed oscillations in the spreading rate during the
transition from the inertial regime at early times to a viscous regime at late times (Ding & Spelt
2007a). As a result, anapparent angle determined fromcomputations is no longer a unique function
of the instantaneous contact-line speed and exhibits loops instead (Ding & Spelt 2007a), which,
www.annualreviews.org Numerical Simulations of Flows with MCLs 107
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FL46CH05-Spelt ARI 20 November 2013 14:26
although appearing attened in the experimental observations of Ding et al. (2012), persists to
quite small slip length values if Oh is small (Sui & Spelt 2013b). As seen in Figure 2b, these
capillary waves are initiated by the contact-line motion and propagate upward along the interface
in a near-self-similar manner (Ding et al. 2012); it is the return of these waves at the contact line
that causes oscillations in the contact-line speed and apparent angle. They can also lead to small
droplets being pinched off and ejected from the top (Figure 2b). Different manners of pinch-off
are observed, including rst- and second-stage pinch-off (Ding et al. 2012).
Finally, droplet impact on an ideal surface has been well studied. High-speed droplet impact,
simulated early using VOF by Bussmann et al. (2000), does not give rise to violent splashes (Yarin
2006). It is of interest to note how capillary waves there fail to cancel the impact velocity, and
pinch-off phenomena are not observed (Renardy et al. 2003). Regarding the potential use of
macroscale models, it is important to note that a rim is generally formed here, which renders
asymptotic theory of limited value (Sui & Spelt 2013b).
5. DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION WITH SUBSTRATE
INHOMOGENEITIES OR IN COMPLEX GEOMETRIES
For better representation of real surfaces, and with the view of patterning surfaces to control
wetting behavior, the computational approaches outlined above must be modied beyond the
models of contact-line motion over a smooth, perfectly clean surface. This poses yet further
challenges that are mostly still to be overcome.
5.1. Contact-Angle Hysteresis
For real solid surfaces, the static contact angle is not uniquely dened as contact lines can be pinned
in a range of contact-angle values, between an advancing angle and a receding angle, beyond which
the contact line advances and recedes, respectively (Dussan V. 1979). A common basic model of
contact-angle hysteresis is to simply assume the advancing and receding angles to be prescribed
constants (the contact-angle hysteresis window). This is implemented generally in computational
methods by rst updating the interface location to a new time step, with the location of the
contact line remaining unchanged. Then, a new, intermediate contact angle is determined. If this
intermediate angle lies outside the prescribed window of hysteresis, the contact line is moved;
otherwise, no change is made. This approach has been developed by Spelt (2005) for a 2D LS
method; by Ding & Spelt (2008) for a diffuse-interface method in three dimensions, in which
validation tests are reported against boundary-element methods (see Figure 3); and by Dupont
& Legendre (2010) for a 2D VOF method. An alternative approach is to instead move the contact
line in accord with the hysteresis model used for the contact-line speed in terms of the contact
angle (examples can be found in van Mourik et al. 2005 and in Spelt 2005).
5.2. Chemically Patterned Surfaces
By covering surfaces with chemical strips, one can engineer their wetting properties. Compu-
tational models of the resulting spreading behavior may serve as a tool for the design of pat-
terning techniques or microuid devices for practical applications, such as in droplet sorting
(Kusumaatmaja & Yeomans 2007). In these models, the chemical inhomogeneity is represented
by spatially varying wetting properties in the computational model. Examples of such an approach
can be found in Kusumaatmaja &Yeomans (2007) and Wang et al. (2008), based on the DI method,
and in Ren & E (2011) using an LS method; multiple equilibrium states of pinned droplets known
108 Sui

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FL46CH05-Spelt ARI 20 November 2013 14:26
X Y
Z
Figure 3
Rupture of a droplet on a wall in a shear ow with hysteresis modeled as in Section 5.1 using a DI method
(with the Cahn number based on the drop radius of 0.0167) for an advancing angle of 90

and receding angle


of 40

at the shear-rate-based Reynolds number Re = 1.8 and Ca = 0.321 (both based on the shear rate and
equivalent droplet radius). Figure taken from Ding et al. (2010), copyright Cambridge University Press.
from lubrication theory (Vellingiri et al. 2011) have also been simulated numerically (Dupuis &
Yeomans 2004).
