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JUNE 2014
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A New Standard
Under Development:
Specifying Powder
Metallurgy Gears
Uncover Hidden
Potentials in
Hobbing
Purchasing Gear
Lubricants: Playing
the Numbers Game
COMPANY
PROFILE:
Involute Gear
and Machine
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Indiana Technology & Manufacturing
Companies, Inc. (ITAMCO), left to right:
Nobel Neidig - President
Joel D. Neidig - Technology Manager
Gary Neidig - Vice President
03/18/14 Invelo Ad CMYK Gear Solution Alt 2 8.375 x 10.875
JUNE 2014 3
Features
44
Company Profile:
Involute Gear and
Machine
By Tim Byrd
Involute Gear and Machine uses
over 75 years of experience to
manufacture gear honing tools
and perform gear inspection.
26
Uncover Hidden
Potentials in Hobbing
By Dr. Friedrich Momper
Successful applications
for the G90 in hobbing
are combined with the
calculation of total lifetime
costs of the hobs.
A New Standard Under
Development: Specifying
Powder Metallurgy Gears
By Fred Eberle
The best PM manufacturing
suppliers that specialize in making
gears have a gear engineer on staff
who works with the customer to
make them successful.
30
Purchasing Gear
Lubricants: Be Careful
When Playing the
Numbers Game
By John Sander
This 10-step process for lubricant
selection makes the process
easier and more systematic,
resulting in improved equipment
reliability.
34
JUNE 2014 5
Departments
Gear Solutions (ISSN 1933 - 7507) is
published monthly by Media Solutions,
Inc., 266D Yeager Parkway Pelham, AL
35124. Phone (205) 380-1573 Fax (205)
380-1580 International subscription rates:
$72.00 per year. Periodicals Postage Paid
at Pelham AL and at additional mailing
offices. Printed in the USA. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to Gear Solutions
magazine, P.O. Box 1210 Pelham AL
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Beaver Creek Richmond Hill, ON L4B4R6.
Copyright

2006 by Media Solutions, Inc. All
rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be repro-
duced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopy, recording, or any information
storage-and-retrieval system without per-
mission in writing from the publisher. The
views expressed by those not on the staff
on Gear Solutions magazine, or who are not
specifically employed by Media Solutions,
Inc., are purely their own. All "Industry News"
material has either been submitted by the
subject company or pulled directly from their
corporate web site, which is assumed to be
cleared for release. Comments and submis-
sions are welcome, and can be submitted to
editor@gearsolutions.com.
8
Reports, data, and developments to keep you aware of whats happening with your
colleagues in the gear-manufacturing industry around the country and world.
Industry News
52
News of products, equipment, and resources from across the manufacturing
spectrum that will help propel your company toward success.
Product Showcase
24
Over the years, FNC and gas nitriding have been used in applications where
reduced surface friction is a requirement, such as gears and brake rotors.
Hot Seat
Jack Titus
25
For an industry as quality-obsessed as gear manufacturing, the importance of
industry standards is self-evident.
Trend Talks
Tim Byrd
Noise is affected by the accuracy of the profile, lead, and spacing.
Ron Green
23
Tooth Tips
22
Materials Matter
Having covered the advantages of the forging process in gear production,
Meehanite Metal Corp. begins a series on the casting process.
Meehanite Metal Corp.
50
MACHINERY
54
MARKETPLACE
55
ADVERTISER
INDEX
Resources
JUNE 2014 | VOLUME 12 / NO. 06
Dr. Michael Massarsky
President, Turbo-Finish Corporation 56
Q&A
American
Gear Manufacturers
Association
In this section, the premier supporter of gear manufacturing in the United States and beyond
shares news of the organizations activities, upcoming educational and training opportunities,
technical meetings and seminars, standards development, and the actions of AGMA councils
and committees.
17
Gears are, in many ways, the tie that binds.
Recently, I had the pleasure of attending AWEA Windpower 2014 in Las Vegas. Our sister pub-
lication Wind Systems was showcasing its new boothone of almost 400. My editor and I took turns
greeting people at our booth, attending meetings, visiting other booths, and losing money at the
roulette table. We met people from every corner of the industryconstruction, maintenance, man-
ufacturing, safety equipment, etc. We even met a politician or two. And as we discussed everything
from policy to products, safety standards to coating a turbine blade, I was consistently reminded of
the gears elemental role in all things. All of these concepts apply to gear productionefficiency,
quality, the right materials, and an accurate design.
Gearboxes, certainly, are the clearest connection between the two. Gear Solutions has published
multiple articles on gearbox maintenance, performance, lubrication, and testing. But, as AGMA
president Joe Franklin describes in this months Trend Talk, the gear and wind industries support
each other in other waysparticularly through industry standards. One industry holding the other
accountable is a check-and-balance system that has worked for years, and the bonds are only get-
ting stronger.
I want to extend thanks to the authors of this particular issue of Gear Solutions, one of which we
are particularly proud. The articles cover a broad range of product, process, and policy. Gleason
Corporation leads a discussion on a new tool material, G90, that is closing the performance gap
between HSS materials and tungsten carbide. In Uncover Hidden Potentials in Hobbing, Dr.
Friedrich Momper uses Gleasons field data to reveal how you can take full advantage of this recent
development in gear production.
Fred Eberle, a technical specialist in the development of powder metal gearing, gives us an
update on AGMAs powder metal standard, AGMA 6008-A98, as well as a brief history of its
inception in his article, A New Standard Under Development: Specifying Powder Metal Gears.
Eberle traces the standard back to the late 1980s, and his article is a prime example of how indus-
try standards reflect evolving technology.
Finally, the experts at Lubrication Engineers have outlined a ten-step process for lubricant selec-
tion, making the traditionally complex process much simpler. John Sander argues that theres more
to consider when choosing the right lubricant than temperature, speed, and load. Factors such as
the operating environment, viscosity, price, and gearbox capacity have a significant impact on the
performance of your gear lubricant. The bullet-points in this article explain the importance of set-
ting goals and seeking advice to ensure you make the right choice on your gear lubricant.
Were switching things up a little with our columns. For the past six months, weve had the plea-
sure of learning about the forging process in gear production from Scot Forge. The characteristics
of forgingstrength, reliability, response to heat treatmentare what make it an indispensable
process for many.
But theres another side to the coincasting. Meehanite Metal Corp. will spend the next season
of raw materials discussion on the versatility, affordability, and variety of metals avaliable in the
casting process. As each step in the casting process depends on the one preceding it as well as on
the one succeeding it, Meehanite will discuss each step in depth, and the importance of making
the right process choice.
An integral part of gear manufacturing is timingnot just with metal, but with the business in
general. Involute Gear and Machinethis months company profilehas built a powerful orga-
nization by knowing not only how, but when to act. In late 2009, Nachi Machining Technology
Company (formerly known as National Broach & Machine) announced that it was ceasing the
manufacturer of all gear hone tools. Involute Gear and Machine Company purchased all equip-
ment, machines, supplies, materials, gages, and engineering drawings for the manufacturing of all
types of Red Ring Hone Tools and Honing Compounds. Company president Rodney Soenen tells
Gear Solutions how 75 years of combined industry experience from his staff allowed him to strike
while the iron was hot.
Its easy to get caught up in the echo chamber of your own industry. Our own little bubble is
how Ive heard the gear industry described on plenty of occasions. But were not an island. Our
industry is interwoven with every variety of manufacturing, everywhere, and it is our responsibility
to keep that tie strong.


Tim Byrd
managing editor
Gear Solutions magazine
editor@gearsolutions.com
(800) 366-2185 x205
6 gearsolutions.com
EDITOR
LETTER
FROM THE
PUBLISHED BY MEDIA SOLUTIONS, INC.
P. O. BOX 1987 PELHAM, AL 35124
(800) 366-2185 (205) 380-1580 FAX
David C. Cooper
PUBLISHER
Chad Morrison
ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER
Davi d C. Cooper
PRESIDENT
Chad Mor r i son
VICE PRESIDENT
Ter esa Cooper
OPERATIONS
CONTRIBUTING WRITERS
FRED EBERLE
RON GREEN
FRIEDRICH MOMPER
JOHN SANDER
JACK TITUS
EDITORIAL
Stephen Sisk
EDITOR
Tim Byrd
MANAGING EDITOR
SALES
Chad Morrison
ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER
CIRCULATION
Teresa Cooper
MANAGER
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COORDINATOR
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ASSISTANT
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CREATIVE DIRECTOR
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Coop wants to use this one for the website
Vertical Logo Horizontal Logo
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p. 860-223-7778

