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ELSEVIER

Journal of Wind Engineering


and Industrial Aerodynamics 58 (1995) 277-292
, ~URN~. OF
Ref ormul at i on of the mo me nt um t heory
appl i ed t o wi nd turbi nes
Ri car do A. Pr a do
Departamento de Mecimica Aplicada, Facultad de lngenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue,
calle Buenos Aires No. 1400, 8300 Neuqudn, Argentina
Received 2 January 1994; accepted 21 June 1995
A bst rac t
The aim of the present paper is to propose modifications to the Dyment formulation of the
momentum theory applied to wind turbines. Although the hypotheses established by Dyment
in order to modify the classical Betz wind turbine theory are considered valid, an alternative
model is proposed to represent the streamtube that flows through the actuator disc and defines
the turbine wake contour. In the present model a source is added to include the effects of
a divergent streamtube, whose geometry is defined by the intensity of the source and its position
with respect to the disc that simulates the horizontal-axis wind turbine. As an example, for
a given position of the rotor disc relative to the source, the characteristic coefficients of the
turbine and the geometry of the bounding streamtube, are obtained for the maximum output
power condition. These results are compared with those obtained from the Betz and Dyment
models.
1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n
The moment um theory applied to propellers (called Ranki ne-Froude theory)
assumes that the propeller can be represented by means of a fiat and infinitely thin
act uat or disc of radius R that supports an uniform pressure difference on its
surface. Ot her assumptions related to this theory are: The disc is immersed in
a well-defined coaxial streamtube z. Inside that streamtube, the flow is con-
sidered practically one-dimensional. The fluid is incompressible. The flow rotation
imposed by the propeller is not considered. The static pressure, infinitely far ahead
and behind the act uat or disc is constant and equal to the freestream static pressure,
Poo.
As stated by Theodorsen [1], although an actuator disc cannot be considered as
a mathematical limit for the description of a propeller, the moment um theory gives
0167-6105/95/$09.50 1995 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved
SSDI 0167- 6105( 95) 00021- 6
2 7 8 R. A. Pr ado/ J . Wi nd Eng. Ind. Aer odyn. 58 (1995) 2 7 7 - 2 9 2
q
- i
i
-!
-i
P,
V
p - p
.. v ,! 4
%
q
3
! . 4
j 7 . , , ( I b)
i V (~-20)
. - 1
4
I
[ - 4
~ 0
F i g . 1 . F l o w mo de l ac c or di ng t o t he Bet z t heory.
: z + , ,

a s i mpl i f i ed r e pr e s e nt a t i o n whi c h e nabl e s t he g eneral pr ope r t i e s o f t he s y s t e m t o be
o bt a i ne d.
Be t z appl i ed t he t he o r y t o t he c as e o f a h o r i z o n t a l - a x i s wi nd t ur bi ne [ 2 ] . Si nc e t he
t urbi ne ext rac t s ki ne t i c e ne r g y f r om t he wi nd, t he s t r e a mt ube t hat t ravers es t he di s c
has t o b e c o me wi de r as it f l o ws d o wn s t r e a m ( Fi g. 1).
At i nf i ni t y a he a d o f t he di sc , t he ve l oc i t y field is g i ve n by t he f r e e s t r e am ve l oc i t y, V~,
and t he pres s ure field by t he f r e e s t r e am st at i c pressure, p ~ .
A t t he di sc , t he v e l o c i t y has de c r e as e d by a f rac t i on a wi t h respec t t o V~, , and t he
pres s ure di s t r i but i on s h o ws a di s c ont i nui t y. The v e l o c i t y c r o s s i ng t he di sc ,
Vd = V~ (1 - - a), is a s s u me d c o ns t a nt . The di s c s uppo r t s a uni f o r m pres s ure di f f erenc e,
Ap = p' - p", whe r e p' > p ~ and p" < p ~ . Thi s pres s ure di f f erenc e g enerat es , o n t he
area S = rcR 2 o f t he di sc , a t hrus t T = A p S .
