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Chapter-2: Slope Deflection Method

Example: Analyze the propped cantilever shown by using slope defection


method. Then draw Bending moment and shear force diagram.

Solution: End A is fixed hence A =0


End B is Hinged hence B 0
Assume both ends are fixed and therefore fixed end moments are
FAB =

wL2
wL2
, FBA = +
12
12

The Slope deflection equations for final moment at each end are
2EI
( 2 A + B )
L
wL2 2EI
=
+
B
12
L
2EI
( 2 B + A )
MBA = FBA +
L
wL2 4EI
=
+
B
12
L
MAB = FAB +

(1)

( 2)

In the above equations there is only one unknown B .


To solve we have boundary condition at B;
Since B is simply supported, the BM at B is zero
ie. MBA=0.
From equation (2) MBA =
EIB =

wL3
48

wL2 4EI
+
B = 0
12
L

- ve sign indicates the rotation is anticlockw ise

Substituting the value of EIB in equation (1) and (2) we have end moments
MAB =

wL2 2 wL3
wL2
=
+
- ve sign indicates moment is anticlockw ise
12
L 48
8

MBA = +

wL2 4 wL3
=0
+
12
L 48

MBA has to be zero, because it is hinged.

Now consider the free body diagram of the beam and find reactions using
equations of equilibrium.

MB = 0
R A L = MAB + wL

L
2

wL2
L
5
+ wL = + wL
8
2
8
5
R A = wL
8
V=0
R A + RB = wL
=

RB = wL R A = wL
=

5
wL
8

3
wL
8

Problem can be treated as

The bending moment diagram for the given problem is as below

The max BM occurs where SF=0. Consider SF equation at a distance of x


from right support

3
wL + wX = 0
8
3
X = L
8
SX =

Hence the max BM occurs at

3
L from support B
8
2

Mmax

3
3
w 3
= MX = wL L
L
8
8
2 8
9
=
wL2
128

And point of contra flexure occurs where BM=0, Consider BM equation at


a distance of x from right support.
3
X2
wLX w
=0
8
2
3
X = L
4
MX =

For shear force diagram, consider SF equation from B


3
wL wX
8
3
S X = 0 = SB = + wL
8
5
S X = L = S A = + wL
8
SX = +

Example: Analyze two span continuous beam ABC by slope deflection method.
Then draw Bending moment & Shear force diagram. Take EI constant

Solution: Fixed end moments are:

Wab 2
100 4 22
=

= 44.44KNM
L2
62
Wa 2b
100 4 2 2
=+
=
+
= +88.89KNM
L2
62
wL2
20 52
=
=
= 41.67KNM
12
12
+ wL2 20 52
=
=
= 41.67KNM
12
12

FAB =
FBA
FBC
FCB

Since A is fixed A = 0 , B 0, C 0,
Slope deflection equations are:
2EI
( 2 A + B )
L
2EI
= 44.44 +
B
6
1
= 44.44 + EI B
(1)
3
2EI
( 2 B + A )
MBA = FBA +
L
2EI 2 B
= + 88.89 +
6
2
= 88.89 + EI B
( 2)
3
2EI
MBC = FBC +
( 2B + C )
L
2EI
( 2B + C )
= 41.67 +
5
4
2
= 41.67 + EIB + EIC
(3 )
5
5
2EI
( 2C + B )
MCB = FCB +
L
2EI
= +41.67 +
( 2C + B )
5
4EI
2
= 41.67 +
C + EIB
( 4)
5
5
MAB = FAB +

In all the above four equations there are only two unknown B and C .
And accordingly the boundary conditions are

-MBA-MBC=0
MBA+MBC=0

ii

MCB=0

since C is end simply support.


2
4
2
EIB 41.67 + EIB + EIC
3
5
5
22
2
= 47.22 +
EIB + EIC = 0
> (5)
15
5
2
4
MCB = 41.67 + EIB + EIC = 0
> ( 6)
5
5
Now

MBA + MBC = 88.89 +

Solving simultaneous equations 5 & 6 we get


EI B = 20.83

Rotation anticlockwise.

EI C = 41.67

Rotation anticlockwise.

Substituting in the slope definition equations


1
( 20.83 ) = 51.38 KNM
3
2
MBA = + 88.89 + ( 20.83 ) = +75.00 KNM
3
4
2
MBC = 41.67+ ( 20.83 ) + ( 41.67 ) = 75.00 KNM
5
5
2
4
MCB = + 41.67+ ( 20.83 ) + ( 41.67 ) = 0
5
5

MAB = 44.44 +

Reactions: Consider the free body diagram of the beam.

Find reactions using equations of equilibrium.


Span AB:

MA = 0

RB6 = 1004+75-51.38

RB = 70.60 KN
V = 0

RA+RB = 100KN

RA = 100-70.60=29.40 KN
Span BC:

MC = 0

RB5 = 205

5
+75
2

RB = 65 KN
V=0

RB+RC = 205 = 100KN


RC = 100-65 = 35 KN

Using these data BM and SF diagram can be drawn.

Max BM:
Span AB: Max BM in span AB occurs under point load and can be found
geometrically
Mmax=113.33-51.38 -

( 75 51.38 ) 4 = 46.20 KNM


6

Span BC:Max BM in span BC occurs where shear force is zero or


changes its sign. Hence consider SF equation w.r.t C
x =

Sx = 35-20x = 0

35
=1.75m
20

Max BM occurs at 1.75m from C

Mmax = 35 1.75 20 1.75


2

= 30.625 KNM

Example: Analyze continuous beam ABCD by slope deflection method and then
draw bending moment diagram. Take EI constant.

Solution:
A = 0, B = 0, C = 0

FEMS

Wab 2
100 4 22
=

= - 44.44 KN M
L2
62
Wa 2b
100 42 2
FBA = +
=
+
= + 88.88 KNM
L2
62
wL2
20 5 2
F BC =
=
= - 41.67 KNM
12
12
wL2
20 5 2
F CB = +
=+
= + 41.67 KNM
12
12
F AB =

FCD = 20 1.5 = - 30

KN M

Slope deflection equations:


MAB =F AB +

MBA =FBA +

2EI
( 2A +B ) = 44.44 + 1 EIB
L
3

2EI
( 2B +A ) = +88.89 + 2 EIB
L
3

- - - - - - - -- > (1)

- - - - - - - -- > ( 2)

2EI
( 2B +C ) = 41.67 + 4 EIB + 2 EIC
L
5
5

- - - - - - - - > ( 3)

2EI
( 2C +B ) = +41.67 + 4 EIC + 2 EIB
L
5
5
MCD = 30 KNM

- - - - - - - - > ( 4)

MBC =FBC +

MCB =FCB +

In the above equations we have two unknown rotations B and C , accordingly


the boundary conditions are:

MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +MCD = 0
2
4
2
Now, MBA +MBC = 88.89 + EIB 41.67 + EIB + EI C
3
5
5
22
2
= 47.22 +
EIB + EI C = 0
- - - - - - - - > ( 5)
15
5
4
2
And, MCB + MCD = + 41.67 + EI C + EI B 30
5
5
2
4
= 11.67 + EI B + EI C
> ( 6)
5
5

Solving (5) and (6) we get


EIB = 32.67 Rotation @ B anticlockw ise
EIC = +1.75

Rotation @ B clockwise

Substituting value of EIB and EIC in slope deflection equations we have


1
( 32.67 ) = 61.00 KNM
2
2
MBA = +88.89 + ( 32.67 ) = +67.11 KNM
3
4
2
MBC = 41.67 + ( 32.67 ) = + (1.75 ) = 67.11 KNM
5
5
4
2
MCB = +41.67 + (1.75 ) + ( 32.67 ) = +30.00 KNM
5
5
MCD = 30 KNM
MAB = 44.44 +

Reactions: Consider free body diagram of beam AB, BC and CD as shown

10

Span AB

RB 6 = 100 4 + 67.11 61
RB = 67.69 KN
R A = 100 RB = 32.31 KN
Span BC

5
5 + 30 67.11
2
RC = 42.58 KN
RC 5 = 20

RB = 20 5 RB = 57.42 KN

Maximum Bending Moments:


Span AB: Occurs under point load
67.11 61

Max = 133.33 61
4 = 68.26 KNM
6

Span BC: where SF=0, consider SF equation with C as reference

11

S X = 42.58 20 x = 0
x=

42.58
= 2.13 m
20

Mmax = 42.58 2.13 20

2.132
30 = 15.26 KN M
2

Example: Analyse the continuous beam ABCD shown in figure by slope


deflection method. The support B sinks by 15mm.
Take E = 200 105 KN / m2 and I = 120 10 6 m4

Solution:
In this problem A =0,

B 0, C 0, =15mm

FEMs:

Wab 2
= 44.44 KNM
L2
Wa 2 b
=+
= +88.89 KNM
L2

FAB =
FBA

wL2
= 41.67 KNM
8
wL2
=+
= +41.67 KNM
8

FBC =
FCB

FEM due to yield of support B

For span AB:

12

6EI

L2
6 200
15
=
105 120 10 6
= 6 KNM
2
6
1000

mab = mba =

For span BC:


6EI

L2
6 200
15
=+
105 120 10 6
= + 8.64KNM
2
5
1000

mbc = mcb = +

Slope deflection equation

2EI
3
(2A +B )
L
L
EI
6EI
= F AB + ( 2A +B ) 2
L
L
1
= - 44.44 + EIB 6
3
1
= 50.44 + EIB
3
2EI
6EI
MBA = FBA +
(2B +A ) 2
L
L
2
= + 88.89 + EIB 6
3
2
= +82.89 + EIB
3
2EI
6EI
MBC = FBC +
(2B +C ) + 2
L
L
2
= - 41.67 + EI( 2B +C ) + 8.64
5
4
2
= 33.03 + EIB + EIC
5
5
2EI
6EI
MCB = FCB +
(2C +B ) + 2
L
L
2
= + 41.67 + EI( 2C +B ) + 8.64
5
4
2
= +50.31 + EIC + EIB
5
5
MCD = 30 KNM
MAB = F AB +

- - - - - - - -- > (1)

- - - - - - - -- > ( 2)

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )
- - - - - - - -- > ( 5 )

13

There are only two unknown rotations B and C . Accordingly the boundary
conditions are
MBA +MBC = 0

MCB +MCD = 0

Now, MBA +MBC = 49.86 + 22 EIB + 2 EIC = 0


15
5
2
4
MCB +MCD = 20.31 + EIB + EIC = 0
5
5

Solving these equations we get

EIB = 31.35
EIC = 9.71

Anticl ockwise
Anticl ockwise

Substituting these values in slope deflections we get the final moments:


1
( 31.35 ) = 60.89 KNM
3
2
MBA = +82.89 + ( 31.35 ) = +61.99 KNM
3
4
2
MBC = 33.03 + ( 31.35 ) + ( 9.71) = 61.99 KNM
5
5
4
2
MCB = +50.31 + ( 9.71) + ( 31.35 ) = +30.00 KNM
5
5
MCD = 30 KNM
MAB = 50.44 +

Consider the free body diagram of continuous beam for finding reactions

Reactions:
Span AB:
RB 6 = 100 x 4 + 61.99 60.89
RB = 66.85
RA = 100 RB
=33.15 KN

14

Span BC:
RB 5 = 20 x 5 x

5
+ 61.99 30
2

RB = 56.40 KN
RC = 20 x 5 - RB
=43.60 KN

Example: Three span continuous beam ABCD is fixed at A and continuous over
B, C and D. The beam subjected to loads as shown. Analyse the beam by slope
deflection method and draw bending moment and shear force diagram.

Solution:

15

Since end A is fixed A = 0, B 0, c 0, D = 0


FEMs:
Wl
60 4
=
= - 30 KNM
8
8
Wl
60 4
FBA = +
=+
= + 30 KNM
8
8
M
FBC = +
= +12.5 KNM
4
M
FCB = +
= +12.5 KNM
4
wl2
10 4 2
FCD =
=
= - 13.3 3 KNM
12
12
wl2
10 4 2
FDC = +
=+
= + 13.33 KNM
12
12
F AB =

Slope deflection equations:


2EI
( 2A +B )
L
2EI
= - 30 +
( 0 +B )
4

M AB = F AB +

= - 30 + 0.5EI B

2EI
( 2B +A )
L
2EI
= 30 +
( 2B +0 )
4

- - - - - - - - > ( 1)

MBA = F BA +

= + 30 + EI B

2EI
( 2B +C )
L
2EI
= 12.5 +
( 2B +C )
4
= 12.5 + EI B + 0.5EI C
2EI
MCB = F CB +
( 2C +B )
L
2EI
= 12.5 +
( 2C +B )
4
= 12.5 + EI C + 0.5 EI B
2EI
MCD = F CD +
( 2C +D )
L
2EI
= - 13.33 +
( 2C +D )
4
= 13.33 + EI C + 0.5EI D

- - - - - - - -- > ( 2)

MBC =F BC +

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )

- - - - - - - - - - > ( 5)

16

2EI
( 2D +C )
L
2EI
= 13.33 +
( 2D +C )
4
= 13.33 + 0.5EI C + EI D

MDC =F DC +

- - - - - - - - - - > ( 6)

In the above Equations there are three unknowns, EI B ,EIC & EID ,
accordingly the boundary conditions are:
i

MBA +MBC = 0

ii MCB +MCD = 0
iii MDC = 0

Now

( hinged)

MBA + MBC = 0
30 + EI B + 12.5 + EI B + 0.5EI C = 0
2EI B + 0.5EI C + 42.5 = 0

> ( 7)

MCB +MBC = 0
+ 12.5 + EIC +0.5EIB 13.33 + EIC +0.5EID = 0
0.5EIB +2EIC +0.5EID 0.83 = 0
MDC = 0
13.33 + 0.5EI C + EI D = 0

> ( 8)

> ( 9)

By solving (7), (8) & (9), we get


EIB = 24.04
EIC = +11.15
EID = 18.90

By substituting the values of B , c and D in respective equations we get


MAB = 30 + 0.5 ( 24.04 ) = 42.02 KNM
MBA = +30 + ( 24.04 ) = +5.96 KNM

MBC = + 12.5 + ( - 24.04 ) + 0.5( + 11.15 ) = - 5.96 KNM


MCB = +12.5 + 11.15 + 0.5( 24.04 ) = +11.63 KNM
MCD = 13.33 + 11.15 + 0.5( 18.90 ) = 11.63 KNM
MDC = +13.33 + 0.5(11.15 ) + ( 18.90 ) = 0 KNM

Reactions: Consider the free body diagram of beam.

17

Beam AB:

60 2 + 5.96 42.02
= 20.985 KN
4
R A = 60 RB = 30.015 KN
RB =

Beam BC:

11.63 + 50 5.96
= 13.92 KN
4
RB = RC = 13.92 KN RB is downward
RC =

Beam CD:

10 4 2 11.63
= 17.09 KN
4
RC = 10 4 RD = 22.91 KN
RD =

18

Example: Analyse the continuous beam shown using slope deflection method.
Then draw bending moment and shear force diagram.