Beyond establishing resulting drop shapes on such patterned substrates, these computations
have led to further observations concerning stick-slip-type behavior (Ren & E 2011, Wang et al.
2008), in which the interface undergoes large deformations when crossing boundaries between
different chemical strips, possibly resulting in interface breakup and contact-line jumping.
Traditionally, chemically inhomogeneous surfaces have beenstudiedas models for real surfaces.
In particular, the depinning transition can be studied by considering contact-line motion over an
array of defects. So far computational approaches have been mostly semianalytical (e.g., Nikolayev
2005), restricted to small contact angles.
5.3. Rough/Grooved Surfaces, Corners, and Other Complex Geometries
In the lubrication limit, contact-line motion over a solid wall with weak undulations is similar to
that over a contaminated wall (de Gennes 1985). Theoretical studies (Cox 1983) and numerical
simulations (Savva & Kalliadasis 2010) have shown that a wavy solid wall can result in stick-
slip motion and multiple equilibrium states also identied in Section 5.2. Beyond the creeping
ow regime and for surfaces with irregular roughness, more dramatic wetting phenomena have
been observed, notably simultaneous spreading inside and above a textured surface (Sivakumar
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et al. 2005) and predominant splashing directions for drop impact (Xu 2005). However, direct
numerical solution of these ows remains challenging, as it requires the representation of the
complex geometry and sufcient mesh resolution to resolve the signicant disparity of geometrical
length scales for the roughness and macroscale ow. Unstructured mesh (Gao & Feng 2010) and
body-tted mesh (Blow & Yeomans 2011) approaches have been adopted to deal with the former,
whereas a Cartesian mesh was used by Shao et al. (2013). For the latter, AMR is advantageous for
improving the computational efciency, as discussed in Section 3.3.
The presence of corners or wedges further complicates the motion of MCLs. First, a stress
singularity can arise at a sharp corner, as discussed in Section 2.2. In experiments, corners have
nite (but large) curvature; this is also expected in simulations, in which discretization errors may
result in an effective truncated curvature of an inversed grid spacing. In both cases, the effect
of this truncation on the ow behavior (such as ow separation) should be investigated; in our
experience, it is indeed necessary to use a ne grid near corners before results on this larger scale
have converged.
Furthermore, at a mathematically sharp edge of angle , even with identical wetting properties
on both sides of the edge, the contact line can still rest there for a range of contact-angle values
[
e
, +
e
] by the geometrical extension of Youngs equation (Gibbs 1878). The contact line
starts to move away from the corner at the two threshold angles for the receding and advancing
motions, respectively (Oliver et al. 1977), thereby effectively resulting in contact-angle hysteresis
that resists contact-line motion.
The pinning and depinning of contact lines at the sharp edges also restrict the wetting on
substrates with hydrophobic pillars, upon which droplets rest as fakirs (Dupuis & Yeomans 2005,
Qu er e 2002); in this way, the substrate essentially becomes superhydrophobic and signicantly
enhances the slip of the uid on it (Gao & Feng 2009). A numerical study of drop impact on
a hydrophilic substrate with one pore has shown that this effect plays an important role in the
regime transition from the occurrence of an entrapped bubble to a settled slug in the pore (Ding
& Theofanous 2012).
Contact-line motion past corners also arises in industrial applications. An example simulation
of droplet formation in microuidic T-junctions, based on a DI method, can be found in de
Menech et al. (2008).
Finally, the dynamics of solid objects oating or impacting on a liquid is coupled to the ow
behavior near an MCL (see the sidebar, Floating Particles: Particle Impact onto a Liquid).