A t i nf i ni t y be hi nd t he di sc , t he pres s ure r e c ove r s t he v a l ue o f t he f r e e s t r e am s t at i c
pres s ure, p ~ . The f l o w o ut s i de t he s t r e a mt ube t hat c r os s e s t he a c t u a t o r di s c s h o ws
a v e l o c i t y e qual t o V~, but t he ai r f l o wi ng i ns i de t he s t r e a mt ube has a v e l o c i t y e qual t o
V~ (1 - b), b be i ng g reat er t han a.
By a n a l o g y wi t h R a n k i n e - F r o u d e t he or y, Be t z a s s u me d t hat t he ai r i ns i de t he
s t r e a mt ube r f l o ws wi t h o u t pres s ure l os s es . The r e f or e , it i s po s s i bl e t o a ppl y t he
Be r noul l i e q u a t i o n be t we e n far ups t r e a m and j us t a he a d o f t he di sc , a nd b e t we e n j us t
be hi nd t he di s c a nd far d o wn s t r e a m, c ha ng i ng t he Be r noul l i c o n s t a n t wh e n t he f l o w
c r o s s e s t he disc .
R.A. Prado/J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277-292 279
P~
W
P~
p'
~ ~ P~ P~
V~ V~
P = P~ O-b)
V ( I - o ) ( l - a )
L
X : - c ~ X : 0 X : + '>:
Fi g. 2. F l o w mo d e l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D y m e n t t h e o r y (see Ref. [ 3 ] , Fi g. 2).
X
Dyment [3] presented a modification to the Betz theory considering that, since the
flow inside the streamtube z is continuously retarded, the internal streamtube edges
are represented by shear layers that develop eddies. These eddies imply losses, and
consequently, the Bernoulli equation cannot be applied inside the streamtube z.
Therefore, in the Dyment model, the Bernoulli equation is applied only to the air
flowing outside the streamtube r.
As a result of the Dyment model (Fig. 2), due to the pressure field downstream of the
disc being given by p~, the retarded air flows with no losses inside the streamtube
portion behind the disc. However, since a shear layer is still present, there is a contra-
diction between hypotheses and results.
Theodorsen [1] considered that in the application of moment um theory to propel-
lers, the e x t e r n a l flow (i.e. the flow that surrounds the streamtube z) may be analysed
as the superposition of a sink "at the origin" to the freestream field. This superposition
is valid since the sink does not disturb the flow conditions at infinity.
Following the Theodorsen assertion, when applying the moment um theory to wind
turbines, the potential external flow could be represented by the superposition on the
freestream field of a source whose strength and position with respect to the actuator
disc should be determined.
In accordance with the Dyment procedures, the Bernoulli equation is applied only
to that external flow. Also, since the swirl introduced by the rotor is generally small
[4], it is neglected in the present model.
2 8 0 R.A. Prado/d. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277-292
2. Proc edure
Accordi ng to pot ent i al t heory, the axi symmet r i c flow det er mi ned by the superposi -
tion of a uni form st r eam with vel oci t y V~ and a source of st rengt h k pl aced at the
origin of the coor di nat es is det er mi ned for the whol e field (r, 0) by the st r eamf unct i on
~( r , O) = - ~ V.~ r - si n- 0 + k cos O. (1)
Thi s super posi t i on defines the flow field called m o d e l A .
For a source st rengt h given by k = V, ~ 6 2, a body of r evol ut i on is defined by the
st r eamf unct i on 7~(r, O) = V ~ 6 2 (the so-called Ranki ne axi symmet r i c body), where
6 represent s the di st ance bet ween the source and the body vertex. The body cont our is
det er mi ned by
6
r ( O) - - . (2)
sm ( 0/ 2)
By t r ansf or mi ng to Car t esi an coor di nat es Eq. ~2) is rewri t t en as
/ / 1 A..2 X 2
3, = _ + ~ ( ~ , - + x v / x 2 + 8 6 2 ) . x~> - 6 .
( 3 t
The presence of the bl unt body generat es a par t i cul ar st r eamt ube r t hat , in coincid-
ence with the disc absci ssa x = Xo, has a radi us equal to the radi us of the disc, R.
The disc posi t i on (x = x0) does not necessarily coincide with the source posi t i on
( x = 0).
