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Chapter 6

Continuous Probability Distributions


Learning Objectives
1.

Understand the difference between how probabilities are computed for discrete and continuous
random variables.

2.

Know how to compute probability values for a continuous uniform probability distribution and be
able to compute the expected value and variance for such a distribution.

3.

Be able to compute probabilities using a normal probability distribution. Understand the role of the
standard normal distribution in this process.

4.

Be able to use the normal distribution to approximate binomial probabilities.

5.

Be able to compute probabilities using an exponential probability distribution.

6.

Understand the relationship between the Poisson and exponential probability distributions.

Solutions:

6-1

Chapter 6

1.

a.
f (x)
3
2
1
x
.50

2.

1.0

1.5

2.0

b.

P(x = 1.25) = 0. The probability of any single point is zero since the area under the curve above
any single point is zero.

c.

P(1.0 x 1.25) = 2(.25) = .50

d.

P(1.20 < x < 1.5) = 2(.30) = .60

a.
f (x)
.15
.10
.05
x
0

3.

10

b.

P(x < 15) = .10(5) = .50

c.

P(12 x 18) = .10(6) = .60

d.

E ( x) =

e.

Var( x) =

20

10 + 20
= 15
2
(20 10) 2
= 8.33
12

a.

6-2

30

40

Continuous Probability Distributions

f (x)
3 / 20
1 / 10
1 / 20
x
110

120

130

Minutes

4.

b.

P(x 130) = (1/20) (130 - 120) = 0.50

c.

P(x > 135) = (1/20) (140 - 135) = 0.25

d.

E ( x) =

120 + 140
= 130 minutes
2

a.
f (x)
1.5
1.0
.5
x
0

5.

b.

P(.25 < x < .75) = 1 (.50) = .50

c.

P(x .30)

d.

P(x > .60) = 1 (.40) = .40

a.

Length of Interval = 310.6 - 284.7 = 25.9

= 1 (.30) = .30

1
for 284.7 x 310.6

f ( x) = 25.9
0 elsewhere

b.

Note: 1/25.9 = .0386


P(x < 290) = .0386(290 - 284.7) = .2046

c.

P(x 300) = .0386(310.6 - 300) = .4092

d.
e.

P(290 x 305) = .0386(305 - 290) = .5790


P(x 290) = .0386(310.6 - 290) = .7952

6-3

140

Chapter 6

6.

a.

P(12 x 12.05) = .05(8) = .40

b.

P(x 12.02) = .08(8) = .64

c.

P ( x < 11.98) + P ( x > 12.02)


1 44 2 4 43 1 44 2 4 43
.005(8) = .04 .64 = .08(8)
Therefore, the probability is .04 + .64 = .68

7.

a.

P(10,000 x < 12,000) = 2000 (1 / 5000) = .40


The probability your competitor will bid lower than you, and you get the bid, is .40.

b.

P(10,000 x < 14,000) = 4000 (1 / 5000) = .80

c.

A bid of $15,000 gives a probability of 1 of getting the property.

d.

Yes, the bid that maximizes expected profit is $13,000.


The probability of getting the property with a bid of $13,000 is
P(10,000 x < 13,000) = 3000 (1 / 5000) = .60.
The probability of not getting the property with a bid of $13,000 is .40.
The profit you will make if you get the property with a bid of $13,000 is $3000 = $16,000 13,000. So your expected profit with a bid of $13,000 is
EP ($13,000) = .6 ($3000) + .4 (0) = $1800.
If you bid $15,000 the probability of getting the bid is 1, but the profit if you do get the bid is only
$1000 = $16,000 - 15,000. So your expected profit with a bid of $15,000 is
EP ($15,000) = 1 ($1000) + 0 (0) = $1,000.

8.

= 10

70

9.

80

90

100

110 120 130

a.

=5

6-4
35

40

45

50

55

60

65

Continuous Probability Distributions

b.

.6826 since 45 and 55 are within plus or minus 1 standard deviation from the mean of 50.

c.

.9544 since 40 and 60 are within plus or minus 2 standard deviations from the mean of 50.

10.

-3
a.

.3413

b.

.4332

c.

.4772

d.

.4938

11. a.

.3413

b.

.4332

c.

.4772

d.

.4938

e.

.4987

12. a.

