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# Chapter 10

## Statistical Inference about Means and

Proportions with Two Populations
Learning Objectives
1.

Be able to develop interval estimates and conduct hypothesis tests about the difference between two
population means when 1 and 2 are known.

2.

## Know the properties of the sampling distribution of x1 x2 .

3.

Be able to use the t distribution to conduct statistical inferences about the difference between two
population means when 1 and 2 are unknown.

4.

Learn how to analyze the difference between two population means when the samples are
independent and when the samples are matched.

5.

Be able to develop interval estimates and conduct hypothesis tests about the difference between two
population proportions.

6.

## Know the properties of the sampling distribution of p1 p2 .

10 - 1

Chapter 10

Solutions:
1.

a.

x1 x2 = 13.6 - 11.6 = 2

b.

z / 2 = z.05 = 1.645

12 22
+
n1 n2

x1 x2 1.645

(2.2) 2 (3) 2
+
50
35

2 1.645
2 .98
c.

(1.02 to 2.98)

z / 2 = z.025 = 1.96
2 1.96

(2.2)2 (3) 2
+
50
35

2 1.17

2.

3.

4.

5.

a.

z=

(.83 to 3.17)

( x1 x2 ) D0

+
n1 n2
2
1

2
2

(25.2 22.8) 0
(5.2)2 62
+
40
50

b.

c.

a.

z=

( x1 x2 ) D0

+
n1 n2
2
1

2
2

(104 106) 0
(8.4) 2 (7.6) 2
+
80
70

= 2.03

= 1.53

b.

c.

a.

## x1 x2 = 2.04 - 1.72 = .32

b.

z.025

12 22
+
n1 n2

1.96

(.10) 2 (.08) 2
+
= 1.96(.0208) = .04
40
35

c.

.32 .04

a.

(.28 to .36)

10 - 2

12 22
(5.2) 2 (3.8) 2
+
= 1.96
+
= 1.3
n1 n2
100
85

b.

z / 2

c.

4.6 1.3

(3.3 to 5.9)

6.

H0: 1 2 0
Ha: 1 2 > 0
z=

( x1 x2 ) D0

+
n1 n2
2
1

2
2

(175 165) 0
552 502
+
270 250

= 2.17

## p-value = .5000 - .4850 = .0150

p-value .05; reject H0. The mean loan amount has increased between 2001 and 2002.
7.

a.

H0: 1 2 = 0
Ha: 1 2 0

b.

z=

( x1 x2 ) D0

+
n1 n2
2
1

2
2

(40 35) 0
92 102
+
36 49

= 2.41

## p-value = 2(.5000 - .4920) = .0160

p-value .05; reject H0. There is a difference between the population mean ages at the two stores.

8.

9.

a.

z=

12 22
+
n1 n2

2.52 2.52
+
112
84

b.

## p-value = 2(.5000 - .3599) = .2802

c.

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. Cannot conclude that there is a difference between the population
mean scores for the two golfers.

a.

10 - 3

Chapter 10

b.

s12 s22
2.52 4.82
+
+

n1 n2
20
30

df =
=
= 45.8
2
2
2
2
1 2.52
1 4.82
1 s12
1 s22
+

19 20 29 30
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 45.

c.

t.025 = 2.014
s12 s22
2.52 4.82
+
= 2.014
+
= 2.1
n1 n2
20
30

t.025
d.

10. a.

2.4 2.1
t=

(.3 to 4.5)

s12 s22
+
n1 n2

5.22 8.52
+
35
40
2

b.

s12 s22
5.22 8.52
+
+

n1 n2
35
40

df =
=
= 65.7
2
2
2
2
1 5.2 2
1 8.52
1 s12
1 s22
+

34 35 39 40
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 65

c.

## Using t table, area in tail is between .01 and .025

two-tail p-value is between .02 and .05.
Actual p-value = .0329

d.