Havi ng defined the geomet r y of the s t r eamt ube r, the Ranki ne axi symmet r i c body is
el i mi nat ed, and following the Betz and Di ment model s, a one- di mensi onal axial flow
is consi dered in the i nt eri or of t he s t r eamt ube r. In this conf i gur at i on (called m o d e l B),
the ext ernal flow is the same to t hat defined by model A (i.e. source plus freestream).
Fig. 3 shows model s A and B.
3. Vel oc i ty field
For the ext ernal flow in model B, and for every poi nt of the field in model A, the
st r eamf unct i on is
~( r , 0) = V~ (6 2 cos 0 --r e sin e 0)
and the vel oci t y component s are
- V~,o [ cos 0 + ( 6 / r ) 2 ] ,
v , - r 2sin0c~0
In the Car t esi an coor di nat e syst em (x, y)
Vx = Vo sin 0 - v, cos O,
(4)
1 &0
- V~ s i n O . ( 5)
~ ' o - r s i n O ? r
G, = - Vo cos 0 + tJ, sin O, (6)
R.A. Prado/J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277-292 281
X ~ - c o
~y
p~ I
v~ I
" F
P i , 72(
v o o
" 1 -
I
b . . . . . . - J
I
I
I
x : 0
g~o-o)
p ' l ~ R
p~
V~
26
" 7
Fi g. 3. Mo d e l s A a n d B f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t r e a m t u b e i n t e r n a l flow. T h e e x t e r n a l f l ow i s t h e s a m e
i n b o t h mo d e l s .
t hen
( vx ( x , y) = V~ 1 ~ (X 2 + y2) a/ 2, ],
The mo d u l u s o f the vel oc i t y vec t or is
2
V ( x , y) = I V ( x, Y) I = x / ~ z + vr,
therefore, f rom Eqs. (7),
= V Z ~( 1 + V Z ( x , y)
\
2XO 2 6 4 )
(X2 .~_ y 2 ) 3 / 2 + (X 2 _~_ y 2 ) 2 "
y 6 2 )
vy( x, y ) = V ~ (x 2 + y 2 ) 3 / 2 '
I n partic ular, the vel oc i t y di st ri but i on al ong the y axi s ( x = O) i s gi ven by
vx(O, y) = V~o, v, ( o, y) = v ~ ~ , v 2 ( o , y) = v ~ l +
( 7 )
(8 )
(9)
282 R.A. Prado/Y. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277 292
4 . Equi val enc e rel at i ons hi p bet ween mo de l s A and B
T h e v o l u me t r i c f l ow r a t e , q ( b e i n g me a s u r e d i n mo d e l A t h r o u g h t he a n n u l a r s e c t i o n
d e f i n e d a t t h e a b s c i s s a Xo, b e t we e n t he R a n k i n e a x i s y mme t r i c b o d y ( Eq. (3)) a n d t he
s t r e a mt u b e r), is g i v e n b y
2r~ R R
q = c. dXo, y ) y d y d ~ p = 27rI~, I -} I x 2 + v2)3/2 y d y ,
0 FZq. 13 ) [ {q, (. ' . )
q = 7rV_~R 2 1 - - 3~-2 (4~52 - -'G + . x' ~x' xg + 862)
,5-' " - (10)
+ 2 ~ Xo , 2 r 2 ~ '
x / 4 6 2 + .'q~ + xo \ - o + 8( ~2 ~ / R + Xo
Si nc e t he s t r e a mt u b e r h a s t h e s a me c o n t i g u r a t i o n i n b o t h mo d e l s A a n d B, t he
v o l ume t r i c f l o w rate g i ve n by Eq. (10) s ho ul d be t he s a me as t he v o l u me t r i c f l o w rate
t h a t f l o ws t h r o u g h t h e a c t u a t o r di s c i n mo d e l B. T h e r e f o r e ,
q =r r V , R2( 1 a). ( l l )
E q u a t i n g Eqs . {10) a n d (11), gi ve s
a = ~ ( 4 ~ 2 - - . % + x o \ ' . ' q { + 8~21
- 2 R~ Xo
," . 2 . v/ R 2
~//462 + x~ + Xo \ . . x o + 832 + x
a n d b y i n t r o d u c i n g t h e n o n d i me n s i o n a l v a r i a b l e s
(~ = R / & c = Xo/ 6
t h e f o l l o wi n g e q u a t i o n is o b t a i n e d .
