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AKGEC/IAP/TME-033/01

REV. No. 01
AJAY KUMAR GARG ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GHAZIABAD
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY TEST - SOLUTION
Course B!Te"#! $ME% Se&es'er VI
Su()e"' Co*e EME-+,, Sess-o. ,+//-,+/,
Su()e"' N0&e A*10."e 2e3*-.4 Te"#.o3o45
6!/ $0%
Cast iron is difficult !ut not i"#ossi!l$ to %$ld. In "ost cas$s %$ldin& on cast iron
in'ol'$s r$#airs to castin&s not (oinin& castin& to ot)$r "$"!$rs. T)$ r$#airs "a* !$
"ad$ in t)$ foundr* %)$r$ t)$ castin&s ar$ #roduc$d or "a* !$ "ad$ to r$#air castin&
d$f$cts t)at ar$ disco'$r$d aft$r t)$ #art is "ac)in$d. Mis-"ac)in$d cast iron #arts "a*
r$+uir$ r$#air %$ldin& suc) as %)$n )ol$s ar$ drill$d in t)$ %ron& location. ,r$+u$ntl*
!ro-$n cast iron #arts ar$ r$#air$d !* %$ldin&. .ro-$n cast iron #arts ar$ not unusual
&i'$n t)$ !rittl$ natur$ of "ost cast iron.
/)il$ t)$r$ ar$ a 'ari$t* of t*#$s of cast iron t)$ "ost co""on is &ra* cast iron and
t)$s$ &uid$lin$s ar$ dir$ct$d to%ard t)is t*#$ of "at$rial.
A f$% facts a!out cast iron )$l# in und$rstandin& t)$ %$ldin& c)all$n&$s. Cast iron
t*#icall* )as a car!on cont$nt of 01 - 21 rou&)l* 10 ti"$s as "uc) as "ost st$$ls. T)$
)i&) car!on cont$nt caus$s t)$ car!on to for" fla-$s of &ra#)it$. T)is &ra#)it$ &i'$s &ra*
cast iron its c)aract$ristic a##$aranc$ %)$n fractur$d.
.
6!/ $(%
M$tal In$rt Gas 3MIG4 %$ldin& also so"$ti"$s call$d Gas M$tal Arc /$ldin&
3GMA/4 is a #roc$ss t)at %as d$'$lo#$d in t)$ 1520s for %$ldin& alu"inu" and ot)$r
non-f$rrous "$tals. MIG %$ldin& is an auto"atic or s$"i-auto"atic #roc$ss in %)ic) a
%ir$ conn$ct$d to a sourc$ of dir$ct curr$nt acts as an $l$ctrod$ to (oin t%o #i$c$s of
"$tal as it is continuousl* #ass$d t)rou&) a %$ldin& &un. A flo% of an in$rt &as
ori&inall* ar&on is also #ass$d t)rou&) t)$ %$ldin& &un at t)$ sa"$ ti"$ as t)$ %ir$
$l$ctrod$. T)is in$rt &as acts as a s)i$ld -$$#in& air!orn$ conta"inants a%a* fro" t)$
%$ld 6on$.
T)$ #ri"ar* ad'anta&$ of MIG %$ldin& is t)at it allo%s "$tal to !$ %$ld$d "uc) "or$
+uic-l* t)an traditional 7stic- %$ldin&7 t$c)ni+u$s. T)is "a-$s it id$al for %$ldin& soft$r
"$tals suc) as alu"inu". /)$n t)is "$t)od %as first d$'$lo#$d t)$ cost of t)$ in$rt &as
"ad$ t)$ #roc$ss too $8#$nsi'$ for %$ldin& st$$l. 9'$r t)$ *$ars t)$ #roc$ss )as
$'ol'$d )o%$'$r and s$"i-in$rt &as$s suc) as car!on dio8id$ can no% !$ us$d to
#ro'id$ t)$ s)i$ldin& function %)ic) no% "a-$s MIG %$ldin& cost-$ff$cti'$ for %$ldin&
st$$l.
6!/! $"%
M$tal (oinin& #roc$ss in %)ic) t)$ $nds of #i$c$s to !$ (oin$d ar$ )$at$d at t)$ir int$rfac$
!* #roducin& coal$sc$nc$ %it) on$ or "or$ &as fla"$s 3suc) as o8*&$n and ac$t*l$n$4
%it) or %it)out t)$ us$ of a fill$r "$tal.

Alt)ou&) t)$ o8*-ac$t*l$n$ #roc$ss )as !$$n introduc$d lon& ti"$ a&o it is still a##li$d
for its fl$8i!ilit* and "o!ilit*. E+ui#"$nt for o8*ac$t*l$n$ %$ldin& consists of (ust a f$%
$l$"$ntsT)$ $n$r&* n$c$ssar* for %$ldin& can !$ trans#ort$d in c*lind$rs.
Proc$ss $n$r&* is o!tain$d fro" t)$ $8ot)$r"al c)$"ical r$action !$t%$$n o8*&$n and
aco"!usti!l$ &as :uita!l$ co"!usti!l$ &as$s ar$ C0;0 li&)tin& &as ;0 C3;<
andnatural &as= )$r$ C3;< )as t)$ )i&)$st calorific 'alu$. T)$ )i&)$st fla"$ int$nsit*
fro" #ointof 'i$% of calorific 'alu$ and fla"$ #ro#a&ation s#$$d is )o%$'$r o!tain$d
%it) C0;0.
Le7'80r* 8e3*-.4
It is also -no%n as for%ard %$ldin&. In t)is t)$ fill$r rod is )$ld in t)$ l$ft )and and t)$
!lo%#i#$ in t)$ ri&)t )and. /$ldin& co""$nc$s at t)$ ri&)t )and sid$ and #roc$$ds
to%ards t)$ l$ft. T)is "$t)od is %id$l* us$d for !utt %$ldin& of st$$l #lat$s #articularl*
u#to >"" t)ic-n$ss.A!o'$ t)is t)ic-n$ss it is found to !$ un$cono"ical and is t)$r$for$
r$#lac$d !* ri&)t%ard %$ldin&. A <00 ?V@ is #r$#ar$d at t)$ $nds of t)$ #lat$s to !$
(oin$d.