## p-value .05, reject H0.

54
=9
6

x1 =

b.

s1 =

( xi x1 ) 2
= 2.28
n1 1

s2 =

( xi x2 ) 2
= 1.79
n2 1

c.

x2 =

42
=7
6

11. a.

x1 x2 = 9 - 7 = 2

10 - 4

## Statistical Inference about Means and Proportions with Two Populations

d.

s12 s22
2.282 1.792
+
+

n1 n2
6
6

df =
=
= 9.5
2
2
2
2
1 2.282 1 1.792
1 s12
1 s22
+

5 6 5 6
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 9, t.05 = 1.833
x1 x2 1.833

2.282 1.792
+
6
6

2 2.17
12. a.

(-.17 to 4.17)

## x1 x2 = 22.5 - 18.6 = 3.9

2

b.

s12 s22
8.42 7.42
+
+

n1 n2
50
40

df =
=
= 87.1
2
2
2
2
1 8.42
1 7.42
1 s12
1 s22
+

49 50 39 40
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 87, t.025 = 1.988
3.9 1.988

8.42 7.42
+
50
40

3.9 3.3
13.

(.6 to 7.2)

Taoyuan
n1 = 50
x1 = 3.16
s1 = 1.18

Kaohsiung
n2 = 50
x2 = 3.56
s2 = 1.11

## x1 x2 = 3.16 3.56 = -.40

Kaohsiung is slightly higher rated.

df =

s12 s 22
+
n n
2
1
1 s12

n1 1 n1

1 s 22
+

n 1 n
2

1.18 2 1.112

+
50
50
1 1.18 2

49 50

10 - 5

1 1.112
+
49 50

= 97.6

Chapter 10

1.18 2 1.112
+
50
50

.40 1.985

14. a.

-.40 .45

(-.85 to .05)

n1 = 10
x1 = 21.2
s1 = 2.70

n2 = 8
x2 = 22.8
s2 = 3.55

## x1 x2 = 21.2 - 22.8 = -1.6

Kitchens are less expensive by \$1600.

b.

df =

s12 s22
+
n1 n2

1 s12
1 s22
+

n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2

2.70 2 3.552
+

8
10

1 2.70 2 1 3.552

9 10 7 8

= 12.9

1.6 1.782
-1.6 2.7
15.

2.702 3.552
+
10
8
(-4.3 to 1.1)

Union
n1 = 14
x1 = 17.54
s1 = 2.24

Nonunion
n2 = 19
x2 = 15.36
s2 = 1.99

a.

b.

s12 s22
2.24 2 1.992
+
+

19
n1 n2
14
df =
=
= 26.1
2
2
2
2
1 2.24 2
1 1.992
1 s12
1 s22
+

13 14 18 19
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2

## Use df = 26, t.025 = 2.056

2.18 2.056
2.18 1.55
c.

2.242 1.992
+
14
19
(.63 to 3.73)

Yes, since the interval does not include 0, it can be concluded that union workers have a different
(higher) mean wage rate than nonunion workers.

10 - 6

## Statistical Inference about Means and Proportions with Two Populations

16. a.

H0: 1 2 = 0
Ha: 1 2 0

t=
b.

c.

( x1 x 2 ) 0
2
1

2
2

s
s
+
n1 n2

(159.38 154.89) 0
3.49 2 6.57 2
+
100
22

= 3.11

With n1 = 100 and n2 = 22, degrees of freedom will be 120. Using last row of the t table, the area in
the tail at t = 3.11 is between .0005 and .005. Thus, the two-tail p-value is between .001 and .01
Actual p-value = .009

d.

p-value .05, reject H0. The population means differ for Hongkong and Korea.

17.

## 2 for 1992 season

H0: 1 2 0
Ha: 1 2 > 0
b.

x1 x2 = 60 - 51 = 9 days
9/51(100) = 17.6% increase in number of days.

c.

t=

## ( x1 x2 ) 0 = (60 51) 0 = 2.48

s12 s22
+
n1 n2

182 152
+
45 38
2

s12 s22
182 152
+
+

n1 n2
45 38

df =
=
= 81
2
2
2
2
1 182
1 152
1 s12
1 s22
+

44 45 37 38
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Using t table, p-value is between .005 and .01.
Actual p-value = .0075
p-value .01, reject H0. There is a greater mean number of days on the disabled list in 2001.
d.