FLOATING PARTICLES: PARTICLE IMPACT ONTO A LIQUID
Floating particles appear in separation processes such as emulsication, in which mutually attractive forces between
particles arise through interface deformation (Dixit & Homsy 2012); in biolocomotion on liquids (Bush & Hu
2006); and in the impact of objects onto a liquid layer, where the splash is strongly affected by the objects wetting
properties (Snoeijer &Andreotti 2013). Amoving solid object may be represented in a simulated ow, a contact-line
model can be imposed on its surface, and the total force and moment exerted by the uid on a oating or impacting
object are required [an early example is provided by Singh & Joseph (2005), who had to rely on numerical slip].
The traction in the direct vicinity of the contact line is therefore needed, which may be sensitive to the contact-line
model used. If a macroscale model is used that does not resolve this inner region explicitly (Section 2.4), the traction
should be obtained from the analysis on which the macroscale model is based.
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6. FURTHER COMPLEXITIES
6.1. Thermocapillarity, Surfactants, and Electric Fields
A temperature gradient leads an isotropic surface tension coefcient to vary with position, giving
rise to Marangoni stresses, thereby resulting in thermocapillarity (e.g., Ehrhard & Davis 1991). A
droplet normally migrates down a temperature gradient, also when on a surface, and this is widely
used to manipulate droplets in microuidic devices. Related changes in surface tension arise in
the presence of surfactants. The rich physics in both these areas is reviewed by Bonn et al. (2009).
Accounting for these effects in DNS requires (a) an energy equation or transport equation for a
surfactant concentration, (b) a modied surface tension force at the interface, and (c) potentially a
modied contact-line model.
Regarding the rst requirement, a convection/diffusion equation is often used for the tempera-
ture or surfactant concentration. For the temperature, this requires justication as to why viscous
heating can be ignored, which seems challenging when considering the eventual simulation of
MCLs. For the surfactant concentration, great care must be taken in an Eulerian description re-
garding the advective terms (Wong et al. 1996; various versions are discussed in Pereira et al. 2007),
also accounting for the surface dilatation. Alternatively, for immiscible surfactants, the surfactant
concentration equation is solved on discretized interfaces, supplemented by convection/diffusion
equations for the bulk concentrations (Li 2006).
Regarding the second requirement, a straightforward extension of the isothermal, surfactant-
free formulation leads to the stress jump condition
[] n = ( n)n (I nn) , (3)
where [] =
1

0
denotes the jump in stress across an interface, and n is a unit normal vector
of the interface; is now a function of the local temperature or surfactant concentration, usually
linearly decreasing with increasing temperature or surfactant concentration, or a logarithmic
Langmuir equation of state. Examples of implementations along the lines outlined above in an LS
and in a DI approach can be found in Xu et al. (2006) and Teigen et al. (2011), respectively.
For the third requirement, the main considerations regarding MCLs are as in the case with-
out these complexities. However, the static and dynamic contact angles will be altered by the
presence of surfactants or changes in temperature. Furthermore, depending on the detailed in-
teraction between surfactant molecules and the solid, surfactants may be deposited from the
interface onto the wall (either ahead or behind the MCL), which would require transport through
the MCL. When using a slip model, or some other MCL model that results in the uid ve-
locity approaching the contact-line velocity at the MCL, one would require the surface diffu-
sion of surfactants or some other mechanism for the transport of surfactants through the MCL
(Ram e 2001). Finally, if signicant Marangoni stresses arise near the MCL, the curvature of the
interface may be singular at the MCL in the limit of slowspreading, and even at stationary contact
lines (Ehrhard & Davis 1991).
Thus far, such simulations with MCLs are still rather limited. Figure 4 shows a sample result
of an implementation of the approach outlined above for thermocapillarity in the LS method with
a slip condition of Sui & Spelt (2013b) for a case with strong thermocapillary effects.
