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William

PRIMROSE
Viola
Transcriptions
None but the Lonely Heart
La Campanella
Sarasateana
Nocturne
Trume
Roberto Daz, Viola
Robert Koenig, Piano
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Paganinis zweitem Violinkonzert. Einer der groen
Arrangeure, Franz Liszt, machte davon seine berhmte
Klavierfassung. Primroses Transkription dieses und
anderer Paganini-Stcke war zweifellos als Vehikel
seiner eigenen Virtuositt gedacht, und er gestand
immerhin, es habe nichts als die unverschmte,
lrmende Bravour das Zepter bernommen, als es an die
bertragung und, wie ich hinzufgen muss, auch an die
Auffhrung der Paganini-Capricen ging! Ich hatte vor,
die Brger zu erschrecken, und setzte die Katze in den
Taubenschlag der damaligen Bratschenspieler. Nichts
als jugendlicher Stolz und Ehrgeiz!
David Dalton
Deutsche Fassung: Cris Posslac
1
Brigham Young University Press, 1978
2
Playing the Viola, David Dalton,
Oxford, 1988, S. 184
I would like to gratefully acknowledge the following individuals, all of whom were essential
to this project being realized:
Maestro Wolfgang Sawallisch for his crucial part in helping me purchase the Primrose viola - and for many
wonderful years of musical collaboration with the Philadelphia Orchestra.
David Dalton, Director of The Primrose International Viola Archive at Brigham Young University for the idea
that led to this recording, and for providing me with these rare Primrose manuscripts.
My father, Manuel Daz, for his limitless patience, steadfast support and for introducing me to the
work of his teacher, William Primrose.
-Roberto Daz
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Transkriptionen auf derselben Viola (Ex-Primrose) zu
hren.
Primrose zufolge waren Transkriptionen Wasser
auf die Mhlen der Instrumentalisten und Komponisten
... Bach ist das herausragende Beispiel eines
Komponisten, der sich reichlich die Artikel seiner
Zeitgenossen zunutze machte. Ich selbst habe in Sachen
der musikalischen Komposition nie einen originellen
Gedanken in meinem Kopf gehabt, doch ich
schmeichelte mir, dass ich ein recht vielversprechender
Bursche wre, wenn ich anderer Leute Hirn
durchforstete. Unter meinen Transkriptionen gab es
welche, die sozusagen aus Neid entstanden. Ich war
neidisch auf den Cellisten, der den Gesang im Nocturne
des zweiten Streichquartetts von Borodin ausspinnen
konnte. Ich beneidete Miss Bid Sayo um jene
wundersame, lange Melodielinie, mit der sie uns immer
wieder in den Bachianas Brasileiras Nr. 5 erstaunte.
2
Die Transkriptionen, die Primrose machte, ent-
standen zum eigenen Gebrauch, sollten Lcken
(charmeurs nannte er sie) im Bratschenrepertoire seiner
Zeit schlieen und seine eigene staunenswerte Technik
darstellen. Im Gegensatz zu den Streicherkollegen Fritz
Kreisler und Jascha Heifetz, die er sehr bewunderte,
konnte er selbst nicht gut Klavier spielen, weshalb bei
der Herstellung der Transkriptionen nicht genau zu
bestimmen ist, welcher Anteil der Klavierbegleitung
von ihm selbst stammte und bis zu welchem Grade er
sich auf die Ratschlge und das Knnen von Pianisten
sttzte. David Stimer, sein langjhriger Begleiter,
gehrte ebenso dazu wie Clifford Curzon. In seinen
Erinnerungen erwhnt Primrose die Hilfe, die ihm zuteil
wurde. Er habe sehr aufpassen mssen, nichts zu
schreiben, das ungeschickt oder unspielbar war. Im
Hinblick auf die Bachianas meinte er, es sei schon
einige Erfindungskraft ntig, acht Cellostimmen in zwei
Hnde zu legen.
Mit Verachtung mgen Puristen der Tatsache
begegnen, dass sich Primrose an dem Notturno op. 42
von Beethoven zu schaffen machte, dem einzigen Werk
des Meisters fr die Bratsche (die er selbst spielte).
Tatschlich handelt es sich bei diesem Opus 42 aber um
die Einrichtung seiner Serenade fr Streichtrio op. 8, die
weithin als eine Bearbeitung von fremder Hand gilt,
allerdings von Beethoven genehmigt und korrigiert
sein soll. In der marcia, einem der sieben Stze (von
denen Daz drei ausgewhlt hat), hielt sich Primrose
weitestgehend an das Original. Ansonsten gibt es
Abweichungen, die sich als Austausch zwischen der
Bratschen- und der Klavierstimme darstellen. Primrose
stellte die Viola dem Klavier als gleichberechtigte,
prominentere Stimme zur Seite, erlste den Bratscher
damit von einigen rein begleitenden Passagen und gab
zu, dass er sich darum bemht habe, das Instrument von
seinem damaligen Ruf als dummer Hund der
Streicherfamilie zu befreien.
Oft bediente sich Primrose auch im Gesangs-
repertoire. So bearbeitete er Vokalwerke von Schubert,
Villa-Lobos, Tschaikowsky, Brahms und Wagner.
Trume ist eines der fnf Lieder nach Gedichten von
Mathilde Wesendonck, die dem Komponisten als
Vorstudien zu seiner Oper Tristan und Isolde gedient
haben sollen.
Nach Sdamerika kam William Primrose zunchst
als Kammermusiker mit dem London String Quartet,
dann als Mitglied des NBC Symphony Orchestra unter
Arturo Toscanini und schlielich als Solist. Er verliebte
sich in die Farben und die Vitalitt der spanischen
Musik und ihrer lateinischen Abkmmlinge, die hier
durch Aguirre und Valle reprsentiert sind. (Eine seiner
liebsten Zugaben war Arthur Benjamins Jamaican
Rumba, der auf dem vorliegenden Album allerdings
nicht enthalten ist). Die herrlichen Sarasateana, eine
Kollektion von vier Tnzen des groen spanischen
Geigers, sind genaugenommen keine Transkription von
Primrose, sondern die Bearbeitung einiger Sarasate-
Tnze, die der bedeutende Geiger Efrem Zimbalist zu
eigenem Gebrauch vornahm. Primrose erfuhr davon, als
er Anfang der vierziger Jahre am Curtis Institute of
Music unterrichtete, wo Zimbalist Direktor war.
