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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A. Background
Neurons (also known as neurons, nerve cells and nerve fibers) are
electrically excitable and the most important cells in the nervous system that
functions to process and transmit information. Neurons have a large number of
extensions called dendrites. They often look likes branches or spikes extending
out from the cell body. It is primarily the surfaces of the dendrites that receive
chemical messages from other neurons. One extension is different from all the
others, and is called the axon. Although in some neurons, it is hard to
distinguish from the dendrites, in others it is easily distinguished by its length.
The purpose of the axon is to transmit an electro-chemical signal to
other neurons, sometimes over a considerable distance. Longer axons are
usually covered with a myelin sheath, a series of fatty cells which have
wrapped around an axon many times. They serve a similar function as the
insulation around electrical wire. At the very end of the axon is the axon
ending. It is there that the electro-chemical signal that has travelled the length
of the axon is converted into a chemical message that travels to the next
neuron.
Axons are what make up nerves. A nerve is a bundle of neurons fibers
or processes wrapped in connective tissue that extends to and/or from the CNS
and visceral organs or structures of the body periphery In this experiment we
will work with a nerve The action potential we will see on this experiment
reflects the cumulative action potentials of all the neurons in the nerve, called a
compound nerve action potential. Although an action potential follows the all-
or none law within a single neuron, it does not necessarily follows the all-or-
none law within an entire nerve. When you electrically stimulate a nerve at a
given voltage, the stimulus may result in depolarization of most of the neurons
but not necessarily all of them.
B. Purpose
To know the effect of stimulant that found in beverage packaging
against neural responsiveness.
C. Benefit
Apprentice know the work of stimulant that influence the reflex
movement in human.


























CHAPTER II
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
Like muscle cells, neurons (nerve cells) possess electrical excitability, the
ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into an action potential. A stimulus
is any change in the environment that is strong enough to initiate an action
potential. An action potential (nerve impulse) is an electrical signal that
propagates (travels) along the surface of the membrane of a neuron. It begins and
travels due to the movement of ions (such as sodium and potassium) between
interstitial fluid and the inside of a neuron through specific ion channels in its
plasma membrane. Once begun, a nerve impulse travels rapidly and at a constant
strength. Some neurons are tiny and propagate impulses over a short distance (less
than 1 mm) within the CNS. Others are the longest cells in the body. The neurons
that enable you to wiggle your toes, for example, extend from the lumbar region
of your spinal cord (just above waist level) to the muscles in your foot. Some
neurons are even longer. Those that allow you to feel a feather tickling your toes
stretch all the way from your foot to the lower portion of your brain. Nerve
impulses travel these great distances at speeds ranging from 0.5 to 130 meters per
second (1 to 280 mi/hr) (Tortora, 2009)
The nervous system consists of two major divisions: the central nervous
system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The brain and the spinal
cord make up the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system consists
of the sensory neurons and motor neurons that carry information to and from the
CNS. The CNS is made up mostly of interneurons. Its function is to coordinate all
of the bodys activities. The CNS relays messages, processes information, and
analyzes responses. Sensory neurons carry information about the environment to
the spinal cord. Interneurons in the spinal cord might respond via a reflex arc, or
they might relay this information to the brain, where it is processed in at least two
ways. Some brain neurons send a message by way of the spinal cord to motor
neurons, and the body responds appropriately. Other neurons in the brain might
store the information to be recalled later (Glencoe, 2008).
The brain over 100 billion neurons are found in the brain. Because the
brain maintains homeostasis and is involved with almost all of the bodys
activities, it is sometimes called the control center of the body. The cerebrum is
the largest part of the brain and is divided into two halves called hemispheres. The
two hemispheres are not independent of each otherthey are connected by a
bundle of nerves. The cerebrum carries out thought processes involved with
learning, memory, language, speech, voluntary body movements, and sensory
perception. Most of these higher thought processes occur near the surface of the
brain (Glencoe, 2008).
The cerebellum controls balance, posture, and coordination, and is
located at the back of the brain. The cerebellum controls the smooth and
coordinated movement of skeletal muscles and also is involved with motor skills,
such as playing the piano or riding a bike. The brain stem connects the brain to the
spinal cord and is made up of two regions called the medulla oblongata and the
pons (Glencoe, 2008).
The medulla oblongata relays signals between the brain and the spinal
cord. It also helps control breathing rate, heart rate, and blood pressure. The pons
relays signals between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The pons also helps
control the rate of breathing. Have you ever felt a gagging sensation when your
doctor put a tongue depressor in your mouth? The interneurons that form a reflex
center for swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing are located in the
medulla oblongata. Located between the brain stem and the cerebrum, the
hypothalamus
is essential for maintaining homeostasis (Glencoe, 2008).
The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, thirst, appetite, and water
balance. It also partially regulates blood pressure, sleep, aggression, fear, and
sexual behavior. It is about the size of a fingernail and performs more functions
than any other brain structure of its size (Glencoe, 2008).
Coordinate system is a system that organizes the work of all the organ
systems in order to work in harmony. Coordination systems that work to receive
stimuli, process them and then forward them to want to respond to stimuli earlier.
Each stimulus that we receive through our senses, will be processed in the brain.
Then the brain will continue the stimulus to the organ in question. Every activity
that occurs in the body, whether simple or complex is the result of a complex and
systematic coordination of multiple systems in the body (Syamsuri, I. 2004).
Coordinating system in animals include nervous system and endocrine
system and their senses (hormone). The nervous system is a typical system for
animals, because the nervous system is not owned by the plant. The nervous
system is owned by a different animal, the higher the level the more complex
nervous systems of animals (Syamsuri, I. 2004).
According to Campbell, 2002, stimulation of the body will be received by
receptors located on sensory organ called. Sometimes direct stimuli received by
cells or tissues.
1. Receptors are divided into three kinds, namely: Outside receptor
(Eksteroseptor) is a receptor that is able to receive stimuli from outside.
2. Receptors In (Interoseptor) is a receptor that is able to receive stimuli from
inside.
3. Proproreseptor is a receptor present in the muscle.
Indra consists of tools to receive stimuli and nerves that carry stimulation and
notify it to the center saraf.Indra can work perfectly only if:
a. no interference on the receiver stimuli
b. there is no interference with the sensory nerves connecting the central
nervous
c. there is no interference with the nerve centers in the brain