Management should be concerned. Players on the disabled list have increased 32% and time on the
list has increased by 17.6%. Both the increase in inquiries to players and the cost of lost playing
time need to be addressed.

10 - 7

Chapter 10

18. a.

H0: 1 2 = 0
Ha: 1 2 0

b.

t=

( x1 x2 ) 0
2
1

2
2

s
s
+
n1 n2

(2.5 2.1) 0
.82 1.12
+
32 25

= 1.53

c.

s12 s22
.82 1.12
+
+

n1 n2
32 25

df =
=
= 42.3
2
2
2
2
1 .82
1 1.12
1 s12
1 s22
+

31 32 24 25
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 42
Using t table, area in tail is between .05 and .10
Two-tail p-value is between .10 and .20
Actual p-value = .1337

d.

19. a.

p-value > .05, do not reject H0. Cannot conclude that there is a difference between population mean
times for the two airlines.
H0: 1 2 0
Ha: 1 2 > 0

b.

t=

( x1 x2 ) D0
2
1

2
2

s
s
+
n1 n2

(6.82 6.25) 0
.642 .752
+
16
10

= 1.99

c.

s12 s22
.642 .752
+
+

n1 n2
16
10

df =
=
= 16.9
2
2
2
2
1 .642 1 .752
1 s12
1 s22
+

15 16 9 10
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 16
Using t table, p-value is between .025 and .05
Actual p-value = .0318

d.

20. a.

p-value .05, reject H0. The consultant with more experience has a higher population mean rating.

H0: 1 2 120

10 - 8

b.

t=

( x1 x2 ) D0
2
1

2
2

s
s
+
n1 n2

## (1058 983) 120

902 1052
+
35
48

= 2.10

s12 s22
90 2 1052
+
+

n1 n2
35
48

df =
=
= 78.8
2
2
2
2
1 902
1 1052
1 s12
1 s22
+

34 35 47 48
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 78
Using t table, p-value is between .01 and .025
Actual p-value = .0197
p-value .05, reject H0. The improvement is less than the stated average of 120 points.
c.

x1 x2 t.025

s12 s22
+
n1 n2

df = 78
(1058 983) 1.991
75 43
d.
21. a.

902 1052
+
35
48

(32 to 118)

This is a wide interval. A larger sample should be used to reduce the margin of error.
1, 2, 0, 0, 2

b.

d = di / n = 5 / 5 = 1

c.

sd =

d.

t=

(di d ) 2
4
=
=1
n 1
51

d d
1 0
=
= 2.24
sd / n 1 / 5

df = n - 1 = 4

10 - 9

Chapter 10

## Actual p-value = .0445

Reject H0; conclude d > 0.
22. a.

3, -1, 3, 5, 3, 0, 1

b.

d = di / n = 14 / 7 = 2

c.

sd =

d.

d =2

e.

## With 6 degrees of freedom t.025 = 2.447

(d i d ) 2
=
n 1

2 2.447 2.082 / 7
2 1.93
23.

26
= 2.08
7 1

(.07 to 3.93)

## Difference = rating after - rating before

H0: d 0
Ha: d > 0
d = .625 and sd = 1.30
t=

d d
sd / n

.625 0
1.30 / 8

= 1.36

df = n - 1 = 7
Using t table, p-value is between .10 and .20
Actual p-value = .1084
Do not reject H0; we cannot conclude that seeing the commercial improves the mean potential to
purchase.
24.

Differences: .20, .29, .39, .02, .24, .20, .20, .52, .29, .20
d = d i / n = 2.55 /10 = .255
sd =

(d i d ) 2
= .13
n 1

d t.025

sd
n

10 - 10

.13
.255 2.262

10
.255 .095
25.