Zimbalist bertrug sie fr Primrose, der bemerkte, dass
der Klavierpart dieser Suite ein Musterbeispiel dafr
ist, wie man in einer bezaubernden und geistreichen
Weise Sarasates recht trockene Begleitungen verbessern
kann.
La Campanella stammt aus dem Schluss-Satz von
8.557391 2
1 Alexander Pofiryevich BORODIN (18331887): Nocturne: Andante 6:23
2 Franz SCHUBERT (17871828): Litany For All Souls Day: Adagio 4:25
Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (17701827): Notturno, Op. 42 (arr. from Serenade, Op. 8) 12:39
3 Marcia Allegro 2:17
4 Adagio 7:12
5 Allegretto alla polacca 3:09
6 Richard WAGNER (18131883): Trume: Lento (Wesendonk Lieder, No. 5) 3:44
7 Julian AGUIRRE (18681924) / Jascha HEIFETZ (19001987): Huella: movido y energico 2:34
8 Edgar Daniele del VALLE (18611920) / Jascha HEIFETZ (19001987):
Ao P da Fogueira: Allegro comodo 1:35
9 Nicol PAGANINI (17821840): La Campanella (from Violin Concerto No. 2) 5:22
0 Heitor VILLA-LOBOS (18871959): Bachianas Brasileiras No. 5: Aria (Cantilena): Adagio 5:22
! Georges BIZET (18381875): Adagietto from LArlsienne Suite No. 1 2:37
Efrem ZIMBALIST (18891985): Sarasateana 15:56
@ Tango: Allegro moderato 3:14
# Polo: Allegro moderato 4:19
$ Malaguea: Amabile 4:32
% Zapateado: Allegro moderato 3:49
^ Pyotr Ilyich TCHAIKOVSKY (18401893): None but the Lonely Heart 2:33
& Johannes BRAHMS (18331897): Wie Melodien zieht es mir, Op. 105, No. 1 2:09
William Primrose (19041982)
Transcriptions for Viola
Tracks 12-15 were transcibed for William Primrose by Efrem Zimbalist
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Die letzten drei Lebensjahre, die der groe Brat-
schenvirtuose William Primrose in Provo, Utah,
zubrachte, waren von einer tdlichen Krankheit
berschattet. Seine Erinnerungsstcke und seine
persnliche Bibliothek an Bratschenliteratur vermachte
er der Brigham Young University mit der Magabe, das
Internationale Primrose-Bratschenarchiv (PIVA) zu
grnden, das heute die umfangreichste Sammlung an
Material zu dem Instrument aufbewahrt. Im Jahr seines
Ablebens wurde an derselben Universitt die Primrose
Memorial Concert and Master Class gegrndet. Dieses
Ereignis zieht alljhrlich zahlreiche Leuchten der
Bratsche in seinen Bann darunter auch den brillanten
chilenisch-amerikanischen Knstler Roberto Daz, der
als Erster Bratscher des Philadelphia Orchestra arbeitet
und krzlich zum Direktor des Curtis Institute of Music
ernannt wurde. Bei dem Primrose Concert von 2002, bei
dem es eine Reihe der obligatorischen Primrose-
Transkriptionen gab, war ich von Daz Tonschnheit
und vor allem von seinem Elan und seiner Virtuositt
beeindruckt, die an den verstorbenen Meister erinnerten.
Ich schlug Daz vor, ber eine Aufnahme der Primrose-
Transkriptionen nachzudenken was unseres Wissens
noch niemand unternommen hatte. Er erwrmte sich
sogleich fr diesen nicht eben harmlosen, sondern eher
furchteinflenden Vorschlag, wobei es sein kann, dass
sein Interesse durch eine etwas abseitige pdagogische
und biologische Verwandtschaft mit Primrose noch
grer wurde: Manuel Daz, Robertos Vater und erster
Lehrer, hatte einst bei Primrose studiert.
Einen zustzlichen Impuls erhielt das Projekt, als im
Jahre 2002 die Viola Ex-Primrose der Brder Antonio
und Hieronymus Amati (um 1600) in Daz Besitz
gelangte. In seinen Memoiren Walk on the North Side
1
schreibt Primrose, dass sein Vater, ein professioneller
Geiger und Bratscher, dieses Instrument besessen habe.
Primrose selbst benutzte es hufig zu Beginn seiner
Karriere als Bratscher zunchst Anfang der dreiiger
Jahre im London String Quartet, spter dann als Solist.
Bis etwa 1950 war diese Viola sein hauptschliches
Konzertinstrument. Dann wurde es veruert, und 1967
kam es nach Philadelphia, wo es als Teil einer
Sammlung und Erbschaftsmasse nur noch selten gespielt
wurde. Zwar hatte die Erblasserin mndlich verfgt,
dass das Philadelphia Orchestra dieses Instrument
erhalten sollte; bei der Erffnung ihres Testaments
stellte sich dann heraus, dass die Viola fr eine groe
amerikanische Universitt bestimmt war. Nach einigen
gnstigen Verhandlungen konnte das Philadelphia
Orchestra das Instrument erwerben, und der Erste
Bratscher Daz kaufte es wiederum dem Orchester ab.
Primrose sprach mit Bewunderung vom Klang der
Brder-Amati-Viola, bemerkte allerdings auch einen
strenden Wolf und was wichtiger war den
Mangel an Projektion, den er fr sein immer grer
werdendes Publikum suchte. Als Daz das Instrument
erhielt, stellte er fest, dass einige Restaurationsarbeiten
ntig waren. Arthur Toman, ein Fachmann aus Boston,
entdeckte dann, als er das Instrument ffnete, verschie-
dene rtselhafte Reparaturen, die die Bratsche im
Laufe ihres Lebens hatte ber sich ergehen lassen. Die
Arbeit wurde beendet, und das geheilte Instrument
verblffte alle, die es jetzt hrten, mit einer
erstaunlichen Projektion, indessen es seinen charak-
teristischen Klang behalten hatte. Ob Primrose wohl je
das gesamte Potential dieser Bratsche gehrt hat?