CHAPTER III
WORK PROCEDURE

A. Time and Place
Day/ date : Friday, May 21
st
2014
Time : 04.00-05.30 pm
Place : Biology Laboratory, third floor, Biology department,
Mathematics and Science Faculty, State University of Makassar
B. Materials and equipment
1. Materials
a. Stimulant drinking
b. Water drinks
c. Spoon / Mixer
d. Glass
2. Equipment
a. Ruler ( 30 cm )
b. Book and Pen
C. Work Procedure
1. Invite the subject test to sit on the chair
2. Put a ruler vertically between thumb and index finger. Try put 0 point
right between thumb and index finger position
3. Subject test must catch a ruler that released by her/his friend
4. Without tell her/his released the ruler and subject test will try to catch
with her/his thumb and index figer. Then see where the both finger
stop at scale on ruler
5. Repeat the work procedure number 1-4 with left hand
6. Tell the subject test to drink stimulant. Then wait 30 minutes
7. After 30 minutes, repeat work procedure 1-5
8. Took a data from another subject matter, so we can compared the
observation result with another group
CHAPTER IV
OBSERVATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Observation Result
Before Drink After drink
Name Right (cm) Left (cm) Right (cm) Left(cm)
Ulva
(Coca cola)
16
21
17
17
17
16
14
15
15
10
18
14
14
14
15
15
15
18
15
27
Ewa
(M-150)
28
11
15
15
12,5
16
10
5
10,5
16
12
30
13
5
30
0
10
10
10,5
10
Nurul (coca
cola)
0
22
0
24
15
27
17
20
6
14
19
19
20
19
15
27
7
10
19
72
Ciko
(nescafe)
0
26
0
0
27
0
20
20
19
17
14
13
7
6
22
14
16
11
9
14
Fina
(nescafe)
0
26
0
0
20
24
21
21
17
26
22
23
13
17
17
19
27 14 20 10
Cici (coca
cola)
30
0
12
14
15
16
15
13
13
20
23
16
8
13
8
26
13
12
13
9
Wawan
(extra joss)
17,2
11
15
14
17
8
16
12
11
7
17
7
14
14
12
7
3
3
6
5
Mean before drink
Name R L
Ulva 17,6 14
Ewa 16,3 11,3
Nurul 12,2 16,8
Ciko 22,8 15,2
Fina 10,6 20
Cici 14,2 15,4
Wawan 14,84 10,8