Solution: In this problem A = 0,

end A is fixed

FEMs:
wl2
10 82
=
= - 53.33 KNM
12
12
wl2
FBA = +
= + 53.33 KNM
12
Wl
30 6
FBC =
=
= - 22.50 KNM
8
8
WL
FCD = +
= + 22.50 KNM
8
F AB =

Slope deflection equations:


2EI
( 2A +B )
L
2E 3I
= - 53.33 +
( 0 +B )
8
3
= - 53.33 + EI B
4
2EI
MBA = F BA +
( 2B +A )
L
2E 3I
= + 53.33 +
( 2B +0 )
8
M AB = F AB +

- - - - - - - - > ( 1)

19

3
= 53.33 + EI B
2

2EI
( 2B +C )
L
2E2I
= - 22.5 +
( 2B +C )
6
4
2
= - 22.5 + EI B + EI C
3
3
2EI
MCB = F CB +
( 2C +B )
L
2E2I
= + 22.5 +
( 2C +B )
6
4
2
= + 22.5 + EI C + EI B
3
3

- - - - - - - - > ( 2)

MBC =F BC +

- - - - - - - - > ( 3)

- - - - - - - - > ( 4)

In the above equation there are two unknown B and C , accordingly the
boundary conditions are:
i MBA MBC 24 = 0
ii MCB = 0
3
4
2
EIB 22.5 + EIB + EIC +24
2
3
3
17
2
= +54.83 +
EIB + EIC = 0
> ( 5)
6
3
4
2
and MCB = 22.5 + EIC + EIB = 0
3
3
- - - - - - - - - -- > (6)
23 EI C = 11.25 31 EI B

Now, MBA +MBC 24 = 53.33 +

Substituting in eqn. (5)


17
1
EIB 11.25 EIB = 0
6
3
15
+ 44.58 +
EIB = 0
6
44.58 6
EIB =
= 17.432 rotation anticlockwise
15
54.83 +

from equation (6)


20

3
1

11.25 ( 17.432 )

2
3

= 8.159 rotation anticlockw ise

EIC =

Substituting EIB = 17.432 and EIC = 8.159 in the slope deflection equation
we get Final Moments:
3
( - 17.432 ) = -66.40 KNM
4
3
MBA = +53.33 + ( 17.432 ) = +27.18 KNM
2
MAB = 53.33 +

4
( 17.432 ) + 2 ( 8.159 ) = 51.18 KNM
3
3
4
2
MCB = +22.5 + ( 8.159 ) + ( 17.432) = 0.00
3
3
MBC = 22.5 +

Reactions: Consider free body diagram of beams as shown

Span AB:

27.18 66.40 + 10 8 4
= 35.13 KN
8
R A = 10 8 RB = 44.87 KN
RB =

Span BC:

51.18 + 30 3
= 23.53 KN
6
RC = 30 RB = 6.47 KN
RB =

21

Max BM
Span AB: Max BM occurs where SF=0, consider SF equation with A as origin
S x = 44.87 - 10x = 0
x = 4.487 m
M

max

= 44.87 4.487 10

4.487 2
64 = 36.67 KNM
2

Span BC: Max BM occurs under point load


BC Mmax = 45

51.18
= 19.41KN M
2

Example: Analyse the beam shown in figure. End support C is subjected to an


anticlockwise moment of 12 KNM.

22

Solution: In this problem A = 0, end is fixed


FEMs:
wl2
20 4 2
=
= 26.67 KNM
12
12
wl2
FCB = +
= + 26.67 KNM
12

FBC =

Slope deflection equations:


2EI
( 2A +B )
L
2E2I
= 0+
( 0 +B )
4

M AB = F AB +

- - - - - - - -- > ( 1)

= EI B

2EI
( 2B +A )
L
2E2I
= 0+
( 2B +0)
4

MBA = F BA +

= 2EI B

- - - - - - - -- > ( 2)

2EI
( 2B +C )
L
2E 1.5I
= - 26.67 +
( 2B +C )
4
3
3
= - 26.67 + EIB + EIC
- - - - - - - -- > ( 3)
2
4
2EI
MCB = F CB +
( 2C +B )
L
2E 1.5I
= + 26.67 +
( 2C +B )
4
3
3
= + 26.67 + EIC + EIB
- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )
2
4
In the above equation there are two unknowns B and C , accordingly the
MBC =F BC +

boundary conditions are


MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +12 = 0
Now, MBA +MBC = 2EIB 26.67 +

3
3
EIB + EIC
2
4

7
3
EIB + EIC 26.67 = 0
2
4
3
3
and, MCB +12 = 26.67 + EIC + EIB +12
2
4
3
3
= 38.67 + EIB + EIC = 0
4
2
=

- - - - - - - -- > (5)

- - - - - - - -- > (6)

From (5) and (6)


23

7
3
EIB + EIC 26.67 = 0
2
4
3
3
EIB + EIC +19.33 = 0
8
4
25
EIB 46 = 0
8
EIB = +46

8
= +14.72
25

From (6)
2
3

38.67 + (14.72)
3
4

= 33.14
- ve sign indicates rotation anticlockw ise

EIC =

Substituti ng EIB and EIC is slope deflection equations

MAB = EIB = +14.72 KNM


MBA = 2EIB = 2(14.72) = 29.42 KNM
3
3
(14.72) + ( 33.14 ) = 29.44 KNM
2
4
3
3
MCB = +26.67 + ( 33.14 ) + (14.72) = 12 KNM
2
4
MBC = 26.67 +

Reaction: Consider free body diagrams of beam

Span AB:

24

14.72 + 29.44
= 11.04 KN
4
R A = RB = 11.04 KN
RB =

Span BC:
29.44 + 12 + 20 4 2
= 50.36 KN
4
RC = 20 4 RB = 29.64 KN
RB =

Example: Analyse the simple frame shown in figure. End A is fixed and ends B &
C are hinged. Draw the bending moment diagram.

25

Solution:
In this problem A = 0, B 0, C 0, D 0,
FEMS:Wab 2
120 2 42
=

= 106.67 KNM
L2
62
Wa 2b
120 22 4
=+
=
+
= +53.33 KNM
L2
62
wl2
20 42
=
=
= 26.67 KNM
12
12
wl2
20 42
=+
=+
= +26.67 KNM
12
12
WL
20 4
=+
=+
= +10 KNM
8
8
WL
=
= 10 KNM
8

FAB =
FBA
FBC
FCB
FCD
FDB

Slope deflections are


2EI
( 2 A + B )
L
2E2I
( B ) = 106.67 + 2 EIB
= 106.67 +
6
3

MAB = FAB +

> (1 )

26

2EI
( 2B + B )
L
2E2I
= +53.33 +
( 2B ) = +53.33 + 4 EIB
> (2 )
6
3
2EI
( 2B + C )
MBC = FCB +
L
2E 3I
3
3
= 26.67 +
( 2B + C ) = 26.67 + EIB + EIC
> (3 )
4 2
2
4
2EI
MCB = FCB +
( 2C + B )
L
2E 3I
3
3
= +26.67 +
( 2C + B ) = +26.67 + EIC + EIB
> (4 )
4 2
2
4
2EI
MBD = FBD +
( 2B + D )
L
2EI
( 2B + D ) = +10 + EIB + 1 EID
= + 10 +
> (5 )
4
2
2EI
( 2D + B )
MDB = FDB +
L
2EI
( 2D + B ) = 10 + EID + 1 EIB
= 10 +
> (6 )
4
2
MBA = FBA +

In the above equations we have three unknown rotations B , C , D


accordingly we have three boundary conditions.
MBA + MBC + MBD = 0

MCB = 0

Since C and D are hinged

MDB = 0

Now
4
3
3
1
EIB 26.67 + EIB + EIC + 10 + EIB + EID
3
2
4
2
23
3
1
= 36.66 +
EIB + EIC + EID = 0
- - - -- > (7)
6
4
2
3
3
= 26.67 + EIB + EIC = 0
- - - -- > (8)
4
2
1
= 10 + EIB + EID = 0
- - - -- > (9)
2

MBA + MBC + MBD = 53.33 +

MCB
MDB

Solving equations 7, 8, & 9 we get


EIB = 8.83
EIC = 13.36
EID = +14.414

Substituting these values in slope equations

27

M AB = 106.67 +

2
( 8.83 ) = 112.56 KNM
3

4
( 8.83) = 41.56 KNM
3
3
3
= 26.67 + ( 8.3) + ( 13.36 ) = 49.94 KNM
2
4
3
3
= +26.67 + ( 13.36 ) + ( 8.83 ) = 0
2
4
1
= 10 + ( 8.83 ) + ( +14.414 ) = 8.38 KNM
2
1
= 10 + (14.414 ) + ( 8.83 ) = 0
2

MBA = 53.33 +
MBC
M CB
MBD
MDB

Reactions: Consider free body diagram of each members

28

Span AB:

41.56 112.56 + 120 2


= 28.17 KN
6
R A = 120 RB = 91.83 KN
RB =

Span BC:

49.94 + 20 4 2
= 52.485 KN
4
RC = 20 4 RB = 27.515 KN
RB =

Column BD:

20 2 8.33
= 7.92 KN
4
[ HA + HD = 20]
HB = 12.78 KN
HD =

29

Example: Analyse the portal frame shown in figure and also drawn bending
moment and shear force diagram

Solution:
Symmetrical problem
- Sym frame + Sym loading

A = 0, B 0, C 0, D = 0

FEMS
W 1ab 2 W 2 cd2

L2
L2
80 2 42 80 4 22
=

= - 106.67 KNM
62
62

FBC =

Wa 2b W 2 c 2d
FCB = +
+
= +106.67 KNM
L2
L2
30

Slope deflection equations:


2EI
( 2A +B ) = 0 + 2EI ( 0 +B ) = 1 EIB
- - - - - - - - > (1)
L
4
2
2EI
( 2B +A ) = 0 + 2EI ( 2B +0 ) = EIB
MBA =FBA +
- - - - - -- > ( 2)
L
4
2EI
MBC =FBC +
( 2B +C )
L
2E2I
4
2
= 106.67 +
( 2B +C ) = 106.67 + EIB + EIC - - - - - - > ( 3 )
6
3
3
2EI
MCB =FCB +
( 2C +B )
L
2E2I
4
2
= +106.67 +
(2C +B ) = +106.67 + EIC + EIB - - - - - - > ( 4 )
6
3
3
2EI
MCD = FCD +
( 2 C + D )
L
2EI
= 0+
(2 C + 0) = EI C
- - - - - -- > ( 5)
4
2EI
( 2 D + C )
MDC = FDC +
L
2EI
1
= 0+
(0 + C ) = EI C
- - - - - -- > ( 6 )
4
2
MAB =F AB +

In the above equation there are two unknown rotations. Accordingly the boundary
conditions are
MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +MCD = 0
7
2
Now MBA +MBC = 106.67 + EIB + EIC = 0
3
3
MCB +MCD = +106.67 +

2
7
EIB + EIC = 0
3
3

- - - - - -- > (7)

- - - - - -- > (8)

Multiply by (7) and (8) by 2


49
14

746.69 +
EI
EI
0
B+
C=

3
3
subtracts
4
14
+
213.34 + EI
EI
0
B+
C=

3
3

45
- 960.03 +
EI
0
B=
3
3
EI
+960 .03
=+ 64
B=
45

Clockwise

31

Using equation (7)


7

106.67 + 3 EIB

3
7

= - 106.67 + 64 = 64 Anticlo ckwise


2
3

EIC =

3
2

Here we find B = C . It is obvious because the problem is symmetrical.


Final moments are
64
= +32 KNM
2
MBA = 64 KNM
M AB = +

4
2
64 + ( 64 ) = 64 KNM
3
3
4
2
MCB = +106.67 + ( 64 ) + ( 64 ) = + 64 KNM
3
3
MCD = 64 KNM
MBC = 106 .67 +

MDC =

1
64 = -32 KNM
2

Consider free body diagrams of beam and columns as shown

32

By symmetrical we can write

R A = RB = 60 KNM
RD = RC = 80 KNM

Now consider free body diagram of column AB


Apply

MB = 0
HA 4 = 64 + 32
HA = 24 KN

Similarly from free body diagram of column CD


Apply

MC = 0
HA 4 = 64 + 32
HD = 24 KN

Check:

H =0

HA +HD =0

Hence okay
33

Note: Since symmetrical, only half frame may be analysed. Using first three
equations
and taking B = C
Example: Analyse the portal frame and then draw the bending moment diagram

34

Solution:
This is a symmetrical frame and unsymmetrically loaded, thus it is an
unsymmetrical problem and there is a sway
Assume sway to right.
Here A = 0,D = 0,B 0,D = 0
FEMS:
Wab 2
80 5 32
=

= 56.25 KNM
L2
82
Wa 2b
80 52 3
FCB = +
=
+
= +93.75 KNM
L2
82
FBC =

Slope deflection equations


MAB =F AB +
=0+
MBA =FBA +
=0+

2EI
3
2A +B

L
L
2EI
3 1
3
0 +B
= EIB EI
4
4 2
8

- - - - - - - - > (1)

2EI
3
2B +A

L
L
2EI
3
3
2B +0
= EIB EI
4
4
8

- - - - - - - - > ( 2)

35

2EI
( 2B +C )
L
2EI
( 2B +C ) = 56.25 + 1 EIB + 1 EIC
= 56.25 +
8
2
4
2EI
( 2C +B )
MCB =FCB +
L
2EI
= +93.75 +
( 2C +B ) = 93.75 + 1 EIC + 1 EIB
8
2
4
2EI
3
MCD =FCD +
2C +D

L
L
MBC =FBC +

=0+
MDC =FDC +
=0+

2EI
3
3
2C +0
= EIC EI
4
4
8

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 5 )

2EI
3
2D +C

L
L
2EI
3 1
3
0 +C
= EIC EI
4
4 2
8

- - - - - - - -- > ( 6 )

In the above equation there are three unknowns B , C and , accordingly the
boundary conditions are,
MBA +MBC = 0

> Jo int conditions

MCB +MCD = 0
HA +HD + PH = 0

- - - > Shear condition

MAB +MBA MCD +MDC


+
=0
4
4
MAB +MBA +MCD +MDC = 0
3
1
1
Now, MBA +MBC = EIB EI 56.25 + EIB + EIC = 0
8
2
4
3
1
3
= 56.25 + EIB + EIC EI = 0
2
4
8
1
1
3
And, MCB +MCD = 93.75 + EIC + EIB +EIC EI = 0
2
4
8
1
3
3
= 93.75 + EIB + EIC EI = 0
4
2
8
i.e,

> ( 7)

> ( 8 )

1
3
3
3
EIB EI + EIB EI + EIC EI
2
8
8
8
1
3
+ EIC EI
2
8`
3
3
3
= EIB + EIC EI = 0
> ( 9 )
2
2
2

And, MAB +MBA +MCD +MDC =

36

From (9)

EI = EIB +EIC

Substitute in (7) & (8)

Eqn (7)
3
1
3
56.25 + EI B + EI C [ EI B + EI C ] = 0
2
4
8
9
1
56.25 + EI B EI C = 0
8
8

- - - - - -- > ( 10 )

Eqn(8 )
1
3
3
+ 93.75 + EI B + EI C [ EI B + EI C ] = 0
4
2
8
1
9
+ 93.75 EI B + EI C = 0
8
8

- - - - - - - - - - > ( 11)

Solving equations (10) & (11) we get EIB = 41.25


By Equation (10)
9

EIC = 8 56.25 + EIB


8

= 8 56.25 + 41.25 = 78.75


8

EI = EIB +EIC = 41.25 78.75 = 37.5

Hence
EIB = 41.25, EIC = 78.75, EI = 37.5

Substituting these values in slope deflection equations, we have


1
( 41.25 ) 3 ( 37.5 ) = +34.69 KNM
2
8
3
MBA = 41.25 ( 37.5 ) = +55.31 KNM
8
1
1
MBC = 56.25 + ( 41.25 ) + ( 78.75 ) = 55.31 KNM
2
4
1
1
M CB = 93.75 + ( 78.75 ) + ( 41.75 ) = +64.69 KNM
2
4
3
M CD = 78.75 ( 37.5 ) = 64.69 KNM
8
1
3
MDC = ( 78.75 ) ( 37.5 ) = 25.31 KNM
2
8
M AB =

37

Reactions: consider the free body diagram of beam and columns


Column AB:
HA =

34.69 + 55.31
= 22.5 KN
4

Span BC:

55.31 64.69 + 80 3
= 28.83 KN
8
RC = 80 RB = 51.17
RB =

Column CD:
HD =

64.69 + 25.31
= 22.5
4

Check:
H = 0
HA + H D = 0
22.5 22.5 = 0
Hence okay

38

Example: Frame ABCD is subjected to a horizontal force of 20 KN at joint C as


shown in figure. Analyse and draw bending moment diagram.