Im Jahre 1934 machte Primrose seine ersten
Aufnahmen mit der Viola, als er auf ihr zwei Capricen
von Paganini spielte. Die Nr. 5 raubt dem arglosen
Hrer noch immer den Atem angesichts der teuflischen,
heute legendren Virtuositt, die der Musiker hier auf
solch brillante Weise entfaltete. (Der Geiger Misha
Elman schwieg einen Moment, nachdem er Primrose mit
einer Paganini-Caprice gehrt hatte und glaubte dann,
auf der Bratsche msse das wohl leichter sein.) Wir
knnen berechtigtermaen annehmen, dass Primrose bis
1947 die meisten seiner Aufnahmen, darunter auch
diejenigen seiner eigenen Transkriptionen, auf der
Brder-Amati-Viola gemacht hat. Jetzt kommen die
Musikfreunde in den Genuss, Roberto Daz mit diesen
William Primrose (19041982)
Transkriptionen fr Bratsche
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The great virtuoso violist William Primrose lived out his
last three years under the cloud of a terminal illness in
Provo, Utah. He had bequeathed his memorabilia and
personal library of viola scores to Brigham Young
University for the founding of the Primrose International
Viola Archive (PIVA), now the largest repository of
materials related to the instrument. The year of his
demise, the Primrose Memorial Concert and Master
Class, was established at Brigham Young. This annual
event has attracted numerous professional luminaries of
the viola, among them the brilliant Chilean-American,
Roberto Daz, principal violist of the Philadelphia
Orchestra and recently appointed director of the Curtis
Institute of Music. In 2002 at the Primrose Concert that
included a couple of the obligatory Primrose
transcriptions, I was struck with Dazs beauty of tone,
and especially his lan and virtuosity, qualities
reminiscent of the past master. I suggested to Daz that
he consider making a recording devoted to Primrose
transcriptions, something that to our knowledge had not
yet been done. He immediately warmed to the idea, a not
so minor and daunting challenge. Perhaps Dazs interest
in undertaking this recording was heightened by an
oblique pedagogical and genetic relationship with
Primrose: Robertos father and first teacher, Manuel,
was once a Primrose student.
The recording project received added impetus when,
through a circuitous course, the ex-Primrose Antonio
and Hieronymus Amati viola, c. 1600, came into the
possession of Daz in 2002. Primrose wrote in his
memoir, Walk on the North Side
1
, that this instrument
was owned by his father, a professional violinist/violist.
Primrose used it extensively when he launched his
career as a violist, first in the London String Quartet in
the early 1930s, and later as a soloist. He used it as his
primary performing instrument until about 1950. It was
sold, and in 1967 came into a collection and estate in
Philadelphia where it largely remained unplayed.
Though the owner of the estate had verbally stated that
she wished the instrument to come to the Philadelphia
Orchestra after her death, the written will instructed that
a major American university would be the recipient.
Through some friendly negotiation, the Philadelphia
Orchestra acquired the viola, and Daz, as principal
violist, bought the instrument from the orchestra.
Primrose spoke admiringly of the sound of the
Brothers Amati viola. He also mentioned, however, a
troublesome wolf tone and, more importantly, the
violas lack of projecting power he sought for his
increasingly larger audiences. On receipt of the viola,
Daz determined that the instrument would need to be
subject to some restoration. Arthur Toman, a Boston
craftsman, on opening the instrument discovered several
enigmatic repairs the viola had undergone during its
lifetime. His work completed, and the viola restored to
health, those who heard it were amazed that the
instrument now possessed astonishing projection while
retaining its distinctive sound. One wonders if Primrose
had ever heard his instrument at its full potential?
Primroses first recordings on the viola took place in
1934. He made his dbut with it with two Paganini
Caprices. No. 5 still elicits gasps from unsuspecting
listeners, such a brilliant display of the violists devilish
and now legendary virtuosity. The violinist Mischa
Elman, on hearing Primrose play a Paganini Caprice,
fell silent for a moment then mused, It must be easier
on the viola! It can be reasonably assumed that until
1947, most, if not all, of Primroses recordings,
including his own transcriptions, were made on the
Brothers Amati. The fortunate listener can now hear
these transcriptions performed on the same ex-Primrose
viola played by Roberto Daz.
According to Primrose Transcriptions have been
grist to the mill of instrumentalists and composers . . . .
Bach is a prime example of the composer who helped
himself liberally to the confections of his
contemporaries. In my own case I have never had an
original thought in my head in the matter of musical
composition, while I have flattered myself that I am a
likely lad when it comes to picking other mens brains.
William Primrose (19041982)
Transcriptions for Viola
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Roberto Daz
A violist of international reputation, Roberto Daz has recently assumed the prestigious position of President and
CEO of the Curtis Institute of Music. He follows thereby in the footsteps of soloist/directors such as Rudolf Serkin,
Gary Graffman, Efrem Zimbalist and Josef Hofmann. As a professor of viola at Curtis and former principal violist of
the Philadelphia Orchestra, he has already had a significant impact on American musical life and will continue to do
so in his dual rles as performer and educator. He has collaborated with conductors such as Roberto Abbado, Rafael
Frhbeck de Burgos, Riccardo Chailly, Charles Dutoit, Christoph Eschenbach, Richard Hickox, Christopher
Hogwood, Peter Oundjian, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Michael Stern, Gilbert Varga, Hugh Wolf and David Zinman, and
has also worked with important twentieth and twenty-first century composers, including Edison Denisov, Krzysztof
Penderecki, and Roberto Sierra. The recordings of Roberto Daz include a critically acclaimed live recording of
Jacob Druckmans Viola Concerto with the Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Wolfgang Sawallisch, and for
Naxos works for viola and piano by Henri Vieuxtemps. An active chamber musician, he has performed with artists
such as the Emerson String Quartet, Emanuel Ax, Yefim Bronfman, Christoph Eschenbach, Yo-Yo Ma, Wolfgang
Sawallisch, and Isaac Stern. His festival appearances include Kuhmo, Marlboro, Mostly Mozart at Lincoln Center,
Spoleto, and Verbier, among many others. As a member of the Daz Trio, with violinist Andrs Crdenes and cellist
Andrs Daz, he has performed throughout the United States, Canada, Europe, Mexico, and Chile. Roberto Daz was
principal violist of the National Symphony under Mstislav Rostropovich, a member of the Boston Symphony under
Seiji Ozawa, and a member of the Minnesota Orchestra under Sir Neville Marriner. He has received numerous
awards, including prizes at the Naumburg and Munich international viola competitions, and was featured on the
cover of the January 2003 issue of The Strad.