a = ~ ( 4 - . + r x & 2 + 8 ) : - , c ~ ]
- ~ ", \ 4 + c 2 + ~ : w ' c / ~ + 8 V/ - ~ 2 + e 2
Le t t i n g
= 4 - ~:2 + c \ / . c 2 + 8,
v S .
l ] = i / - - ,~;2 I X
v 4 + + ~: \,,. c + 8
(12)
R.A. Prado/J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277-292 283
the following expression, for ~ as a funct i on of a and e, results
6(aZ ) + ~ 4 [ a ( f l _ ~ + ae2)] + 2[f l 2 + ~ u z _ eft + aeZ(fl-a)]
+ ez( flz + ~6az - ef t - I) = 0. (13)
Since the following relations are true,
fl - ~ = - I, flz + ~6~2 - ef t = i
Eq. (13) is simplified t o
~4 + ~2 ( e 2 - ! ) + a4--g(1- ae2) = 0,
which has the sol ut i on
~z = 1 [(4 - ae' ) + ew/ - ~ + ae2)]. (14)
Eq. (14) establishes the equivalence between models A and B since it relates the
variables R, 6, Xo and a, havi ng the values of a and Xo/6 as the i nput variables.
However, since it is better to have a and x o / R as the i nput variables, the new variable
e = x o / R (i.e. e = e 0 is i nt roduced and for e 7> 0, it follows t hat
~2=_2 1 + . (15)
a
5. Determination of the coefficient b
Since at x = + oo the Ranki ne axi symmet ri c body has a radius 26, at x = + oo the
st reamt ube z will have a radius R +~, and from the cont i nui t y condi t i on in model A,
the vol umet ri c flow rate q is
q = V~on [RZ+~ - (26)1]. (16)
This must equal t hat flowing inside the boundi ng st reamt ube in model B, given by Eq.
(11), so t hat
R2+oo = 462 + R2(1 - a)
and therefore
R+o~ 1
R =-~ x/(1 -- a)~2 + 4. (17)
Appl yi ng the cont i nui t y condi t i on to the st reamt ube z in model B, it follows t hat
V~r r R2~ = V~(1 - a) l t R 2 = Vow(1 - b)nR2+~
284 R.A, Prado/J. Wind Eng, Ind. derodyn. 58 H995) 27~292
and therefore,
2
R+~(1 - b) = R 2 ( 1 - a) . (18)
Equat i ng Eqs. (17) and (18), one obt ai ns the relationship between the reduction of
velocity at the disc, a, and the reduction of velocity at infinity downst ream, b, for
a given value of e,
4
b - (19)
(1 - - a ) ~ z + 4'
where ~2 is given by (15).
6. Ge o me t r y o f t he s t r e a mt ube z
The st reamfunct i on t hat defines the st reamt ube r is
1 2 2
~o = V-~(~2cosOo--~rosln 0o),
where
2 R 2, xo _ Xo R R
r 2 = x o + c o s 0 o - s i n 0 o - -
ro o x / ~ - ~ ' ro xf~o2 + R 2
Therefore,
( a2x 0 1 2 R2 ( e ~ ) . (20)
2
In order to determine the Cartesian coordi nat es (x, y) of t hat streamfunction, one sets
1 ( 2~2x ~
7'(x, y) = - ~ v . y2 ---
~ ] ~o- (21)
Defining
2e
2 = 1 , Y, = x / R , y = y / R
~2 ~- ~ + 1
and equat i ng Eqs. (20) and (21), it follows that
22
~2 _ _ - - ~
g 2 f ~ + y2
having the following pol ynomi al form,
y 6 + 3 7 4 ( 2 2 - - 22) + 372(22 _2222) + 2 2 ( 2 2 _ 4/(4) = 0. (22)
The geomet ry 37 = 37 ( - ~ < < + 0o) of the st reamt ube z is det ermi ned by solving
Eq. (22) when the values of a and e are given. Particularly, at the origin, the st reamt ube
radius is y(0) = x/ 2R.