Mean after drink
Name R L
Ulva 15 18
Ewa 18 8,2
Nurul 18,4 15
Ciko 12,4 12,8
Fina 21,6 15,2
Cici 13,6 14,6
Wawan 12,8 4,8
B. Discussion
Based on the observation we can see the effect of stimulant subtances
that contained in various stimulant drink on neural respons speed. In this
observation , we drink coca cola , extra-joss , M-150 and nescafe .every people.
Start form ulvanialawati, before drink the neural responses speed the
average for right hand 17,6 and left right 15. And after drink the average of
right hand is and left hand is 18. Before and after drink is occured the decrease
of average for right hand and increase of average for left hand.
he second subject is ewa. Before drink the neural responsed speed the
average for right hand is 16,3 and left hand is 11,3 after drink speed of right
have average 18 and left hand is 8,1 before and after drink stimulant is occured
the increase for right hand and decrease for left hand.
The third subject is nurul, she is drink coca cola . before drink the
average of neural responses speed for right hand is 12,2 and left hand is 16,8 .
and sfter drink the average for right hand is 18,4 and left hand it is. Before and
after drink is occured the increase of average for right hand and decrease for
left hand.
The forth subject is ciko. She is drin nescafe, before drink the nescafe
average of neural respons drink is 22,8 for night hand and left hand is 15,2 .
and after drink is 12,4 for right hand and left hand is 12,8. Before and after
drink is occured the decrease for right hand and left hand.
The fifth subject is fina. She also drink nescafe. But for after and
before drink is different. For the right hand , before and after drink is 10,6
become 21,6 and left hand is 20 become 15,2.
Thes sixth subject is cici, she is drink coca cola . before drink the
average neural responses speed is 14,2 for right hand and left hand is 15,4 after
drink the average is 13,6 for right hand and 14,6 for left hand before and after
drink is occured the decrease for the average of right hand and left hand.
The last subject is wawan . he is drink M-150. Before drink the
average is 14,84 for right hand and and 10,8 for left hand. After drink the
average is 12,8 for right hand and 4,8 for left hand.
Based on the data. Good neural respons speed are ciko,cici and wawan
why because after and before drink a occured the decrease of the average the
decreasing af average is mark that they have a good neural respons speed.
Based on the theory , stimuant is subtances that stimulate control
nerve system. So ocerelate the all procces in the body, such us increase the
topping of heart, respiration and blood pressure. Stimulant and prepear people
to be more alert and hide the weary. Stimulant raise the sympatic nerve system,
CNS. Or both of all at once. Stimulant used for therapy to increase and keep
the vigilances, become neutralizer a weary and also fix the capable of
concertration. And for fina ,ulva, ewa and nurul doesnt have a good neural
responses speed because the stimulant subtances not influences well.




















CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
Based on the observation and discussion , ciko, cici and wawan on are
have a good nerve responses speed and fina, nurul,awa and ulva doesnt have a
good nerve responses speed because the stimulant subtances not influences
with.
B. Suggestion
1. Better the laborant to attention the preparing materials.
2. Better assistant to attention apprentices work in the laboratorium for
optimal experiment.
3. Apprentice do not trouble or disturb other apprentice



















BIBLIOGRAPHY
Champbell, Neil. 2002. Biologi Edisi Kelima. Erlangga. Jakarta.
Glencoe. 2008. Biology. California: Mc Graw Hill
Syamsuri, I. 2004. Biologi. Penerbit Erlangga: Jakarta
Tortora, Gerard, and Bryan.2009. Principle of Anatomy and Physiology. USA:
Wiley.