Solution:
Frame is Symmetrical and unsymmetrical loaded hence there is a sway.
Assume sway towards right

FEMS

F AB =F BA =F BC =F CB =F CD =F DC = 0

Slope deflection equations are

39

MAB =F AB +

2EI
3
2 A + B
L
L

2EI
3
B
3
3
2
2
= EI B EI
3
3
2EI
3
MBA =FBA +
2 B + A
L
L
=

2EI
3
2 B
3
3
4
2
= EI B EI
3
3
2EI
( 2 B + C )
MBC = FBC +
L
2EI
=
( 2 B + C )
4
= EI B + 0.5 EI C

- - - - - - - -- > (1)

MCB = FCB +

> ( 2)

- - - - - - - - > ( 3)

2EI
( 2 C + B )
L

2EI
( 2 C + B )
4
= EI C + 0.5 EI B
=

MCD = FCD +

- - - - - - - - > ( 4)

2EI
3
2 C + D
L
L

2EI
3
2 C
3
3
4
2
= EI C EI
3
3
2EI
3
MDC = FDC +
2 D + C
L
L
2 EI
3
=
c
3
3
2
2
= EI C EI
3
3
=

> ( 5)

- - - - - - - -- > ( 6 )

The unknown are B, ,C & . Accordingly the boundary conditions are

40

I. MBA +MBC = 0
I I. MCB +MCD = 0
III.
i.e,

HA +HD 20 = 0
MAB +MBA MCD +MDC
+
20 = 0
3
3
MAB +MBA +MCD +MDC 60 = 0

4
2
EIB EI + EIB +0.5EIC
3
3
7
2
= EIB +0.5EIC EI = 0 > ( 7 )
3
3
4
2
and MCB +MCD = EIC +0.5EIB + EIC EI
3
3
7
2
= 0.5EIB + EIC EI = 0 > ( 8 )
3
3

Now MBA +MBC =

and MAB +MBA +MCD +MDC 60 =

2
2
4
2
4
EIB EI + EIB EI + EIC
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
EI + EIC EI 60
3
3
3
8
= 2EIB +2EIC EI 60 = 0 ( 9 )
3

Solving (7).(8) & (9) we get


EIB = 8.18,
EIC = 8.18,
EI = 34.77

Substituting the value of B , C and in slope deflection equations


2
( 8.18 ) 2 ( 34.77 ) = +17.73 KNM
3
3
4
2
MBA = ( 8.18 ) ( 34.77 ) = +12.27 KNM
3
3
MBC = 0 8.18 + 0.5 ( 8.18 ) = 12.27 KNM
MAB =

MCB = 0.5 ( 8.18 ) 8.18 = 12.27

KNM

4
( 8.18 ) 2 ( 34.77 ) = +12.27 KNM
3
3
2
2
MDC = ( 8.18 ) ( 34.77 ) = +17.73 KNM
3
3
MCD =

41

Reactions: Consider the free body diagram of the members

Member AB:
HA =

17.73 + 12.27
= 10 KN
3

Member BC:
12.27 + 12.27
= 6.135 KN
4
RB = RC = 6.135 KN
- ve sign indicates direction of RB downwards
RC =

Member CD:

HD =

17.73 12.27
= 10 KN
3

- ve sign indicates the direction of HD is left to right

42

Check:

H = 0
H A + HD + P = 0
+10 + 10 20 = 0
Hence okay

Example: Analyse the portal frame subjected to loads as shown. Also draw
bending moment diagram.

The frame is symmetrical but loading is unsymmetrical. Hence there is a sway.


Assume sway towards right. In this problem A = 0, B 0, C 0, D = 0
FEMs:
wl2
10 4 2
=
= - 13.33 KNM
12
12
wl2
10 42
FBA = +
=+
= + 13.33 KNM
12
12
wl
90 10
FBC =
=
= - 112.5 KNM
8
8
wl
90 10
FCB =
=
= + 112.5 KNM
8
8
F AB =

Slope deflection equations:

43

2EI
3
2A +B +

L
L
2EI
3
= - 13.33 +
0 +B

4
4

M AB = F AB +

- - - - - - - -- > ( 1)

= - 13.33 + 0.5 EI B 0.375 EI


MBA = F BA +

2EI
3
2B +A +

L
L

= 13.33 +

2EI
3
2B +0

4
4

- - - - - - - -- > ( 2)

= 13.33 + EI B 0.375 EI
2EI
MBC =F BC +
( 2B +C )
L
2E3I
= - 112.5 +
( 2B +C )
10
= - 112.5 + 1.2EI B + 0.6EI C
2EI
MCB = F CB +
( 2C +B )
L
2E3I
= + 112.5 +
( 2C +B )
10
= 112.5 + 1.2EI C + 0.6 EI B

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3)

- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )

2EI
3
2C +D

L
L
2EI
3
= 0+
2C +0

4
4
= EI C 0.375 EI

MCD = F CD +

- - - - - - - -- > ( 5)

2EI
3
2D +C

L
L
2EI
3
= 0+
0 + 2C
4
4
= 0.5EI C 0.375 EI
- - - - - - - -- > ( 6 )
There are 3 unknowns EIB, EIC and EI , accordingly the boundary conditions
MDC = F DC +

are

MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +MCD = 0
HA +HD +40 = 0

Here HA 4 = MAB + MBA 10 4

4
2

MAB + MBA 80
4
and HD 4 =MCD +MBC
HA =

HD =

MCD +MDC
4

44

MAB + MBA 80 MCD +MDC


+
+ 40 = 0
4
4
MAB + MBA +MCD +MDC +80 = 0

Now MBA + MBC = 0

13.33EI B 0.375EI 112.5 + 1.2EI B + 0.6EI C = 0


2.2EI B + 0.6EI C 0.375EI 99.17 = 0

and MCB +MDC = 0 ( 4) + ( 5)

- - - - - - - - > (7)

112.5 + 1.2EI C + 0.6EI B + EI C 0.375EI = 0


112.5 + 2.2EI C + 0.6EIB 0.375EI = 0
also MAB +MBA +MCB +MDC +80 = 0

- - - - - - - - > (8)

13.33 + 0.5EIB 0.375EI + 13.33 + EIB 0.375EI + EIC 0.375EI


+ 0.5EIC 0.375EI + 80 = 0
1.5EIB +1.5EIC -1.5EI + 80 = 0

- - - - - - - -- > (9)

By solving (7), (8) and (9) we get


EIB = 72.65
EIC = 59.64
EI = +66.34

Final moments:

MAB = 13.33 + 0.5( 72.65 ) 0.375 ( 66.34 ) = -1.88 KNM


MBA = +72.65 0.375( 66.34 ) = 61.10 KNM

MBC = 112.5 + 1.2( 72.65 ) = +0.6( 59.64 ) = 61.10 KNM


MCB = 112.5 + 1.2( 59.64 ) + 0.6( 72.65 ) = 84.52

KNM

MCD = 59.64 0.375( 66.34 ) = 84.52 KNM


MDC = 0.5( 59.64) 0.375( 66.34) = 54.70 KNM

45

Reactions: Consider the free body diagrams of various members

Member AB:

61.10 1.88 10 4 2
4
= 5.195 KN
- ve sign indicates direction of HA is from right to left

HA =

46

Member BC:
84.52 61.10 + 90 5
= 47.34 KN
10
RB = 90 RC = 38.34 KN
RC =

Member CD
HD =

84.54 + 54.7
= 34.81 KN
4

Check
H = 0
HA + HD +10 4 = 0
-5.20 - 34.81+ 40 = 0
Hence okay

Example: Analyse the portal frame and then draw the bending moment diagram

47

Solution:
Since the columns have different moment of inertia, it is an unsymmetrical
frame. Assume sway towards right

FEMS:

WL
80 6
=
= 60 KNM
8
8
WL
FCB = +
= +60 KNM
8
FBC =

Here A = 0, D = 0

Slope deflection equations


MAB =F AB +
=0+
MBA =FBA +
=0+

2EI
3
2A +B

L
L
2EI
3 1
3
0 +B
= EIB EI
4
4 2
8

- - - - - - - - > (1)