Robert Koenig
The Canadian pianist Robert Koenig has quickly established a reputation as a much sought-after collaborative artist
and chamber musician. He performs regularly in major centres throughout the world with many of this generations
most renowned musicians. Recent engagements have included performances at the Kennedy Center in Washington,
Alice Tully Hall in New York, Tokyos Suntory Hall, the Seoul Arts Centre, the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, and
the Louvre Museum in Paris. He has performed with many of todays leading artists including Sarah Chang, Hilary
Hahn, Pamela Frank, Ida Kafavian, Elmar Oliveira, Sidney Harth, and Aaron Rosand. He has appeared at many
festivals including Aspen, Ravinia, Banff, the Campos do Jordo Festival in Brazil, the Seattle Chamber Music
Festival, and the Mostly Mozart Festival in New York. He is frequently heard on radio and television. From 1992-
1999, he was staff pianist at the Juilliard School and in September 1999 he became staff pianist at the Curtis Institute
of Music in Philadelphia. In autumn 2000 he was appointed Assistant Professor of Piano and Piano Chamber Music
at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. He has recorded widely. Born in Saskatchewan, Robert Koenig began his
formal training at the Vancouver Academy of Music with Lee Kumsing and Gwen Thompson and later studied at
the Banff School of Fine Arts and the Accademia Chigiana in Siena. During this time he was the recipient of several
awards from the Canadian Government, including a Canada Council Project Grant. He completed both his Bachelors
and Masters Degrees in Accompanying at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia where he studied with
Vladimir Sokoloff and chamber music with Felix Galimir and Karen Tuttle.
8.557391 4
Concerning my own transcriptions, there were those
which were fashioned out of envy, so to speak. I envied
the cellist his spinning of song in the Nocturne from the
Borodin String Quartet No. 2. I envied Miss Bid Sayo
in that wondrous long line of melody with which she
astonished us all at the time in the Bachianas Brasileiras
No. 5.
2
Primrose made transcriptions for his own use to fill
some vacancies (charmeurs he called them) in the viola
repertoire of his day, and to display his prodigious
technique. Unlike string colleagues he greatly admired,
Fritz Kreisler and Jascha Heifetz, Primrose did not play
the piano well. In making his transcriptions it is not
easily determined precisely how much of the piano part
Primrose was able to fashion and to what extent he relied
on the advice and skill of pianists. David Stimer, his
long-time accompanist, was one, as was Clifford
Curzon. In his memoir Primrose mentions the assistance
he received, and that he had to be very careful not to
write things that are awkward or unplayable. Referring
to the Bachianas, to put eight cello parts into two hands
takes some ingenuity.
Purists might disdain Primroses tampering with
Beethovens only composition for the viola (an
instrument Beethoven played), the Notturno, Op. 42.
Actually, this is a transcription of his string trio,
Serenade, Op. 8, believed largely made by another hand,
but approved and corrected by Beethoven. Of this
seven-movement work (Daz chooses three), Primrose
adheres closely to the original in the marcia. Elsewhere
there are diversions. These might be typified as changes
(exchanges) between the original viola and piano parts.
Primrose elevates the viola to a coequal, or more
prominent, voice with the piano, thus relieving the
violist of some purely accompanying passages. By his
own admission Primrose strove to elevate the viola from
its then current reputation as being the dull dog of the
string family.
Primrose often borrowed from the singers
repertoire. Examples are from Schubert, Villa-Lobos,
Tchaikovsky, Brahms, and Wagner. Trume is one of
five settings of Mathilde Wesendoncks poems, said to
have served the composer as a preliminary study to his
later opera, Tristan und Isolde.
Primrose toured South America first as a chamber
player with the London String Quartet, then as an
orchestral musician in the NBC Symphony under
Toscanini, and finally as a soloist. He was enamoured of
the colour and vitality of Spanish music and its Latin
derivatives, pieces here by Aguirre and Valle. One of
Primroses favourite encore pieces was Arthur
Benjamins Jamaican Rumba (not included in this
album). The marvellous Sarasateana, a collection of
four of the great Spanish violinists dances, strictly
speaking is not a Primrose transcription. These are
elaborations on Sarasates dances by the eminent
violinist Efrem Zimbalist, who first arranged these for
violin and his own use. Primrose became aware of them
while on the faculty of the Curtis Institute of Music in
the early 1940s where Zimbalist was the director.
Zimbalist transcribed them for Primrose, who
commented that the piano part of this suite is an
exemplary model of how to improve in an enchanting
and sophisticated manner, the rather jejune
accompaniments offered by Sarasate.
La Campanella stems from the final movement of
Paganinis Second Violin Concerto. It was not lost on
one of the great transcribers, Franz Liszt, in his famous
piano version. Primroses transcription of this, and other
Paganini pieces, was no doubt made as a vehicle for his
virtuosity, and he admitted as much: sheer
contumelious, roister-doister bravado took over when it
came to transcriptions, and, need I add, performances of
Caprices of Paganini! I aimed to pater les bourgeois
and set the cat among the pigeons in the violists of the
day. Pure youthful pride and ambition!
David Dalton
1
Brigham Young University Press, 1978
2
Playing the Viola, David Dalton,
Oxford, 1988, p. 184
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Roberto Daz
A violist of international reputation, Roberto Daz has recently assumed the prestigious position of President and
CEO of the Curtis Institute of Music. He follows thereby in the footsteps of soloist/directors such as Rudolf Serkin,
Gary Graffman, Efrem Zimbalist and Josef Hofmann. As a professor of viola at Curtis and former principal violist of
the Philadelphia Orchestra, he has already had a significant impact on American musical life and will continue to do
so in his dual rles as performer and educator. He has collaborated with conductors such as Roberto Abbado, Rafael
Frhbeck de Burgos, Riccardo Chailly, Charles Dutoit, Christoph Eschenbach, Richard Hickox, Christopher
Hogwood, Peter Oundjian, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Michael Stern, Gilbert Varga, Hugh Wolf and David Zinman, and
has also worked with important twentieth and twenty-first century composers, including Edison Denisov, Krzysztof
Penderecki, and Roberto Sierra. The recordings of Roberto Daz include a critically acclaimed live recording of
Jacob Druckmans Viola Concerto with the Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Wolfgang Sawallisch, and for
Naxos works for viola and piano by Henri Vieuxtemps. An active chamber musician, he has performed with artists
such as the Emerson String Quartet, Emanuel Ax, Yefim Bronfman, Christoph Eschenbach, Yo-Yo Ma, Wolfgang
Sawallisch, and Isaac Stern. His festival appearances include Kuhmo, Marlboro, Mostly Mozart at Lincoln Center,
Spoleto, and Verbier, among many others. As a member of the Daz Trio, with violinist Andrs Crdenes and cellist
Andrs Daz, he has performed throughout the United States, Canada, Europe, Mexico, and Chile. Roberto Daz was
principal violist of the National Symphony under Mstislav Rostropovich, a member of the Boston Symphony under
Seiji Ozawa, and a member of the Minnesota Orchestra under Sir Neville Marriner. He has received numerous
awards, including prizes at the Naumburg and Munich international viola competitions, and was featured on the
cover of the January 2003 issue of The Strad.