.2967

b.

.4418

c.

.5000 - .1700 = .3300

d.
e.

.0910 + .5000 = .5910


.3849 + .5000 = .8849

f.

.5000 - .2611 = .2389

13. a.

.6879 - .0239 = .6640

b.

.8888 - .6985 = .1903

c.

.9599 - .8508 = .1091

14. a.

-2

-1

+1

+2

+3

These probability values are read directly


from the table of areas for the standard
normal probability distribution. See
Table 1 in Appendix B.

Using the table of areas for the standard normal probability distribution, the area of .4750
corresponds to z = 1.96.

6-5

Chapter 6

b.

Using the table, the area of .2291 corresponds to z = .61.

c.

Look in the table for an area of .5000 - .1314 = .3686. This provides z = 1.12.

d.

Look in the table for an area of .6700 - .5000 = .1700. This provides z = .44.

15. a.

Look in the table for an area of .5000 - .2119 = .2881. Since the value we are seeking is below the
mean, the z value must be negative. Thus, for an area of .2881, z = -.80.

b.

Look in the table for an area of .9030 / 2 = .4515; z = 1.66.

c.

Look in the table for an area of .2052 / 2 = .1026; z = .26.

d.

Look in the table for an area of .4948; z = 2.56.

e.

Look in the table for an area of .1915. Since the value we are seeking is below the mean, the z
value must be negative. Thus, z = -.50.

16. a.

Look in the table for an area of .5000 - .0100 = .4900. The area value in the table closest to .4900
provides the value z = 2.33.

b.

Look in the table for an area of .5000 - .0250 = .4750. This corresponds to z = 1.96.

c.

Look in the table for an area of .5000 - .0500 = .4500. Since .4500 is exactly halfway between .
4495 (z = 1.64) and .4505 (z = 1.65), we select z = 1.645. However, z = 1.64 or z = 1.65 are
also acceptable answers.

d.

Look in the table for an area of .5000 - .1000 = .4000. The area value in the table closest to .4000
provides the value z = 1.28.

17.

Let x = amount spent

= 527, = 160
a.

z=

700 527
= 1.08
160

P(x > 700) = P(z > 1.08) = .5000 - .3599 = .1401


b.

z=

100 527
= 2.67
160

P(x < 100) = P(z < -2.67) = .5000 - .4962 = .0038


c.

At 700, z = 1.08 from part (a)


At 450, z =

450 527
= .48
160

P(450 < x < 700) = P(-.48 < z < 1.08) = .8599 - .3156 = .5443
d.

z=

300 527
= 1.42
160

P(x 300) = P(z -1.42) = .5000 - .4222 = .0778

6-6

Continuous Probability Distributions

= 30 and = 8.2

18.
a.

At x = 40, z =

40 30
= 1.22
8.2

P(z 1.22) =.5000 + .3888 = .8888


P(x 40) = 1 - .8888 = .1112
b.

At x = 20, z =

20 30
= 1.22
8.2

P(z > -1.22) =.5000 + .3888 = .8888


P(x 20) = 1 - .8888 = .1112
c.

A z-value of 1.28 cuts off an area of approximately 10% in the upper tail.
x = 30 + 8.2(1.28) = 40.50
A stock price of $40.50 or higher will put a company in the top 10%
We have = 156.76 and = 138.01

19.
a.

Z =

416 156.76
1.88
138.01

P(x > 5.0) = P(z > 1.88) = 1 - P(z < 1.88) = 1 - .9699 = .0301
The rainfall exceeds 416 mm in 3.01% of the Februarys.
b.

Z =

70 156.76
.63
138.01

P(x < 3.0) = P(z < -.63) = P(z > .63) = 1 - P(z < .63) = 1 - .7357 = .2643
The rainfall is less than 70 mm in 26.43% of the Februarys.
c.

z = 1.28 cuts off approximately .10 in the upper tail of a normal distribution.
x = 156.76 + 1.28(138.01) = 333.413
If it rains 333.413 mm or more, February will be classified as extremely wet.

= 15.3 and = 3.94

20.
a.

At x = 10,

z=

10 15.3
= 1.35
3.94

P(z < -1.35) = P( z > 1.35) = .5000 - .4115 = .0885


So, P(x < 10) = .0885

6-7

Chapter 6

8.85% of people logged on fewer than 10 hours.


b.