2EI
3
2B +A

L
L
2EI
3
3
2B +0
= EIB EI
4
4
8

- - - - - - - - > ( 2)

48

2EI
( 2B +C )
L
2E2I
= 60 +
( 2B +C ) = 60 + 4 EIB + 2 EIC
6
3
3
2EI
MCB =FCB +
( 2C +B )
L
2E2I
( 2C +B ) = +60 + 2 EIB + 4 EIC
= 60 +
6
3
3
2EI
3
MCD =FCD +
2C +D

L
L
MBC =FBC +

=0+
MDC =FDC +
=0+

2E2I
3
3
2C +0
= 2EIC EI
4
4
4

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 5 )

2EI
3
2D +C

L
L
2E2I
3
3
0 +C
= EIC EI
4
4
4

- - - - - - - -- > ( 6 )

In the above equation there are three unknowns B , C and , accordingly the
boundary conditions are,
MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +MCD = 0

> Jo int conditions

HA +HD = 0

- - - > Shear condition

MAB +MBA MCD +MDC


+
=0
4
4
MAB +MBA +MCD +MDC = 0
i.e,

3
4
2
EI 60 + EIB + EIC = 0
8
3
3
7
2
3
= 60 + EIB + EIC EI = 0
3
3
8

Now, MBA +MBC = EIB

> ( 7)

2
4
3
EIB + EI C +2EI C EI = 0
3
3
4
2
10
3
= EIB + EI C EI + 60 = 0
> ( 8 )
3
3
4
1
3
3
3
And, MAB +MBC +MCD +MDC = EIB EI + EIB EI + 2EIC EI
2
8
8
4
3
+ EIC EI
4
3
9
= EIB +3EIC EI = 0
> ( 9 )
2
4

And, MCB +MCD = + 60 +

49

4 3

EIB + 3EIC
9 2

Substituti ng value of EI in (7)

From (9)

EI =

7
2
3 4 3

EI B + EI C EI B + 3EI C 60 = 0
3
3
8 9 2

7
2
1
1
EI B + EI C EI B EI C 60 = 0
3
3
4
2
25
1
EI B + EI C 60 = 0
12
6

- - - - - -- > (10 )

Substituting value of EI in (8)


2
10
3 4 3

EI B + EI C EI B + 3EI C + 60 = 0
3
3
8 9 2

2
10
1
EI B + EI C EI B EI C + 60 = 0
3
3
2
1
7
EI B + EI C + 60 = 0
6
3

- - - - - -- > ( 11)

Solving (10) & (11) we get EI B =31.03


By Equation (11)
3 1

EIB +60

7 6

= 27.3

EIC =

Now

EI =

Now

4 3

EIB + 3EIC = 16.55


9 2

EI B =31.03, EIC = 27.3 , EI = 16.55


Substituting these values in slope deflection equations,
The final moments are:

50

1
( 31.03 ) 3 ( 16.55) = 21.72 KNM
2
8
3
MBA = 31.03 ( 16.55 ) = 37.24 KNM
8
4
2
MBC = 60 + ( 31.03 ) + ( 27.93 ) = 37.25 KNM
3
3
2
4
MCB = +60 + ( 31.03 ) + ( 27.93 ) = +43.43 KNM
3
3
3
MCD = 2( 27.93 ) ( 16.55 ) = 43.45 KNM
4
3
MDC = 27.93 ( 16.55 ) = 15.52 KNM
4
MAB =

Reactions: consider the free body diagram of beam and columns

Column AB:
HA =

37.25 + 21.72
= 14.74 KN
4

Beam BC:

37.25 43.45 + 80 3
= 38.97 KN
6
RC = 80 RB = 41.03
RB =

51

Column CD:
HD =

43.45 + 15.52
= 14.74 KN
4

Check:
H = 0
HA + H D = 0
14.74-14.74=0
Hence okay

Ex: Portal frame shown is fixed at ends A and D, the joint B is rigid and joint C is
hinged. Analyse the frame and draw BMD.

Solution:
FEMs:
52

WL 80 6
=
= 60KNM
8
8
WL 80 6
FCB = +
=
= +60KNM
8
8
Here A = 0, D = 0, B 0, CB 0, CD 0
FBC =

Since C is hinged member CB and CD will rotate independently. Also the


frame is unsymmetrical, will also have sway. Let the sway be towards right.
The slope deflections are:
MAB = FAB +

2EI
3
2 A + B
L
L

2EI
3
0 + B
4
4
1
3
= EI B EI
2
8
= 0+

> ( 1)

53

MBA = FBA +

2EI
3
2B + A
L
L

2EI
3
2B + 0
4
4
3
= EIB EI
8
2EI
3
= FBC +
2B + C
L
L
2E.2I
( 2B + CB )
= 60 +
6
4
2
= 60 + EIB + EI CB
3
3
2EI
( 2CB + B )
= FCB +
L
2E.2I
( 2CB + B )
= +60 +
6
4
2
= +60 + EICB + EIB
3
3
2EI
3
= FCD +
2CD + D
L
L
= 0+

MBC

MCB

MCD

2EI
3
2CD + 0
4
4
3
= EICD EI
8
2EI
3
= FDC +
2D + CD
L
L
2EI
3
= 0+
0 + CD
4
4
1
3
= EICD EI
2
8

>(2)

> (3 )

> (4 )

= 0+

MDC

>(5)

>(6 )

In the above equations B , CB , CD and are unknowns. According the


boundary conditions are
I. MBA+MBC = 0,
II. MCB = 0,
III. MCD = 0,
IV. HA+HD = 0

i..e,

MAB + MBA MCD + MDC


+
=0
4
4

MAB + MBA + MCD + MDC = 0

54

Now using the boundary conditions:


3
4
2
EI 60 + EIB + EICB
8
3
3
7
2
3
= EIB + EICB EI 60 = 0
> ( 7 )
3
3
8
2
4
= EIB + EICB + 60 = 0
> ( 8 )
3
3
3
= EICD EI = 0
> ( 9 )
8
1
3
3
3
1
3
+ MBA + MCD + MDC = EIB EI + EIB EI + EICD EI + EICD EI =
2
8
8
8
2
8
3
3
3
= EIB + EICD EI = 0
> ( 10 )
2
2
2
3
From ( 9 ) EIcD = EI
> (11 )
8

MBA + MBC = EIB

MCB
MCD
MAB

Sub in ( 10 )
MAB + MBA + MCD + MDC =

3
3 3
3
EIB + EI EI = 0
2
2 8
2

3
15
EIB
EI = 0
2
16
16 3
8
Equation (12) gives EI =
EIB = EIB
15 2
5
=

> ( 12 )
> ( 13 )

Substituti ng in Equation ( 7 )
7
2
3 8

EIB + EICB EIB 60 = 0


3
3
8 5

2
7 3
= EIB + EICB 60
3
5
3

26
2
=
EIB + EICB 60 = 0
15
3

MBA + MBC =

> ( 14 )

Substituti ng in Equation ( 8 ) and multiplyin g equation (14) by 2 we have


2
4
EIB + EICB + 60 = 0
3
3
52
4
EIB + EICB 120 = 0
15
3
__________ __________ _
42

EIB + 180 = 0
15
__________ __________ _
15
EIB = 180
= 64.29
42

55

8
8
EIB = 64.29 = 102.864
5
5
3
From (11) EICD = EI = 38.574
8
3 7
3

From (7) EICB = EIB EI 60


2 3
8

From(13) EI =

3 7
3

64.29 102.864 60
2 3
8

= 77.165
EIB = 64.29, EICB = 77.165,
EICD = 38.57,
=

Final Moments are

EI = 102.864

1
( 64.29 ) 3 (102.864 ) = 6.42 KNM
2
8
3
= 64.29 (102.864 ) = 25.72 KNM
8
4
2
= 60 + ( 64.29 ) + ( 77.165 ) = 25.72 KNM
3
3
4
2
= +60 + ( 77.165 ) + ( 64.29 ) = 0
3
3
3
= 38.574 (102.864 ) = 0
8
1
3
= ( 38.574 ) (102.864 ) = 19.29 KNM
2
8

MAB =
MBA
MBC
MCB
MCD
MDC

Reactions: Consider the free body diagram of various members

56

Column AB:
HA =

Beam BC:

25.72 6.42
= 4.825 KN
4

25.72 + ( 80 3 )
= 44.29 KN
6
R C = 80 44.29 = 35.71 KN
RB =

Column CD:
HD =

19.28
= 4.82 KN
4

Check:
H = 0
HA+HD = 0
Hence okay.