Robert Koenig
The Canadian pianist Robert Koenig has quickly established a reputation as a much sought-after collaborative artist
and chamber musician. He performs regularly in major centres throughout the world with many of this generations
most renowned musicians. Recent engagements have included performances at the Kennedy Center in Washington,
Alice Tully Hall in New York, Tokyos Suntory Hall, the Seoul Arts Centre, the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, and
the Louvre Museum in Paris. He has performed with many of todays leading artists including Sarah Chang, Hilary
Hahn, Pamela Frank, Ida Kafavian, Elmar Oliveira, Sidney Harth, and Aaron Rosand. He has appeared at many
festivals including Aspen, Ravinia, Banff, the Campos do Jordo Festival in Brazil, the Seattle Chamber Music
Festival, and the Mostly Mozart Festival in New York. He is frequently heard on radio and television. From 1992-
1999, he was staff pianist at the Juilliard School and in September 1999 he became staff pianist at the Curtis Institute
of Music in Philadelphia. In autumn 2000 he was appointed Assistant Professor of Piano and Piano Chamber Music
at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. He has recorded widely. Born in Saskatchewan, Robert Koenig began his
formal training at the Vancouver Academy of Music with Lee Kumsing and Gwen Thompson and later studied at
the Banff School of Fine Arts and the Accademia Chigiana in Siena. During this time he was the recipient of several
awards from the Canadian Government, including a Canada Council Project Grant. He completed both his Bachelors
and Masters Degrees in Accompanying at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia where he studied with
Vladimir Sokoloff and chamber music with Felix Galimir and Karen Tuttle.
8.557391 4
Concerning my own transcriptions, there were those
which were fashioned out of envy, so to speak. I envied
the cellist his spinning of song in the Nocturne from the
Borodin String Quartet No. 2. I envied Miss Bid Sayo
in that wondrous long line of melody with which she
astonished us all at the time in the Bachianas Brasileiras
No. 5.
2
Primrose made transcriptions for his own use to fill
some vacancies (charmeurs he called them) in the viola
repertoire of his day, and to display his prodigious
technique. Unlike string colleagues he greatly admired,
Fritz Kreisler and Jascha Heifetz, Primrose did not play
the piano well. In making his transcriptions it is not
easily determined precisely how much of the piano part
Primrose was able to fashion and to what extent he relied
on the advice and skill of pianists. David Stimer, his
long-time accompanist, was one, as was Clifford
Curzon. In his memoir Primrose mentions the assistance
he received, and that he had to be very careful not to
write things that are awkward or unplayable. Referring
to the Bachianas, to put eight cello parts into two hands
takes some ingenuity.
Purists might disdain Primroses tampering with
Beethovens only composition for the viola (an
instrument Beethoven played), the Notturno, Op. 42.
Actually, this is a transcription of his string trio,
Serenade, Op. 8, believed largely made by another hand,
but approved and corrected by Beethoven. Of this
seven-movement work (Daz chooses three), Primrose
adheres closely to the original in the marcia. Elsewhere
there are diversions. These might be typified as changes
(exchanges) between the original viola and piano parts.
Primrose elevates the viola to a coequal, or more
prominent, voice with the piano, thus relieving the
violist of some purely accompanying passages. By his
own admission Primrose strove to elevate the viola from
its then current reputation as being the dull dog of the
string family.
Primrose often borrowed from the singers
repertoire. Examples are from Schubert, Villa-Lobos,
Tchaikovsky, Brahms, and Wagner. Trume is one of
five settings of Mathilde Wesendoncks poems, said to
have served the composer as a preliminary study to his
later opera, Tristan und Isolde.
Primrose toured South America first as a chamber
player with the London String Quartet, then as an
orchestral musician in the NBC Symphony under
Toscanini, and finally as a soloist. He was enamoured of
the colour and vitality of Spanish music and its Latin
derivatives, pieces here by Aguirre and Valle. One of
Primroses favourite encore pieces was Arthur
Benjamins Jamaican Rumba (not included in this
album). The marvellous Sarasateana, a collection of
four of the great Spanish violinists dances, strictly
speaking is not a Primrose transcription. These are
elaborations on Sarasates dances by the eminent
violinist Efrem Zimbalist, who first arranged these for
violin and his own use. Primrose became aware of them
while on the faculty of the Curtis Institute of Music in
the early 1940s where Zimbalist was the director.
Zimbalist transcribed them for Primrose, who
commented that the piano part of this suite is an
exemplary model of how to improve in an enchanting
and sophisticated manner, the rather jejune
accompaniments offered by Sarasate.
La Campanella stems from the final movement of
Paganinis Second Violin Concerto. It was not lost on
one of the great transcribers, Franz Liszt, in his famous
piano version. Primroses transcription of this, and other
Paganini pieces, was no doubt made as a vehicle for his
virtuosity, and he admitted as much: sheer
contumelious, roister-doister bravado took over when it
came to transcriptions, and, need I add, performances of
Caprices of Paganini! I aimed to pater les bourgeois
and set the cat among the pigeons in the violists of the
day. Pure youthful pride and ambition!