At x = 20,

z=

20 15.3
=1.19
3.94

P(z > 1.19) = .5000 - .3830 = .1170


So, P(x > 20) = .1170
11.7% of people logged on over 20 hours.
c.

A z-value of .84 cuts off an area of approximately .20 in the upper tail.
x = 15.3 + .84 (3.94) = 18.61
A person must spend 18.61 or more hours logged on to be classified a heavy user.

21.

From the normal probability tables, a z-value of 2.05 cuts off an area of approximately .02 in the
upper tail of the distribution.
x = + z = 100 + 2.05(15) = 130.75
A score of 131 or better should qualify a person for membership in Mensa.

6-8

Continuous Probability Distributions


Use = 441.84 and = 90

22.
a.

At 400
z=

400 441.84
.46
90

At 500
z=

500 441.84
.65
90

P(0 z < .65) = .2422


P(-.46 z < 0) = .1772
P(400 z 500) = .1772 + .2422 = .4194
The probability a worker earns between $400 and $500 is .4194.
b.

Must find the z-value that cuts off an area of .20 in the upper tail. Using the normal tables, we find
z = .84 cuts off approximately .20 in the upper tail.
So, x = + z = 441.84 + .84(90) = 517.44
Weekly earnings of $517.44 or above will put a production worker in the top 20%.

c.

At 250, z =

250 441.84
2.13
90

P(x 250) = P(z -2.13) = .5000 - .4834 = .0166


The probability a randomly selected production worker earns less than $250 per week is .0166.
23. a.
b.

z=

60 80
= 2 Area to left is .5000 - .4772 = .0228
10

At x = 60
z=

60 80
= 2
10

Area to left is .0228

z=

75 80
= .5
10

Area to left is .3085

At x = 75

P(60 x 75) = .3085 - .0228 = .2857


c.

z=

90 80
=1
10

Area = .5000 - .3413 = .1587

Therefore 15.87% of students will not complete on time.


(60) (.1587) = 9.522
We would expect 9.522 students to be unable to complete the exam in time.

6-9

Chapter 6

24. a.

x =

s=

xi
= 902.75
n

( xi x ) 2
= 114.185
n 1

We will use x as an estimate of and s as an estimate of in parts (b) - (d) below.


b.

Remember the data are in thousands of shares.


At 800
z=

800 902.75
.90
114.185

P(x 800) = P(z -.90) = 1 - P(z .90) = 1 - .8159 = .1841


The probability trading volume will be less than 800 million shares is .1841
c.

At 1000
z=

1000 902.75
.85
114.185

P(x 1000) = P(z .85) = 1 - P(z .85) = 1 - .8023 = .1977


The probability trading volume will exceed 1 billion shares is .1977
d.

A z-value of 1.645 cuts off an area of .05 in the upper tail


x = + z = 902.75 + 1.645(114.185) = 1,090.584
They should issue a press release any time share volume exceeds 1,091 million.

= 442.54, = 65

25.
a.

z=

400 442.54
= .65
65

P(x > 400) = P(z > -.65) = .5000 +.2422 = .7422


b.

z=

300 442.54
= 2.19
65

P(x 300) = P(z -2.19) = .5000 - .4857 = .0143


c.

At x = 400, z = -.65 from part (a)


At x = 500, z =

500 442.54
= .88
65

P(400 < x < 500) = P(-.65 < z < .88) = .8106 - .2578 = .5528
26. a.

= np = 100(.20) = 20

6 - 10

Continuous Probability Distributions

2 = np (1 - p) = 100(.20) (.80) = 16
= 16 = 4
b.

Yes since np = 20 and n (1 - p) = 80

c.

P (23.5 x 24.5)
z=

24.5 20
= +1.13
4

Area = .3708

z=

23.5 20
= +.88
4

Area = .3106

P (23.5 x 24.5) = .3708 - .3106 = .0602


d.

P (17.5 x 22.5)
z=

17.5 20
= .63
4

Area = .2357

z=

22.5 20
= +.63
4

Area = .2357

P (17.5 x 22.5) = .2357 + .2357 = .4714


e.

P (x 15.5)
z=

15.5 20
= 1.13
4

Area = .3708

P (x 15.5) = .5000 - .3708 = .1292


27. a.