R-4#'80r* 8e3*-.4
Contrar* to t)$ a!o'$ in ri&)t%ard or !ac-)and %$ldin& t)$ fill$r rod follo%s t)$
!lo%#i#$ durin& t)$ %$ldin& o#$ration. ,ill$r rod and !lo%#i#$ ar$ )$ld as usual in t)$
A$ft )and and ri&)t )and r$s#$cti'$l* and t)$ %$ldin& co""$nc$s at t)$ l$ft )and sid$
and #roc$$ds to%ards t)$ ri&)t. T)$ #r$#aration of ?V@ in t)is cas$ carri$s an includ$d
an&l$ of >00 inst$ad of <00 as r$+uir$d in l$ft%ard %$ldin&. Also it %ill !$ o!s$r'$d
t)at t)$ inclination of t)$ !lo%#i#$ %it) t)$ #lat$ is co"#arati'$l* l$ss onl* 200-B00
as a&ainst >00-C00 in cas$ of l$ft%ard %$ldin&. T)is "$t)od is '$r* %id$l* us$d for
%$ldin& in st$$l #lat$s. A!o'$ t)is t)ic-n$ss its us$ in #lac$ of t)$ for"$r r$sults in a
lo%$r consu"#tion of fill$r rod +uic-$r %$ldin& and l$ss consu"#tion of t)$ &as t)us
$ff$ctin& a consid$ra!l$ sa'in&.

/$*%

R$sistanc$ :#ot /$ldin& 3R:/4 R$sistanc$ :$a" /$ldin& 3R:E/4 and Pro($ction
/$ldin& 3P/4 ar$ co""onl* us$d r$sistanc$ %$ldin& #roc$ss$s. R$sistanc$ %$ldin&
us$s t)$ a##lication of $l$ctric curr$nt and "$c)anical #r$ssur$ to cr$at$ a %$ld !$t%$$n
t%o #i$c$s of "$tal. /$ld $l$ctrod$s conduct t)$ $l$ctric curr$nt to t)$ t%o #i$c$s of
"$tal as t)$* ar$ for&$d to&$t)$r.
T)$ %$ldin& c*cl$ "ust first d$'$lo# suffici$nt )$at to rais$ a s"all 'olu"$ of "$tal to
t)$ "olt$n stat$. T)is "$tal t)$n cools %)il$ und$r #r$ssur$ until it )as ad$+uat$ str$n&t)
to )old t)$ #arts to&$t)$r. T)$ curr$nt d$nsit* and #r$ssur$ "ust !$ suffici$nt to #roduc$
a %$ld nu&&$t !ut not so )i&) as to $8#$l "olt$n "$tal fro" t)$ %$ld 6on$.
Res-s'0."e 2e3*-.4 Be.e7-'s
;i&) s#$$d %$ldin&
Easil* auto"at$d
:uita!l$ for )i&) rat$ #roduction
Econo"ical
Res-s'0."e 2e3*-.4 L-&-'0'-o.s
Initial $+ui#"$nt costs
Ao%$r t$nsil$ and fati&u$ str$n&t)s
Aa# (oints add %$i&)t and "at$rial
6!/! $e% :tainl$ss st$$ls or "or$ #r$cis$l* corrosion-r$sistin& st$$ls ar$ a fa"il* of iron-
!as$ allo*s )a'in& $8c$ll$nt r$sistanc$ to corrosion. T)$s$ st$$ls do not rust and stron&l*
r$sist attac- !* a &r$at "an* li+uids &as$s and c)$"icals. Man* of t)$ stainl$ss st$$ls
)a'$ &ood lo%-t$"#$ratur$ tou&)n$ss and ductilit*. Most of t)$" $8)i!it &ood str$n&t)
#ro#$rti$s and r$sistanc$ to scalin& at )i&) t$"#$ratur$s.
:tainl$ss st$$ls can !$ %$ld$d usin& s$'$ral diff$r$nt #roc$dur$s suc) as s)i$ld$d "$tal
arc %$ldin& &as tun&st$n arc %$ldin& and &as "$tal arc %$ldin&.
/$7% .ra6in& is a "$tal-(oinin& #roc$ss %)$r$!* a fill$r "$tal is )$at$d a!o'$ "$ltin&
#oint and distri!ut$d !$t%$$n t%o or "or$ clos$-fittin& #arts !* ca#illar* action. T)$
fill$r "$tal is !rou&)t sli&)tl* a!o'$ its "$ltin& 3li+uidus4 t$"#$ratur$ %)il$ #rot$ct$d !*
a suita!l$ at"os#)$r$ usuall* a flu8. It t)$n flo%s o'$r t)$ !as$ "$tal 3-no%n as
%$ttin&4 and is t)$n cool$d to (oin t)$ %or-#i$c$s to&$t)$r.
:old$rin& is a #roc$ss in %)ic) t%o or "or$ "$tal it$"s ar$ (oin$d to&$t)$r !* "$ltin&
and flo%in& a fill$r "$tal 3sold$r4 into t)$ (oint t)$ fill$r "$tal )a'in& a lo%$r "$ltin&
#oint t)an t)$ %or-#i$c$. :old$rin& diff$rs fro" %$ldin& in t)at sold$rin& do$s not
in'ol'$ "$ltin& t)$ %or- #i$c$s.
.
6!, $0%
T)$ T$r" #las"a r$f$rs to &as %)ic) is suffici$ntl* ioni6$d 3!* raisin& it to a )i&)
t$"#$ratur$4 to conduct curr$nt fr$$l*. A con'$ntional %$ldin& Arc is an $8a"#l$
of #las"a. A #las"a ($t is cr$at$d %)$n t)$ Arc is #ass$d t)rou&) a constricti'$
no66l$ as a r$sult of constriction t)$ #las"a ($t %ill ta-$ on a narro% and
colu"nar s)a#$ %it) uni+u$ #ro#$rti$s t)at "a-$ a id$al for %$ldin&. Plas"a D$t
%$ldin& is an $l$ctric Arc %$ldin& #roc$ss %)ic) $"#lo*s a )i&) t$"#$ratur$
constrict$d arc or #las"a ($t to o!tain t)$ "$ltin& and coal$sc$nc$ of "$tal.