David Dalton
1
Brigham Young University Press, 1978
2
Playing the Viola, David Dalton,
Oxford, 1988, p. 184
557391bk Primrose EU 10/4/06 11:07 am Page 4
8.557391 6
Die letzten drei Lebensjahre, die der groe Brat-
schenvirtuose William Primrose in Provo, Utah,
zubrachte, waren von einer tdlichen Krankheit
berschattet. Seine Erinnerungsstcke und seine
persnliche Bibliothek an Bratschenliteratur vermachte
er der Brigham Young University mit der Magabe, das
Internationale Primrose-Bratschenarchiv (PIVA) zu
grnden, das heute die umfangreichste Sammlung an
Material zu dem Instrument aufbewahrt. Im Jahr seines
Ablebens wurde an derselben Universitt die Primrose
Memorial Concert and Master Class gegrndet. Dieses
Ereignis zieht alljhrlich zahlreiche Leuchten der
Bratsche in seinen Bann darunter auch den brillanten
chilenisch-amerikanischen Knstler Roberto Daz, der
als Erster Bratscher des Philadelphia Orchestra arbeitet
und krzlich zum Direktor des Curtis Institute of Music
ernannt wurde. Bei dem Primrose Concert von 2002, bei
dem es eine Reihe der obligatorischen Primrose-
Transkriptionen gab, war ich von Daz Tonschnheit
und vor allem von seinem Elan und seiner Virtuositt
beeindruckt, die an den verstorbenen Meister erinnerten.
Ich schlug Daz vor, ber eine Aufnahme der Primrose-
Transkriptionen nachzudenken was unseres Wissens
noch niemand unternommen hatte. Er erwrmte sich
sogleich fr diesen nicht eben harmlosen, sondern eher
furchteinflenden Vorschlag, wobei es sein kann, dass
sein Interesse durch eine etwas abseitige pdagogische
und biologische Verwandtschaft mit Primrose noch
grer wurde: Manuel Daz, Robertos Vater und erster
Lehrer, hatte einst bei Primrose studiert.
Einen zustzlichen Impuls erhielt das Projekt, als im
Jahre 2002 die Viola Ex-Primrose der Brder Antonio
und Hieronymus Amati (um 1600) in Daz Besitz
gelangte. In seinen Memoiren Walk on the North Side
1
schreibt Primrose, dass sein Vater, ein professioneller
Geiger und Bratscher, dieses Instrument besessen habe.
Primrose selbst benutzte es hufig zu Beginn seiner
Karriere als Bratscher zunchst Anfang der dreiiger
Jahre im London String Quartet, spter dann als Solist.
Bis etwa 1950 war diese Viola sein hauptschliches
Konzertinstrument. Dann wurde es veruert, und 1967
kam es nach Philadelphia, wo es als Teil einer
Sammlung und Erbschaftsmasse nur noch selten gespielt
wurde. Zwar hatte die Erblasserin mndlich verfgt,
dass das Philadelphia Orchestra dieses Instrument
erhalten sollte; bei der Erffnung ihres Testaments
stellte sich dann heraus, dass die Viola fr eine groe
amerikanische Universitt bestimmt war. Nach einigen
gnstigen Verhandlungen konnte das Philadelphia
Orchestra das Instrument erwerben, und der Erste
Bratscher Daz kaufte es wiederum dem Orchester ab.
Primrose sprach mit Bewunderung vom Klang der
Brder-Amati-Viola, bemerkte allerdings auch einen
strenden Wolf und was wichtiger war den
Mangel an Projektion, den er fr sein immer grer
werdendes Publikum suchte. Als Daz das Instrument
erhielt, stellte er fest, dass einige Restaurationsarbeiten
ntig waren. Arthur Toman, ein Fachmann aus Boston,
entdeckte dann, als er das Instrument ffnete, verschie-
dene rtselhafte Reparaturen, die die Bratsche im
Laufe ihres Lebens hatte ber sich ergehen lassen. Die
Arbeit wurde beendet, und das geheilte Instrument
verblffte alle, die es jetzt hrten, mit einer
erstaunlichen Projektion, indessen es seinen charak-
teristischen Klang behalten hatte. Ob Primrose wohl je
das gesamte Potential dieser Bratsche gehrt hat?
Im Jahre 1934 machte Primrose seine ersten
Aufnahmen mit der Viola, als er auf ihr zwei Capricen
von Paganini spielte. Die Nr. 5 raubt dem arglosen
Hrer noch immer den Atem angesichts der teuflischen,
heute legendren Virtuositt, die der Musiker hier auf
solch brillante Weise entfaltete. (Der Geiger Misha
Elman schwieg einen Moment, nachdem er Primrose mit
einer Paganini-Caprice gehrt hatte und glaubte dann,
auf der Bratsche msse das wohl leichter sein.) Wir
knnen berechtigtermaen annehmen, dass Primrose bis
1947 die meisten seiner Aufnahmen, darunter auch
diejenigen seiner eigenen Transkriptionen, auf der
Brder-Amati-Viola gemacht hat. Jetzt kommen die
Musikfreunde in den Genuss, Roberto Daz mit diesen
William Primrose (19041982)
Transkriptionen fr Bratsche
8.557391 3
The great virtuoso violist William Primrose lived out his
last three years under the cloud of a terminal illness in
Provo, Utah. He had bequeathed his memorabilia and
personal library of viola scores to Brigham Young
University for the founding of the Primrose International
Viola Archive (PIVA), now the largest repository of
materials related to the instrument. The year of his
demise, the Primrose Memorial Concert and Master
Class, was established at Brigham Young. This annual
event has attracted numerous professional luminaries of
the viola, among them the brilliant Chilean-American,
Roberto Daz, principal violist of the Philadelphia
Orchestra and recently appointed director of the Curtis
Institute of Music. In 2002 at the Primrose Concert that
included a couple of the obligatory Primrose
transcriptions, I was struck with Dazs beauty of tone,
and especially his lan and virtuosity, qualities
reminiscent of the past master. I suggested to Daz that
he consider making a recording devoted to Primrose
transcriptions, something that to our knowledge had not
yet been done. He immediately warmed to the idea, a not
so minor and daunting challenge. Perhaps Dazs interest
in undertaking this recording was heightened by an
oblique pedagogical and genetic relationship with
Primrose: Robertos father and first teacher, Manuel,
was once a Primrose student.
The recording project received added impetus when,
through a circuitous course, the ex-Primrose Antonio
and Hieronymus Amati viola, c. 1600, came into the
possession of Daz in 2002. Primrose wrote in his
memoir, Walk on the North Side
1
, that this instrument
was owned by his father, a professional violinist/violist.
Primrose used it extensively when he launched his
career as a violist, first in the London String Quartet in
the early 1930s, and later as a soloist. He used it as his
primary performing instrument until about 1950. It was
sold, and in 1967 came into a collection and estate in
Philadelphia where it largely remained unplayed.