Finally, we note here that the difculties encountered above return in modeling electrowetting,
although such simulations appear still limited. In the adoption of a leaky-dielectric model (Saville
1997), from the electric eld, Maxwell stresses are accounted for in the momentum equations;
at interfaces, a transport equation then results in the charge density, and the stress condition in
Equation 3 also includes tangential components. The static angle appears unaffected, although
an apparent angle depends on the voltage applied under static conditions (e.g., Bonn et al. 2009).
www.annualreviews.org Numerical Simulations of Flows with MCLs 111
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Figure 4
Example result for a droplet with strong thermocapillary effects that cause dewetting, even if the initial drop shape is such that under
isothermal conditions, the drop would spread. The result was obtained with an extension of the level-set method of Sui & Spelt (2013b)
with a slip boundary condition. Parameters used are Oh = 0.1 (based on the surface tension coefcient at the far-eld temperature),

d
= 30

, and = 0.001. The color plot represents the temperature eld, and the instantaneous streamlines are in a frame of
reference moving with the moving contact line.
6.2. Phase Change
Phase change oftenoccurs at MCLs inpractice, for example, indroplet evaporationinspray cooling
and in bubble growth in nucleate boiling. In the framework of continuum hydrodynamic theories,
phase change introduces several challenges in addition to those outlined for thermocapillarity in
the previous section, even in the absence of a contact line: The rate of phase change is required, and
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thermal interfacial boundary conditions must be imposed. In both cases, different formulations
have been proposed and implemented.
Furthermore, at an MCL, a thermal singularity arises in models when phase change is present,
unless precautions are taken. This results from the liquid/gas interface being almost isothermal
because of the high latent heat, whereas the solid wall is generally at another temperature owing
to its high thermal conductivity, and thus the temperature would be multivalued at the contact
line, resulting in a nonintegrable heat ux (evaporation or condensation ux). Therefore, evapo-
ration or condensation mainly occurs in a small region near an MCL, and the high heat ux can
signicantly affect the apparent contact angle and thus promote or retard the contact-line motion
(e.g., Anderson & Davis 1995, Hocking 1995).
A main approach is therefore to drop the assumption of a constant interfacial temperature;
other approaches are based on the consideration of a prewetted substrate with van der Waals
forces in lubrication theories (e.g., Ajaev 2005, Moosman & Homsy 1980) or account for the
nite thermal conductivity of the solid substrate (e.g., Nikolayev 2010, Ristenpart et al. 2007).
Recently, it has been recognized that the large interfacial curvature near the contact line leads
to a signicant Kelvin effect such that T
S
depends on the local interfacial curvature, resulting in
even the stress singularity being eliminated (Rednikov & Colinet 2013). Furthermore, rather than
assuming that T
I
= T
S
, the rate of phase change J can be obtained from kinetic theory, linearized
in small changes in temperature and pressure (e.g., Morris 2000), and the distribution of T
I
can
be solved as part of the problem (see also Burelbach et al. 1988). This approach is therefore still
restricted to small rates of phase change. We also note that the velocity eld is not divergence-free.
Simulations of nucleate boiling along these lines have been developed using LS (Son et al.
1999) and VOF methods (Kunkelmann & Stephan 2009). In such interface-capturing schemes,
the velocity eld used to evolve interfaces accounts for the local uid velocity as well as the rate of
phase change (the velocity eld is no longer continuous at the interface). However, in these studies,
the contact-line singularities are circumvented by assuming the existence of a liquid lm beneath
the growing vapor bubble, and the ow is merely simulated at the macroscale. An implementation
with a contact line was reported by Karapetsas et al. (2012), but they used a nite-element method
for a single uid with a free surface. DNS of a fully coupled two-phase ow with an MCL and
phase change remains a challenge at this point.
For small-scale systems, however, a DI method based on a van der Waals free-energy model has
been developed to consider one-component liquid-vapor dynamics, taking into account MCLs
and phase change (Onuki 2007). With this model, and further incorporating a more general
hydrodynamic boundary condition that accounts for slip at the wall, Xu &Qian (2010) investigated
the competition of phase change and slip in the contact-line motion. A similar DI method has
recently been developed by Laurila et al. (2012) for the numerical simulation of boiling in a van
der Waals uid.