= np = 200(.60) = 120
2 = np (1 - p) = 200(.60) (.40) = 48
= 48 = 6.93

b.

Yes since np = 120 and n (1 - p) = 80

c.

P (99.5 x 110.5)
z=

99.5 120
= 2.96
6.93

Area = .4985

z=

110 120
= 1.37
6.93

Area = .4147

P (99.5 x 110.5) = .4985 - .4147 = .0838

6 - 11

Chapter 6

d.

P ( x 129.5)
z=

129.5 120
= +1.37 Area = .4147
6.93

P (x 129.5) = .5000 - .4147 = .0853


e.

Simplifies computation. By direct computation of binomial probabilities we would have to


compute
P (x 130) = f (130) + f (131) + f (132) + f (133) + ...

28. a.

In answering this part, we assume it is not known how many Democrats and Republicans are in the
group.

= np = 250(.47) = 117.5
2 = np(1-p) = 250(.47)(.53) = 62.275
= 62.275 = 7.89
Half the group is 125 people. We want to find P(x 124.5).
At x = 124.5, z =

124.5 117.5
= .89
7.89

P(z .89) = .5000 - .3133 = .1867


So, P(x 124.5) = .1867
We estimate a probability of .1867 that at least half the group is in favor of the proposal.
b.

For Republicans: np = 150(.64) = 96


For Democrats: np = 100(.29) = 29
Expected number in favor = 96 + 29 = 125

c.

It's a toss up. We expect just as many in favor of the proposal as opposed.

29. a/b. = np = (100) (.0499) = 4.99

2 = np(1-p) = 100 (.0499) (.9501) = 4.7410


= 4.7410 = 2.18
c.

Must compute P(5.5 x 6.5)


At x = 6.5,

z=

6.5 4.99
= .69
2.18

P(z .69) = .5000 + .2549 = .7549

6 - 12

Continuous Probability Distributions

At x = 5.5,

z=

5.5 4.99
= .23
2.18

P(z .23) = .5000 + .0910 = .5910


P(5.5 x 6.5) = .7549 - .5910 = .1639
Our estimate of the probability is .1639.
d.

Must compute P(x 3.5)


At x = 3.5,

z=

3.5 4.99
= .68
2.18

P(x -.68) = .5000 + .2518 = .7518


So, P(x 3.5) = .7518
Our estimate of the probability that at least 4 are unemployed is .7518.
30. a.

= np = (800)(0.41) = 328
= np(1 p) = (800)(0.41)(0.59) = 13.9111
I would expect 328 to agree that Microsoft is a monopoly.

b.

Find P(x 300.5)


At x = 300.5
z=

300.5 328
= 1.98
13.9111

P(x 300.5) = 0.5000 - 0.4761 = 0.0239


The probability that 300 or fewer agree that Microsoft is a monopoly is 0.0239.

c.

Use = n(1 - p) = 800(0.59) = 472

= 13.9111 as in part a.
Find P(x > 450.5)
At x = 450.5
z=

450.5 472
= 1.55
13.9111

6 - 13

Chapter 6

P(x > 450.5) = 0.5000 + 0.4394 = 0.9394


The probability that there are over 450 that do not agree Microsoft is a monopoly.
31. a.

= np = 120(.75) = 90
= np(1 p) = (120)(.75)(.25) = 4.74
The probability at least half the rooms are occupied is the normal probability: P(x 59.5).
At x = 59.5
z=

59.5 90
= 6.43
4.74

Therefore, probability is approximately 1

b.

Find the normal probability: P(x 99.5)


At x = 99.5
99.5 90
= 2.00
4.74

z=

P(x 99.5) = P(z 2.00) = .5000 - .4772 = .0228


c.

Find the normal probability: P(x 80.5)


At x = 80.5
z=

80.5 90
= 2.00
4.74

P(x 80.5) = P(z -2.00) = .5000 - .4772 = .0228


32. a.

P(x 6) = 1 - e-6/8 = 1 - .4724 = .5276

b.

P(x 4) = 1 - e-4/8 = 1 - .6065 = .3935

c.
d.

P(x 6) = 1 - P(x 6) = 1 - .5276 = .4724


P(4 x 6) = P(x 6) - P(x 4) = .5276 - .3935 = .1341

33. a.

