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Fayoum University

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Faculty of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering CE 402: Part A Shallow Foundation Design Lecture No.
Faculty of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering CE 402: Part A Shallow Foundation Design Lecture No.

CE 402: Part A

Shallow Foundation Design Lecture No. (6): Eccentric Footing

Dr.: Youssef Gomaa Youssef

Eccentric Footing

Eccentric footing: A spread or wall footing that also must resist a moment in addition to the axial column load.

A e < A/6
A
e < A/6

Eccentric Loads or Moments

P P P

D . L

L . L

e

M

(

P W

f

)

A e < A/6
A
e < A/6

Eccentric Footing

Combined axial and bending stresses increase the pressure on one edge or corner of a footing. We assume again a linear distribution based on a constant relationship to settling.

If the pressure combination is in tension, this effectively means the

contact is gone between soil and footing and the pressure is really zero. To avoid zero pressure, the eccentricity must stay within the kern . The maximum pressure must not exceed the net allowable soil pressure.

The kern

To avoid zero pressure, the

eccentricity the kern.

within

must

stay

A/3 A
A/3
A

Eccentric Loads or Moments Cases

A

e <A/6

Case (a)

e =A/6 e >A/6
e =A/6
e >A/6

Case (b)

Case (c)

Eccentric Loads or Moments

For case A and B (not case C)

q

min

P

A B

*

(1

6

e

A

)

For case c

q max

2* P

3* C * B

3C 0.75 A

q

max

1.20 q

a

q

max

P

A B

*

(1

6

e

A

)

C e >A/6
C
e >A/6

Case (c)

Footing Subjected to Double Moment

q

P

A B

*

(1

6

e

A

6

e

B

A B

)

For contact pressure to remain (+) ve everywhere,

6

e A

A

6 e

B

B

1.0

Design of Eccentric Footing

• Plain concrete footing (P.C.) P G.S M 1.50 P H Area A B 
Plain concrete footing (P.C.)
P
G.S
M
1.50 P
H
Area A B
*
G
. S
G.S
q
a
Assume A  Area
D
t
P
f
1
F.L
M
M H * D
F . L
f
t
P
1.15*
P
M
F . L
F L
.
G s
.
e 
q
min
P
F . L
A
A
e 
q
1
Check
max
A
6
P
6
e
B
q
 q 
F L
.
(1
)
max
a
A B
*
A

Assume thickness of P.C.:

t = (0.25 to 0.50)

Dim. of P.C. = A * B * t

Design of Spread Footing

Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)

X (0.8 1.0)t

A 1  A 2X B  B  2X 1 a M e 1
A 1  A 2X
B
 B  2X
1
a
M
e
1
P
1 
G.S
P
G
. S
P
6
e
G.S
f 
G S
.
(1
1
)
1,2
A B
*
A
1
2
1
A 1  a
A
 a
2
t
M
 f (
)
2
/ 2
(
f  f
)(
1
)
2
*
1
I
3
2
1
3
2
3
B
b
f
2
 ( f f
1
2
)*(
1
)
2
M II
2
2
f
f
3
1
M
t
 d cov er
A
1
d 
C
1
b F
*
Dim. of R.C. = A 1 * B 1 * t 1
cu

Design of Spread Footing

Shear Stress:

Q s II

(

)

Q s III

(

q

s

)

 

(

f 1

f

4

)

*(

A

1

a

d )

(

2

f f

1

2

)

*(

B

2

1

b

d )

 

2

2

Q

s

b

*

d

q

su

 

q su

0.75

f cu  c
f cu
c

If q s > q su ,

Increase d

Notes:

No shear RFT in Footing.

P G.S a G.S (II) (II) d t 1 f 2 f f 4 1
P
G.S
a
G.S
(II)
(II)
d
t
1
f
2
f
f
4
1
(II)
A
1

Q s : shear force at critical sec. (II). q s : shear stress. q su : ultimate shear strength.

Design of Spread Footing

P G.S a G.S t 1 f 2 f A 1 1
P
G.S
a
G.S
t
1
f
2
f
A
1
1
a d/2 d/2 d/2 b d/2
a
d/2
d/2
d/2
b
d/2

Punching Stress:

(

f f

1

2

)

2

Q

p

1.50

[(

a d

)*(

b d

)]

P

G S

.

A

p

d

*2*(

a d b d

)

(

)

Q

p

A

p

q

p

0.5 ( a / b )

f /   f /  cu c cu c
f
/
  f
/
cu
c
cu
c

q cup

If q p > q cup ,

Increase d

Design of Spread Footing

Footing Reinforcement:

A

s

1

A

s

2

M

I

f

y

*

d j

*

M

II

f

y

*

d j

*

Notes:

Minimum number of bars per meter is five. •Minimum diameter for main RFT is 12mm. Number of bars may be taken 5 to 8.

a

G.S G.S Main RFT As 2 Main RFT t 1 As 1 A 1
G.S G.S
Main RFT
As 2
Main RFT
t
1
As 1
A
1

Diameter of bars may be selected from 12 to 18mm.

Design of Eccentric Footing

Example(1):

Make a complete design for a footing supporting a 30cm X 60cm column load of 120t at ground surface (G.S.), 20m.t moment

and 10t horizontal force at G.S. The foundation level is 2.00 m

below G.S. and the net allowable bearing capacity is 0.80kg/cm 2 . Make the design considering the following two cases:

1- with plain concrete base

2- without Plain concrete base

a = 0.60m.