f. 860-223-7776 www.newenglandgear.com
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8 gearsolutions.com
INDUSTRY
NEWS
Companies wishing to submit materials for inclusion in Industry News should contact the Managing Editor Tim Byrd at editor@gearsolutions.com.
Releases accompanied by color images will be given first consideration.
New Products,
Trends, Services,
and Developments
The Gear Works Honored
as Midsize Manufacturer of
the Year by Seattle Business
Magazine
Seattle Business magazine honored 19 top
manufacturers in Washington State at its
Washington Manufacturing Awards at
the Seattle Design Center. The event was
attended by 280 members of the regions
manufacturing community. The Gear
Works was awarded Manufacturer of the
Year in the Midsize Firms category.
In presenting the award, Seattle Business
recognized the company for its develop-
ment of new markets, specifically wind tur-
bines, and its investment in new technolo-
gies and equipment. In 2013, The Gear
Works made a significant investment at its
gearbox repair and test center in Seattle,
which increased its gearbox testing capacity
fourfold, making it one of the few places to
do the sophisticated testing needed for the
production of high-speed, high-horsepower
gearing. The half million-dollar investment
in the facility put The Gear Works into the
high horsepower repair market, capable by
only a few companies worldwide.
Other achievements The Gear Works
was recognized for include an assembly
department repairing wind turbine gear-
boxes, marine propulsion drives, extruder
drives, and many other industrial gearboxes
used in demanding applications.
In accepting the award on behalf of The
Gear Works, Sterling Ramberg, president,
acknowledged The Gear Works employees,
many of whom have been at the company
for decades, thanking them for their part in
helping the company flourish and earn its
place at the global table. He also acknowl-
edged his brother Roland as his mentor
and his late father and company founder,
Ingwald Ramberg, saying, Our father
would be so proud and thrilled to see us
honored by the Seattle business community
for our work. Starting in a tiny garage with
local customers, he never would have imag-
ined that wed have 150,000 square feet of
manufacturing, and more than 100 employ-
ees and customers around the world.
For more information on The Gear
Works, visit www.thegearworks.com.
GMTA News of Note
Effective immediately for North America,
GMTA (German Machine Tools of
America) now represents two addition-
JUNE 2014 9
al lines of quality German machines.
Agreements have been finalized for
GMTA to handle the Rosink line of parts
washers plus the Arnold line of laser
welding machines. According to Scott
Knoy, VP at GMTA, These are natural
complements to our existing lines and
will strengthen our value proposition in
current and also new market segments,
going forward. A Rosink parts washer
will be on display in the GMTA booth
during the upcoming IMTS in Chicago.
GMTA proudly announces the sale of
multiple Profilator Scudding machines
to General Motors for gear production.
It is estimated this purchase saved GM
over $4 million in capital expenditures,
compared with acquiring the multiple
machines that would have been neces-
sary to achieve the same production
levels.
GMTA also announces the sale of
Profilator Scudding and gear point-
ing machines to Magna Mexico, plus
machines to Magna Canada for polygon
generation.
GMTA has sold nine Praewema honing
machines to Ford.
Last but not least, GMTA proudly
announces that Claudia Hambleton, cor-
porate treasurer and administrative man-
ager, received her MBA from Eastern
Michigan University (EMU) on April 27,
2014. Claudia has been a GMTA associ-
ate since the company opened its doors
in January, 1991. As Claudia notes, I
am very grateful to GMTA for support-
ing my efforts to acquire an MBA. I look
forward to using my new skills to further
enhance the business at our company. It
was also very rewarding to network with
the business school students and staff at
EMU, where GMTA now has a working
relationship with their German business
development track. GMTA routinely
hosts a program in German for students
in the EMU business school who plan to
work for or with German companies as a
career path.
GMTA represents various top-quality
German metalworking machine builders,
including Profilator, Pittler, Praewema,
and WMZ. These machines are sold to
the North American market by GMTA
primarily for gear and spline production,
as well as other power transmission appli-
cations. The companys target markets
include automotive, off-highway, OCTG
10 gearsolutions.com
and other heavy equipment manufactur-
ing. Machines are provided for gear hon-
ing, gear grinding, the patented Scudding
process for gearmaking, polygon milling,
turning, gear tooth pointing, and multi-
task machining operations.
To learn more about GMTAs products
and services, visit www.gmtamerica.com.
U.S. Patent Office Publishes
Solar Manufacturing Patent
Application
The management of Solar Manufacturing
Inc. and affiliate company Solar
Atmospheres Inc. has announced that
Solar Manufacturing inventors Robert J.
Wilson and Robert F. Daley were noti-
fied by the U.S. Patent and Trademark
Office that their Patent Application,
Publication No. US2014/0042678 A1,
for a new 20 Bar Super Quench Vacuum
Furnace was published on February 13,
2014 and is now available to the public
on the USPTO.gov website.
The published patent application, a
first step in the patent process, contains
19 claims that detail the unique design
of a horizontal, single chamber front
loading vacuum heat treating furnace
capable of in-situ gas quenching at pres-
sures up to 20 bar and with cooling gas
speeds reaching up to 200 mph.
One major advantage of the new
design is the use of movable radiation
baffle doors that prevent heat loss dur-
ing heat cycles and open wide to avoid
pressure drops during cooling cycles.
The application of the open doors in
combination with the use of a plenum fan
arrangement, generous annular space for
uniform gas flow, and a low static pres-
sure loss nozzle design provide inert gas
quenching capabilities typically achieved
only with oil quenching by concentrat-
ing the available system horsepower on
the task of producing a high nozzle exit
velocity. The system also permits excel-
lent cooling at lower pressures. Low
pressure cooling is typically sacrificed
by undersized fans normally selected for
high pressure quench systems. The new
system operates in a constant horsepower
mode over a large range of quenching
pressures.
Commercially, Solar Manufacturings
first 20 bar high pressure quench vacuum
heat treating furnace is currently in pro-
duction at Solar Atmospheres of Western
PA. The cooling rates are reported to be
significantly better than any other high
pressure gas quench furnace currently in
production.
According to Solar Atmospheres of
Western PA president, Bob Hill, the new
20 Bar Super Quench furnace is the
fastest cooling furnace in the Solar fleet
and one of only a few of its kind in the
U.S. By adding the unique capabilities of
the 20 bar quenching to our repertoire,
we can now effectively process a wider
range of materials and assist more cus-
tomers than we could with our 10 bar
furnaces.
Solar Manufacturing has also
announced the installation of a new and
compact vacuum furnace design located
at its Solar Atmospheres of Western
Pennsylvania heat treating affiliate com-
pany facility in Hermitage, Penn. This
production scale furnace was designed
and developed to accommodate the heat
treating and brazing of smaller to mid-
size furnace loads in an efficient and
economical manner.
In related news, the name Mentor
has been chosen to highlight Solars lead
in advancing the heat treating industry.
The furnace is a Solar Manufacturing
Model HFL-2018-2IQ with an effective
work-zone that measures 12 wide x
12 high x 18 deep and is capable of
processing loads up to 250 pounds. The
hot zone design utilizes a .060 thick
graphite foil hot face backed by four lay-
JUNE 2014 11
ers of half-inch rayon graphite felt. This
design allows for operation up to 2500F
with temperature uniformity of +/- 10F
from 1000F to 2400F. The vacuum
system consists of an Alcatel Model 2033,
33 CFM mechanical pump backed by a
Varian Model VHS-6 water-cooled dif-
fusion pump allowing for vacuum levels
down to the 10-6 torr range. An internal
2 bar gas cooling system is incorporated
using a 7.5 HP motor and heat exchanger
for rapid quenching.
Michael Johnson, sales manag-
er for Solar Atmospheres of Western
Pennsylvania, said This furnace will give
us the ability to process a variety of loads
that we were not able to quote prior using
our larger furnaces.
For more information, contact Pete
Reh, vice president of sales, at 267-384-
5040, or email pkr@solarmfg.com.
Seco to Spotlight Solutions for
Composite Machining at
THE BIG M
At THE BIG M manufacturing convergence
event, taking place June 912 in Detroit,
Mich., Seco Tools, LLC will showcase inno-
vative milling and drilling tools and tech-
niques that bring increased cutting perfor-
mance to the machining of composite-based
components in booth 330.
Among the solutions Seco will have on dis-
play include the Jabro

JC800 series of CVD-


diamond-coated cutters, Seco Feedmax
solid carbide drills and Niagara DiamondPlus
productsall of which prevent uncut fibers
and delamination in demanding composite
applications for various industry segments,
including aerospace, automotive, construc-
tion, and wind power.
With low surface roughness and very high
substrate adhesion, the Jabro JC800 series of
diamond-coated solid carbide and PCD end
mills efficiently and accurately machine work-
pieces from modern carbon fiber reinforced
polymers. Consisting of the JC840 and JC845
helix cutters, JC850 ball nose cutter, JC860
honeycomb sandwich router cutter, JC870
and JC871 multi-flute routers, and JC880
and JC885 low-helix four-flute end mills, the
series has a high degree of specialization so it
can meet the specific requirements of diverse
and highly challenging composite materials.
With its Seco Feedmax family of solid car-
bide drills, Seco has optimized these tools for
tackling a wide variety of holemaking opera-
tions in composite materials. This expansive
range of tools with various geometries consists
of the C1 and C2 diamond-coated drills with
diameters ranging from 0.12600.5 as well
as the three-flute CX1 and flat geometry
CX2 PCD-tipped drills with a mix of dimen-
sions for holes between 0.125 and 0.375.
While each of these drills serve a unique pur-
pose, each one works to achieve the highest
possible productivity and hole quality
Designed for fast, precise machining in
advanced abrasive materials, Niagara
DiamondPlus products feature a 100 per-
cent real diamond crystal coating that makes
Pusher
Vacuum
Batch
Heat Treat Knowledge
Choose versatility
Atmosphere and vacuum
solutions to fit your every need:
Medium-to-high production
throughputs, or flexible
production for specialized
parts
Lowest cost per part
Highest energy-efficient
equipment
Most comprehensive, global
service and support network
to keep your equipment
running at peak performance
Heat Treating Challenges
When it comes to the mass production of components necessary for
executing critical functions in large, heavy-duty machines, these
components need to meet strict industry specifications. Being able to
carburize, nitride and harden parts with different materials, case
depths, hardenability and geometries also requires flexibility.
At Ipsen, we know the challenges you face and design equipment
that allows you to achieve low cost per part, all while maintaining
the quality and flexibility you need and your customers demand.
Pusher Furnaces
When your output is measured by the hundreds of thousands or even
millions of parts and when those parts need to meet precise
carburizing or nitriding depths and hardness specifications choose
Ipsens controlled-atmosphere Pusher or Rotary furnaces.
Batch Furnaces
When your heat treating production mix has several recipes, Ipsens
atmosphere batch furnaces deliver flexibility with production lines
that run different processes simultaneously and can expand as
production demands increase.
Vacuum Furnaces
Ipsen delivers proven vacuum technology that allows you to achieve
maximum flexibility by executing various processes, including brazing
of heat transfer devices, sintering of components and hardening or
annealing of parts and tools, depending on your specific needs.
Visit www.IpsenUSA.com/atmosphere or
scan the QR code for more information.
JUNE 2014 13
them extremely hard, approaching 10,000
Vickers. The coatings matrix of micro and
nano crystalline diamond provides a smooth,
tough surface that is highly resistant to chip-
ping and cracking, allowing for long tool life.
This comprehensive tool series encompasses
more 200 different products, including 2- and
4-flute square and ball end mills in different
geometries and lengths, compression cutters
in fine and course pitches, drills, reamers and
fiber router burrs.
For more information, visit Seco online at
www.secotools.com.
EMAG Showcases Complete
Portfolio of Technologies at
IMTS 2014
At IMTS 2014, EMAG will feature
Manufacturing Systems for Precision
Metal Components. Multiple machines
from its new modular standard VL and
VT product families will be on display.
These Modular Standard Machines offer
a system approach that is advantageous
to establishing a highly efficient manufac-
turing process, with different operations
offered on the same platform allowing
for easy interlinking and eliminating any
great outlay for automation.
The VL vertical pick-up lathe series
opens up new opportunities for the
machining of a wide range of chucked
components, small gearwheels, planetary
gears, sun gears, sliding sleeves synchro-
nizer rings or flange components, for
example, can be machined with great
efficiency. The smallest lathe of the VL
product family, the VL 2, machines work-
pieces with a maximum diameter of four
inches and a length of up to six inches.
Increasing in size, the VL 4, VL 6 and VL
8 offer a number of different turning and
milling operations within the framework
of a single closed-loop production pro-
cess. Specially designed for the handling
of large components the largest vertical
turning machine of the series, the VL 8,
Ideal for commercial vehicle production,
handles workpieces up to 16 inches in
diameter and 12 inches in length.
Built within the same modular concept
is the VT-Series for machining large
quantities of shaft components. With four
axes, a self-loading turret and integrated
automation, the VT 2-4 machines shafts
with a max diameter of 2.5 inches and 16
inches in length. Spindle speeds of up to 6,000
rpm achieve extremely short cycle times as
the shaft is clamped vertically between work-
spindle and tailstock and machined from two
sides. The vertical alignment of the workpiece
ensures process integrity, where the unhin-
dered chip flow prevents the build-up of chip
nests in the machining area.
All machines of the VL and VT product
families offer the same advantages for every
size workpiece:
A pick-up spindle/turret loads the machine
itself, picking up the raw parts from the
integrated conveyor and returning the finish
machined component.
14 gearsolutions.com
A 12-station tool turret known for very short indexing times. For
drilling and milling operations it can also be equipped with driven
tools in all 12 stations.
Service units that are quickly and freely accessible, making for short
set-up and change-over times.
A machine base out of MINERALIT

polymer concrete to ensure


stability through outstanding damping qualities, resulting in excep-
tional surface finishes.
Optional Y axis
Integrating the technologies of the EMAG Group into these new
modular standards, the VLC 200 H will make its North American
debut at the McCormick Center. The VLC 200 H hobbing machine
integrates EMAG-KOEPFER technology into the EMAG verti-
cal platform, including the pick-up design where the main spindle
removes the raw part from the conveyor belt, transfers it to the
tailstock flange and removes it from the machining area after the
completion of the hobbing cycle. Gears with a maximum diameter
of 8 inches and module 4 can be dry-milled at greatly shortened
cycle times.
EMAG will also present its entire portfolio of production tech-
nologies, from turning, hobbing and grinding to those that comple-
ment traditional metalworking processes, such as its production
Laser Welding, Heat Shrink Technology and Electro-Chemical
Machining (ECM) capabilities. ECM processes offer, non-contact
machining with no heat affected zone or mechanical stress to com-
ponents with no tool wear. An ECM machined blisk will also be on
display.
EMAG invites manufacturers to visit them at booth N-6846 to
meet with technology experts to discuss production solutions for
the automotive and commercial vehicle, aerospace, and oilfield
industries.
For more information on the EMAG Group portfolio, visit
them online at www.emag.com.
Parker Industries and Star-SU, LLC
Effective June 2, 2014, product inquiries, quotes, and resulting
orders formerly handled by Parker Industries will be directed
and managed by Star SU, LLC. Additionally, Bruce Cowley will
join Star SU as regional sales manager covering Southern Ohio,
Eastern Kentucky, and all of West Virginia, and Bruce will work
with the Star-SU, LLC sales network to support and further
develop existing spline gage and master gear product programs.
We are most excited with this agreement as this provides
market growth opportunities while sustaining project inquiry,
quoting, and order fulfillments for cutting and forming tools and
related gaging and work-holding requirements for our valued
customers, said Cowley.
During the next 90 days, Parker Industries will contact and
schedule visits with their customers to answer questions and
communicate the scope and benefits of our products and services.