P ( x x0 ) = 1 e x0 / 3

b.

P(x 2) = 1 - e-2/3 = 1 - .5134 = .4866

c.

P(x 3) = 1 - P(x 3) = 1 - (1 - e 3/ 3 ) = e-1 = .3679

d.

P(x 5) = 1 - e-5/3 = 1 - .1889 = .8111

e.

P(2 x 5) = P(x 5) - P(x 2)

= .8111 - .4866 = .3245

6 - 14

Continuous Probability Distributions

34. a.
b.
c.

P(x < 10) = 1 - e-10/20 = .3935


P(x > 30) = 1 - P(x 30) = 1 - (1 - e-30/20 ) = e-30/20 = .2231
P(10 x 30) = P(x 30) - P(x 10)
= (1 - e-30/20 ) - (1 - e-10/20 ) = e-10/20 - e-30/20
= .6065 - .2231 = .3834

35. a.
f(x)
.09
.08
.07
.06
.05
.04
.03
.02
.01
x
6

12

18

b.

P(x 12) = 1 - e-12/12 = 1 - .3679 = .6321

c.

P(x 6) = 1 - e-6/12 = 1 - .6065 = .3935

d.

P(x 30) = 1 - P(x < 30)

24

= 1 - (1 - e-30/12)
= .0821
36. a.
b.
c.

37. a.

50 hours
P(x 25) = 1 - e-25/50 = 1 - .6065 = .3935
P(x 100) = 1 - (1 - e-100/50)
= .1353
P(x < 2) = 1 - e-2/2.78 = .5130

b.

P(x > 5) = 1 - P(x 5) = 1 - (1 - e-5/2.78 ) = e-5/2.78 = .1655

c.

P(x > 2.78) = 1 - P(x 2.78) = 1 - (1 - e-2.78/2.78 ) = e-1 = .3679


This may seem surprising since the mean is 2.78 minutes. But, for the exponential distribution, the
probability of a value greater than the mean is significantly less than the probability of a value less
than the mean.

6 - 15

Chapter 6

38. a.

If the average number of transactions per year follows the Poisson distribution, the time between
transactions follows the exponential distribution. So,

1
of a year
30

and

1
1
=
= 30
1/ 30

then f(x) = 30 e-30x


b.

A month is 1/12 of a year so,


1
1

P x > = 1 P x = 1 (1 e 30 /12 ) = e 30 /12 = .0821


12
12

The probability of no transaction during January is the same as the probability of no transaction
during any month: .0821

c.

Since 1/2 month is 1/24 of a year, we compute,


1

30 / 24
P x
= 1 .2865 = .7135
= 1 e
24

39. a.

Let x = sales price ($1000s)


1
for 200 x 225

f ( x) = 25
0 elsewhere

b.

P(x 215) = (1 / 25) (225 - 215) = 0.40

c.

P(x < 210) = (1 / 25)(210 - 200) = 0.40

d.

E (x) = (200 + 225)/2 = 212,500


If she waits, her expected sale price will be $2,500 higher than if she sells it back to her company
now. However, there is a 0.40 probability that she will get less. Its a close call. But, the expected
value approach to decision making would suggest she should wait.

6 - 16

Continuous Probability Distributions

40. a.

For a normal distribution, the mean and the median are equal.

= 63,000
b.

Find the z-score that cuts off 10% in the lower tail.
z-score = -1.28
Solving for x,
1.28 = x 63,000
15,000
x = 63,000 - 1.28 (15000) = 43,800
The lower 10% of mortgage debt is $43,800 or less.

c.

Find P(x > 80,000)


At x = 80,000
z=

80, 000 63, 000


= 1.13
15, 000

P(x > 80,000) = .5000 - .3708 = 0.1292


d.

Find the z-score that cuts off 5% in the upper tail.


z-score = 1.645. Solve for x.
1.645 =

x 63, 000
15, 000

x = 63,000 + 1.645 (15,000) = 87,675


The upper 5% of mortgage debt is in excess of $87,675.
41. a.

= 1 - P(9.85 x 10.15)

P(defect)

= 1 - P(-1 z 1) = 1 - .6826 = .3174


Expected number of defects = 1000(.3174) = 317.4
b.