B= 0.30m

p G.S = 120t

M=20m.t

H=10t

q a = 0.80kg/cm 2 = 8t/m 2 .

f cu = 250kg/cm 2 .

f y =3600kg/cm 2

Design of Eccentric Footing

P • Plain concrete footing (P.C.) G.S 1.50* P 1.50*120 M H=10 Area A B
P
Plain concrete footing (P.C.)
G.S
1.50* P
1.50*120
M
H=10
Area A B
*
G S
.
 22.5
m
2
G.S
q
8
a
A 
Assume
2.00
t
P
1
F.L
M
20
10*2.00
Area  4.75  5.00 m
40
m t
.
F
. L
t
P
1.15*
P
1.15*120
138
t
F L
.
G s
.
q
min
M
40
A
5
A
e 
F L
.
 0.290
e 
 0.833
q
1
max
P
138
6
6
A
F L
.
138
6*0.290
B  4.65m
(1
)
8
q max
5* B
5.00

Assume thickness of P.C.:

t = 0.30

Dim. of P.C. = 5.00* 4.65 * 0.30

Design of Eccentric Footing

Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)

X

t 0.30m

A

1

1

B

  B 2 X

 

A 2 X

5.00

2*0.30

4.40 m

4.65

2*0.30

4.05m

e

1

M

1

P

G

. S

20

10*1.70

0.308 m

 

120

1.50*120

4.40*4.05

4.4

6*0.308

)

2

4.40

/ 2

4.05

f

1,2

(1

0.60

)

(14.34

14.34

5.85

10.67)(

4.4

2

0.6

)

)

2

35.33

M

I

10.67(

2

5.85

14.34

0.30

M

II

(

)*(

2

2

d

t

1

5

 2 5.85 14.34 0.30 M II  ( )*( 2 2 d t  1

47.36 *10

5

100 * 250

70

 

5

75cm

68.8

70 c m

2

*

0.60 P G.S G.S 1.90 2 t 1  47.36 3 F 2 =5.85 F
0.60
P
G.S
G.S
1.90
2
t
1
 47.36
3
F
2 =5.85
F
1 =14.34
F
3 =10.67
A
1 =4.40
Dim. of R.C. = 4.40 * 4.05* 0.75

Design of Spread Footing

Shear Stress:

(11.84

5.85)

f

4

5.85

*(1.90

0.60

4.40

11.84)

0.70)

0.3

0.6)

15.71

11.84

(14.34

Q

s

(

II

)

*(1.90

4.05

2

(14.34

5.85)

Q

s

(

III

)

*(

0.70)

11.86

2

2

15.71*1000

q

s

100*70

2.24

2

k g cm

/

9.68

If q s > q su ,

Increase d

Notes:

No shear RFT in Footing.

P G.S 0.60 G.S (II) (II) d 1.90 t 1 f 2 =5.85 f 4
P
G.S
0.60
G.S
(II)
(II)
d
1.90
t
1
f
2 =5.85
f 4 =11.84
f 1 =14.34
(II)
A
1 =4.40

Q s : shear force at critical sec. (II). q s : shear stress. q su : ultimate shear strength.

Design of Spread Footing

Punching Stress:

Q

p

A

p

1.50*120

(14.34

5.85)

2

[(0.60

0.70)*(0.30

0.70)]

0.70*2*[(0.600.70) (0.30.70)] 3.22

q

p

Q

p

A

p

q cup

0.5 ( a / b )

166.88*1000 q   5.18 p 3.22*10 4 f /   f / 
166.88*1000
q
 5.18
p 3.22*10
4
f
/
  f
/
cu
c
cu
c

If q p > q cup ,

Increase d

P G.S a G.S 166.88 t 1 f 2 f A 1 1
P
G.S
a
G.S
166.88
t
1
f
2
f
A
1
1
a d/2 d/2 d/2 b d/2
a
d/2
d/2
d/2
b
d/2

Design of Spread Footing

Footing Reinforcement:

A 1

s

A 2

s

47.36*10 5

3600*70*0.826

35.33*10 5

3600*70*0.826

22.75

16.97

Notes:

Minimum number of bars per meter is five. •Minimum diameter for main RFT is 12mm. Number of bars may be taken 5 to 8.

0.60

G.S G.S Main RFT 618/m’ Main RFT 0.75 818/m’ 4.40
G.S G.S
Main RFT
618/m’
Main RFT
0.75
818/m’
4.40

Diameter of bars may be selected from 12 to 18mm.

Crane Footing

Maximum stress on soil should be less than allowable bearing capacity

f

max

q

a

The ratio between maximum and minimum stresses than four

f

max

4

f

max

f

min

f

min

should be less

(1

/

e A

6

)

(1

/

e A

6

)

4

A 10e

Uniform Stress

below Footing Subjected to Moment

Uniform stress required that the eccentricity at foundation level equal

zero e 0.0

A    e

c

a

2

2

A B

*

1.15 P

G

. S

q

a

e

M

F L

.

P

G s

.

.

a 2 2 A B *  1.15 P G . S q a e 

A

2 2 A B *  1.15 P G . S q a e  M

B

0.0

a/2 e c P G.S M G.S P F.L q A a
a/2
e
c
P
G.S
M
G.S
P
F.L
q
A
a