. ~ / > ~f > ~ / y j x p u e Ox ~ x ~ 0 aoj ' z o q n l t u e o a l s o q l j o op! s l eU aOl xo o q l (!.t!)
,(Ox = x ' ~ / ~ ~f ~ 0) o s ! p a o l e n l o e o q l (! ! )
'.(0 = x ' oo > 4" > ~ / ~ j x ) , VV u o ! l o o s a e l n u u e o q l ( 9
:,{q
UOA~ Oa~ SU ! ~ t uop Oral o q l JO s o . u e p u n o q u o t u t u o o o q . l "os!p ~ o l ~ n l o ~ o q l j o t u~ o ~ l s
- u ~ o p p o o e l d I I u ! e t u o p o q l p u e ' os ! p a o l e n l o e o q l j o t u e o a l s d n p o o e l d I u ! e t u o p
o q l :9 p u g ~ "s$!~l u~ uA ~oqs s! 1! Se p o u g o p o a e s u ! e t u o p o ~ ' f l I o p o t u uI
s a s s o ! aans s aJ d a ql j o uo. ~l eu. nuaal a( I "L
"90L6"0 = y__//x ' os g o l g q l uI "L6E'0 = n p u e
0 g E' 0 = a aoj ~ p o q o u l o t u t u , ( s ! x g OUplUe~I o q l p u g z o q n l t u r o a l s o q l s mo q s 17 "~!A
"(ou!l
p ml o p - q s e p ) , ~poq o! J l at ut u, ( s ! xr OU pl U ~ I ~ u ! p u o d s o ~ 1 o o o q l p u t u! ~ ! ~ o o q l 1~ o o . mo s o q l '(OU!l p o q s ~ p ) os ! p
a o l ~ n l o ~ Otll s! u ~ o q s o s l v "(ou!I p ! l o s ) 0 g E' 0 = a p u e L 6U 0 = v ~ oj z o q n l t u ~ o ~ l s * q l j o u o t . l ~ n ~ t j u o D "'e "~!A
g ' L c3"0 0 g ' O - t . - ~ ' 1 , - Z -
- - ' I" I ' ' ~ -
. . . . . . . . . . ~- . . . . . . . . . - , ; . . . . . . t
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . , ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: : : x : :
: : i L
; i t ! ; :
? 1 , ' [
i /
: : i : / :
1
i i i
c j o ~ o = q L 6 E O = o
~' 0-
0
. . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . g ' O
i ,
~ :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ' L
O g Z O = a
; ; r 3
~SE ~6g- L L g (~66I ) gg " u'fpaav " pul " Su~t pu!M " F /opvad "V'~t
286 R.A. Prado/J. Wind Eng. I n d . Aeroclvn. 58 (1995) 277-292
V --V=
X -- ~
V --V
y = + c,~ V = v , = V ~
V~ z V=
y = - . V v ~ ,
p ( o , y ) - p ~
i
I , R
L
1 X i
0
k
x ; O
B' A ~
p , _ p~.,
V = V~oO-o)
Fig. 5. Schematic representation of the control volume for the domain 1 showing the axial velocity
and the relative pressure distributions over its contour. The pressure is relative to the freestream
static pressure, p~. This domain includes the anterior portion of the streamtube r and the external flow for
x~<0.
A ppl yi ng t he Bernoul l i e qua t i o n t o t he ext ernal fl ow, t he pressure di s t ri but i on on
s ect i on AA' c a n be d e t e r mi n e d . The n,
p(O,y) p~ =~p L ~ - V2 ( 0 , y ) ] = p ,~ y ,
whe r e p d e n o t e s t he a i r dens i t y.
R.A. Prado/J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn, 58 (1995) 277-292 287
V = V
p(0,y)- p.
A ~
p"_ p
o
V ~ ( I - c
p(~,y)- p
A '
y _--+oo V = v ~ : V .
V x = V ~
p(O,y)- p
X = X o
y :+oo V : v, :V~
v=v.