(.16 to .35)

## Differences: 8, 9.5, 6, 10.5, 15, 9, 11, 7.5, 12, 5

d = 93.5/10 = 9.35 and sd = 2.95
t.025 = 2.262 with df = n - 1 = 9

## 9.35 2.262 2.95 / 10 = 9.35 2.11

Interval estimate is 7.24 to 11.46
26.

H0: d = 0
Ha: d 0
Differences .11, -.06, .17, .03, .16, .21, -.01, -.09
d = d i / n = .52 / 8 = .065
sd =

t=

(d i d ) 2
= .11
n 1

d 0 .065
=
= 1.63
sd
.11
8
n

df = n - 1 = 7
Using t table, area is between .05 and .10
Two-tail p-value is between .10 and .20
Actual p-value = .1482
Do not reject H0. Cannot conclude that the population means differ.
27.

Using matched samples, the differences are as follows: 4, -2, 8, 8, 5, 6, -4, -2, -3, 0, 11, -5, 5, 9, 5
H0: d 0
Ha: d > 0
d = 3 and sd = 5.21
d d
3 0
t=
=
= 2.23
sd / n 5.21 / 15
df = n - 1 = 14

10 - 11

Chapter 10

## Using t table, p-value is between .01 and .025

Actual p-value = .0213
Reject H0. Conclude that the population of readers spends more time, on average, watching
television than reading.
28. a.

Differences .91, -.30, -.84, -.18, -.34, .53, -.20, .10, -.78, .07
d = d i / n = 1.03 /10 = .103
sd =

t=

(d i d ) 2
= .54
n 1

d d
sd / n

.103 0
.54 / 10

= .60

## Using t table, area in tail is greater than .20

Two-tail p-value must be greater than .40
Actual p-value = .5602
Cannot reject H0. No significant difference observed.
b.

## d = -.103; Actual was less than predicted. Analysts overestimated earnings.

c.

t.025

sd

df = 9

2.262

t = 2.262

.54
10

.39
Given the point estimate of -.103, the margin of error is large. A larger sample is desired.
29.

## Difference = Price deluxe - Price Standard

H0: d = 10
Ha: d 10
d = 8.86 and sd = 2.61
t=

d d 8.86 10
=
= 116
.
sd / n 2.61 / 7

df = n - 1 = 6
Using t table, area is between .10 and .20

10 - 12

## Two-tail p-value is between .20 and .40

Actual p-value = .2906
Do not reject H0; we cannot reject the hypothesis that a \$10 price differential exists.
30. a.

b.

c.

## p1 p2 = .48 - .36 = .12

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )
+
n1
n2

p1 p2 z.05

.12 1.645

+
400
300

.12 .0614

(.0586 to .1814)

.12 1.96

## .48(1 .48) .36(1 .36)

+
400
300

.12 .0731
31. a.

p=

z=

(.0469 to .1931)

n1 p1 + n2 p2 200(.22) + 300(.16)
=
= .1840
n1 + n2
200 + 300
p1 p2
1 1
p ( 1 p ) +
n1 n2

.22 .16
1
1
.1840 ( 1 .1840 )
+

200 300

= 1.70

b.

## p-value .05; reject H0.

p1 = 220/400 = .55

32.

b.

p2 = 192/400 = .48

p1 p2 z.025

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )
+
n1
n2

## .55(1 .55) .48(1 .48)

+
400
400

.07 .0691

(.0009 to .1391)

7% more executives are predicting an increase in full-time jobs. The confidence interval shows the
difference may be from 0% to 14%.
33.

p1 p2 z.025

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )
+
n1
n2

10 - 13

Chapter 10

+
505
496

-.09 .05

(-.14 to -.04)

## From 4% to 14% greater for women.

34. a.

p1 = 682/1082 = .6303
p2 = 413/1008 = .4097
p1 p2 = .6303 - .4097 = .2206 (22%)

b.

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )
+
n1
n2

p1 p2 z.025

.2206 1.96

## .6303(1 .6303) .4097(1 .4097)

+
1082
1008

.2206 .0418

(.1788 to .2624)

35. a.

p1 = 256/320 = .80

b.

p2 = 165/250 = .66

c.