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4191 US RT 40 Tipp City, Ohio 45371 | PH: 937-667-4451 | Fax: 937-667-9322 | www.gearinspection.com
Internal DOB
WEB Based Software Q-DAS Certifed EDRO Equipped to collect all inspection data
DOB GAGE INTERNAL & EXTERNAL
Are you ready to bring your Gaging to the next level?
External DOB
JUNE 2014 15
After June 1st, Star-SU, LLC and its repre-
sentatives will receive all Parkers website and
product and service inquiries, RFQs, review
each project for feasibility, issue quotations,
and process and fulfill purchase orders for
former Parker Industries customers.
Parker Industries has assigned Cheri
Colangelo as the primary Account Rep for
inside sales functions. Cheri will work with
Melanie Renner who has decided to retire
after 34 years of service. We all will miss
Melanie and wish her well in her retire-
ment years, said Cowley. Parker Industries
encourages you to continue to direct your
product and service inquiries to the following
contacts:
Bruce Cowley: bwcowley@star-su.com
Tel: 513-235-8589
Cheri Colangelo: ccolangelo@star-su. com.
Tel: 937-405-1547
For more information on products and
services, visit www.star-su.com.
MSI Sells Machinery and
Tooling Supply to DXP
Machinery Systems Inc. (MSI) has
announced the sale of its Machinery Tooling
& Supply company to DXP Enterprises,
Inc. (NASDAQ: DXPE). Headquartered
in Houston, Texas, DXP Enterprises is
a publicly traded industrial distributor of
technical products and services for MRO
(maintenance, repair, operating), OEM and
capital equipment customers. DXP has over
178 locations throughout the United States,
Canada, Sonora, Mexico and Dubai includ-
ing 7 regional distribution centers, 58 Supply
Chain Service locations, eight fabrication
centers, and over 3,300 employees.
Machinery Tooling & Supply will continue
to operate under the leadership of Robert
(Bob) Cuthbertson, President, and under its
own distinct brand identity. It will main-
tain its facilities in Schaumburg, Illinois and
Brookfield, Wisconsin; however, will likely
relocate to larger facilities in the future based
on anticipated growth. The company has 55
employees. The company offers a full line of
cutting tools and industrial supplies, including
MRO, health and safety products, and inven-
tory management systems designed to help
tooling customers cut costs by 25% or more.
Were thrilled with what this expansion will
mean to our customers, explains Ron
Mager, president & CEO, Machinery
Systems Inc. Overall, the transition will
be seamless from their perspective, with
the exception of increased services and
products.
The joining of Machinery Tooling &
Supply and DXP was a natural fit, adds
Mager. DXPs mission, culture and growth
plans mirror Machinery Tooling & Supplys,
which in the past few years has more than
doubled in size.
Machinery Tooling & Supplys and
Machinery Systems Inc.s customers will
continue to enjoy access to both companys
services and products lines through their
strategic allegiance.
To find out more, call (847) 310-8665.
Getting the reliable gears you
need requires a surprisingly simple plan.
At Gear Motions, weve been designing and manufacturing
precision gears for more than a century. And in that time,
weve built something else a reputation for quality and
proven performance in almost any application. Were a
full-service company that uses the latest in gear-grinding
technology to help you create a reliable solution to meet your
exact requirements. Thats what we call Precision in Motion.
T 315-488-0100 | F 315-488-0196 | 1750 Milton Avenue, Syracuse, NY 13209 | www.gearmotions.com
Make one call to Gear Motions,
and well work with you from
start to nish to deliver the
custom solutions you need.
The Gear Motions Network: Nixon Gear | Oliver Gear | Pro-Gear | Niagara Gear
Madelaine Morgan
Director
www.agma.org
American
Gear Manufacturers
Association
JUNE 2014 17
Networking at All Levels of the Industry
Networking is a fundamental part of doing business, especially in
the gear industry. Our mission as the Association for the gear in-
dustry is to foster networking by connecting employees of AGMA
member companies at every level, not just our executives. Some-
times this can be easy, but sometimes it is challenging. Companies
are diferent; they have diferent structures and consequently have
employees with varied job descriptions.
At AGMA we have created technical seminars for researchers
and engineers that cover a variety of advanced topics. We also of-
fer courses for sales teams and those new to the industry who ben-
eft from immediate take-home knowledge. We recognized that
our education covered a wide swath of member-employees, but
what was missing were opportunities for younger middle manag-
ers to gather, network, and foster professional growth among the
new leaders in the industry.
To meet this need, a grass-roots efort was formed at AGMA
that focused on the younger executives. Initially called The Fu-
ture Leaders Conference, it was renamed the Strategic Resources
Network (SRN). This group brings a commitment to leadership
development and a strong belief in unity that has fostered their
growth over the past several years.
As with a lot of great things, the SRN started as one thing but
has slowly morphed into something more powerful. The initial
mission was to provide leadership training to new committee
members, arming them with incentive and skills that would en-
courage their appointments to more advanced volunteer roles at
AGMA. Ultimately, they would grow to the point of serving on
the board of directors. While many of the current board mem-
bers can trace their history to the SRN, over the last few years this
group has grown and now provides one of the most dynamic net-
working opportunities for those in and around the gear industry.
The SRN Steering Committee has been instrumental in gather-
ing middle managers to regional meetings where the emphasis is
threefold: relevant presentations with take-home benefts; plant
tours; and great stand-alone networking opportunities. The group
continues to be dedicated to these objectives. When combined the
objectives are powerful enough to provide exciting experiences
rather than just your typical meeting.
Over the last four years, SRN attendees have travelled to the
Carolinas; Washington, DC; Erie, PA; and Ontario, bringing to-
gether its core group and a nice mix of local manufacturers.
Plant tours have included trips to General Electric, BMW, Ajax
Rolled Ring & Machine, Ontario Drive and Gear, Linamar, and
Meritor. In 2011, the SRN made a special visit to Capitol Hill
to meet with members of Congress, sharing the challenges they
face as small businesses. While attendees will remember being in
the historic GE Thomas Edison building watching the assembly
of locomotives in Erie, or attending Oktoberfest in Canada, it
is the business connections that have become their most valued
asset.
These more intimate meetings provide invaluable networking
opportunities. It is quite possible that an attendee could meet
a sales rep from a forging company; a technical engineer; an
advanced gear manufacturing technology manager from a huge
corporation; and/or the head of a small job shop. The benefits
are enormous. Not only do the SRN attendees leave with in-
creased knowledge and great memories, they also a leave with
a pocket full of business cards to use as new resources when
problems arise.
The next SRN regional event is scheduled for September 23-
25, 2014 in the Chicago area. The event includes plant tours at
Scot Forge and Overton Chicago Gear Corporation. Presenta-
tions are on the topics of heat treat and metallurgy, steel market
update, stellar customer service, and coatings. And not to disap-
point, we are providing an interesting Welcome Reception, and
a rooftop networking event overlooking the last regular-season
Cubs game at Wrigley Field. We invite the middle managers
from the all AGMA members to join us. Get engaged in the dy-
namic educational opportunities. Your personal and professional
growth will be exponential.
18 gearsolutions.com
NEW INFORMATION SHEET ON FINE-PITCH GEAR SPECIFICATION DATA
AGMA 910 consists of a series of print-
ed forms for gear drawings that contain
the appropriate data to be tabulated by
the gear designer for the gear manufac-
turer. It also includes a series of defi-
nitions of the various tabulated items.
This information supersedes AGMA
910-C90.
AGMA 910-C90 was a revision of
AGMA 114.02, which updates the
style and formats for spur gears, helical
gears, bevel gears, wormgearing, face
gears and racks.
The new AGMA 910-D12 updates
the information relative to the ANSI
Y14.5 definitions for toleranced, basic
and reference dimensions and clari-
fies previously ambiguous terminology.
The new information sheet is available
for purchase, in electronic format, on
AGMA website at www.agma.org, click
on the STORE button.
The AGMA Fine Pitch Gearing Com-
mittee dedicates the new document to
Irving Laskin. His inspiration and dedi-
cation to the Fine-Pitch Committees
work over many years lead to the devel-
opment of this information sheet. In ad-
dition, the committee wishes to thank all
participants for their valuable contribu-
tions during the development of this new
information sheet.
To fnd out how you can get involved
with any of the AGMA committees which
actively serve the industry, contact Head-
quarters at tech@agma.org for details.
NEW INFORMATION SHEET ON AERO-
SPACE BEVEL GEARS
The AGMA Aerospace Gearing Com-
mittee recently completed the devel-
opment of the new information sheet
AGMA 937-A12 Aerospace Bevel
Gears.
This information sheet covers aero-
space bevel gears for power, accessory,
and actuation applications. It provides
additional information on the design,
manufacturing, and quality control
unique to the aerospace environment.
AGMA 937-A12 was developed to
fill the void following the withdrawal
of AGMA 431.01. It expands the scope
to include all applications of aerospace
bevel gearing. The information sheet
was created by reviewing existing prac-
tices specific to aerospace bevel gear-
ing. In general, this information sheet
is a consolidation of the most common
practices and standards currently in ex-
istence.
The new information sheet is avail-
able for purchase, in electronic format,
on AGMA website at www.agma.org.
AGMA ANNOUNCES STAFF CHANGES
Jenny Blackford has been promoted to
vice president of marketing. She has a
proven leadership track in her organi-
zation of the marketing and communi-
cations of the association and her di-
rection of Gear Expo 2011, 2013, and
2015. She will be the staff lead in the
100th AGMA Anniversary Centennial
Celebration.
Amir Aboutelab has been promoted
to vice president of the technical divi-
sion. Amir has led more than 500 tech-
nical committee meetings in his years of
service for AGMA. He looks forward to
this new leadership role and the inter-
national work with ISO standards for
our industry.
Justin Sikorski is the new staff engi-
neer for AGMA. Justin graduated with
a degree in Mechanical Engineering
Technology from the University of
Dayton (Ohio). He spent three years
working for Honda Engineering North
America in Marysville, Ohio before
moving to the Washington, DC area.
His most recent work has been for the
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in
Alexandria, VA. Justin joins the AGMA
Technical team to work with standards
and software development within the
technical committees.
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
Whether youre looking for technical education, networking opportunities, or a way for your voice to be heard in the standards
process, AGMA has something to offer you. If you would like more information on any of the following events visit
www.agma.org or send email to events@agma.org.
**Event open to AGMA members only. Not a member? Send e-mail to membership@agma.org.
Gear Accuracy Committee Meeting July 8-9 Chicago, IL
Plastics Gearing Committee Meeting July 10-11 Chicago, IL
Metallurgy & Materials Committee Meeting July 16 WebEx
Helical Gear Rating Committee Meeting July 23 WebEx
Cutting Tools Committee Meeting July 24-25 Cleveland, OH
Powder Metallurgy Committee Meeting July 29-30 Buffalo, NY
Bevel Gearing Committee Meeting July 30 WebEx
Mill Gearing Committee Meeting July 31 WebEx
Lubrication Committee Meeting August 5 WebEx
Helical Gear Rating Committee Meeting August 13 WebEx
Metallurgy & Materials Committee Meeting August 13 WebEx
Wind Turbine Committee Meeting August 19 WebEx
Cutting Tools Committee Meeting September 17 WebEx
Epicyclic Enclosed Drives Committee Meeting September 25 WebEx
Vehicle Gearing Committee Meeting June 2 WebEx
Enclosed Drives for Industrial Applications Committee Meeting June 3 WebEx
Fine Pitch Committee Meeting June 3-4 Cheektowaga, NY
Bevel Gearing Committee Meeting June 4 WebEx
Metallurgy & Materials Committee Meeting June 5 WebEx
Gear Failure Analysis Seminar June 9-11 Big Sky, MT
Helical Gear Rating Committee Meeting June 12 WebEx
Helical Enclosed Drives High Speed Units Committee Meeting June 17 WebEx
Gear Manufacturing & Inspection June 17-19 Rosemont, IL
Computer Programming Committee Meeting June 18 WebEx
J
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JUNE 2014 19
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20 gearsolutions.com
John Cross: President, ASI Technologies
Kenneth J. Flowers: Owner and Vice President, Machine Tool Builders, Inc.
Bill Gornicki: Vice President Sales & Marketing, ALD Holcroft Vacuum Technologies Co., Inc.
John E. Grazia: President, GearTec Inc.
Sulaiman Jamal: Managing Director, Bevel Gears India
Steve Janke: President, Brelie Gear Company, Inc.
Jan Klingelnberg: CEO/CFO, Klingelnberg
Justin McCarthy: Vice President , Sales, Scot Forge Company
Mark Michaud: President, REM Surface Engineering
Brian L. Schultz: President, Great Lakes Industry, Inc.
Dylan Smith: President, VanGear
Wendy Young: President, Forest City Gear Company
AGMA LEADERSHIP
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Lou Ertel: Chairman
President & CEO, Overton Chicago Gear Corporation
Matt Mondek: Chairman Emeritus
President/CEO, Reliance Gear Corporation
Dean Burrows: Treasurer
President,Nixon Gear
John Strickland, Jr.: Chairman, BMEC
Faireld Manufacturing Co.
Buzz Maiuri: Chairman, TDEC
Senior Product Manager, The Gleason Works
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Joe T. Franklin, Jr.: President
Amir Aboutaleb: Vice President , Technical Division
Jill Johnson: Director, Member Services
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1001 N. Fairfax Street | Suite 500 Alexandria, VA 22314
(703) 684-0211 | www.agma.org
General requests: webmaster@agma.org | Membership questions: membership@agma.org | Gear Expo information: gearexpo@agma.org
Technical/Standards information: tech@agma.org | AGMA Foundation: foundation@agma.org
American
Gear Manufacturers
Association
IS YOUR COMPANY LISTED?
The new AGMA Marketplace provides a great resource for
those looking for products and services in the gear industry.
Find gear manufacturers that can produce products you
need for your current project, or find services to assist
with your gear manufacturing plant.
The Marketplace replaces the product directory that was
previously available through the AGMA website. All those
with listings must create a new account to be listed again.
AGMA members are afforded a free listing in this Market-
place. For complete information send an email to AGMAs
Web Communications Manager: website@agma.org.
SOLUTIONS FOR CYLINDRICAL AND BEVEL GEARS OF ALL TYPES, SIZES AND PROCESSES
For worldwide sales locations and
additional information, visit:
www.gleason.com