57

Example: Analyse the portal frame shown in figure the deflection method and
then draw the bending moment diagram

58

Fig
Solution:
The frame is unsymmetrical, hence there is a sway. Let the sway be
towards right.
A = 0, B 0, C 0, D = 0

FEMS:
20 52
= 41.67 KNM
12
20 52
FCB = +
= +41.67 KNM
12
FCE = 15 2 = 30 KNM
FBC =

Slope deflection equations


MAB =F AB +
=0+
MBA =FBA +
=0+

2EI
3
2A +B

L
L
2EI
3
0 +B
= 0.5EIB 0.375EI
4
4

- - - - - - - - > (1)

2EI
3
2B +A

L
L
2EI
3
2B +0
= EIB 0.375EI
4
4

- - - - - - - - > ( 2)

59

2EI
( 2B +C )
L
2E 1.5I
= 41.67 +
( 2B +C ) = 41.67 + 1.2EIB +0.6EIC
5
2EI
MCB =FCB +
( 2C +B )
L
2E 1.5I
( 2C +B ) = 41.67 + 1.2EIC +0.6EIB
= +41.67 +
5
2EI
3
MCD =FCD +
2C +D

L
L
MBC =FBC +

=0+

2EI
3
2C +0
= EIC 0.375EI
4
4

MDC =FDC +
=0+

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )

- - - - - - - -- > ( 5 )

2EI
3
2D +C

L
L

2EI
3
0 +C
= 0.5EIC 0.375EI
4
4

- - - - - - - -- > ( 6 )

In the above equation there are three unknowns B , C and , accordingly the
boundary conditions are,
MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +MCD +MCE = 0
HA +HD = 0
i.e, MAB +MBA +MCD +MDC = 0

Now,

MBA +MBC = 0
EIB 0.375EI 141.67 + 1.2EIB +0.6EIC = 0
= 2.2EIB +0.6EIC 0.375EI 41.67 = 0

And, MCB +MCD = 41.67 + 1.2EIC +0.6EIB +EIC 0.375EI 30 = 0


= 0.6EIB +2.2EIC 0.375EI + 11.67 = 0

> ( 7)

> ( 8 )

MAB +MBC +MCD +MDC = 0


0.5EIB 0.375EI + EIB 0.375EI + 2EIC 0.375EI + 0.5EIC 0.375EI = 0
1.5EIB +1.5EIC 1.5EI = 0

> ( 9 )

Solving the above equations


we get, EI B = 23.98 , EI C = 9.36, EI = 14.62
Substituting these values in slope deflection equations, we have

60

MAB = 0.5( 23.98 ) 0.375(14.62 ) = 6.50 KNM


MBA = 23.98 0.375(14.62 ) = +18.50 KNM

MBC = 41.67 + 1.2( 23.98 ) + 0.6( 9.36 ) = 18.51 KNM

MCB = +41.67 + 1.2( 9.36 ) + 0.6( 23.98 ) = +44.83 KNM


MCD = 9.36 0.375( +14.62) = 14.84 KNM
MDC = 0.5 9.36 0.375 14.62 = 10.16 KNM
MCE = 30 KNM

Reactions: consider the free body diagram of beam and columns

61

Column AB:
HA =

18.5 + 6.5
= 6.25 KN
4

Span BC:

44.83 18.5 + 20 5 2.5


= 55.27 KN
5
RB = 20 5 RC = 44.73
RC =

Column CD:
HD =

10.16 + 14.84
= 6.25
4

Check:
H = 0
HA + H D = 0
=0
Hence okay

62

Example: Analyse the portal frame shown and then draw bending moment
diagram.

Solution:
It is an unsymmetrical problem hence there is a sway be towards right
A = 0, B 0, C 0, D = 0

FEMs:
wl2
20 52
=
= - 41.67 KNM
12
12
wl2
20 52
FCB =
=
= + 41.67 KNM
12
12
FBC =

Slope deflection equations:


2EI
3
2A +B

L
L
2EI
3
= 0+
0 +B

3
3
2
2
= EI B EI
- - - - - - - -- > (1)
3
3
2EI
3
MBA = F BA +
2B +A

L
L
2EI
3
= 0+
2B +0

3
3
4
2
= EI B EI
- - - - - - - -- > ( 2)
3
3
M AB = F AB +

2EI
3
2B +C

L
L
2E 1.5I
= - 41.67 +
( 2B +C )
5

MBC = F BC +

63

6
3
EIB + EIC
- - - - - - - -- > ( 3 )
5
5
2EI
3
MCB = F CB +
2C +B

L
L
2E 1.5I
= 41.67 +
( 2C +B 0 )
5
= 41.67 + 1.2EI C +0.6 EIB
- - - - - - - -- > ( 4 )
= - 41.67 +

2EI
3
2C +D

L
L
2EI
3
= 0+
2C +0

4
4
= EI C 0.375 EI
- - - - - - - - - - > ( 5)

MCD = F CD +

2EI
3
2D +C

L
L
2EI
3
= 0+
0 +C

4
4
= 0.5EI C 0.375 EI
- - - - - - - - - - > ( 6)
In the above equations there are three unknown B , C and and accordingly
MDC = F DC +

the Boundary conditions are:


MBA +MBC = 0
M CB +M CD = 0
H A +HD = 0
i.e

M AB +MBA
M +MDC
+ CD
=0
3
4
4(M AB +MBA ) + 3(M CD +MDC ) = 0

64

Now

MBA +MBC = 0
4
2
6
3
EIB EI + EIB + EIC 41.67
3
3
5
5
3
2
2.53EIB + EIC EI 41.67 = 0 > (7)
5
3
MCB +MCD = 0
41.67 +1.2EIC +0.6EIB +EIC 0.375EI = 0
41.67 + 2.2EIC +0.6EIB 0.375EI = 0 > (8 )

MAB +MBA MCD +MDC


+
=0
3
4
2
4
2
2

4 EIB EI + EIB EI +
3
3
3
3

3 [EIC 0.375EI + 0.5EIC 0.375EI] = 0


8
8
16
8
EIB EI +
EIB EI + 4.5EIC 2.25EI = 0
3
3
3
3
8EIB +4.5EIC 7.53EI = 0
> (9)

By solving (7), (8) and (9) we get


EIB = +25.46
EIC = 23.17
EI = +12.8

Final moments:
2
2
25.46 12.8 = 8.44 KNM
3
3
4
2
MBA = 25.46 12.8 = 25.40 KNM
3
3
6
3
MBC = 25.46 + ( 23.17 ) 41.67 = 25.40 KNM
5
5
MCB = 41.67 + 1.2 ( 23.17 ) + 0.60 ( 20.46 ) = 28.50 KNM
MAB =

MCD = 23.70 0.375 (12.80 ) = 28.50 KNM


MDC = 0.5 23.70 0.375 12.80 = 16.65 KNM

65

Reactions: Consider the free body diagram

Member AB:
HA =

25.40 + 8.44
= 11.28 KN
3

Member BC:

RC =

28.5 20.30 + 20 5

5
2 = 51.64 KN

2
RB = 20 5 51.64 = 48.36 KN

Member CD:

66

HD =

28.5 + 16.65
= 11.28 KN
4

Check:
H = 0
HA + HD = 0
Satisfied, hence okay

Example: A portal frame having different column heights are subjected for forces
as shown in figure. Analyse the frame and draw bending moment diagram.

Solution:It is an unsymmetrical problem


A = 0, B 0, C 0, D = 0 , hence there is a sway be towards right.