:)i$ldin& is o!tain$d fro" t)$ )ot ioni6$d &as issuin& fro" t)$ no66l$ %)ic) "a*
!$ su##l$"$nt$d !* an au8iliar* sourc$ of s)i$ldin& Gas. Pr$ssur$ is not a##li$d
and fill$r "a* or "a* not !$ us$d.
T)$ #las"a torc) is construct$d %it) an $l$ctrod$ 3/4 c$ntrall* %it)in a
"$tal cu# t)at Guid$ on In$rt str$a"in& &as #ast $l$ctrod$. T)$ disc)ar&$ $nd of
t)$ cu# is s"all$r in dia"$t$r t)an t)$ u##$r dia"$t$r so t)at a disc)ar&$ no66l$
is cr$at$d. In addition t)$ inn$r %all of t)$ no66l$ is lin$d %it) a c$ra"ic
"at$rial. T)$ torc) )as #assa&$s for su##l*in& &as and %at$r to cool it.
Transf$rr$d E'$ El$ctrod$
F'$ to Do!
Non-Transf$rr$d E'$ El$ctrod$
F'$ Cu#
T)$ &as$s us$d s)ould !$ ins$rt and %it) a )i&)$r t)$r"al conducti'it*. :o t)at
t)$* can transf$r "or$ )$at "a-in& it #ossi!l$ to %$ld !ul-* s$ction "or$ $asil*.
Plas"a Arc #ro'id$s an int$ns$ sourc$ of )$at 3 K
o
12000 4 and $nsur$s &r$at$r
arc sta!ilit*. PA/ is us$d for +ualit* %$ldin& and can $asil* %$ld 10C"" t)ic-
Al s$ction or :.:. :$ction u#to 100 "" t)ic-. T)$ /$ld$d Doints )a'$ no
#orosit* and dis#la* a stron& r$sistanc$ to )i&) str$ss and I"#act %adin&.
Giff$r$nc$ !$t%$$n PA/ and TIG /$ldin&
S! No! P30s&0 Ar" 2e3*-.4 9PA2: Tu.4s'e. I.er' G0s 2e3*-.4 9TIG:
1. Tun&st$n $l$ctrod$ non-consu"a!l$
3-'$4.
Tun&st$n $l$ctrod$3-'$4 non-
consu"a!l$.
0. In$rt Gas for s)i$ldin& and as orific$
&as 3Ar&on4.
In$rt Gas for s)i$ldin& 3Ar&on4.
3.
Mor$ T$"#$ratur$ C
o
000 11 K
o
000 10
2. ,ill$r "$tal "a* or "a* not !$ us$d. ,ill$r "$tal "a* or "a* not !$ us$d.
B. Plas"a of orific$ Gas i.$. Ioni6$d Gas
to conduct "or$ ;$at.
No Plas"a
>. Constricti'$ No66l$ incr$as$s
)$at/Volu"$ of Arc Plas"a.
:i"#l$ No66l$.
C. Do! F'$ in transf$rr$d PA/ Do! F'$
<. No66l$ F'$ in non-transf$rr$d PA/ -
5. ;AH is s"all du$ to conc$ntration of
Arc
;AH is lar&$
10. Arc in PA/ is conc$ntrat$d and
strai&)t du$ to No66l$
constricti'$n$ss.
Arc in TIG %$ldin& is not strai&)t
!ut in s#r$ad s)a#$.
6!, $(% E3e"'ro. (e0& 8e3*-.4 3E./4 is a fusion %$ldin& #roc$ss in %)ic) a !$a" of
)i&)-'$locit* $l$ctrons is a##li$d to t)$ "at$rials !$in& (oin$d. T)$ %or-#i$c$s "$lt as
t)$ -in$tic $n$r&* of t)$ $l$ctrons is transfor"$d into )$at u#on i"#act and t)$ fill$r
"$tal if us$d also "$lts to for" #art of t)$ %$ld. T)$ %$ldin& is oft$n don$ in
conditions of a 'acuu" to #r$'$nt dis#$rsion of t)$ $l$ctron !$a". G$r"an #)*sicist
A*10.'04es o7 EB2 ;
1. /$lds of )i&) +ualit* at )i&) s#$$d can !$ #roduc$d.
0. ,usion 6on$ and t)$ ;AH ar$ narro%.
3. As t)$ $n$r&* in#ut is in a narro% conc$ntrat$d !$a" distortion is al"ost
$li"inat$d.
2. ;i&)l* r$acti'$ 3'acuu" "$lt$d4 "at$rial suc) as Ti Hr can !$ %$ld$d !* t)is
'acuu" E./.
B. .ut /$ld (oint u#to >"" can !$ "ad$ %it)out $d&$ #r$#aration.
>. :"all t)in #arts can !$ %$ld$d to )$a'* s$ction.
C. ,or stainl$ss st$$l t)ic-n$ss u#to 100"" a %$ld can !$ "ad$ in on$ #ass
%it) full #$n$tration 31C c"/"inut$s4
<. Po%$r r$+uir$d is l$ss co"#ar$d %it) ot)$r $l$ctrical %$ldin& d$'ic$.
D-s0*10.'04es o7 EB2 ;
1. Initial cost of $+ui#"$nt is )i&) not #orta!l$.
0. In 'acuu" s$als %or- is to "ani#ulat$d %it) difficult.
3. Ti"$ I $+ui#"$nt is r$+uir$d to cr$at$ 'acuu" $'$r* ti"$ to %$ld a n$% Do!.
2. Pr$caution is n$$d$d to #r$'$nt da"a&$ fro" J-ra*s.
B. El$ctron !$a" tra'$ls on a lin$ of si&)t= t)$r$for$ a!struct$d (oints can@t !$
%$ld$d.
>. .$caus$ of co"#l$8it* of '$r* co"#$t$nt #$rson ar$ r$+uir$d.
C. /P si6$ is li"it$d !* t)$ %or- c)a"!$r di"$nsions.
<. /or- #i$c$ !$arin& in an $'acuat$d c)a"!$r !$co"$s inacc$ssi!l$ and t)is
n$$ds to !$ "ani#ulat$d !* so"$ s#$cial d$'ic$.