sales@gleason.com
Gleason hobs featuring our new G90 substrate
deliver long-sought productivity gains and longer
tool life as compared to traditional PM-HSS. With
the addition of our newest operation, Gleason
Cutting Tools GmbH, were also giving customers
access to the widest array of high-performance
solid carbide hobs and application expertise.
Just some of the many solutions youll nd at:
www.gleason.com/cuttingtools.
OUTPERFORM YOUR
COMPETITION WITH
NEW G90 AND SOLID
CARBIDE HOBS
Returning your hobs to the same high quality and
performance standards as new tools is faster and
more efcient with Gleasons comprehensive
reconditioning/resharpening services. See us at Booth #N-7000
22 gearsolutions.com
THE ADVANTAGES OF USING CASTINGS FOR ENGINEERING components such as
gears are well appreciated by design engineers. Of major importance is the fact that
shapes of any degree of complexity and of virtually any size can be produced. Modern
metallurgy has also provided a great variety of cast metals, presenting a choice of many
physical and mechanical properties that enable the design of components to meet service
conditions, conditions imposed by economy, and conditions imposed by design factors.
Of all the materials available in the cast form, cast iron offers the greatest versatility,
the greatest range of physical and mechanical characteristics, and the lowest cost.
The art of casting metals into those shapes, called castings, is dependent on many
basic laws of physical chemistry, and the design engineer can achieve maximum success
only when he designs with these in mind.
This series of the Materials Matter column has the express purpose in mind of
providing the design engineer with a working knowledge of foundry practice, particularly
as related to cast iron, to which general classification the family of Meehanite Metal
belongs. In compiling this column, we have also clearly designated those important
characteristics of the Meehanite process that have made Meehanite Metal castings the
prime material for quality engineering components. The dependability of Meehanite
castings is no accident. It is the result of an intimate knowledge of all phases of
metallurgy and foundry practice and the ingenious application of this knowledge to
provide the design engineer with the component he had in mind, when he applied his
own creative effort.
It is sincerely hoped that this information will give the design engineer greater insight
into foundry technology than he has, perhaps had in the past, and that this in turn, will
enable him to make better castings in his engineering creations.
It might be thought that the design engineer had too many problems of his own to
give much thought to foundry practice; nothing could be further from the truth, because
it is only knowing what the foundryman can and cannot do, that the design engineer can
evolve a truly efficient engineering component that will do justice to his creative ability.
THE MAKING OF A CASTING
In its simplest form, the making of a casting involves starting with a pattern of a given
engineering component (such as a gear), preparing a refractory mold containing this
pattern, removing the pattern from the mold, and filling the resultant cavity with
molten metal, and allowing it to solidify into the shape of the engineering component.
As each step depends on the one preceding it, as well
as on the one succeeding it, this column will discuss
each of them; particularly from the standpoint of the
design engineer, showing where he plays an important
role in determining the ultimate success of the casting.
The element of casting design, as related to foundry
practice, will also be discussed in some detail.
SOLIDIFICATION OF METAL
IN A MOLD
While this is not the first step in the sequence of events,
it is of such fundamental importance and is governed by
such adamant laws of physical chemistry that it forms
the most logical point of beginning in understanding the
making of a casting.
Consider a few simple shapes transformed into mold
cavities and filled with molten metal:
In a sphere, heat dissipates from the surface through
the mold, and solidification commences from the outside
and proceeds progressively inwards in a series of layers.
As the liquid metal solidifies, it contracts in volume
and, unless feed metal is supplied, a shrinkage cavity
will be formed in the center. In cast iron, feed metal
requirements vary according to the type of metal,
viz., its carbon equivalent, and may be gauged, very
generally, by its tensile strength. This is because graphite
in the structure controls strength and graphite is lower in
density, thus a cast iron, high in graphitic carbon content,
shows less solidification shrinkage, than one which is
lower in carbon content. Feed metal is supplied by risers.
White irons containing carbides, instead of graphite,
exhibit 6% shrinkage. Of special interest are the nodular,
ductile, or S types of Meehanite Metal, which, by
virtue of their composition, exhibit from 0 to 1.0%
of solidification shrinkage. Extremely soft cast irons
exhibit an expansion on solidification and cannot be
fed solid by risering. They present special problems,
where density is important. The controlled graphitic
carbon content, which is inherent to the Meehanite
Process, makes it behave predictably and exhibit less
solidification shrinkage than any other material of
equivalent mechanical properties.
The design engineer must realize that a shrinkage
problem exists and that the foundryman will have to
attach risers to the casting, or resort to other means to
overcome it. Designing for use of lower mechanical
properties, where this is practicable, decreases the
foundrymans problem.
When the simple sphere described on the previous
page has solidified further, it continues to contract in
volume, so that the final casting is smaller than the mold
cavity. This causes the need for correction allowance, in
order to hold dimensional tolerances. This contraction
also relates roughly to tensile strength and is at its highest
in white cast irons.

MATERIALS
MATTER
Having covered the advantages of the forging process in
gear production, Gear Solutions turns to the experts at
Meehanite Metal Corp. for a look at casting.
COMPANY INFORMATION:
Meehanite Metal Corp. is a family of 24 different types of superior engineered
cast irons, including nodular iron, flake graphite, and white cast irons.
For more information, visit www.meehanitemetal.com or call (262) 240-0210.
Meehanite Metal Corp
JUNE 2014 23
THIS COLUMN MARKS THE END OF A THREE-PART DISCUSSION on control of
the three basic elements: profile, lead, and spacing. Figure 1 depicts three hobbed
profile traces. The middle trace shows an undercut that is quite common and
is manufactured by the addition of protuberance on the tip of the cutter. This
provides clearance for the shaving cutter tip and reduces the amount of work
done by the tip of the cutter. The bottom trace shows both an undercut and a tip
relief. The undercut in this case would be unacceptable because there would still
be non-cleanup above the SAP. The tip relief is also used more in fine pitch gears
to reduce the deflection of the tip during the gear tooth manufacturing processes.
Figure 2 identifies five different profile shapes on a finished gear, the first one
being unmodified. The second and third are deliberate modifications induced to
provide better running conditions. The fourth and fifth traces, while not normal
modifications, are nevertheless very common, especially in form ground gears.
The minus involute occurs when the part is finished undersize and the positive
involute occurs when the part is ground oversize.
Figure 3 shows different types of involute forms from shaved gears. The
top involute indicates that the shaving cutter does not have the correct form
or requires sharpening. This phenomenon also occurs if the tooth is worn in
operation.
The second trace shows a common occurrence in the inspection area. Gears
are normally cleaned with a brush a hair, which can stick to the profile. Because
of the high resolution of the probe, a thin hairin this case approximately
.0005"can result in what you see.
The third and fourth traces are a result of the shaving cutter being out of
balance. That is the pressure on the shaved tooth is not the same as it rolls through
mesh.
Figure 4 shows the lead surface after a precision hobbing operation. The depth
of the scallop is important as it affects the subsequent shaving process or grinding
process. All gear flanks should be cleaned up, including removal of all previous
operation tool marks.
The second trace shows a crown hobbed gear. Crown hobbing is done to
provide constant material removal in both shaving and post heat treat grinding.
In shaving, it prolongs the life of the cutter. In post heat treat grinding, it provides
a constant case depth across the tooth. This is done more in fine pitch gearing
where the case depth is small.
TOOTHTIPS
Noise is affected by the accuracy of the profile,
lead, and spacing.
ronGREEN
Chief Engineer, Eaton Corporation
Ron Green is retired from Eaton Corporation as a chief engineer. He has
over 60 years of experience in the gear industry. Eaton is a power man-
agement company providing energy-efficient solutions that help custom-
ers effectively manage electrical, hydraulic, and mechanical power.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Figure 4: Lead surface after precision hobbing.
Figure 1: Three hobbed profile traces.
Figure 2: Five profile shapes on a finished gear.
Figure 3: Involute forms from shaved gears.
24 gearsolutions.com
ping force, unless the pressure of the hydraulic system
is elevated.
From my experience in commuting 156 miles a day
round-trip, rotor wear wasnt the problem. But warp-
ing from heat was especially problematic in stop & go
traffic. Everyone has experienced pulsating (unrelated
to anti-lock braking) from the break pedal. Prior to
anti-lock brakes, a driver would lock the wheels in a
panic, thereby eliminating a lot of pad/rotor wear.
As the brake system alternately applies pressure to
the rotor keeping the wheels from skidding, the pads
and rotor will likely experience more heat from a
high-speed stop than without anti-lock brakes. Thus,
increasing rotor wear necessitates the FNC process.
Applying FNC to rotors may also require changes
to the brake pad composition, to improve the pads
performance with increasing heat. In racecars, reduc-
ing heat buildup during braking is a primary design
function of the rotor. This necessitates the grooving
and holes found in high-performance rotors. Heat is
dissipated into the rotor mass itself via convection to
the air flowing around the rotor. If the rotor is too
thin, heat will build up, rapidly increasing brake fade,
increasing weight, and reducing mileage.
As for the FNC process itself there are two compet-
ing directions. For decades, 50% endo gas plus 50%
ammonia has been used in refractory-lined batch
furnaces and retort lined pit or horizontal systems
designed for traditional nitriding. Rather than using
endo gas as the carbon source, retort furnaces rely on
the more complex mixtures of ammonia/CO2/DA
(dissociated ammonia)/nitrogen and the associated Kn
process controller. Since epsilon is composed of >7.5%
atomic nitrogen (N) at 995F the Kn control point must
exceed 7.5%. or >1% Kn. Cast irons are ideal candi-
dates for FNC since their higher percent carbon 2% +
will readily form epsilon. The additional carbon source
of CO2 (in retort furnaces) and CO in endo gas will
ensure that the entire surface matrix can for epsilon [in
the lower carbon regions of the material surface] cre-
ates as much as possible a continuous white layer.
Due to the large number of rotors produced
since they are a consumable itemits not unusual
to require loads of thousands in one processing lot
weighing 30,000 to 50,000 pounds. For such massive
loads very large batch furnaces are used from the tra-
ditional integral batch furnace with top (gas) cooling
capability to large car-bottom or tip-up systems. No
quenching is required although it has its place is some
applications, these very massive loads are slow cooled
in nitrogen gas.