67

FEMs:
Wl
30 4
=
= - 15 KNM
8
8
Wl
30 4
FBA = +
=+
= + 15 KNM
8
8
Wl
60 4
FBC =
=
= - 30 KNM
8
8
Wl
60 4
FCB = +
=+
= + 30 KNM
8
8
FCD = FDC = 0
F AB =

Slope deflection equations:


MAB = F AB +

2EI
3
2A +B

L
L

2E 2I
3
0 +B
4
4

= - 15 +

= - 15 + EI B 0.75 EI
MBA = FBA +
= 15 +

- - - - - - - - > ( 1)

2EI
3
2B +A

L
L

2E 2I
3
2B +0

4
4

= + 15 + 2 EI B 0.75 EI

- - - - - - - - > ( 2)

2EI
(2B +C )
L
2E 2I
= - 30 +
( 2B +C )
4
= - 30 + 2EI B + EI C

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3)

2EI
( 2C +B )
L
2E 2I
( 2C +B )
= 30 +
4
= 30 + 2EI C + EI B

- - - - - - - -- > ( 4)

MBC = FBC +

MCB = FCB +

MCD = FCD +

2EI
3
2C +D

L
L

2EI
3
2C +0

3
3
4
2
= EI C EI
3
3
= 0+

MDC = FDC +

= 0+

- - - - - - - -- > ( 5)

2EI
3
2D +C

L
L

2EI
3
0 +C

3
3

68

2
2
EI C EI
3
3

- - - - - - - -- > ( 6 )

There are three unknowns, EI, B ,EIC & EI , accordingly the Boundary
conditions are
MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +MCD = 0
HA +HD +30 = 0
MAB +MBA 60 MCD +MDC
+
+ 30 = 0
4
3
3(MAB + MBA ) + 4(MCD + MDC ) +180 = 0

i.e,

Now

MBA +MBC = 15 + 2EIB 0.75EI 30 + 2EIB +EIC

> ( 7)

= 4EIB +EIC 0.75EI 15 = 0


MCB +MCD = +30 + 2EIC +EIB +
= EIB +

4
2
EIC EI
3
3

10
2
EIC EI + 30 = 0
3
3

> ( 8)

3(MAB +MBA ) + 4(MCD +MDC ) + 180 = 3 ( 15 + EIB 0.75EI + 15 + 2EIB 0.75EI)


2
2
2
4

+ 4 EIC EI + EIC EI + 180


3
3
3
3

= 9EIB +8EIC 9.833EI + 180 = 0 > ( 9 )

By solving (7), (8) & (9) we get


EIB = +9.577
EIC = 7.714
EI = +20.795

Substituting these values in the slope deflection equations we get


MAB = 15 + 9.577 0.75 ( 20.795 ) = 21.01 KNM

MBA = +15 + 2 ( 9.577 ) 0.75 ( 20.795 ) = 18.55 KNM


MBC = - 30 + 2 ( 9.577 ) - 7.714 = - 18.55 KNM

MCB = 30 + 2 ( 7.714 ) + 9.577 = 24.15 KNM


4
2
( 7.714 ) ( 20.795 ) = 24.15 KNM
3
3
2
2
MDC = ( 7.714 ) ( 20.795 ) = 19.00 KNM
3
3
MCD =

69

Reactions: Consider free body diagrams of the members

70

Member AB:
HA =

18.55 21.01 30 2
= 15.615 KN
4

-ve sign indicates the direction of HA is from right to left.


Member BC:

18.55 + 60 2 24.15
= 28.60 KN
4
RC = 60 RB = 28.60 = 31.40 KN
RB =

Member CD:
HD =

19 + 24.15
= 14.38 KN
3

Check:
H = 0
HA + HD + 30 = 0
-15.62 14.38 + 30 = 0
Hence okay

71

Example: Analyse the frame using slope deflection method and draw the
Bending Moment Diagram.

Solution: Assume sway towards right

It can be observed from figure in that direction of moments due to sway in


member AB are anticlockwise and that for member CD are clockwise. Wise shall
be taken to incorporate the same in the slope deflection equation.

72

FEMS
wI2
12
24 4 2
== 32 KNM
12
wI2
FCB = +
= +32 KN M
12
Here A =D = 0
FBC =

Slope deflection equations are:


MAB = F AB +

2EI
3
2 A + B
L
L

2EI
3
B
3
3
2
2
= EI B EI
3
3
2EI
3
MBA = FBA +
2 B + A
L
L
=

2EI
3
2 B
3
3
4
2
= EI B EI
3
3
2EI
MBC =FBC +
( 2B +C )
L
2E2I
= 32 +
( 2B +C )
4
= 32 + 2EIB +EIC

- - - - - -- > ( 1)

2EI
( 2C + B )
L
2E2I
= +32 +
( 2C +B )
4
= +32 + 2EIC +EIB

> ( 2)

- - - - - - - -- > ( 3 )

MCB =FCB +

MCD =FCD +

- - - - - - - - > ( 4)

2EI
3
2C + D +
L
L

2EI
3
2C +

3
3
4
2
= EIC + EI
3
3
=

> ( 5 )

73

2EI
3
2 D + C +

L
L
2EI
3
=
C +
3
3
2
2
= EI C + EI
3
3

MDC = FDC +

- - - - - - - - > ( 6)

The unknown are B, ,C & Accordingly the boundary conditions are


MBA +MBC = 0
MCB +MCD = 0
HA HD +30 = 0
MAB +MBA MCD +MDC

+ 30 = 0
3
3
MAB +MBA MCD MDC +90 = 0
4
2
Now, MBA +MBC = EIB EI 32 + 2EIB +EIC
3
3
10
2
=
EIB +EIC EI 32 = 0
> ( 7 )
3
3
4
2
MCB +MCD = +32 + 2EIC +EIB + EIC + EI
3
3
10
2
= EIB +
EIC + EI + 32 = 0
> ( 8 )
3
3
i.e,

MAB +MBA MCD MDC +90 =

2
2
4
2
4
EIB EI + EIB EI EIC
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
EI EIC EI + 90
3
3
3
8
= 2EIB 2EIC EI + 90
3
4
= EIB EIC EI + 45 = 0
> ( 9 )
3

From (7) & (9)


20
4
EIB +2EIC EI 64 = 0
3
3
4
EIB EIC EI + 45 = 0
3
17
EIB +3EIC 109 = 0
3

- - - - - -- > (10 )

By (8) and (9)

74

20
4
EIC + EI + 64 = 0
3
3
4
EIB EIC EI + 45 = 0
3

2EIB +

3EIB +

17
EIC +109 = 0
3

- - - - - - - - > (11)

By (10) & (11)


17
EIB +3EIC 109 = 0
3
27
EIB +3EIC +57.71 = 0
17
208
EIB 166.71 = 0
17 3
166.7117 3
EIB =
= + 40.88
208

From (10)
EIC =

From (9)

1
17

109
EIB = 40.88

3
3

3
[EIB EIC +45]
4
3
= [ 40.88 ( 40.88 ) + 45] = +95.07
4
EIB = 40.88, EIC = 40.88, EI = 95.07
EI =

Thus
Substituting these values in slope deflection equations

2
( 40.88 ) 2 ( 95.07 ) = 36.12 KNM
3
3
4
2
MBA = ( 40.88 ) ( 95.07 ) = 8.88 KNM
3
3
MBC = 32 + 2( 40.88 ) + ( 40.88 ) = 8.88 KNM
MAB =

MCB = +32 + 2( 40.88 ) + ( 40.88 ) = 8.88 KNM


4
( 40.88 ) + 2 ( 95.07) = +8.88 KNM
3
3
2
2
MDC = ( 40.88 ) + ( 95.07 ) = +36.12 KNM
3
3
MCD =

75

To find the reaction consider the free body diagram of the frame

Reactions:
Column AB
HA =

8.88 + 36.12
= 15 KN
3

Beam AB

76

+ 8.88 8.88 + 24 4

RB =

4
2 = 48 KN

= 24 4 48 = 48 KN

Column CD
HD =

8.88 + 36.12
= 15 KN
3

Check
H = 0
HA + HD +P = 0
-15 15 + 30 = 0
Hence okay

77

78