6!, $"% A solid stat$ %$ldin& #roc$ss
%)$r$in coal$sc$nc$ is #roduc$d !* t)$
local a##lication of )i&) fr$+u$nc*
'i!rator* $n$r&* as t)$ %or- #arts ar$
)$ld to&$t)$r und$r #r$ssur$.
T)$ %or- is su!($ct$d to
oscillatin& s)$ar str$ss$s of
ultrasonic fr$+u$nci$s 300 K;6
to >0 K;64 a##ro8i"at$l*
#arall$l to t)$ #lan$ of t)$ int$rfac$ for a #$riod of 1 s$cond or l$ss t)$ 'i!rations
and #r$ssur$ caus$ "o'$"$nt of t)$ "$tal "ol$cul$s !r$a-in& u# t)$ surfac$
o8id$ t)us lo%$rin& t)$ surfac$ r$sistanc$ of t)$ allo*s.
,unctions of its 'arious co"#on$nts
1. A 7re<ue."5 "o.1er'er #ro'id$s )i&)-fr$+u$nc* $l$ctrical #o%$r
at t)$ d$si&n fr$+u$nc* of t)$ %$ldin& s*st$". Kltrasonic %$ldin&
$+ui#"$nt "a* !$ dri'$n !* $l$ctron-tu!$ fr$+u$nc* con'$rt$rs "otor-
alt$rnators or silicon-controll$d- r$ctifi$r con'$rt$rs.
0. A 'r0.s*u"er-"ou=3-.4 s5s'e& consists of a transduc$r t)at
con'$rts t)$ $l$ctrical #o%$r to $lastic 'i!rator* #o%$r and a cou#lin&
s*st$" includin& t)$ sonotrod$ ti# %)ic) conducts 'i!rator* #o%$r to t)$
%$ld 6on$.
3. An 0.1-3 s$r'$s as a !ac-in& for t)$ %or- #i$c$s and #ro'id$s t)$
n$c$ssar* r$action to cla"#in& forc$. An an'il "ust not #$r"it co"#lianc$
of t)$ %or-#i$c$ %it) t)$ a##li$d 'i!ration. To #r$'$nt $n$r&* loss t)$
an'il ass$"!l* s)ould !$ structurall* isolat$d fro" t)$ %$ld$r fra"$.
2. A 7or"e 0==3-"0'-o. *e1-"e a##li$s static load nor"al to t)$ #lan$
of %$ld surfac$. It is
a4 :#rin&-actuat$d for '$r* s"all "ac)in$s
!4 Pn$u"aticall*-actuat$d in "$diu" si6$ "ac)in$s and
c4 ;*draulicall*-actuat$d %it) lar&$r units.
B. A '-&er controls t)$ %$ld int$r'al in s#ot t*#$ rin& and lin$
%$ldin& or a rotatin& and translatin& "$c)anis" for continuous s$a"
%$ldin&.
/$ld int$r'al is auto"aticall* controll$d !* lo&ic circuitr*.
A*10.'04es
14 :urfac$ #r$#aration is not r$+uir$d.
04 No d$f$cts ar$ #roduc$d fro" arc &as$s and fill$r "$tals.
34 Gissi"ilar "$tals )a'in& 'astl* diff$r$nt "$ltin& #oints can !$ (oin$d.
24 Mini"u" surfac$ d$for"ation r$sults.
B4 V$r* t)in "at$rials can !$ %$ld$d.
>4 T)in and t)ic- s$ctions can !$ (oin$d to&$t)$r.
C4 .$caus$ of t)$ lo% t$"#$ratur$s t)at ar$ in'ol'$d t)$ c)aract$ristics
of t)$ "at$rials ar$ not alt$r$d and ar$ continu$d t)rou&) t)$ %$ld 6on$.
Mor$o'$r )$at-aff$ct$d 6on$ is "ini"i6$d.
<4 To %$ld &lass is i"#ossi!l$ !* an* ot)$r "$ans.
54 T)$ $+ui#"$nt is si"#l$ and r$lia!l$ and onl* "od$rat$ s-ill is r$+uir$d of
t)$ o#$rator.
D-s0*10.'04es
14 Kltrasonic %$ldin& is not $cono"icall* co"#$titi'$ %)$n ot)$r #roc$ss$s can
!$ us$d to do t)$ sa"$ (o!.
04 T)is #roc$ss is r$strict$d to (oinin& t)in "at$rials-s)$$t foil and %ir$. T)$
"a8i"u" is a!out 3.0 "" for alu"iniu" and 1 "" for t)$ )ard$r "$tals.
34 Mat$rials !$in& %$ld$d t$nd to %$ld to t)$ ti# and an'il.
24 Gu$ to fati&u$ loadin& t)$ lif$ of $+ui#"$nt is s)ort.
B4 ;ard "at$rials %ill fati&u$ und$r t)$ str$ss$s n$c$ssar* for %$ldin&.
>4 V$r* ductil$ "at$rials %ill *i$ld und$r ultrasonic strain %it)out slidin&.
6!> $0%
E8#losi'$ /$ldin& is a solid stat$
%$ldin& #roc$ss %)$r$ is coal$sc$nc$ is aff$ct$d
!* )i&) '$locit* "o'$"$nt #roduc$d !* a control d$tonation. It in'ol'$s a )i&) '$locit*
3o!li+u$4 i"#act !$t%$$n fl*$r #lat$ #ro#$ll$d !* an $8#losi'$ c)ar&$ and a 3s$cond4
stationar* #lat$ #lac$d on An'il.
Ai"itations of $8#losi'$ %$ldin&-
1. In Industrial ar$as t)$ us$ of $8#losi'$s %ill !$ s$'$r$l* r$strict$d !* t)$ nois$
I &round$d 'i!rations caus$d !* $8#losions.
0. T)$ r$&ulations r$latin& to t)$ stora&$ of $8#losi'$s and t)$ #ro!l$" of
#r$'$ntin& t)$" fro" fallin& into unaut)ori6$d )ands "a* %$ll #ro'$ to !$
t)$ "ain o!($cti'$ to t)$ us$ of $8#losi'$s %$ldin&.