X = -I.~o
V.O-b)
- - C
V=V
C'
Fig. 6. Same as in Fig. 5 for doma i n I1. Thi s doma i n i ncl udes t he post er i or por t i on of t he s t r eamt ube z and
t he ext ernal flow for x > 0. As in doma i n I, t he por t i on AA" of t he cont r ol vol ume is r epr esent ed by t he
ext ernal si de of t he s t r eamt ube z; t herefore, t her e is no flow t hr ough t hat surface.
I n o r de r t o a ppl y t he m o m e n t u m c o n s e r v a t i o n t h e o r e m i n t he axi al di r e c t i on,
t he axi al pr e s s ur e f orc e o n t he s e c t i o n A A ' , F1 , mu s t be de t e r mi ne d as
f o l l o ws
2 ~ oo
F1 = f R f~ [P (0 'Y )-p ~ ]y d y d (p =
~ p V Z R 2
2 2 ~ 4
(23)
2 8 8 R.A. Pr ado/ J. Wi nd Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 2 7 7 292
,~ R
i
i
J
i
i i
X
F i g . 7. C o n i c a l a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e s h a p e o f t h e s t r e a m t u b e ~ f o r 0 < x ~< \,~.
On t he l ef t - hand side of t he a c t u a t o r disc, t he axi al force act i ng, t : 2 , is
F 2 = ( p ' - p ~ . ) S =- ( p ' p ~ ) g R 2 . (24)
On t he r i ght - ha nd side of t he a c t u a t o r disc, t he axial f or ce act i ng, F3, is
1:3 = ( p " - p ~ ) S = ( p " - p ~ ) ~ R 2 . (25)
The axi al force, -~4, act i ng on t he s t r e a mt ube sect i on 0 ~< x ~< x0, can be c o mp u t e d
a s s umi ng t hat t he segment AA" can be rectified (as in Fi g. 7), so t hat
t a n 7 R(1 ' - = - ' - = - x / 2 ) / X o (1 v")o)/e -~ ( y R x / 2 ) / x
a nd
o R x , ~
(26)
R.A. Prado/J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277-292 2 8 9
therefore, in nondi mensi onal variables,
F,
1
2 -- 233V/2 + t an_2 30] 3/2
t an7 t an2y + ~72(1
+ y-4 )
t-an--~ + 372(1 + t an- 2~)
In the domai n I, from the axial moment um equilibrium, it follows t hat
- - ( p' - p o ~ ) n R 2 = F, - Fa + pV~o(l - a ) r t R 2 [ V ~ ( l - a) - V~o].
In the domai n II, from the axial moment um equilibrium, it follows t hat
(p" -p~)nR z = - F 1 + F4 + pVo~(1 - a ) r t R 2 [ V ~ ( l - b) - V~( 1 - a)].
The pressure losses inside the st reamt ube z correspondi ng to the ant eri or and
posterior port i ons are det ermi ned by compari ng the t ot al pressures. Also, let F be
defined by F = F1 - F4.
For the ant eri or port i on of the st reamt ube z, the losses are given by
1 2 1 2
~' = (po~ +~ p V ~ ) - [ p ' + ~pV~(1 - a ) 2 ]
~' = pv~[-~a"2 "t 2 + F / p V 2 x R 2) (27)
and for the posterior port i on of the st reamt ube r, the losses are given by
1 2 1 2
~" = [ p" + x p Vo ~ ( l - a) 2] - [Po~ + - ~ p V . ( 1 - b)2],
~" = pV2~{ ( 1 - a) ( a - b) + [(l - a) 2 - ( l - b) 2] - F / p V ~ T z R 2 } ,
~tl 2 1
= pVoo [ - ~ ( a - b) 2 - e / p V ~ r t R 2 ] . (28)
The expressions for ~' and ~" must bot h be positive for any pair of values (a, e), for
consistency of the model.
8 . Charac t eri st i c c oeffi c i ents o f the wind turbine - Ex a mpl e
For a wi nd turbine, the t hrust and out put power coefficients are defined as follows:
Thr ust coefficient,
2T 2Ap
c T = = = 2 ( 1 - a ) b ,
since Ap = p' -p" = p V ~ [ a( 1 - a) - (1 - a) ( a - b)] = p V 2 ( l - a) b.
