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Timeline of English Rule

1485-1509: Henry VII

Under the ruling of weak Henry VI England was constantly divided between the Houses of York
and Lancaster in which the House of York won and the Tudors cam into control. Beginning with
Edward IV the English crown cut the influence of parliament and the aristocracy by staying away
from expensive wars that needed vast amounts of spending. Henry VII did use parliament many
times in order to confirm his law. Instead of trusting nobility as his advisers he used smaller
landowners thus undermining the power of nobility by creating a new nobility. . Under Henry VII
the council of the new nobility helped secure the marriage of Arthur to Catherine of Aragon
connecting the crowns of Spain and England and established the star chamber to deal with
aristocratic threat. In addition Henry VII used the Star Chamber to check aristocratic privledge.

1509-1547: Henry VIII
Henry VIII was first married to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella and
the widow of Henrys brother Arthur. Together they had one child Mary. Henry, wanting a male
heir to the throne which he believed Catherine was unable of giving him, asked for an annulment.
This annulment was not granted to the Charles Vs control over the papacy in Rome. Charles V as
the nephew to Catherine was opposed to an annulment. In order to receive and annulment Henry
VIII decided to remove the English church away from any papal roman jurisdiction. Through
Parliamentary action Henry made himself the supreme head of the church. After Anne Boleyn
failed to produce a male heir Henry then married Jane Seymour. In order to increase the wealth of
the English Crown King Henry VIII under the advice of Thomas Cromwell dissolved the
monasteries and church held lands which allowed for the redistribution of land to the upper class
and a strengthening of the royal treasury. Many people in England held grievances with the
Roman Catholic Church and welcomed the new protestant leaning church after the widespread
circulation of protestant literature and ideas. Opposition towards the transition to the Church of
England was largely centered in catholic Ireland.

1547-1553: Edward VI
During the rule of the sickly Edward VI protestant ideals had a considerable large influence
especially under the policies of arch bishop Thomas Cranmer.

1553-1558: Mary of Tudor joint partially with Phillip II of Spain
England moved sharply back to catholic rule under Mary the catholic daughter of Catherine of
Aragon. Restored Roman Catholicism and married cousin Phillip II of Spain HRE of the Spanish
and Netherland Holdings. Names Bloody Mary for her execution of Protestants leading to the
feelings of protestants into continental Europe.

1558-1603: Elizabeth I
Chose a middle course between those who wanted a catholic leader and those who wanted the
Church of England to be purged of all catholic influence. The Anglican Church moved in a
moderately Protestant direction. Towards the End of her rein she was threatened by Phillip II OF
Spain who wanted to reestablish Catholicism in England. After the death of his wife, Mary Tudor,
he looked to Mary Queen of Scots for assistance. Elizabeths execution of Mary Queen of Scots
due to her implications in a plan with the plot to kill Queen Elizabeth prompted retaliation by
Phillip II of Spain. The Spanish Armada was defeated by the Protestant Winds increasing
English National Sentiment.

1603-1625: James I
Believed strongly in the idea that he had divine right as the King of England and believed he
bestowed no power in Parliament. His belief in the fact that he was above law and had the ability
to do things such as take property away with out due process were directly against the beliefs of
the House of Commons and led to disagreements from 1603-1640.

1625-1649: Charles I
Continued on the destructive policies of his processors continued to flaunt his Catholicism, and in
order to reaffirm his divine rights he governed without parliament from 1629-1640. Due to the fact
that at the time England was at multiple wars with France and Spain he still needed to raise money
which he did so through the forcing of loans, selling of aristocratic titles, and ship money (a tax on
coast cities for defense). Finally was forced to call Parliament into practice in 1640 after Laud
issues in Scotland over the imposition of a new prayer book and bishoprics. This parliament was
in session for 3 weeks and dubbed the short parliament used to finance war against France and the
putting down of the Scots in their revolt. Finally the Long Parliament was called in to session
which ruled the Triennial Act (parliament every three years). After this Charles attempted to arrest
parliamentary leaders leading to the Beginning of the English Civil War.

1649-1653: Oliver Cromwell Commonwealth
During the Puritans Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell rules with the Rump Parliament after having
disposed over any members of the House of Commons who were not anti-monarchy. He created
the Constitutional Republic governed by the Instrument of Government headed by Cromwell with
a Council of State which annually elected the committee of Parliament. Most nations didnt
recognize this government and Europe was appalled by this. Within England many rebelled to this
government such as the Levelers (known as the first libertarians in the world), and the Diggers
(communist leanings).

1653-1660: Oliver Cromwell Protectorate
In order to deal with dissatisfaction Oliver Cromwell then dissolved the Rump Parliament in 1653
and declares martial law as a military dictator. He practices religious tolerance to all except for
Catholics, crushes rebellion in Scotland, and Ireland.

1660-1685: Charles II
Understood the basic principle that Parliament could no more exist without the Crown than the
Crown without Parliament. Charles II favored religious toleration, reopened joy into the peoples
lives, made sure not to makes the same mistakes as his father. He ruled along side the Cavalier
Parliament filled with royalists, with parliament he disbanded the puritan army, pardoned rebels,
and restored the Church of England. In 1662 he also passed the Act of Uniformity making all
people conform to the Book of Common Prayer and forbade non-conformists from public prayer.
In addition he also passed the Test Act excluding all but Anglicans from civilian and military

1685-1688: James II
Bigoted catholic convert who alienated all even the Tories. He surrounded himself with Catholics
and continually did stuff without Parliaments consent.

1689-1702: Mary II and William III (of Orange)
As a result of the Glorious revolution and the placement of William the Orange and his wife Mary
in the throne the English Bill of Rights was formulated. This settled major issues between King
and Parliament, and formed a steady base for expansion of Lockian natural rights and civil
liberties for the coming centuries. It also lead to the cabinet system of government in which
leading ministers, members of the House of Commons, and who had the support of the majority of
the House of Commons conducted business of the country.