3. A li"itation to $8#losi'$ claddin& is conc$rn$d %it) t)$ !rittl$n$ss of t)$
allo*s "$tal %$ld$d !* t)is #roc$ss "ust #oss$ss$s so"$ ductilit* and I"#act
str$n&t).
2. M$tal ;ardn$ss "ust not !$ &r$at$r t)an B0;RC
B. M$tal t)ic-n$ss &r$at$r t)an >0 "" of $ac) allo* can not !$ (oin$d $asil* and
r$+uir$ )i&) $8#losi'$ loads.
>. Mat$rials suc) as .a / .o &lass and c$ra"ics ar$ not nor"all* #roc$ss$d !*
$8#losi'$s %$ldin&.
,l*$r #lat$L T)$ #lat$ %)ic) is to !$ %$ld$d 3stic-4 in #ar$nt #lat$ is call$d ,l*$r
#lat$.
.uff$r #lat$L It is t)$ int$r"$diat$ #lat$ !$t%$$n E8#losi'$ and ,l*$r #lat$.
:tandoff distanc$L T)$ distanc$ !$t%$$n initial #osition of fl*$r #lat$ and #ar$nt
#lat$ 3in %)ic) fl*$r #lat$ is to !$ %$ld$d4 is call$d :tandoff distanc$.
Critical V$locit*L /)$n d$tonator d$not$s it &i'$s -in$tic $n$r&* to fl*$r #lat$.
Gu$ to %)ic) fl*$r #lat$ "o'$s '$r* fast to stri-$ t)$ #ar$nt "$tal. If '$locit* of
stri-in& is slo%$r t)an #articular '$locit* t)$n it do$s not !$ #ro#$r %$ld$d %it)
#ar$nt #lat$. T)$r$ is s#$cific '$locit* of stri-in& %)ic) is suffici$nt to &$t %$ld$d
t)$ fl*$r #lat$ %it) #ar$nt #lat$ %it)out !urnin&. T)is '$locit* is call$d t)$ critical
'$locit* 3V c 4. Critical '$locit* d$#$nds on natur$ of fl*$r #lat$ #ar$nt #lat$.
I"#act '$locit*L T)$ '$locit* of fl*$r #lat$ !* %)ic) it stri-$s %it) #ar$nt #lat$
(ust !$for$ %$ldin& is call$d i"#act '$locit*.
C30**-.4
Claddin& is d$fin$d !* t)$ /$ldin& Institut$ as= #ro'idin& a corrosion or o8idation
r$sistant surfac$ on a l$ss corrosion r$sistant "at$rial.
An $8a"#l$ of t)is is t)$ d$#osition of a stainl$ss st$$l or nic-$l-!as$d la*$r on a car!on
st$$l !as$. 9n$ ad'anta&$ of t)is t$c)ni+u$ is cost sa'in& arisin& %)$n surfacin& a
r$lati'$l* in$8#$nsi'$ "$tal suc) as a car!on st$$l %it) a "or$ $8#$nsi'$ !ut corrosion
r$sistant la*$r of stainl$ss Mat$rial and %$i&)t sa'in&s "a* !$ &ain$d %)$n a clad )i&)
str$n&t) +u$nc)$d and t$"#$r$d st$$l is us$d in a corrosi'$ $n'iron"$nt.
>$(%
H0(-'0' u.*er 20'er 2e3*-.4 Gr* %at$r %$ldin& is of t%o t*#$s -
1. ;*#$r!aric 0. Ca'it*
H5=er(0r-" 80'er 8e3*-.4 is also call$d ;a!itat 3Knd$r %at$r4 %$ldin&.
/$ldin& is carri$d out in a dr* c)a"!$r construct$d round t)$ (oint to !$ %$ld$d.
/at$r is $8#$ll$d !* #ro'idin& a &as$ous at"os#)$r$ in c)a"!$r at #r$ssur$
$+ual to %at$r #r$ssur$ and so -$$#in& t)$ %at$r out. T)is #roc$ss is t$r"$d as
)a!itat %$ldin& %)$n t)$ c)a"!$r is lar&$ fill$d %it) a !r$at)a!l$ at"os#)$r$
and $+ui##$d %it) a lif$ su##ort s*st$" for t)$ o#$rator.
L-&-'0'-o.s o7 H0(-'0' 8e3*-.4-
/! T)$ n$c$ssit* for s$als !$t%$$n t)$ c)a"!$r and structur$ to !$ %$ld$d is a
#ractical difficult*.
,! Incr$as$ in #r$ssur$ as d$#t) incr$as$s introduc$s #ro!l$"s !ot) fro %$ldin&
#roc$ss and for di'$rs. /$ld c)$"istr* M$tallur&* and Arc P)*sics ar$ all
aff$ct$d. Air 3;a!itat At"os#)$r$ soon !$co"$s o!($ctiona!l$ as #r$ssur$
incr$as$s !$caus$ it #r$s$nts a Pot$ntial fir$ )a6ard 3Pr$ssur$M3 At"os#)$ric
#r$ssur$4 N
0
and 9
0
!ot) aff$cts t)$ %$ld "$tal. Air At"os#)$r$ is not
r$co""$nd$d if d$#t) is &r$at$r t)an 1BM. 3;$liu" F 9
0
4 ;a!itat At"os#)$r$
is und$r trial.
C01-'5 8e3*-.4 is anot)$r a##roac) to %$ld
in a %at$r fr$$ $n'iron"$nt. In t)is #roc$ss
t)$ con'$ntional arran&$"$nts for f$$din&
%ir$ and s)i$ldin& &as ar$ surroundin& !* a
"$ans for introducin& a ca'it* Gas and t)$
%)ol$ is surround$d !* a tru"#$t s)a#$d
no66l$ t)rou&) %)ic) )i&)l* '$locit* %at$r
($t #ass$s. Ca'it* "$t)ods a'oid t)$ n$$d
for a )a!itat c)a"!$r and it l$nds its$lf to
auto"atic and r$"ot$ control.
T)$ #roc$ss is '$r* suita!l$ for ,lat
structur$ %)$r$ !utt %$lds %it) a !ac- stri#
can !$ %$ld$d in t)$ flat or o'$r)$ad #osition.