Though the owner of the estate had verbally stated that
she wished the instrument to come to the Philadelphia
Orchestra after her death, the written will instructed that
a major American university would be the recipient.
Through some friendly negotiation, the Philadelphia
Orchestra acquired the viola, and Daz, as principal
violist, bought the instrument from the orchestra.
Primrose spoke admiringly of the sound of the
Brothers Amati viola. He also mentioned, however, a
troublesome wolf tone and, more importantly, the
violas lack of projecting power he sought for his
increasingly larger audiences. On receipt of the viola,
Daz determined that the instrument would need to be
subject to some restoration. Arthur Toman, a Boston
craftsman, on opening the instrument discovered several
enigmatic repairs the viola had undergone during its
lifetime. His work completed, and the viola restored to
health, those who heard it were amazed that the
instrument now possessed astonishing projection while
retaining its distinctive sound. One wonders if Primrose
had ever heard his instrument at its full potential?
Primroses first recordings on the viola took place in
1934. He made his dbut with it with two Paganini
Caprices. No. 5 still elicits gasps from unsuspecting
listeners, such a brilliant display of the violists devilish
and now legendary virtuosity. The violinist Mischa
Elman, on hearing Primrose play a Paganini Caprice,
fell silent for a moment then mused, It must be easier
on the viola! It can be reasonably assumed that until
1947, most, if not all, of Primroses recordings,
including his own transcriptions, were made on the
Brothers Amati. The fortunate listener can now hear
these transcriptions performed on the same ex-Primrose
viola played by Roberto Daz.
According to Primrose Transcriptions have been
grist to the mill of instrumentalists and composers . . . .
Bach is a prime example of the composer who helped
himself liberally to the confections of his
contemporaries. In my own case I have never had an
original thought in my head in the matter of musical
composition, while I have flattered myself that I am a
likely lad when it comes to picking other mens brains.
William Primrose (19041982)
Transcriptions for Viola
557391bk Primrose EU 10/4/06 11:07 am Page 6
8.557391 7
Transkriptionen auf derselben Viola (Ex-Primrose) zu
hren.
Primrose zufolge waren Transkriptionen Wasser
auf die Mhlen der Instrumentalisten und Komponisten
... Bach ist das herausragende Beispiel eines
Komponisten, der sich reichlich die Artikel seiner
Zeitgenossen zunutze machte. Ich selbst habe in Sachen
der musikalischen Komposition nie einen originellen
Gedanken in meinem Kopf gehabt, doch ich
schmeichelte mir, dass ich ein recht vielversprechender
Bursche wre, wenn ich anderer Leute Hirn
durchforstete. Unter meinen Transkriptionen gab es
welche, die sozusagen aus Neid entstanden. Ich war
neidisch auf den Cellisten, der den Gesang im Nocturne
des zweiten Streichquartetts von Borodin ausspinnen
konnte. Ich beneidete Miss Bid Sayo um jene
wundersame, lange Melodielinie, mit der sie uns immer
wieder in den Bachianas Brasileiras Nr. 5 erstaunte.
2
Die Transkriptionen, die Primrose machte, ent-
standen zum eigenen Gebrauch, sollten Lcken
(charmeurs nannte er sie) im Bratschenrepertoire seiner
Zeit schlieen und seine eigene staunenswerte Technik
darstellen. Im Gegensatz zu den Streicherkollegen Fritz
Kreisler und Jascha Heifetz, die er sehr bewunderte,
konnte er selbst nicht gut Klavier spielen, weshalb bei
der Herstellung der Transkriptionen nicht genau zu
bestimmen ist, welcher Anteil der Klavierbegleitung
von ihm selbst stammte und bis zu welchem Grade er
sich auf die Ratschlge und das Knnen von Pianisten
sttzte. David Stimer, sein langjhriger Begleiter,
gehrte ebenso dazu wie Clifford Curzon. In seinen
Erinnerungen erwhnt Primrose die Hilfe, die ihm zuteil
wurde. Er habe sehr aufpassen mssen, nichts zu
schreiben, das ungeschickt oder unspielbar war. Im
Hinblick auf die Bachianas meinte er, es sei schon
einige Erfindungskraft ntig, acht Cellostimmen in zwei
Hnde zu legen.
Mit Verachtung mgen Puristen der Tatsache
begegnen, dass sich Primrose an dem Notturno op. 42
von Beethoven zu schaffen machte, dem einzigen Werk
des Meisters fr die Bratsche (die er selbst spielte).
Tatschlich handelt es sich bei diesem Opus 42 aber um
die Einrichtung seiner Serenade fr Streichtrio op. 8, die
weithin als eine Bearbeitung von fremder Hand gilt,
allerdings von Beethoven genehmigt und korrigiert
sein soll. In der marcia, einem der sieben Stze (von
denen Daz drei ausgewhlt hat), hielt sich Primrose
weitestgehend an das Original. Ansonsten gibt es
Abweichungen, die sich als Austausch zwischen der
Bratschen- und der Klavierstimme darstellen. Primrose
stellte die Viola dem Klavier als gleichberechtigte,
prominentere Stimme zur Seite, erlste den Bratscher
damit von einigen rein begleitenden Passagen und gab
zu, dass er sich darum bemht habe, das Instrument von
seinem damaligen Ruf als dummer Hund der
Streicherfamilie zu befreien.
Oft bediente sich Primrose auch im Gesangs-
repertoire. So bearbeitete er Vokalwerke von Schubert,
Villa-Lobos, Tschaikowsky, Brahms und Wagner.
Trume ist eines der fnf Lieder nach Gedichten von
Mathilde Wesendonck, die dem Komponisten als
Vorstudien zu seiner Oper Tristan und Isolde gedient
haben sollen.
Nach Sdamerika kam William Primrose zunchst
als Kammermusiker mit dem London String Quartet,
dann als Mitglied des NBC Symphony Orchestra unter
Arturo Toscanini und schlielich als Solist. Er verliebte
sich in die Farben und die Vitalitt der spanischen
Musik und ihrer lateinischen Abkmmlinge, die hier
durch Aguirre und Valle reprsentiert sind. (Eine seiner
liebsten Zugaben war Arthur Benjamins Jamaican
Rumba, der auf dem vorliegenden Album allerdings
nicht enthalten ist). Die herrlichen Sarasateana, eine
Kollektion von vier Tnzen des groen spanischen
Geigers, sind genaugenommen keine Transkription von
Primrose, sondern die Bearbeitung einiger Sarasate-
Tnze, die der bedeutende Geiger Efrem Zimbalist zu
eigenem Gebrauch vornahm. Primrose erfuhr davon, als
er Anfang der vierziger Jahre am Curtis Institute of
Music unterrichtete, wo Zimbalist Direktor war.