FUTURE ISSUES
1. More systematic experiments are needed to validate MCL models. To discriminate be-
tween various MCLmodels, a resolution well belowthat in prior work (which is typically
above 5 m) would be required such that the microscale region would be approached. In
order to facilitate a comparison with theory or simulations, the interface shape would be
needed, as well as the velocity along the free surface (to conrm whether the rolling-type
ow motion is observed at such scales).
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2. A sharp model boundary condition is needed that may approach slip away from contact
lines but that more accurately represents ndings from MD simulations through the
interface, possibly along the lines of Ren & E (2007).
3. Models of high-speed droplet impact, rapid dewetting, and noninertial rapid wetting,
which are not yet accessible by macroscale models, should be developed.
4. Complexities such as thermocapillarity, long-range intermolecular forces, and surfac-
tants, especially under rapid wetting/dewetting conditions, should be accounted for in
(macroscale) computational models for MCLs.
5. Contact lines that are highly curved, coalesce, rupture (e.g., in pearling of drops sliding
down an inclined wall), or approach corners should be simulated, and based on these,
macroscale models for 3D ows should be formulated. High-resolution unsteady DNS
models can be used to gain further insight into wetting failure, building on earlier work
of Sbragaglia et al. (2008) and Vandre et al. (2012).
6. Efcient models are needed for full uid/structure interactions involving moving objects.
DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
The authors are not aware of any biases that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of this
review.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Y.S. acknowledges the SEMS/QMUL start-up grant for new academics, and H.D. acknowledges
the support of the 100 Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
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Annual Review of
Fluid Mechanics
Volume 46, 2014 Contents
Taking Fluid Mechanics to the General Public
Etienne Guyon and Marie Yvonne Guyon p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 1
Stably Stratied Atmospheric Boundary Layers
L. Mahrt p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 23
Rheology of Adsorbed Surfactant Monolayers at Fluid Surfaces
D. Langevin p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 47
Numerical Simulation of Flowing Blood Cells
Jonathan B. Freund p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 67
Numerical Simulations of Flows with Moving Contact Lines
Yi Sui, Hang Ding, and Peter D.M. Spelt p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 97
Yielding to Stress: Recent Developments in Viscoplastic Fluid Mechanics
Neil J. Balmforth, Ian A. Frigaard, and Guillaume Ovarlez p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 121
Dynamics of Swirling Flames
S ebastien Candel, Daniel Durox, Thierry Schuller, Jean-Fran cois Bourgouin,
and Jonas P. Moeck p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 147
The Estuarine Circulation
W. Rockwell Geyer and Parker MacCready p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 175
Particle-Resolved Direct Numerical Simulation for Gas-Solid Flow
Model Development
Sudheer Tenneti and Shankar Subramaniam p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 199
Internal Wave Breaking and Dissipation Mechanisms on the Continental
Slope/Shelf
Kevin G. Lamb p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 231
The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration
Herbert E. Huppert and Jerome A. Neufeld p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 255
Wake Signature Detection
Geoffrey R. Spedding p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 273
Fast Pressure-Sensitive Paint for Flow and Acoustic Diagnostics
James W. Gregory, Hirotaka Sakaue, Tianshu Liu, and John P. Sullivan p p p p p p p p p p p p p 303
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FL46-FrontMatter ARI 17 November 2013 14:45
Instabilities in Viscosity-Stratied Flow
Rama Govindarajan and Kirti Chandra Sahu p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 331
Water Entry of Projectiles
Tadd T. Truscott, Brenden P. Epps, and Jesse Belden p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 355
Surface Acoustic Wave Microuidics
Leslie Y. Yeo and James R. Friend p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 379