## p1 p2 = .80 - .66 = .14

.14 z.025

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )
+
n1
n2

.14 1.96

## .80(1 .80) .66(1 .66)

+
320
250

.14 .0733

(.0667 to .2133)

36. a.

p1 = 371/462 = .803

b.

p2 = 357/421 = .848

c.

H0: p1 - p2 0
Ha: p1 - p2 < 0
Support for Ha will show p2 > p1 which indicates an improvement in on-time flight performance.

d.

p=

n1 p1 + n 2 p 2 371(.803) + 357(.848)
=
= .8245
n1 + n 2
462 + 421

10 - 14

z=

p1 p 2
1
1
p (1 p )( + )
n1 n 2

.803 .848
1
1
.8245(1 .8245)(
+
)
462 421

= 1.76

## p-value = . 5000 - .4608 = .0392

Reject H0. Conclude on-time performance has improved.
37. a.

H0: p1 - p2 = 0
Ha: p1 - p2 0
p1 = 63/150 = .42
p2 = 60/200 = .30
p=

z=

n1 p1 + n2 p2
63 + 60
=
= .3514
n1 + n2
150 + 200
p1 p2
1 1
p ( 1 p ) +
n1 n2

.42 .30
1
1
.3514 ( 1 .3514 )
+

150 200

= 2.33

## p-value = 2(.5000 - .4901) = .0198

p-value .05, reject H0. There is a difference between the recall rates for the two commercials.
b.

p1 p2 z.025

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )
+
n1
n2

+
150
200

.12 .1014

(.0186 to .2214)

## Commercial A has the better recall rate.

38.

p=

z=

n1 p1 + n2 p2 232(.815) + 210(.724)
=
= .7718
n1 + n2
232 + 210
p1 p2
1 1
p ( 1 p ) +
n1 n2

.815 .724
1
1
.7718 ( 1 .7718 )
+

232
210

## p-value = 2(.5000 - .4887) = .0226

10 - 15

= 2.28

Chapter 10
p-value .05, reject H0. The population proportions differ. NYSE is showing a greater proportion of
stocks below their 1997 highs.
39. a.

H0: p1 - p2 = 0
Ha: p1 - p2 0

b.

## p1 = 1682/5014 = .3355 (34%)

p2 = 1523/5014 = .3037 (30%)

c.

p=

z=

n1 p1 + n 2 p 2 5014(.3355) + 5014(.3037)
=
= .3196
n1 + n 2
5014 + 5014
p1 p 2
1
1
p (1 p ) +
n1 n 2

.3355 .3037
1
1
.3196(1 .3196)
+

5014 5014

= 3.41

p-value 0
Reject H0. There is a significant difference in the population proportions. A higher proportion
expecting to collect information from magazines is observed.
d.

40.

It may be that travelers will collect information from travel agencies and magazines.

x1 x2 z.05

12 22
+
n1 n2

## 186.83 178.19 1.645

(3.82) 2 (1.86) 2
+
1019
3892

8.64 0.2029
(8.4371 to 8.8429)

10 - 16

## Statistical Inference about Means and Proportions with Two Populations

H0: 1 - 2 = 0

41.

Ha: 1 - 2 0

z=

( x1 x 2 ) D0

+
n1
n2
2
1

2
2

(159.63 155.35) 0
2.03 2 8.52 2
+
256
64

= 3.99

## p-value = 2(.5000 - .49997) = .00006

p-value .05, reject H0. A difference exists with business having the lower mean daily
consumption.

42. a.

H0: 1 - 2 0
Ha: 1 - 2 > 0

b.

## Using the computer,

n1 = 30
x1 = 16.23
s1 = 3.52
t=

n2 = 30
x2 = 15.70
s2 = 3.31

( x1 x2 ) D0
2
1

2
2

s
s
+
n1 n2

(16.23 15.70) 0

= .60

(3.52) 2 (3.31) 2
+
30
30
2

s12 s22
3.522 3.312
+
+

n1 n2
30
30

df =
=
= 57.8
2
2
2
2
1 3.52 2
1 3.312
1 s12
1 s22
+

29 30 29 30
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Use df = 57
Using t table, p-value is greater than .20
Actual p-value = .2753
p-value > .05, do not reject H0. Cannot conclude that the mutual funds with a load have a greater
mean rate of return.
43.