2 9 0 R.A. Prado/'J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277-292
1
0 9 -
0 . 8 -
3 7 -
0 6 -
3. 5
0 . ~ , -
9 . 3 -
Betz' modeF L)yment's m o d e l p r e s e n t model (e = 0.25)
L
) 5 \ ,
4\, ,
3.1
0 0.1 0.2 0,3 0,4 0 5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Fig. 8 . Thrus t c oeffi c i ent, C~ , vers us the c oeffi c i ent of vel oc i t y reduc t i on at t he di sc , a, a c c o r di ng t o t he
Bet z and Dy me n t t he or i e s and t he pres ent mo de l for e - 0 . 2 5 . For t he l at t er one, t he sol i d l i ne c o r r e s po nds
t o t he c a s e s whe r e t he pressure l os s c oef f i c i ent s for t he pos t e r i or por t i on o f t he s t r e amt ube r , ~"/pV~, are
posi t i ve.
Ou t p u t p o we r c oef f i c i ent ,
2 P o 2 T V~ (1 a )
CPa [ ) V3, S p V 3 , S
= C- r 41 -- a ) = 2{1 - a ) 2 b .
F r o m t he Be t z t he or y, b = 2a. On t he o t he r hand, t he Dy me n t mo d e l g i ve s b = a. I n
b o t h mo d e l s , t he ma x i mu m o u t p u t p o we r c o n d i t i o n is r e a c he d wh e n a = 0 . 333, be i ng
Ceo( max) = 0 . 52 9 6 ( Bet z ) a nd Ce s ( ma x ) = 0 . 2 9 63 ( Dy me nt ) .
Th e pr e s e nt mo d e l r e ac he s a ma x i mu m o u t p u t p o we r c o n d i t i o n d e p e n d i n g o n t he
pai r o f v a l ue s (a, e), p r o v i d i n g if' a nd (" are pos i t i ve . F o r e x a mp l e , wh e n e = 0 . 2 50 t he
ma x i mu m is r e ac he d f or a = 0. 29 7. U n d e r t hat c o n d i t i o n it f o l l o ws t hat b = 0 . 4 0 5,
(' = 0 . 0 378 , ~'" = 0 . 0 0 0 5, Cr = 0 . 569 1 a nd Ce,. = 0 . 4 0 0 1 . Fi g. 4 s h o ws t he c o r r e s p o n d -
i ng g e o me t r y o f t he s t r e a mt u b e r, as wel l as t he s o ur c e a nd di s c po s i t i o ns . F o r t hat
l o c a t i o n o f t he di sc , if" b e c o me s ne g a t i v e i f a < 0. 277.
Fi gs. 8 a nd 9 c o mp a r e , res pec t i vel y, t he t hrust a nd o u t p u t p o we r c oe f f i c i e nt
di s t r i but i o ns wh e n e = 0 . 2 50 wi t h t h o s e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t he Be t z a n d Dy me n t
t heori es . I t s h o u l d be rec al l ed t hat t he Be t z mo d e l is i nc o ns i s t e nt f or a > 0. 5, s i nc e
0. 5 < a < 1 p r o d u c e s v a l ue s o f b > 1.
R.A. Prado/J . Wind Eng. I nd. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 277- 292 291
0 . 6
0 . 5
o
0. 4
~ 0 . 3
&
~ 0 . 2
o
0.1
0
0 0.1
8etz'model Dyment' s model present model (e = 0. 25)
i /
: / i \ ~
. . . . . . / I i . . . . . . . . . ::. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? : , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
i i / t i i i i ~ i i x i i
/ / " . i \ i
f / ~ i 4 \
0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 0. 9
Fig. 9. Output power coefficient, Ceo, versus the coefficient of velocity reduction at the disc, a, according to
the Betz and Dyment theories and the present model for e = 0.25. As in Fig. 8, the solid line corresponds to
the cases where the pressure loss coefficients for the posterior portion of the streamtube z, ~" /pV ~,, are
positive.