N$$d of und$r %at$r %$ldin&
Gurin& last %orld %ar an ur&$nt n$$d %as t$st for sal'a&in& '$ss$ls sun- into t)$
s$a and t)is n$$d rais$d t)$ status of und$r %at$r %$ldin& fro" al"ost a #i#$
dr$a" to a #ractical #roc$ss. Knd$r %at$r %$ldin& )as !$$n us$d for t$"#orar*
r$#air %or- caus$d !* s)i#s collisions un$8#$ct$d accid$nts corrosion and ot)$r
"aint$nanc$ %or-s.
Pro!l$"s fac$d %it) und$r %at$r %$ldin&
1. Knd$r %at$r %$ldin& "a* !$ don$ in "uc) t)$ sa"$ %a* as on t)$ surfac$
$8c$#t t)at t)$r$ is L-
a4 Coillin& action of %at$r on t)$ %$ld "$tal and t)$ surroundin& #lat$.
!4 A )i&)$r #r$ssur$ du$ to t)$ %at$r )$ad und$r %)ic) %$ldin& ta-$s #lac$.
c4 A &as$ous $n'$lo#$ surroundin& t)$ arc.
d4 An $ff$ct on t)$ "$tallur&ical structur$s and )$nc$ on t)$ "$c)anical
#ro#$rti$s of t)$ %$ld$d (oint.
0. Anot)$r #ro!l$" %it) und$r %at$r %$ldin& is t)at d$$# %at$r %or- is n$'$r
$as* !$caus$ o#$rations ar$ d$#$nd$nt on tid$ and %$at)$r and t)$
difficulti$s arisin& fro" t)$ 'arious #ositions in %)ic) %$ldin& )as to !$ don$
also add to t)$ #ro!l$"s $ncount$r$d.
3. An $ss$ntial r$+uir$"$nt for und$r %at$r %$ldin& is t)$ co"#l$t$ insulation of
t)$ %$ldin& circuit. E'$n t)$ $l$ctrod$ coatin&s ar$ #rot$ct$d !* a la*$r of
%a8 'arnis) or c$llulos$.
Co"#l$t$ insulation is also $ss$ntial !$caus$ t)$ di'in& suit )as "an* $8#os$d
"$tal #arts and t)$ dri'$r in t)$ suit is $ff$cti'$l* $art)$d !* t)$ surroundin&
%at$r.
6!> $"%
It is a t*#$ of surfacin& and in'ol'$s d$#osition of fill$r "$tal on to a surfac$ or
#oint of a "$tal for t)$ #ur#os$ of #ro'idin& r$sistanc$ to
/$ar or a!rasion I"#act Erosion Gallin& Ca'itation ;$at and Corrosion.
T)$ d$#osit$d surfac$ )ardn$ss &r$at$r t)an !as$ surfac$ )ardn$ss !ut $8c$#tions
ar$ t)$r$ so"$ %)$r$ %$ us$ soft$r "$tal on )ard surfac$.
?:urfacin&@ is t)$ #roc$ss of depositing filler metal !* arc or &as %$ldin& on a
"$tal surfac$ to o!tain d$sir$d #ro#$rti$s or di"$nsions.
Princi#l$ of 9#$rations 9r :t$#s In'ol'$d In ;ard ,acin&-
1. G$t$r"in$ t)$ $8act co"#osition of t)$ !as$ "$tal -!$caus$ it influ$nc$s t)$
succ$ss
and +ualit* of t)$ surfacin& "$t)od.
0. G$t$r"in$ t)$ t*#$ and d$&r$$ of %$ar on t)$ !as$ "$tal.
3. G$t$r"in$ t)$ %$ldin& #osition of t)$ (o!.
2. Esti"at$ t)$ ar$a t)at n$$ds to !$ )ardfac$d.
B. :$l$ct an a##ro#riat$ )ardfacin& allo*.
>. :$l$ct an a##ro#riat$ )ardfacin& "$t)od.
C. Pr$#ar$ t)$ surfac$ to !$ )ardfac$d.
<. A##l* t)$ )ardfacin& allo* on t)$ !as$ "$tal.
5. I"#art #ro#$r surfac$ finis) to t)$ )ardfac$d !as$ "$tal co"#on$nt.
In M$talli6in& and )ard facin& "$c)anical !ondin& ta-$s !$t%$$n t)$ fill$r
"$tal la*$r and !as$ "$tal la*$r "or$ stron&$r %ill !$ t)$ !ond &ood %ill !$ t)$
t)$ +ualit* of t)$ "$talli6in& and )ard facin&. ,or #rior to "$talli6in& surfac$
#r$#aration is r$+uir$d. T)$ follo%in& st$#s ar$ in'ol'$d in t)$ surfac$
#r$#aration-
1. :urfac$ is cl$an$d a&ainst rustin& oil #aint
0. T)$ surfac$ is #roduc$ rou&) for !$tt$r &ri#in& of t)$ fill$r "$tal la*$r.
3. Various "$t)ods of surfac$ rou&)in& ar$ rou&) "ac)inin& stud %$ldin&
rou&) &rindin& scratc)in& t)r$adin&.
M$tal s#ra*in& or "$talli6in& lit$rall* "$ans to tr$at %it) or coat %it) a "$tal or
"$tallic co"#ound. M$talli6in& as a #roc$ss nor"all* includ$s t)$ #r$#aration of
!as$ "at$rial t)$ s#ra*in& on t)$ "$tal and finall* finis)in& t)$ surfac$ !*
&rindin&.
Giff$r$nc$ !$t%$$n M$talli6in& 3"$tal s#ra*in&4 and ;ard facin&.
M$talli6in& is us$d to &i'$ $8tra coatin& to t)$ surfac$ to !as$ "$tal to i"#ro'$
its %$ar and t$ar or out%ard a##$aranc$ of t)$ surfac$.
/)il$ )ard facin& is us$d alon& t)$ r$#air of t$ar and %$ar and di"$nsion
i"#ro'$"$nt !$tt$r surfac$ a##$aranc$ and to incr$as$ t)$ r$sistanc$ of t)$ !as$
"$tal )$nc$ 'arious "$c)anical #ro#$rti$s ar$ i"#ro'$d !* )ard facin&.