P(defect) = 1 - P(9.85 x 10.15)


= 1 - P(-3 z 3) = 1 - .9974 = .0026
Expected number of defects = 1000(.0026) = 2.6

c.

Reducing the process standard deviation causes a substantial reduction in the number of defects.

= 80,734

42.
a.

z = -1.645 cuts off .05 in the lower tail


So,

6 - 17

Chapter 6

1.645 =

=
c.

75,422 80,734

75,422 80,734
= 3,229
1.645

At 80,400

z=

80,400 80,734
= .10
3,229

z=

78,410 80,734
= .72
3,229

At 78,410

P (80,400 < x < 78,410) = P (-.72 < z < -.10) = .2642 - .0398 = .2244
c.

z = 1.88 cuts off approximately .03 in the upper tail


x = 80,734 + 1.88 (3,229) = 86,804.52
The households with the highest 3% of expenditures spent more than NT$86,804.

= 10,000

43.
a.

= 1500

At x = 12,000
12, 000 10, 000
= 1.33 Area to left is .9082
1500
P(x > 12,000) = 1.0000 - .9082 = .0918
z=

b.

At .95
z = 1.645 =

x 10, 000
1500

Therefore, x = 10,000 + 1.645(1500) = 12,468.

95%

10,000
12,468 tubes should be produced.

6 - 18

0.05

12,468

Continuous Probability Distributions

44. a.

At x = 200
z=

200 150
= 2 Area = .4772
25

P(x > 200) = .5 - .4772 = .0228


b.

45. a.

Expected Profit = Expected Revenue - Expected Cost


= 200 - 150 = $50
Find P(80,000 x 150,000)
At x = 150,000
z=

150, 000 126, 681


= 0.78
30, 000

z=

80, 000 126,681


= 1.56
30, 000

P(x 150,000) = 0.7823


At x = 80,000

P(x 80,000) = .5000 - .4406 = 0.0594


P(80,000 x 150,000) = 0.7823 - 0.0594 = 0.7229
b.

Find P(x < 50,000)


At x = 50,000
z=

50, 000 126, 681


= 2.56
30, 000

P(x < 50,000) = .5000 - .4948 = 0.0052


c.

Find the z-score cutting off 95% in the left tail.


z-score = 1.645. Solve for x.
1.645 =

x 126, 681
30, 000

x = 126,681 + 1.645 (30,000)


= 176,031
The probability is 0.95 that the number of lost jobs will not exceed 176,031.

46. a.

At 400,

6 - 19

Chapter 6

z=

400 450
= .500
100
Area to left is .3085

At 500,
z=

500 450
= +.500
100
Area to left is .6915

P(400 x 500) = .6915 - .3085 = .3830


38.3% will score between 400 and 500.
b.

At 630,
z=

630 450
= 1.80
100

96.41% do worse and 3.59% do better .


c.

At 480,
z=

480 450
= .30
100
Area to left is .6179

38.21% are acceptable.


47. a.

At 75,000
z=

75, 000 67, 000


1.14
7, 000

P(x > 75,000) = P(z > 1.14) = 1 - P(z 1.14) = 1 - .8729 = .1271
The probability of a woman receiving a salary in excess of $75,000 is .1271
b.

At 75,000
z=

75, 000 65,500


1.36
7, 000

P(x > 75,000) = P(z > 1.36) = 1 - P(z 1.36) = 1 - .9131 = .0869
The probability of a man receiving a salary in excess of $75,000 is .0869
c.

At x = 50,000
z=

50, 000 67, 000


2.43
7, 000

P(x < 50,000) = P(z < -2.43) = 1 - P(z < 2.43) = 1 - .9925 = .0075
The probability of a woman receiving a salary below $50,000 is very small: .0075
d.

The answer to this is the male copywriter salary that cuts off an area of .01 in the upper tail of the
distribution for male copywriters.
Use z = 2.33

6 - 20

Continuous Probability Distributions

x = 65,500 + 2.33(7,000) = 81,810


A woman who makes $81,810 or more will earn more than 99% of her male counterparts.

= .6

48.

At 2%
z = -2.05
z=

x = 18

2.05 =

18
.6

= 18 + 2.05 (.6) = 19.23 oz.

0.02

=19.23

18

The mean filling weight must be 19.23 oz.