9 . Conc l usi ons
The s t reamt ube of c ons t ant radi us and wi t h no l os s es represent i ng t he f l ow
do wns t r e a m of t he ac t uat or di sc i n t he Dy me n t mo de l is n o w repl ac ed by a st ream-
t ube t hat e xpands as t he air f l ows do wns t r e a m f rom the rot or di sc and present s
l osses. Cons e que nt l y, thi s mo de l gi ves mor e realistic results. A l s o, as i n the Dy me n t
mode l , thi s o ne is c ons i s t ent for val ues of a greater t han 0. 5 whi l e t he Be t z mo de l
is not .
The present mo de l gi ves out put po we r c oeffi c i ents s o me wha t hi gher t han t hos e
f rom t he Dy me n t model . F o r s ourc e pos i t i ons suc h t hat 0. 25 < e < 0. 75, t he max-
i mu m out put po we r c oeffi c i ents a ppr o a c h experi ment al val ues (as st at ed i n Refs.
[ 5, 6] where t he ma x i mu m me as ur e d po we r c oeffi c i ents were f ound t o be 0. 4 1 1-5] and
0. 36 1-6]). F o r e > 5. 0, t he ma x i mu m out put po we r c oeffi c i ents t end t o the val ue 8 / 27
at a = 0. 333 as g i ve n by t he Dy me n t model . A l s o, for hi gh val ues of e, b --* a, l eadi ng t o
a c ons t ant radi us c yl i ndri c al s haped wake. Thi s is s ummar i z e d i n Tabl e 1.
Ha v i ng def i ned t he g e ome t r y o f the s t reamt ube z for x > x0 , t hat c onf i g urat i on ma y
be us ed for t he wa ke c o nt o ur whe n a mor e el aborat e anal ysi s me t hod, suc h as t he
fi xed wa ke mode l , is appl i ed t o c o mp u t e the i nduc ed vel oc i t i es due t o the hel i c oi dal
vor t e x wa ke wi t h vari abl e radi us and pi tc h.
292 R.A. Pr ado/ J. Wi nd Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 58 (1995) 2 7 7 - 2 9 2
Tabl e 1
Compar at i ve t abl e for t he values of t he maxi mum out put power coefficients, Ceo, and t he following
coefficients for maxi mum Ce o condi t i on: velocity reduct i on at t he disc, a, velocity r educt i on at x = + ~ , b,
and pressure losses for t he ant er i or and post er i or por t i ons of t he st r eamt ube r, ( ' / p V 2 and ( " / p V ~, as given
by t he Betz and Dyment t heori es and t he present model . For t he pr esent model , t hese results are showed for
different nondi mensi onal l ocat i ons of t he act uat or di sc with respect t o t he source posi t i on, e = x o / R
Model Betz Dyment Present
e 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0
Cpo(max) 0.5926 0.2963 0.4001 0.3647 0.3425 0,3287 0.3015 0.2982 0.2968 0.2965 0.2964
a 0.333 0.333 0.297 0.309 0.317 0,32 0.331 0.332 0.333 0.333 0.333
b 0.667 0.333 0.405 0.382 0.367 0.357 0.337 0.334 0.334 0,333 0.333
~' / pV~, 0 0.0556 0.0378 0.0442 0.0485 0.0511 0.0540 0.0534 0.0527 0,0522 0.0519
( " / p V ] 0 0 0.0005 0.0008 0.0004 0.0001 0.0007 0.0017 0.0028 0.0032 0.0036
Al t hough this model is not valid for every pair of values (a, e), with appr opr i at e
values of a and e, the st r eamt ube shape obt ai ned by the superposi t i on of a source and
a freestream coul d be a reasonabl e appr oach when model l i ng t echni ques are used to
represent, at least, the near wake. On the ot her hand, the growt h rat e and downwi nd
decay of the wake are f ound (as stated in Refs. [7, 8]) to st rongl y depend on the
ambi ent t urbul ence level, among ot her variables. Therefore, the actual shape of the far
wake coul d not be adequat el y represent ed by any of these models.
Acknowledgement
The aut hor is very grateful to lng. A. Marchegi ani who pl ot t ed Figs. 1-3 and 5- 7 of
the present work.
References
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