?$0%,or succ$ssful !ra6in& to occur t)$ (oints to !$ !ra6$d )a'$ to !$ d$si&n$d #ro#$rl*
and t)$n #ro#$rl* "anufactur$d to attain and "aintain t)os$ s)a#$s and di"$nsions.
T)$ a"ount of cl$aranc$ !$t%$$n t)$ fa*in& surfac$s 3t)$ "atin& surfac$s insid$ a (oint
!$in& !ra6$d4 s)ould id$all* !$ -$#t s"all on t)$ ord$r of a!out 0.0007-- 0.0007 30.000-
0.0B0 ""4 total so t)at ca#illar* action can "ost $ff$cti'$l* #ull t)$ "olt$n !ra6in&
fill$r "$tal 3.,M4 co"#l$t$l* into and t)rou&)out a !ra6$-(oint.
Proc$ss for (oinin& t%o #i$c$s of "$tal !* a##l*in& )$at and addin& a fill$r "$tal. T)$
fill$r %)ic) )as a lo%$r "$ltin& #oint t)an t)$ "$tals to !$ (oin$d is $it)$r #r$-#lac$d or
f$d into t)$ (oint as t)$ #arts ar$ )$at$d. In !ra6in& #arts %it) s"all cl$aranc$s t)$ fill$r
is a!l$ to flo% into t)$ (oint !* ca#illarit*. T)$ t$"#$ratur$ of t)$ "olt$n fill$r in !ra6in&
$8c$$ds <00, 3230C4.
/)$n #ro#$rl* d$si&n$d a !ra6$d (oint %ill *i$ld a '$r* )i&) d$&r$$ of s$r'ic$a!ilit*
und$r conc$ntrat$d str$ss 'i!ration and t$"#$ratur$ loads. It can !$ said t)at in a
#ro#$rl* d$si&n$d !ra6$"$nt an* failur$ %ill occur in t)$ !as$ "$tal not in t)$ (oint.
T)$r$ ar$ "an* d$si&n 'aria!l$s to !$ consid$r$d. ,irst a"on& t)$" is t)$ "$c)anical
confi&uration of t)$ #arts to !$ (oin$d and t)$ (oint ar$a its$lf. All !ra6$"$nts can !$
cat$&ori6$d as )a'in& on$ of t%o !asic (oint d$si&nsL t)$ la# (oint or t)$ !utt (oint. 9t)$rs
ar$ ada#tations of t)$s$ t%o.
G$si&n consid$rations s)ould includ$ t)$ infor"$d s$l$ction of t)$ !as$ and fill$r "$tals.
In addition to t)$ !asic "$c)anical r$+uir$"$nts t)$ !as$ "$tals us$d in t)$ !ra6$"$nt
"ust r$tain t)$ int$&rit* of t)$ir #)*sical #ro#$rti$s t)rou&)out t)$ )$at of t)$ !ra6in&
c*cl$. No uni'$rsal fill$r "$tal t)at %ill satisf* all d$si&n r$+uir$"$nts is #ossi!l$ !ut
t)$r$ ar$ "an* t*#$s a'aila!l$ ran&in& fro" #ur$ "$tals suc) as co##$r &old or sil'$r
to co"#l$8 allo*s of alu"inu" &old nic-$l "a&n$siu" co!alt sil'$r and #alladiu".
?$(%;i&)-)$at-in#ut %$ldin& !rin&s a!out si&nificant ad'anta&$s in
costs and s)ort$n$d %or-in& #$riods in t)$ construction of %$ld$d
st$$l structur$s suc) as s)i#s and !uildin&s. 9n t)$ ot)$r )and r$+uir$"$nts
for t)$ saf$t* and r$lia!ilit* of structur$s )a'$ &ro%n
"or$ t)an $'$r o'$r t)$ last *$ars and it is n$c$ssar* to s$cur$ )i&)
"at$rial tou&)n$ss for #r$'$ntin& !rittl$ fractur$ of st$$l "$"!$rs
$s#$ciall* in %$ld$d st$$l structur$s. R$s#ondin& to suc) social r$+uir$"$nts
Ni##on :t$$l Cor#oration )as d$'$lo#$d st$$ls for )i&) )$at-
in#ut %$ldin& t)at )a'$ $8c$ll$nt tou&)n$ss in %$ld -aff$ct$d
6on$s and )as su##li$d suc) st$$ls for a %id$ 'ari$t*
of a##lications suc) as s)i#s offs)or$ structur$s !uildin&s and
!rid&$s.
T)$ tou&)n$ss of t)$ %$ld aff$ct$d 6on$ is &o'$rn$d !* t)$ #ro#$rti$s of t)$
iron "atri8 a )ard$n$d #)as$ actin& as an initiation sit$ of a crac-
and $ff$cti'$ &rain si6$24. In t)$ %$ld aff$ct$d 6on$ of )i&)-)$at-in#ut %$ldin&
t)$ "at$rial is )$at$d to )i&) t$"#$ratur$s of 1>C3 K or )i&)$r n$ar
t)$ "$ltin& t$"#$ratur$ of st$$l for a lon& #$riod and as a r$sult
&rains coars$n r$"ar-a!l*.
Tou&)n$ss of a %$ld Eaff$ct$d 6on$. Incid$ntall* t)$ $ff$cti'$ &rain si6$ is d$fin$d
as t)$ si6$ of a r$&ion in %)ic) t)$ cr*stallo&ra#)ic ori$ntation of a
!od*-c$nt$r$d cu!ic lattic$ is su!stantiall* t)$ sa"$.