49.

Use normal approximation to binomial.


a.

= np = 50 (.75) = 37.5

= np (1 p ) = 50(.75)(.25) = 3.06
At x = 42.5
z=

x 42.5 37.5
=
= 1.63

3.06

P(0 z 1.63) = .4484


Probability of an A grade = .5000 - .4484 = .0516 or 5.16% will obtain an A grade.
b.

At x = 34.5
z=

34.5 37.5
= .98
3.06

At x = 39.5
z=

39.5 37.5
= .65
3.06

P(-.98 z .65) = .3365 + .2422 = .5787


or 57.87% will obtain a C grade.

6 - 21

Chapter 6

c.

At x = 29.5
29.5 37.5
= 2.61
3.06

z=

P(z -2.61) = .5000 + .4955 = .9955


or 99.55%of the students who have done their homework and attended lectures will pass the
examination.
d.

= np = 50 (.25) = 12.5

(We use p = .25 for a guess.)

= np (1 p ) = 50(.25)(.75) = 3.06
At x = 29.5
z=

29.5 12.5
= 5.55
3.06

P(z 5.55) 0
Thus, essentially no one who simply guesses will pass the examination.
50. a.

= np = (240)(0.49) = 117.6
Expected number of wins is 117.6
Expected number of

losses = 240(0.51) = 122.4

Expected payoff = 117.6(50) - 122.4(50) = (-4.8)(50) = -240.


The player should expect to lose $240.
b.

To lose $1000, the player must lose 20 more hands than he wins. With 240 hands in 4 hours, the
player must win 110 or less in order to lose $1000. Use normal approximation to binomial.

= np = (240)(0.49) = 117.6
= 240(.49)(.51) = 7.7444
Find P(x 110.5)
At x = 110.5
z=

110.5 117.6
= .92
7.7444

P(x 110.5) = 0.5000 - 0.3212 = 0.1788


The probability he will lose $1000 or more is 0.1788.
c.

In order to win, the player must win 121 or more hands.


Find P(x 120.5)
At x = 120.5

6 - 22

Continuous Probability Distributions

z=

120.5 117.6
= .37
7.7444

P(x 120.5) = 0.5000 - 0.1443 = 0.3557


The probability that the player will win is 0.3557. The odds are clearly in the houses favor.
d.

To lose $1500, the player must lose 30 hands more than he wins. This means he wins 105 or fewer
hands.
Find P(x 105.5)
At x = 105.5
z=

105.5 117.6
= 1.56
7.7444

P(x 105.5) = 0.5000 - 0.4406 = 0.0594


The probability the player will go broke is 0.0594.
51. a.

P(x 15) = 1 - e-15/36 = 1 - .6592 = .3408

b.

P(x 45) = 1 - e-45/36 = 1 - .2865 = .7135


Therefore P(15 x 45) = .7135 - .3408 = .3727

c.

P(x 60) = 1 - P(x < 60)


= 1 - (1 - e-60/36) = .1889

52. a.

Mean time between arrivals = 1/7 minutes

b.

f(x) = 7e-7x

c.

P(x > 1) = 1 - P(x < 1) = 1 - [1 - e-7(1)] = e-7 = .0009

d.

12 seconds is .2 minutes
P(x > .2) = 1 - P(x < .2) = 1- [1- e-7(.2)] = e-1.4 = .2466

53. a.
b.

1
e x / 24.7 .0405e .0405 x
24.7
P(x < 30) = 1 - e-.0405(30) = 1 - .2967 = .7033
P(x < 10) = 1 - e-.0405(10) = 1 - .6670 = .3330
P(10 < x < 30) = .7033 - .3330 = .3703

c.

From part (b), P(x < 30) = .7033


P(x > 30) = P(x 30) = 1 - P(x < 30) = 1 - .7033 = .2967

6 - 23

Chapter 6

54. a.
b.

1
= 0.5 therefore = 2 minutes = mean time between telephone calls

Note: 30 seconds = .5 minutes


P(x .5) = 1 - e-.5/2 = 1 - .7788 = .2212

c.

P(x 1) = 1 - e-1/2 = 1 - .6065 = .3935

d.

P(x 5) = 1 - P(x < 5) = 1 - (1 - e-5/2) = .0821

6 - 24