HOTSEAT
Over the years, FNC and gas nitriding have been
used in applications where reduced surface friction
is a requirement, such as gears and brake rotors.
jackTITUS
Director of Process and Developmental
Engineering, AFC-Holcroft
GEARS ARE NOT THE ONLY COMMODITY to receive the benefit from FNC
(Ferritic-Nitro carburizing). Brake rotors have also become a popular recipient
of the process for automobile manufacturers in the last few years, for a couple
of reasons: improved wear and reduced corrosion. FNC, an abbreviated form of
gas nitriding, adds a thin epsilon white, or compound, layer to the cast iron
rotors generally between 15 to 25 microns- (0.0006 to 0.001 in.-) thick. Corrosion
is reduced because of the high concentration of nitrogen on the rotor surface.
This reduces the exposed ironthus, less oxidation.
Like many commodities produced today, pre-purchase processing is required
to maintain cosmetic and functional value during storage or transportation
before the consumer is ever involved. FNC eliminates the potential rust that
forms on rotors, as the cars endure cross-country travel and possibly months of
outside storage in all kind of weather. An example highlighted to me recently is:
brake rotors visible through aluminum wheelsunsightly rust can be a turn-off
to a prospective car buyer.
FNC differs from nitriding in that nitriding is intended to add a diffusion zone
that may or may not include a (gamma prime) white layer. Many times, a white
layer is unwanted because the composition can be more difficult to control, pro-
ducing a brittle surface. Since brake rotors are not exposed to impact loading,
their working application requires only a hard surface to withstand the squeezing
load of the brake caliper/pad to the rotor.
FNC requires no supporting diffusion zone. Therefore, the time to achieve the
compound layer is very short compared to gas nitridingusually two to five hours
at or above 1075F. Gas nitriding can take 12 to well over 24 hours at a lower
temperature to create the diffusion zone, depending on the required case depth.
Over the years, FNC and gas nitriding have been used in applications where
reduced surface friction is a requirement, such as gears. Crankshaft Babbitt bear-
ing journals is a classic application for the improved wear and reduced friction
from FNC. And therein resides a sort of application oxymorondisk brakes
creating friction between the pad and the rotor to improve the lubricity of the
rotor seems counter intuitive for stopping power. Increasing the surface hardness
of the rotor would improve wear, but it does so at the expense of reduced stop-
Jack Titus can be reached at (248) 668-4040 or jtitus@afc-holcroft.com.
Go online to www.afc-holcroft.com or www.ald-holcroft.com.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
JUNE 2014 25
Standard: a level of quality, achievement, etc.
that is considered acceptable or desirable.
In theory, standards arent necessary. In fact, in prac-
tice, standards arent necessary. The American National
Standards Institute and the International Organization for
Standards have criteria for creating, modifying, and imple-
menting standards, but they have no requirement that a
manufacturer adhere to them. In other words, conforming
to industry standards in the gear industry is optional.
Optional, that is, unless the manufacturer is inter-
ested in attracting new customers. In that case, the seal of
ISO, ANSI, AGMA, or API certification is indispensible.
Certification in the gear industry is more than belonging
to an exclusive club, or sporting a fancy seal on your web-
site. It means youre evolvingjust like the standard itself.
AGMA president Joe Franklin explained the rigorous
process each standard must face every five yearsat least.
If substantial change occurs within the five-year
periodnew findings come out, technology changes
dramaticallya new standard will be created.
ANSI and ISO rules state that every document must be
reviewed at least once every five years, with several criteria
in mind:

1. Is the content still relevant? If not, the commit-
tee may withdraw that standard from active sales,
encouraging people not to use it anymore. Either its
been superseded by a new document, or the technol-
ogy doesnt exist anymore.
2. If it is deemed relevant, the committee reviews and
revises the standard, taking into account technologi-
cal change, new research, errors discovered within
the standard, etc. Over the five-year period, the
committee leaders keep track of the information to
be incorporated.
3. A standard can also reaffirmed, meaning there
is no reason to make any changes. It complies, still
representing state-of-the art technology.
Clearly, industry standards are effective in keeping
product quality high. But in looking at one particular
standardANSI/AGMA/AWEA 6006-A03whats
good for one industry is good for another. This standard
effectively saved the wind industry in the late 1990s.
At the time, insurance companies were unhappy with
the frequency of gearbox failures within the turbines,
threatening to require replacement of gearboxes every six
or seven years. It was an issue that threatened the survival
of the wind industry.
You cant have a viable industry with that kind of
requirement, said Franklin. The industries came togeth-
er with great force and momentum and created new
standards. AGMA, along with AWEA, created a technical
standard for gearbox design in wind turbine applications.
This was a significant undertaking that was very strongly
supported by the wind industry. All of the parts and play-
TREND
TALKS
For an industry as quality-obsessed as gear
manufacturing, the importance of industry
standards is self-evident.
timBYRD
Gear Solutions
ers that were needed were at the tablesometimes as many as 90 people participated in
the discussions.
Another example of a pioneering standards committee came with the advent of
powder metal technology in the late 1980s. Fred Eberle, a member of the original PM
standards committee, recalls some growing pains in the early days.
There was a lot of stuff to work out, said Eberle. At the time, PM manufacturers
werent interested in sharing information with each other. Everything was proprietary.
When people are new to a committee, they can be reticent. But I had learned from being
on the plastic gearing committeea very technical committeethat sharing information
has a significant, tremendous benefit.
That was over 20 years ago, and Eberle says its been an incredible ride. Today, the
powder metal committee is very mature. Theres a tremendous amount of knowledge
that sits on that committee today, and we want to get that knowledge out there, he said.
Standards arent just pulled from thin air. Field research is required to develop a stan-
dardactual application data instead of blue sky research. A comprehensive represen-
tation of industry experts validates the process and the document. With 205 companies
supplying 410 individuals on AGMAs technical committees, we can honestly say were
representing the marketplacecompanies large and small, said Joe Franklin. And if we
have a committee that has spotty representation, we assess that, asking the question, Who
needs to be here?
This kind of well-rounded group is ideal for creating an industry standard: Cross-
examining the other guys data is an invaluable exercise in accountability. These are techni-
cal documents for commercial purposes, written so that people can manufacture the best
products to support their business.
Cui Bono?
In talking to Franklin and Eberle, I had one lingering question: Who benefits the most
from a new standard? If an updated standard requires manufacturers to purchase new
equipment, doesnt that compromise the integrity of the committee? Franklin clarifies this
doubt with a familiar example.
A standard may be centered on new methods for processing and heat treating tech-
niques that would increase the power density of a gear, said Franklin. Manufacturers
might not need new equipment to do thatthey can simply apply the old equipment in
a slightly different way, modifying a tooth profile, heat treating it differently, use a different
alloy, etc. Thats what a standard iscommon procedure, commonly done, and recog-
nized across the sector as the right way to do this.
For an industry as quality-obsessed as gear manufacturing, the importance of industry
standards is self-evident.
Contact Tim Byrd, managing editor, Gear Solutions
(205) 380-1573 ext. 205.
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
26 gearsolutions.com

By Tim Byrd
COMPANY
PROFI LE
This Michigan company helps gear companies of all sizes navigate the
industry, optimize their tool life, and improve production schedules.
Involute Gear
and Machine
JUNE 2014 27
F
Nachi had decided to close their Michigan headquarters and
relocate to their Indiana office and manufacturing facilities. Sev-
eral employees decided they didnt want to relocate, and an op-
portunity to purchase the gear honing line presented itself.
So we did just that, said current company president Rodney
Soenen. All of us have more than 25 years experience in the gear
industry, representing a wide range of experience including in-
spection, hobbing, shaving, broaching, grinding, and gear manu-
facturing.
Soenen purchased all the equipment, machines, supplies, ma-
terials, gages, and engineering drawings for the manufacturing of
all types of Red Ring Hone Tools and Honing Compounds. Then
he and the rest moved down the street about a quarter mile into a
small building. That held them over until November of last year,
when they purchased a 14,400-sq. ft. building about nine miles
away (still in southeastern Michigan, Rodney assures me).
My responsibility at Nachi was sales of Kashifuji Gear Hob-
bing Machines and Osaka Seimitsu Gear Inspection Machines,
said Soenen. I had about a 30-year relationship with these two
machine builders. They agreed to follow us, and when combined
with Hone Manufacturing, we could justify our own company.
Today, Involute Gear and Machine has over 75 years of com-
bined experience to manufacture gear honing tools and sell Ka-
shifuji gear hobbers and Osaka Seimitsu Gear CNC gear and
inspection machines.
Kashifuji Works recently celebrated their 100th anniversary
and Osaka Seimitsu Kikai (OSK) has been in business for about
60 years. Both are the largest suppliers of their type of equipment
in Japan, especially to the automotive market. We have both
Kashifuji & OSK demo machines on our floor, advised Soenen.
There arent too many people making the gear hone style that
we manufacture, which are designed for the National Broach/
Red Ring gear honing machine, but can also be used on shaving
machines, said Soenen. There are still plenty of them in the
world, and we still supply all those customers. The only time we
lose a customer is when they change the processif, for example,
they go from shave heat treat to heat treat grinding. We have aero-
space customers that, even after grinding the workpieces, require
honing to obtain a surface finish above what is attainable through
grinding.
Soenen says Involute Gears contract gear inspection service
is picking up as of late. Currently, the company has two OSK
CLP 35s for parallel access gear inspection with a maximum of
350 mm with 800 mm tailstocks for the longer shaft parts. They
perform internal/external gear inspection as well as hobs, worm
shafts, and worm wheel inspection. And they do it fast.
We can usually turn around a gear inspection the same day
parts are received, said Soenen. If not, certainly by the next af-
ternoon were scanning and emailing inspection charts. Our cus-
tomers enjoy that kind of service. We can inspect a gear in about
four minutes and we serve a variety of industries. We just picked
up a customer that makes printing presses. They bring in all their
gears from overseas, and theyve been having some quality issues,
so we were able to identify profile/lead issues that were causing
noise. The problem? A poor grind job, something the printing
press maker suspected all along, but never had the documentation
to prove.
The company also deals with a large range of clients. Some
of our best customers are the small shops, who require a lot more
hands on training and support, said Soenen. Many are pur-
chasing their first CNC hobber and/or CNC gear tester. Con-
sequently, they required a lot of help. Many times they werent
aware of what CNC hobbers and gear inspection machines were
capable of, and how these machines would benefit their business.

If these customers didnt know what CNC gear machines could
do, they at least knew they had to have them. We helped them
get into the business and optimize their tool life and current pro-
duction schedules, said Soenen. Often, we get people calling us
asking, Do you know someone who can do this kind of work and
to this quality level? Yeah, call these guysthey have some great
inspection equipment and they can give you accuracy documen-
tation.
Involute Gear deals with the big boys, too. The company
recently received an order for two Kashifuji hobbers from
an automotive supplier, for a high volume drive train part.
Bosch, Whirlpool, Visteonthe list of big names goes on.
We enjoy selling to guys making loose gears, said
Soenen. Theyre easier to sell to and its more our line of
business. I like to say we look for the ones that fall through
the cracks, the ones that our main competitors have missed,
the guys who want to sell 10 and 20 machines at a time.
Involute Gear and Machine imports and installs Ka-
shifuji and OSK machines and supplies training, service,
and spare parts. Soenen said its not unusual to get a call
from guys with machines installed 10 years ago with ques-
tions about programming or software, maybe a minor ma-
chine problem.
Soenen explained, Well get phone calls asking, Can
our machine do this? Its a special cutting cycle, and we
want to start quoting this. Its either yes, or, if not, we sup-
ply additional software. This is especially true in the gear
inspection market, where the standards change so often and
the software has to get updatedwhether its an ISO, DIN,
JIS or AGMA type inspection.