In ord$r to $n)anc$ t)$ tou&)n$ss of a %$ld Eaff$ct$d 6on$ !* r$finin& t)$ $ff$cti'$
&rain si6$ it is $ff$cti'$ to su##r$ss t)$ &ro%t) of aust$nitic 3N4
&rains r$fin$ t)$ "icrostructur$ insid$ t)$ N &rains or co"!in$ t)$s$
t%o "$asur$s. To su##r$ss t)$ &ro%t) of t)$ N &rains it is '$r* $ff$cti'$
to #in t)$ir &ro%t)= #articl$s of o8id$s and sulfid$s %)ic) ar$
nano"$t$r in si6$ contain $l$"$nts suc) as M& and Ca and ar$ sta!l$
at )i&) t$"#$ratur$sB>4 ar$ us$d for t)is #ur#os$ in addition to con'$ntionall*
us$d TiN #articl$sC4. 9n t)$ ot)$r )and to r$fin$ t)$ "icrostructur$
insid$ N &rains intra-&ranular f$rrit$ 3IG,4 transfor"ation
is $ff$cti'$= TiNC4 Ti093
<54 TiNO,$033C.4>
104 TiNOMn:114 and
ot)$r o8id$s and #r$ci#itat$s )a'$ !$$n r$#ort$d as t)$ #articl$s t)at
s$r'$
T)$ #ossi!ilit* of #$rfor"in& a %$ldin& #roc$ss %it)out !uildin& u# a t)$r"al &radi$nt in
t)$ #ar$nt "$tal is al"ost n$&li&i!l$. T)$ t$"#$ratur$ and t)$ s#$$d of t)$ %$ldin&
#roc$ss is '$r* influ$ntial in d$cidin& t)$ s#r$ad of )$at into t)$ #ar$nt "$tal. T)$
t)$r"al &radi$nt %ill &$t co"#r$ss$d !* t)$ )i&) #o%$r %$ldin& at )i&) s#$$d.
?$"% /$ldin& Proc$dur$s ar$ t)$ &uid$lin$s us$d to #$rfor" a %$ld. T)$* ar$ d$si&n$d to
#ro'id$ a r$cord of t)$ %$ldin& 'aria!l$s us$d and t)$ ins#$ction r$sults o!tain$d durin&
t)$ #roc$dur$ +ualification t$st. T)$* can also #ro'id$ t)$ instructions for t)$ %$ld$r to
us$ in #roduction in ord$r to #roduc$ acc$#ta!l$ %$lds. Ksuall* %$ldin& #roc$dur$s ar$
d$'$lo#$d in accordanc$ %it) a %$ldin& cod$ or standard and %it) f$% $8c$#tionsP
r$+uir$ t)at #)*sical %$ld sa"#l$s !$ #roduc$d ins#$ct$d and t$st$d to $sta!lis)
+ualification.
I.s=e"'-o. 0.* Tes'-.4 7or F-33e' 2e3*s $Tee Jo-.'s% - T)is in'ol'$s 'isual ins#$ction
of t)$ co"#l$t$d %$ld follo%$d !* t%o "acro $tc)$s and on$ fill$t %$ld !r$a- t$st. T)$
%$ld$d sa"#l$ is first ins#$ct$d for an* 'isual discontinuiti$s and t)$n s$ction$d and t%o
s"all sa"#l$s r$"o'$d at #r$d$t$r"in$d locations. T)$s$ s"all sa"#l$s ar$ #olis)$d
across t)$ir cross-s$ction and t)$n $tc)$d usin& so"$ t*#$ of "ild acid "i8tur$
d$#$nd$nt on t)$ !as$ "at$rial us$d. T)$ r$"ainin& %$ld$d sa"#l$ is us$d as t)$ fill$t
%$ld !r$a- t$st and is !ro-$n a&ainst t)$ %$ld to r$'$al t)$ int$rnal structur$ of t)$ %$ld
for ins#$ction.
I.s=e"'-o. 0.* Tes'-.4 7or Groo1e 8e3*s $Bu'' Jo-.'s% E T)is in'ol'$s 'isual
ins#$ction follo%$d !* t%o trans'$rs$ t$nsil$ t$sts t%o root !$nd t$st and t%o fac$ !$nd
t$sts. 3T)$s$ t$sts ar$ t*#ical !ut "a* diff$r d$#$nd$nt on "at$rial t)ic-n$ss t*#$ and
standard r$+uir$"$nts. Giff$r$nt and/or additional t$stin& suc) as sid$ !$nds all %$ld
t$nsil$ t$sts i"#act t$stin& or ot)$r t$stin& "a* !$ r$+uir$d.4 T)$ co"#l$t$d %$ld
cou#on aft$r 'isual ins#$ction is di'id$d into #r$d$t$r"in$d s"all s$ctions. Eac) s$ction
is #r$#ar$d usuall* !* "ac)inin& to s#$cific di"$nsions as #r$scri!$d !* t)$ standard.
Eac) s"all sa"#l$ is t)$n t$st$d "$c)anicall* to d$t$r"in$ its c)aract$ristics. T)$s$
sa"#l$s ar$ t)$n ins#$ct$d to d$t$r"in$ t)$ir acc$#ta!ilit* a&ainst s#$cifi$d acc$#tanc$
crit$ria as laid do%n !* t)$ a##lica!l$ cod$ or standard. T*#icall* t)$ standard %ill
#ro'id$ t)$ "a8i"u" si6$ and location of 'arious %$ld discontinuiti$s and/or as
r$l$'ant 'alu$s suc) as "ini"u" t$nsil$ str$n&t)s or "ini"u" d$sir$d i"#act
#ro#$rti$s.
Nond$structi'$ t$stin& or Non-d$structi'$ t$stin& 3NGT4 is a %id$ &rou# of anal*sis
t$c)ni+u$s us$d in sci$nc$ and industr* to $'aluat$ t)$ #ro#$rti$s of a "at$rial
co"#on$nt or s*st$" %it)out causin& da"a&$.T)$ t$r"s Nond$structi'$ $8a"ination
3NGE4 Nond$structi'$ ins#$ction 3NGI4 and Nond$structi'$ $'aluation 3NGE4 ar$ also
co""onl* us$d to d$scri!$ t)is t$c)nolo&*..$caus$ NGT do$s not #$r"an$ntl* alt$r t)$
articl$ !$in& ins#$ct$d it is a )i&)l*-'alua!l$ t$c)ni+u$ t)at can sa'$ !ot) "on$* and
ti"$ in #roduct $'aluation trou!l$s)ootin& and r$s$arc). Co""on NGT "$t)ods
includ$ ultrasonic "a&n$tic-#articl$ li+uid #$n$trant radio&ra#)ic r$"ot$ 'isual
ins#$ction 3RVI4 $dd*-curr$nt t$stin&.