H0: 1 - 2 = 0
Ha: 1 - 2 0
t=

( x1 x2 ) 0
2
1

2
2

s
s
+
n1 n2

(72 78) 0
82 102
+
12 15

= 1.73

10 - 17

Chapter 10

s12 s22
82 102
+
+

n1 n2
12 15
df =
=
= 25
2
2
2
2
1 82
1 102
1 s12
1 s22
+

+ +

11 12 14 15
n1 1 n1 n2 1 n2
Using t table area is between .025 and .05
Two-tail p-value is between .05 and .10
Actual p-value = .0961
p-value > .05, do not reject H0. Cannot conclude a difference exists.
44. a.

H0: 1 - 2 = 0
Ha: 1 - 2 > 0

t=

( x1 x 2 ) 0
2
1

2
2

s
s
+
n1 n 2

(47.12 40.67) 0
10.04 2 10.112
+
177
353

= 6.96

With a total sample size 177 + 353 = 530, use infinity row to t distribution table.
Using t table, p-value is less than .005
Actual p-value 0
p-value .01, reject H0. Conclude females have a higher mean English score.
b.

x1 x2 t.025

s12 s22
+
n1 n2

6.45 1.82
45. a.

10.04 2 10.112
+
177
353

(4.63 to 8.27)

H0: 1 - 2 0
Ha: 1 - 2 > 0

b.

d =

di 1.74
=
= .124
n
14

10 - 18

## Statistical Inference about Means and Proportions with Two Populations

(d i d ) 2
= .33
n 1

sd =

t=

d d
sd / n

.124 0
.33 / 14

= 1.42

Degrees of freedom = n - 1 = 13
Using t table, p-value is between .05 and .10
Actual p-value = .0889
p-value > .05, do not reject H0. Data does not support the conclusion that population mean earnings
are down in 1997.
46. a.

H0: p1 - p2 0
Ha: p1 - p2 > 0

b.

p1 = 704/1035 = .6802
p2 = 582/1004 = .5797
p=

n1 p1 + n2 p2
704 + 582
=
= .6307
n1 + n2
1035 + 1004

z=

p1 p2
1 1
p ( 1 p ) +
n1 n2

.6802 .579
1
1
.6307 ( 1 .6307 )
+

1035
1004

= 4.70

p-value 0
c.

47. a.

p-value .01, reject H0. Conclude that the proportion indicating good/excellent increased over the four
year period.
p1 = 1006/1015 = .9911
p2 = 998/1054 = .9469

p=

z=

n1 p1 + n 2 p 2 1015(.9911) + 1054(.9469)
=
= .9686
n1 + n 2
1015 +1054
p1 p 2
1
1
p (1 p )( + )
n1 n 2

.9911 .9469
1
1
.9686(1 .9686)(
+
)
1015 1054

p-value 0
Reject H0; there is a difference between rates.

10 - 19

= 5.77

Chapter 10

b.

p1 p2 z.025

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )
+
n1
n2

.0443 .0147

## .9469(1 .9469) .9911(1 .9911)

+
1054
1015

(.0296 to .0590)

Rates are higher for visitors who did not spend spare time on sightseeing in Taiwan.

48.

p1 = 9/142 = .0634
p2 = 5/268 = .0187
p=

z=

n1 p1 + n2 p2
9+5
=
= .0341
n1 + n2
142 + 268
p1 p2
1 1
p ( 1 p ) +
n1 n2

.0634 .0187
1
1
.0341( 1 .0341)
+

142 268

= 2.37

## p-value = 2(.5000 - .4911) = .0178

p-value .02, reject H0. There is a significant difference in drug resistance between the two states.
New Jersey has the higher drug resistance rate.

10 - 20