FOUR YEARS AGO, EVERYONE PRESENTLY AT MACOMB, MICH.S INVOLUTE GEAR AND
MACHINE WAS WORKING FOR NACHI MACHINING TECHNOLOGYFORMERLY NATIONAL
BROACH AND MACHINEAS EITHER CONTRACTORS OR EMPLOYEES.
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
To learn more about Involute Gear and Machines
products and services, visit them online at www.
involutegearmachine.com or call (586) 677-3910.
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A New Standard Under
Development: Specifying
Powder Metallurgy Gears
The best PM manufacturing suppliers that specialize in
making gears have a gear engineer on staff who works
with the customer to make them successful.
By Fred Eberle
I
IN THE EARLY NINETIES, I WAS WORKING AT A TRANSMISSION MANUFACTURING FACILITY
IN INDIANA THAT MADE LAWN AND GARDEN TRANSMISSIONS. THEIR PRODUCTS USED
LARGE NUMBERS OF POWDER METAL AND CUT GEARS. ON A TYPICAL DAY, 15,000 PM
GEARS WOULD BE ASSEMBLED INTO PRODUCT. THIS COMPANY MADE TRANSMISSIONS
FULL OF PM GEARS FOR 30 YEARS OR MOREMILLIONS OF GEARS EVERY YEAR.
They were having all kinds of problems, so they
recruited me to work for them as a gear engineer and
power transmission designer. Having written extensive
gear and bearing calculation programs in college, I
had an intimate knowledge and love for the work, but
I had never designed gears out of powder metal. I was
familiar with standards for commercial and industrial
gears, having worked for several years designing mill
gear reducers, so I knew what to do. I immediately
began searching for some industry standards on PM
gearing. I was shocked to f ind out that there werent
any.
BACKGROUND
Back in the late 1980s, there was a stark discon-
nect between the PM manufacturers and those who
purchase PM gear components. At that time, there
were no standards relating to durability or strength
of PM gearing. Knowledge of bending or pitting was
simply not available outside of select companies that
had rigorously tested and painstakingly developed
their products. The only data available for mechani-
cal properties was MPIF Standard 35 put out by the
Metal Powder Industries Federation. It is an excellent
standard, but one must never confuse PM mechanical
properties with gear durability. Like plasticsto some
extentthere are variables involved that are not found
in wrought steel.
In 1993, under the leadership of our good friend
Irving Laskin, the American Gear Manufacturing
Association formed a committee for developing and
writing powder metallurgy gear standards. The com-
mittee started out with several companies who were
making PM gears and a few gear engineers who were
designing the PM products into lawn and garden,
various consumer goods, and automotive applications.
Irving was a highly respected gearing consultant and
mentor of mine for decades who often shared with
me that several OEMs manufacturing a plethora of
geared devices were desperate for knowledge of medi-
um-strength power gearing. These companies simply
needed to leverage the incredible economy of volume
that PM offers.
The f irst and most pressing issue the PM Gear com-
mittee took up in 1993 was to create a document that
outlined the vital issues the buyer (customer) needed to
know about purchasing PM gearing. At the time of the
f irst document release, there were 25 active participat-
ing members on the PM committee and many more
associate members. Five years later, and after much
discussion and work, AGMA 6008-A98 was formally
released. This document was deemed so imperative
for the industry that it superseded any attempt by the
committee to develop a specif ic gear ratings standard.
It would be nearly another eight years before the spur
gear standard was published. At this time in powder
metal gearing history, there were still misunderstand-
ings between PM manufacturers and customers regard-
ing the differences between wrought steel gearing and
PM products in design, materials, and process. Some
of this is still true today, but to a much lesser extent.
The best PM manufacturing suppliers that specialize in
making gears have a gear engineer on staff who works
with the customer to make them successful. These
engineers also tend to be active participants on the PM
committee.
The document Specif ications for Powder Metallurgy
Gears, released in 1998, is the only one of its kind,
specif ically devoted to gearing. It remains a signif icant
source of published information on this subject.
Today, the AGMA PM Gearing Committee is mak-
ing large efforts to signif icantly expand 6008-A98.
When it is ready to go to the membership for ballot, it
will be the most comprehensive authority on specifying
PM gears that we know of. Here are some of the new
expansion items the committee is considering:
Similarities of some PM alloys to specific
wrought materials
In some cases, there are PM alloys that exhibit very
similar performance to steel gears.
Avoiding dangers of grease lubrication with
PM materials and how to manage and avoid
loss of lubrication
PM materials can be oil impregnable. This is a great
property, but it can be a double-edged sword. Specif ic
knowledge is required to leverage the obtainable lubri-
cation advantages in PM materials.
Possibilities and limitations of multi-cavity
tools
It is possible to make multiple parts from a single press.
However, only specif ic geometry makes this practical.
JUNE 2014 31
PM alloys and their specific appli-
cations and advantages in PM gear
performance
PM materials cover a wide range of special
alloys with unique performance with materi-
als not available any other way.
Process and treatments
Answering the question: Why would we
consider one process or treatment over the
other? Some treatments are unique to PM
components. Since mold is not generating,
specific optimization in root strength can be
realized.
Specific heat treatments/processes
and their relationship in gear perfor-
mance
Some PM treatments will give equal perfor-
mance to wrought steel alloys.
Sinter bonding: how, why, and the
major advantages
Sinter bonding basically takes to net shape
PM parts before sintering and assembles
them while in their green un-sintered
state. After sintering they become one
ridged assembly. Multi-level net shape sub-
assemblies or assemblies are possible.
Green machining
There are applications where a signif icant
advantage can be obtained by machining
geometry that cannot be pressed in a non-
sintered part.
Green inspection with a signifi-
cant emphasis on green roll testing
(double f lank inspection) and how it
relates to the sintered part quality
This is a technique specif ic to gearing to
evaluate tooling set up and general quality
and correlate it back to a f inished, hard-
ened part.
Tolerance: An index of typical length/
diameter/geometry tolerances by process
and treatment for guidance in the design
process.
Tooling: Understanding the tools that
make PM gears (a most misunderstood
area) for buyers.
Tooling: Specif ic knowledge for specify-
ing multi-level parts.
Crush ribs and special tooth densif iers for
strengthening critical areas.
Understanding and predicting section-
al density variations with multi-level
parts.
Molding integral one piece, multi-
level net shape gear & shaft/gear and
hub geometries.
Special tooling and characteristics
of PM helical gears
Helical gears are more diff icult and require
experience and understanding of design,
tooling and process. Helical gears can be
made very successfully and with excellent
accuracy.
Secondary operations
Shot peening, peening in general (vari-
ous types and how it works with PM)
Steam treat: how, why and unique
benefits
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Resin impregnation
Roll densifying: surface strengthening
increasing gear accuracy methods
Understanding Oil impregnations (typical /
special) lubricants
Rust preventativesrecommendations, uses
PM related honing, grinding and secondary
machining of sintered gears
Methods for increasing gear accuracy of
pressed & molded gears
New technologies and techniques that enhance
performance in PM gears
Statistical Process controls and Process
Capability for high volume PM
Chamfers, radii: things that should not be
done in the part design.
AGMA PUBLISHED DOCUMENTS
(ANSI/AGMA 6008-A98) Specifications for
Powder Metallurgy Gears
(AGMA 942-A12) Metallurgical Specifications
for Powder Metallurgy, PM, Steel Gearing
(AGMA 930-A05) Calculated Bending
Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy
(P/M) External Spur Gears
DOCUMENTS CURRENTLY
UNDER DEVELOPMENT
(AGMA 936-AXX) Calculated Bending
Load Capacity of Powder Metal lurgy
( P/M) External Helical Gears
( ANSI /AGMA 6 0 0 8 - AXX)
Specif ications for Powder Metallurgy
Gears Revised & Updated:
(AGMA 944-AXX) Mechanisms of
Powder Metal, PM, Gear Failures
If you or your company designs with
uses or manufactures PM gearing, the
AGMA PM committee invites you to join
the discussions and development of these
key technical documents. Active AGMA
members enjoy the wealth of knowledge,
intel ligence, expertise, and industry con-
tacts that comes with participation in
this outstanding process. For more infor-
mation, please feel free to contact Amy
Lane: Lane@AGMA.org.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Fred Eberle is a technical specialist in the development of gearing, drive motors, and power
closure devices in the automotive industry. Over the last 25 years he has worked as a gear
development engineer in the mill gearing, lawn & garden, and commercial industrial gear
manufacturers. He has a bachelors degree in mechanical engineering from the Rochester
Institute of Technology, teaches GD&T and is a certified Six Sigma Master black belt.
Eberles participation in various AGMA technical committees spans 24 years, having served
as past chairman of the Powder Metallurgy Committee, and currently on the Plastic and PM
Gearing Committees. Eberle has authored several papers on gearing, measurement system
analysis and process statistics. He can be reached at Fred_Eberle@hac.Hi-Lex.com.
JUNE 2014 33
Purchasing Gear Lubricants:
Be Careful When Playing the
Numbers Game
This 10-step process for lubricant selection makes the
process easier and more systematic, resulting in improved
equipment reliability.
By John Sander
A
AN ASSUMPTION HAS BEEN MADE THAT ANYONE READING THIS HAS A BASIC KNOWLEDGE
OF MOST GEAR TYPES AND THEIR GEOMETRIC MAKEUP. GEARS ARE A UNIQUE
APPLICATION FOR LUBRICATION IN THAT THEY PROVIDE A DIFFERENT CHALLENGE THAN
OTHER LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS.
In non-gear applications, the moving surfaces are in sliding
motion or rolling motion. Gear teeth, however, experience
both rolling and sliding motion at the same time. With these
interesting conditions in mind, the formulator has numerous
ingredients available to build a gear lubricant that provides
proper protection. See Table 1 for a list of common ingredients
used in various combinations for gear oil formulas. A formula
does not have to contain every one of these additives, and there
are multiple additives available to provide specific functions.
It is the job of the lubricant formulator to choose the proper
ingredients to provide synergistic performance in a given
application.
So, how does a formulator choose the proper ingredients
for gear oil for a specific application? To answer this question,
it might help to define how gear oils are categorized. As you
can see in Figure 1, gear oils are categorized first based upon
the application as either an open gear lubricant or an enclosed
gear lubricant. As these names would suggest, an open gear
lubricant is not enclosed in a gearbox or oil sump. As such,
open gear lubricants are generally formulated as either high
viscosity fluids or greases. This paper will focus on enclosed
gears only.
10-STEP GEAR OIL SELECTION PROCESS
For years, many have stated that when selecting a gear
lubricant, or any lubricant for that matter, one must consider
only temperature, speed and load. More recently, this advice
has been expanded to include environment. An easy way
to remember this is LETS: load, environment, temperature
and speed. While this advice is simple and memorable, it still