Zimbalist bertrug sie fr Primrose, der bemerkte, dass
der Klavierpart dieser Suite ein Musterbeispiel dafr
ist, wie man in einer bezaubernden und geistreichen
Weise Sarasates recht trockene Begleitungen verbessern
kann.
La Campanella stammt aus dem Schluss-Satz von
8.557391 2
1 Alexander Pofiryevich BORODIN (18331887): Nocturne: Andante 6:23
2 Franz SCHUBERT (17871828): Litany For All Souls Day: Adagio 4:25
Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (17701827): Notturno, Op. 42 (arr. from Serenade, Op. 8) 12:39
3 Marcia Allegro 2:17
4 Adagio 7:12
5 Allegretto alla polacca 3:09
6 Richard WAGNER (18131883): Trume: Lento (Wesendonk Lieder, No. 5) 3:44
7 Julian AGUIRRE (18681924) / Jascha HEIFETZ (19001987): Huella: movido y energico 2:34
8 Edgar Daniele del VALLE (18611920) / Jascha HEIFETZ (19001987):
Ao P da Fogueira: Allegro comodo 1:35
9 Nicol PAGANINI (17821840): La Campanella (from Violin Concerto No. 2) 5:22
0 Heitor VILLA-LOBOS (18871959): Bachianas Brasileiras No. 5: Aria (Cantilena): Adagio 5:22
! Georges BIZET (18381875): Adagietto from LArlsienne Suite No. 1 2:37
Efrem ZIMBALIST (18891985): Sarasateana 15:56
@ Tango: Allegro moderato 3:14
# Polo: Allegro moderato 4:19
$ Malaguea: Amabile 4:32
% Zapateado: Allegro moderato 3:49
^ Pyotr Ilyich TCHAIKOVSKY (18401893): None but the Lonely Heart 2:33
& Johannes BRAHMS (18331897): Wie Melodien zieht es mir, Op. 105, No. 1 2:09
William Primrose (19041982)
Transcriptions for Viola
Tracks 12-15 were transcibed for William Primrose by Efrem Zimbalist
557391bk Primrose EU 10/4/06 11:07 am Page 2
William
PRIMROSE
Viola
Transcriptions
None but the Lonely Heart
La Campanella
Sarasateana
Nocturne
Trume
Roberto Daz, Viola
Robert Koenig, Piano
8.557391 8
Paganinis zweitem Violinkonzert. Einer der groen
Arrangeure, Franz Liszt, machte davon seine berhmte
Klavierfassung. Primroses Transkription dieses und
anderer Paganini-Stcke war zweifellos als Vehikel
seiner eigenen Virtuositt gedacht, und er gestand
immerhin, es habe nichts als die unverschmte,
lrmende Bravour das Zepter bernommen, als es an die
bertragung und, wie ich hinzufgen muss, auch an die
Auffhrung der Paganini-Capricen ging! Ich hatte vor,
die Brger zu erschrecken, und setzte die Katze in den
Taubenschlag der damaligen Bratschenspieler. Nichts
als jugendlicher Stolz und Ehrgeiz!
David Dalton
Deutsche Fassung: Cris Posslac
1
Brigham Young University Press, 1978
2
Playing the Viola, David Dalton,
Oxford, 1988, S. 184
I would like to gratefully acknowledge the following individuals, all of whom were essential
to this project being realized:
Maestro Wolfgang Sawallisch for his crucial part in helping me purchase the Primrose viola - and for many
wonderful years of musical collaboration with the Philadelphia Orchestra.
David Dalton, Director of The Primrose International Viola Archive at Brigham Young University for the idea
that led to this recording, and for providing me with these rare Primrose manuscripts.
My father, Manuel Daz, for his limitless patience, steadfast support and for introducing me to the
work of his teacher, William Primrose.
-Roberto Daz
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CMYK
8.557231
8.110316 8.110986
Also Available
8.555262
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Playing Time
65:30
William Primrose composed these arrangements in order - as he mischievously wrote - to
elevate the viola from its dull dog of the string family status, and to set the cat among
the pigeons - meaning other violists. Roberto Daz, until recently principal violist of the
Philadelphia Orchestra, plays the magnificent-sounding c.1600 Amati instrument
formerly owned by Primrose.
William
PRIMROSE
(19041982)
Viola Transcriptions
Roberto Daz, Viola Robert Koenig, Piano
Recorded in the Glenn Gould Studio, C.B.C., Toronto, Canada, from 8th to 10th November, 2004
Producers: Norbert Kraft and Bonnie Silver Engineer and Editor: Norbert Kraft
Booklet Notes: David Dalton For a detailed track list please see the booklet
Cover Photograph: Antonio and Hieronymus Amati viola, c. 1600 (ex-Primrose)
by Richard Donovan courtesy of William Moennig & Son Ltd.
1 Nocturne: Andante (BORODIN) 6:23
2 Litany for All Souls Day: Adagio (SCHUBERT) 4:25
3-5 Notturno, Op. 42 (BEETHOVEN: Serenade, Op. 8) 12:39
6 Trume: Lento (WAGNER: Wesendonk Lieder, No. 5) 3:44
7 Huella: movido y energico (AGUIRRE / HEIFETZ) 2:34
8 Ao P da Fogueira: Allegro comodo (VALLE / HEIFETZ) 1:35
9 La Campanella (PAGANINI: Violin Concerto No. 2) 5:22
0 Bachianas Brasileiras No. 5:
Aria (Cantilena): Adagio (VILLA-LOBOS) 5:22
! Adagietto from LArlsienne Suite (BIZET) 2:37
@-% Efrem ZIMBALIST (18891985): Sarasateana 15:56
^ None but the Lonely Heart (TCHAIKOVSKY) 2:33
& Wie Melodien zieht es mir, Op. 105, No. 2 (BRAHMS) 2:09
557391rear Primrose EU 19/4/06 9:56 am Page 1