Particle Transport in Therapeutic Magnetic Fields
Ishwar K. Puri and Ranjan Ganguly p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 407
Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles
Haecheon Choi, Jungil Lee, and Hyungmin Park p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 441
Low-Frequency Unsteadiness of Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer
Interactions
Noel T. Clemens and Venkateswaran Narayanaswamy p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 469
Adjoint Equations in Stability Analysis
Paolo Luchini and Alessandro Bottaro p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 493
Optimization in Cardiovascular Modeling
Alison L. Marsden p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 519
The Fluid Dynamics of Competitive Swimming
Timothy Wei, Russell Mark, and Sean Hutchison p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 547
Interfacial Layers Between Regions of Different Turbulence Intensity
Carlos B. da Silva, Julian C.R. Hunt, Ian Eames, and Jerry Westerweel p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 567
Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression
John M. Tarbell, Zhong-Dong Shi, Jessilyn Dunn, and Hanjoong Jo p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 591
The Physicochemical Hydrodynamics of Vascular Plants
Abraham D. Stroock, Vinay V. Pagay, Maciej A. Zwieniecki,
and N. Michele Holbrook p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 615
Indexes
Cumulative Index of Contributing Authors, Volumes 146 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 643
Cumulative Index of Article Titles, Volumes 146 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 652
Errata
An online log of corrections to Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics articles may be
found at http://uid.annualreviews.org/errata.shtml
vi Contents
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ANNUAL REVIEWS
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Volume 1 Online January 2014 http://statistics.annualreviews.org
Editor: Stephen E. Fienberg, Carnegie Mellon University
Associate Editors: Nancy Reid, University of Toronto
Stephen M. Stigler, University of Chicago
The Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application aims to inform statisticians and quantitative methodologists, as
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TABLE OF CONTENTS:
What Is Statistics? Stephen E. Fienberg
A Systematic Statistical Approach to Evaluating Evidence
from Observational Studies, David Madigan, Paul E. Stang,
Jesse A. Berlin, Martijn Schuemie, J. Marc Overhage,
Marc A. Suchard, Bill Dumouchel, Abraham G. Hartzema,
Patrick B. Ryan
The Role of Statistics in the Discovery of a Higgs Boson,
David A. van Dyk
Brain Imaging Analysis, F. DuBois Bowman
Statistics and Climate, Peter Guttorp
Climate Simulators and Climate Projections,
Jonathan Rougier, Michael Goldstein
Probabilistic Forecasting, Tilmann Gneiting,
Matthias Katzfuss
Bayesian Computational Tools, Christian P. Robert
Bayesian Computation Via Markov Chain Monte Carlo,
Radu V. Craiu, Jefrey S. Rosenthal
Build, Compute, Critique, Repeat: Data Analysis with Latent
Variable Models, David M. Blei
Structured Regularizers for High-Dimensional Problems:
Statistical and Computational Issues, Martin J. Wainwright
High-Dimensional Statistics with a View Toward Applications
in Biology, Peter Bhlmann, Markus Kalisch, Lukas Meier
Next-Generation Statistical Genetics: Modeling, Penalization,
and Optimization in High-Dimensional Data, Kenneth Lange,
Jeanette C. Papp, Janet S. Sinsheimer, Eric M. Sobel
Breaking Bad: Two Decades of Life-Course Data Analysis
in Criminology, Developmental Psychology, and Beyond,
Elena A. Erosheva, Ross L. Matsueda, Donatello Telesca
Event History Analysis, Niels Keiding
Statistical Evaluation of Forensic DNA Profle Evidence,
Christopher D. Steele, David J. Balding
Using League Table Rankings in Public Policy Formation:
Statistical Issues, Harvey Goldstein
Statistical Ecology, Ruth King
Estimating the Number of Species in Microbial Diversity
Studies, John Bunge, Amy Willis, Fiona Walsh
Dynamic Treatment Regimes, Bibhas Chakraborty,
Susan A. Murphy
Statistics and Related Topics in Single-Molecule Biophysics,
Hong Qian, S.C. Kou
Statistics and Quantitative Risk Management for Banking
and Insurance, Paul Embrechts, Marius Hofert
Access this and all other Annual Reviews journals via your institution at www.annualreviews.org.
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