doesnt provide sufficient direction to make an educated deci-
sion. Instead, the following 10-step process is recommended
to anyone who is responsible for purchasing enclosed gear
lubricants.
1. Set Lubrication Goals
2. Seek Professional Advice and Consultation
3. Review OEM Recommendations, Including Compatibility
4. Determine Type of Load
5. Know Gearbox Construction and Capacity
6. Minimize Effects of Operating Environment
7. Identify Viscosity Recommendation
8. Consider Gear Speed
9. Ensure Fluid Durability for Extended Drains
10. Evaluate Price
SET LUBRICATION GOALS
As with most things in life, it is very important to have a
goal. This is even important when it comes to selecting a
gear lubricant for use in a specific piece of equipment. Most
maintenance groups have a broad goal of increasing the reli-
ability of the equipment for which they are responsible. In
trying to improve reliability, one thing that is often reviewed
is uptime. The higher the percentage of uptime, the more
reliable it is considered. Lubrication has often been traced to
reliability. Also, many maintenance individuals would like to
reduce the amount of time they have to spend performing
lubricant-related maintenance projects. High-performance
lubricants are available that can be used to help improve reli-
ability. Lubrication has also been traced to improved energy
efficiency, an area that has been given much attention in
recent years. Improved heat removal and friction reduc-
tion in a gear application can result in decreased energy
consumption.
Figure 1: Gear Oil Categories
Figure 1: Gear oil categories.
JUNE 2014 35
So the question remains, what is the goal
for selecting a gear lubricant for a specific
application? Is the one currently in use not
performing as needed? Is there a desire to
change from one supplier to another? Is it
a new piece of equipment that needs to be
filled for the first time? Are there availability
issues with the lubricant currently in use?
Does the company have an edict to reduce
energy consumption? Is there a desire to
increase the maintenance intervals? Goals
must be personalized and they must be spe-
cific. Without a specific goal, there is little
reason to push ahead to steps 2-10.
SEEK PROFESSIONAL ADVICE
AND CONSULTATION
Ideally, a lubricant sales professional or con-
sultant is available to serve as a value-added
member of the team. It used to be that many
companies would employ a lubrication engi-
neer or at the very least have a person whose
job was focused on equipment lubrication.
Today, most maintenance departments have
been forced to work with fewer people. As a
result, a lubrication specialist on staff is con-
sidered a luxury. Instead, lubrication duties
have been added to the existing workload
of maintenance staff. As a result, time spent
on improving equipment reliability through
lubrication has been decreased.
The gear purchasing process should start
with evaluating the experience, knowledge
and services offered by the individual or com-
pany providing the lubricants. Today, groups
like the International Council for Machinery
Lubrication and the Society of Lubrication
Engineers offer certification programs for
lubrication professionals. It is a good idea to
ask your lube provider whether they or some-
body on their support staff has been certified
by one of these organizations. If all your
potential gear lubricant supplier can provide
is a price list and specification sheet, it should
raise an immediate red f lag. The price paid
for the lubricant should include the physical
lubricant as well as professional service to go
along with it. Ray Thibault, lubricant consul-
tant, trainer and author, provides this great
segue from step 2 to step 3:
While a product data sheet provides useful
information, the true test of gear oil is how it
works in the system. Adhere to OEM guide-
lines and consult your lubricant supplier for
further information. (1)
Review OEM Recommendations,
Including Compatibility
The next step is to consider the recommenda-
tions of the original manufacturer of the gear
equipment. Ask any potential gear oil suppliers
if they are able to provide evidence that their
products are either approved by, or meet the
requirements of, the OEM.
Often the OEM has determinedthrough
field experience or extensive testingwhat the
lubricant requirements are for the equipment.
Some will publish a specification that lists the
physical and performance requirements for the
gear lubricants. Some gear OEMs even take it
a step further by creating their own approval
system, including approvals and the publication
of a list of approved products. It is important
to become familiar with these specifications or
approval lists so as not to void any warranties
provided by the OEM and to maximize the
reliability of the equipment.
Many lubricant purchasers fail to consid-
er the compatibility of the lubricant with the
equipment in which it is going to be installed.
Some OEMs use coatings or paints to pro-
tect the insides of a gearbox from corrosion.
Unfortunately, some lubricants can compromise
these coatings. Another compatibility issue can
be the use of certain elastomeric seals in a gear-
box. If the lubricant is incompatible with these
elastomers, the seals could start leaking. If not
caught soon enough, these leaks can result in
lubricant starvation if too much fluid escapes
from the unit. Oil leaks also can result in safety
issues if the oil collects where it causes a slip
hazard.
Based upon specific end uses of a gearbox,
there are circumstances in which the OEM-
recommended oil does not provide adequate
protection. In these cases, it is extremely impor-
tant that the professional advisor mentioned in
step 2 be consulted for other recommendations,
and that proper testing be conducted to ensure
a successful change to a new, better-performing
product.
Determine Type of Load
Figure 1 illustrates how gear oils are charac-
terized according to their formulation and/or
usage application. It especially shows how indus-
trial gear oils are characterized according to
their additive type, specifically the wear-related
chemistry used. For example, a gear lubricant
may be described as R & O, EP or AW. Certain
enclosed gear applications have little to no load
applied. The appropriate oil in this case might
be R & O oil only. As the amount of loading
increases, so will the amount of metal-to-metal
contact between the gears. For gears operating
in the mixed film wear regime, AW oil may be
needed, while for those operating in the bound-
ary regime, EP oil may be needed.
Sometimes the OEM specifically describes
the type needed either in the equipment users
manual or on a plate attached directly to the
gearbox itself. If not, then it is up to the user
to determine whether the application subjects
the gearbox to either heavy loads or shock
loads during operation. In that case, it will
require EP oil that contains active sulfur and
phosphorous compounds that form a protective
Ingredient Functon
Base Fluid Mineral oil or synthetic uid (PAO, ester, PAG) makes up 50-98% of the formula.
Viscosity Modiers
Viscosity index improvers or polybutene polymers used to increase the base uid viscosity; becoming very common today
to replace high viscosity bright stocks often used in gear oil formulas.
Rust & Oxidation
Inhibitors (R&O)
Rust inhibitors coat metal surfaces to protect against rusting. Oxidation inhibitors defend the
oil against degradation due to reactions with oxygen in the air when the lubricant is exposed to
elevated temperatures.
Copper Deactivators
Gear systems can contain some yellow, copper-containing metal elements that can be tarnished by gear oil ingredients.
These additives protect the metal.
Anti-wear Additives
(AW)
Some gear applications operate in the mixed lm lubrication regime, meaning slight metal-to-metal contact. The base uid
isnt sufcient to protect the surfaces from wear, so additives are included to form a sacricial surface that decreases the
friction between two metal surfaces.
Extreme Pressure
(EP)
Heavily loaded gear applications can operate in the boundary wear regime, meaning the oil lm
is squeezed out completely. EP additives put down an aggressive coating that carries the load and
protects the metal surfaces in lieu of the lost oil lm.
Dispersants
These surface-active additives grab onto and disperse contaminants in bulk oil so that they do not collect in the
gearbox, but instead can be carried to the oil lter for removal. They are used more often in automotive gear oil than
in industrial gear oil.
Emulsiers
These are not common, but some gear oils are formulated to mix with water and stay mixed, such as when water
contamination is impossible to avoid.
Demulsiers Surface-modifying components are used to promote the separation of water.
Defoamants
Surface-tension-reducing polymeric compounds are used to inhibit the formation of foam on the surface of the oil
that could result in housekeeping, oxidation and wear issues.
Tackiers Sticky polymers with high molecular weight are added to increase a gear oils ability to climb and cling to gears.
Solid Lubricants
These are not common in lower viscosity enclosed gear applications, but are often used for lubrication of open
gears. EP additives lay down a layer of solids that keep the metal surfaces from rubbing. Common examples include
molybdenum disulde and graphite.
Pour Point
Depressants
Polymeric ingredients are added to modify wax crystals that form in oils at low temperatures. They keep the oil from
gelling up, thereby expanding the oils operability range on the low end.
Compounding
Additives
A vegetable or animal fatty acid is put into formulations as a friction modier in formulas for gear applications
sensitive to most EP additives.
Table 1: Gear oil ingredients.
36 gearsolutions.com
chemical layer on the gear surfaces when the
fluid is compressed out of the meshed gears. In
extreme loading cases, it might be helpful
to use gear lubricant that contains solid EP
additives. However, it is important to note
whether fine filtration is in use, because it
can remove solid additives and make this
specific product ineffective. Some OEMs
specifically recommend against the use of
solid additives, so it is important to know
this.
Know Gearbox Construction
and Capacity
A gearbox contains various components,
includingbut not limited tothe case,
gears, bearings, shafts and seals. The con-
struction of the gearbox, including its geo-
metric configuration, is often contingent
upon how the gearbox is required to trans-
mit power within the given application. As
described by Tim Cooper of Lubrizol:
Todays gearboxes often are smaller and
made from new materialsthey are getting
pushed to produce more power and at the
same time be more durable and reliable than
before. To meet these increasing demands,
todays industrial gear oil must contain high
performance additive chemistry (2)
You must know the construction of the
gearbox and use this information as part of
the lubricant selection process. This includes
the metallurgies, gear geometries and the
cuts of the gears (rough or smooth). Table 2
illustrates the part that gear geometry plays
in the lubricant selection process.
The gearbox capacity is a subcategory of
construction that merits its own discussion. As
noted previously by Cooper, many gearboxes
are getting smaller. In a small gearbox, less
oil is present. As such, it could run hotter, be
sheared more by the gears and be affected more
dramatically by contamination. The corollary
is that in a large box, the oil may circulate
less, run much cooler and last much longer.
Although this sounds like an endorsement for
larger gearboxes, they are not suitableor even
possiblewith some applications.
Many lubricant additives activate at cer-
tain temperatures. With that in mind, it is
possible that a large gear set might experi-
ence elevated wear because the oil never gets
hot enough for the additives to activate. On
the other hand, the wrong additive system
employed in a small, hot gearbox could
result in an aggressive gear additive pre-
maturely activating, oxidizing and leaving
Solid Lubricant
Grease
Oil
Decreasing viscosity
Gas
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

S
p
e
e
d
(
i
.
e
.

c
o
n
t
a
c
t

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
)
Figure 2: Effect of speed and load on lubricant
selection.
Wenzel America, Ltd. 28700 Beck Rd. Wixom, Michigan 48393 Phone 248.295.4300 www.wenzelamerica.com
New Value for
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Specifically designed for the
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gears, up to a maximum diameter
of 280 mm. Because of its compact
construction and small footprint it can be
easily integrated into existing processes.
The easy access measuring volume allows
for simple loading and operation of the
measuring system making the WGT 280 ideal for
the use of automated loading systems.
The high-precision rotary table can be loaded with parts weighing up to 50 kg.
Equipped with the Renishaw SP 600 standard.
Allows for measurements in a Z range of up to 500 mm.
Can be equipped with a tail stock for accurate measurement of shafts.
JUNE 2014 37
behind deposits. The oil capacity of the gearbox can have a dramatic
effect on the gear oil. As such, capacity must be considered as a part
of the selection process. Also, if the goal determined in step 1 was to
extend the interval between lubricant drains, the size of the gearbox
case is very important. The more lubricant there is in the gear case,
the more additive reserves there are to extend the life of the lubricant.
MINIMIZE EFFECTS OF OPERATING
ENVIRONMENT
A gearbox could be operating in an environment that is hot, cold,
dusty, wet or various combinations of these conditions, all of which
can have significant effects on the gearbox. To minimize these
effects, you can take precautions such as using air breathers, sight
glasses and filtration devices. The lubricant itself also may be
required to compensate for some of the challenges caused by the
operating conditions.
a) Extreme Temperatures
For an application operating at either extremely high or low tem-
peratures, it may be necessary to choose a synthetic-based lubricant
instead of a mineral-oil-based lubricant. For low temperatures, oil
should have a pour point that is 5C (9F) below the startup tem-
perature. Operating temperatures can also determine the chemistry
needed in the gear oil. Very aggressive EP gear oils might result in
heavy deposit formation in the gearbox during operation. Non-EP oil
used in an EP oil application can result in high oil temperatures due
to excess frictional heating of the oil.
b) Particulate Contamination
In a coal or rock crushing plant, it is inevitable that dust and dirt will
be in the air, and it is very difficult to keep the particles from finding
their way into the gear oil. Filterable gear oil would allow filtration to
remove harmful contaminants without removing valuable additives.
Lubricant
Chemistry
Gear Geometry Type
Spur Helical Worm Bevel Hypoid
R & O inhibited
Normal loads Normal loads
Light loads & slow
speeds only
Normal loads Not recommended
EP gear lube
Heavy or
shock loading
Heavy or
shock loading
Satisfactory
for use in most
applications
Heavy or
shock loading
Specied
for most
applications
Compounded
Not normally used Not normally used
Preferred by most
OEMs
Not normally used
Lightly loaded
applications
Synthetc
Heavy or shock loading
and/ or extreme temps
Heavy or shock loading
and/ or extreme temps
Heavy or shock loading
and/ or extreme temps
Heavy or shock loading
and/ or extreme temps
Heavy or shock loading
and/ or extreme temps
Table 2: Effect of gear type on lubricant chemistry selection.
38 gearsolutions.com
c) Water Contamination
In water treatment facilities, it is nearly impossible to keep water out of
some gearboxes, making it extremely important to choose a gear lubri-
cant with excellent water separation properties.
IDENTIFY VISCOSITY RECOMMENDATION
The viscosity of a gear lubricant is a measurement of its ability to flow in
an application. This is a very important consideration in selecting gear oil.
If the oil is too thick, it will not flow into the gear contact zones. If the oil is
too thin, it will be compressed out of the contact zones or fling off the gears
while they are in motion. In either case, lubricant starvation will occur,
which can result in premature wear-related failures. The primary means
of gear lubricant selection, with regard to viscosity, is to use the OEM
requirement. If an OEM recommendation is not available, there are two
other methods to obtain viscosity recommendations. The first is to use the
viscosity ranges recommended by the American Gear Manufacturers
Association, per its 9005-E02 standard (3), illustrated in Table 3.
The second method is attributed to renowned gear expert Robert
Erricello (4), and is based upon a calculation method that employs the
following equation:
V
40
= 7000 / V1
Where V
40
is the viscosity at 40C, in cSt
V
1
= pitchline velocity of the lowest speed gear in the gearbox in feet
per minute = 0.262 X speed (pinion rpm) X pinion diameter (inches)
If there is no oil cooler on the industrial gear drive, it is best to deter-
mine the maximum expected ambient temperature during operation
and:
a. Increase one ISO viscosity grade if the ambient temperature exceeds
35C (95F).
b. Increase two ISO viscosity grades if the ambient temperature exceeds
50C (122F). If there is an oil cooler, the maximum ambient tempera-
ture is less important because the oils temperature can be controlled.
Therefore, the oils temperature should determine the viscosity.
c. Increase one ISO viscosity grade if the oil temperature exceeds 65C
(150F).
d. Increase two ISO viscosity grades if the oil temperature exceeds 85C
(185F).
If the oil temperature exceeds 90C (194F), use a cooler such as a fan
or a heat exchanger. (5)
CONSIDER GEAR SPEED
Viscosity often is related proportionally to the speed at which the gearbox
is operating. The general belief is that high-speed applications require
low-viscosity lubricants, and low-speed applications require high-viscosity
lubricants. AGMA provided a general guideline in its 9005-94 specifica-
tion, which can serve a good rule of thumb. When referring to its viscosity
grades shown in Table 3, AGMA 9005-94 states:
These guidelines are directly applicable to gears that operate at or
below 3,600 revolutions per minute, or a pitchline velocity of not more
than 40 meters per second (8,000 feet per minute) and worm gears
that operate at or below 2,400 rpm worm speed or 10 meters per second
(2,000 feet per minute) sliding velocity. (6) Anything above these gear
speeds is considered a high-speed gear, and it is best to consult the OEM
recommendations for lubricant recommendations. Figure 2 is a simple
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JUNE 2014 39
schematic that summarizes how load, speed and
viscosity come together during the lubricant
selection process. (7)
ENSURE FLUID DURABILITY FOR
EXTENDED DRAINS
Today, people are realizing that there is a
hidden cost to using inexpensive, lower perfor-
mance lubricants. The less time a lubricant lasts
during service, the more maintenance it takes to
change the lubricant. In addition, the more fre-
quently the lubricant is changed, the more waste
lubricant there is to be disposed. While there
are plenty of companies specializing in waste oil
disposal, they do charge for their services. With
these hidden costs in mind, many users are look-
ing to extend their drain intervals.
Gear oil durability requires that a proper
synergy exists between the base fluids and
additives chosen for the gear product. The user
must consider the gearbox application to know
what type of stresses it will put on the lubricant.
Improper selection will accelerate the demise of
the lubricants physical and chemical properties.
For example, as mentioned in step 6, filtration
tools can overcome some of the issues caused
by the operating environment. However, filters
also might remove some of the additives, such as
tackifiers and defoamants. Consult the manu-
facturer of the gear lubricant to verify if it has
experience in these cases. If not, request testing
or continue searching for another supplier.
EVALUATE PRICE
Evaluating the price is the last step in this pro-
cess for a reason. Unfortunately, many gear oil
purchasers evaluate price first, and sometimes it
is the only number they evaluate. This can be
AGMA Number
ISO Grade
Equivalent
Kinematc Viscosity
at 40C min / max cSt
Kinematc
Viscosity
at 100C min / max cSt
0, 0S 32 28.8 / 35.2 - / -
1, 1S 46 41.4 / 50.6 - / -
2, 2EP, 2S 68 61.2 / 74.8 - / -
3, 3EP, 3S 100 90 / 110 - / -
4, 4EP, 4S 150 135 / 165 - / -
5, 5EP, 5S 220 198 / 242 - / -
6, 6EP,6S 320 288 / 352 - / -
7, 7 Comp, 7EP, 7S 460 141 / 506 - / -
8, 8 Comp, 8EP, 8S 680 612 / 748 - / -
8A Comp, 8A EP 1000 900 / 1100 - / -
9, 9EP, 9S 1500 1350 / 1650 - / -
10, 10EP, 10S - 2880 / 3520 - / -
11, 11EP, 11S - 1440 / 5060 - / -
12, 12EP, 12S - 6120 / 7480 - / -
13, 13EP, 13S - - 190 / 220
14R - - 428.5 / 857.0
15R - - 857.0 / 1714.0
Table 3: AGMA viscosity grades for gear oils.
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a costly mistake. According to Mike Johnson,
lubrication consultant, trainer and author:
Performance lubricants are often not con-
sidered for use because of price objections.
Maintenance costs range from 5-15% of a
plants cost of manufacturing, depending upon
the industry. Lubricant purchases represent only
1-3% of maintenance expenses. Yet, the portion
of the budget that can be directly impacted
by lubricant expenditures can represent about
35% (20% from parts replacement, plus 15%
from lube program routine and overtime repair
labor). The cost-to-cost leverage factor for lubri-
cant savings opportunity vs. lubricant expense is
an astounding 35:1. Investment in either process
or product improvements can produce returns
at several hundred percent investment with just
a little effort. See Figure 3 for an illustration of
this breakdown. (8)
While consideration of price is a valid part of
the lubricant selection process, it should always
be the last step. By the time steps 1-9 have been
completed, it is likely that the most appropriate
lubricant for the gear application has become
apparent. Yet, if there are still several products
that appear to be equivalent, then price should
play into the selection process. The highest
priced lubricant is not necessarily the best for
a given application. For example, if a gearbox
has leaking problems, it is not likely that an
expensive synthetic lubricant will provide value.
On the flip side, this does not mean you should
purchase the least expensive gear oil and ignore
the leaking gearbox. In a case such as this, it is
a maintenance issue and not a lubricant issue.
As described by Mr. Johnson, leaving a prob-
lem like this unresolved can cost the company
much more in the long run than initiating good
maintenance practices and choosing high per-
formance lubrication products.
IMPORTANT NUMBERS
Assuming that steps 1-10 have been considered
and the final decision comes down to a com-
parison of data sheets, the question still remains,
what numbers should one consider important?
A review of various gear lubricant suppliers
data sheets will show that there can be dramatic
differences between the claims made. Without
knowledge, the tendency might be to go with
the product with the most numbers and OEM
claims on the data sheet. While this shows that
the supplier was willing to put a sizeable invest-
ment into product development testing, it still
doesnt necessarily prove that one product is bet-
ter than the other for the application. Be wary
of the lubricant sales person who just points out
one specific data point and emphasizes this for
the sale. There are other factors that affect the
significance of those numbers, such as applica-
bility to the application, test precision and units
portrayed. Lets take a look at just a few.
Many companies will show the Timken
testASTM D2782 (9). What is not widely
known outside of the laboratory is the precision
of this test. Most ASTM test methods include
a repeatability and reproducibility statement.
Repeatability is a measure of error between
multiple test runs, on the same sample, by the
same operator running the same instrument,
while reproducibility is the error between mul-
tiple test runs conducted on the same sample
by different operators on different instruments.
Next, it is a good idea to pay close attention to
the units reported on a product data sheet. Once
again using the fictitious 50-lb Timken result, a
lab in the U.S. might report that data as 50 lb,
while a lab in Europe might present it in metric
units as 22.6 Kg. Both of these are correct, but
the U.S. lab number looks much higher. One
might mistake the U.S. result as a better result
when they are actually the exact same number.
As a sideline to this, there are various standards
groups active throughout the world. They might
publish very similar methods, yet there can be
subtle differences. One cannot just assume that
results published using the same instrument are
Applicaton
Lubricant
Feature
Common Tests Optmal Results
All
OEM Approvals
Check for any approval that
is required.
All
Viscosity
Viscosity, ASTM D445 varies by grade
Viscosity-Brookeld, ASTM D2983 varies by grade
Extreme temps (extremely low startup:
<-26C (-15F) or continued exposure to
extremely high: >82C (180F))
Synthetic NA NA
Lightly loaded or
high-temp operation
R & O
Oxidation @121C, ASTM D2893B <6 max
Oxidation Rig Test, viscosity increase, L60-1 <100%
Rust Test, ASTM D665B pass
Light-to-medium loading Anti-Wear (AW) Four-Ball Wear, ASTM D4172 <0.50 mm
Medium-to-heavy loading
Extreme
Pressure (EP)
Four-Ball EP Weld Point, ASTM D2783 250 Kg
Four-Ball EP LWI, ASTM D2783 >60
FZG Scufng, DIN 51354 >12
FVA 54 Micropitting Load Stage >10
Timken OK Load, ASTM D2782 >60 lb min
Release of air for lubrication or
housekeeping issues
Anti-Foaming
Foaming Characteristics, ASTM D892 0/0/0
Flender Foam Test <10% increase
Water removal when necessary Water
Separability
Emulsion Characteristics @ 82C, ASTM
D1401 40-40-0 / 10
Demulsibility Characteristics EP, ASTM
D2711B
Max 2% H
2
0 in oil,
80 ml free H
2
0,
1 ml of emulsion
Rust or yellow metal protection Anti-Corrosive
Rust Test, ASTM D665B pass
Copper Corrosion, ASTM D130 1a or 1b
Table 4: Important information contained in product data sheets.
JUNE 2014 41
comparable, because the various methods used
can cause differences in results. For example, an
ASTM method might produce different results
than an ISO method on the same instrument.
There are two common corrosion tests used
within the lubricant industry: ASTM D665
(10) and ASTM D130 (11). Both have nuances,
depending upon the application. The D665
has an A and B version of the test method.
The A version uses deionized water for the
testing, while the B version uses standard salt-
water. Traditionally, the saltwater version is
more severe, so when considering results one
should ensure that the same test conditions were
employed. The D130 test employs two different
test temperatures. This can make a big dif-
ference depending upon the EP package used
in the gear oils formulation. The same result
published on two competitive data sheets might
not mean the same thing if the temperature is
not published.
The gear lubricant features that should be
evaluated when comparing data sheets depends
upon the application. See Table 4 for a list
of common lubricant features cross-referenced
with application conditions and optimal test
results indicating a lubricants suitability for that
application.
While the lubricant industry is considered a
relatively mature industry, there are still areas of
active research. The leading edge for lubricant
manufacturers is to formulate products that
can be used in the challenging wind turbine
gearbox applications. Over the years, wind tur-
bine OEMs have found that their gear sets are
notorious for micropitting, also sometimes called
fatigue scoring, flecking, frosting, glazing, gray
staining, microspalling, peeling or superficial
spalling.
Erichello describes it like this: Micropitting is
surface fatigue occurring in Hertzian contacts,
caused by cyclic contact stresses and plastic
flow on the asperity scale that results in micro-
cracking, formation of micropits and loss of
material. (12)
The FVA 54 test evaluates this phenomenon.
This test, which is specific to base fluid, viscosity
and additive chemistry, is not easy to pass. This
is why some wind turbine OEMs have come
to respect the data from this test and have now
incorporated it into their specifications. Several
OEMs also require a passing result for their
general industrial gear specifications.
CONCLUSION
Several resources are available to help the end
user select the right gear lubricant. Some have
focused only on speed, temperature and load,
while others have added operating environment
to the mix. Still others have added lubricant
and equipment compatibility. All of these tend
to confuse the end user. The result is that many
end users look to their lubricant suppliers for
assistance. This is a good plan, but can some-
times result in a mere comparison of price or
Figure 3: Typical Maintenance Budget Divisions
OT Labor
15%
Misc. Materials
12-14%
Components
40%
Lubricants
1-3%
Labor
30%
Figure 3: Typical maintenance budget divisions.
42 gearsolutions.com
data sheet numbersin other words, a numbers
game. Instead, try using this 10-step process
for lubricant selection to make the process eas-
ier and more systematic, resulting in improved
equipment reliability. Remember: Be careful
when playing the numbers game. Most players
end up losing.


REFERENCES
1. Thibault, R., Certification Matters: Part
III Gearbox Principles and Lubrication.
Lubrication Management and Technology,
Applied Technology Publications, Barrington,
IL, July/August 2011.
2. Cooper, T., Selecting the Right Industrial
Gear Oil, Machinery Lubrication, Noria
Corporation, Tulsa, OK, November 2008.
3. American Gear Manufacturers Association,
American National Standard Industrial
Gear Lubrication ANSI/AGMA 9005- E02,
American Gear Manufacturers Association,
Alexandria, GA, 2002.
4. Errichello, R., Selecting and Applying
Lubricants to Avoid Micropitting of Gear
Teeth. Machinery Lubrication, Noria
Corporation, November 2002.
5. Ludwig, L. G., Lubrication Selection
for Enclosed Gear Drives, Machinery
Lubrication, Noria Corporation, Tulsa, OK,
November 2008.
6. American Gear Manufacturers Association,
American National Standard Industrial
Gear Lubrication ANSI/AGMA 9005- D94,
American Gear Manufacturers Association,
Alexandria, GA, 1994.LE WHITE PAPER
Purchasing Gear Lubricants: Be Careful
When Playing the Numbers Game 12 2011
Lubrication Engineers, Inc.
7. Lansdown, A. R., Lubrication and Lubricant
Selection: A Practical Guide, Mechanical
Engineering Publications, London, 1996.
8. Johnson, M., High-Performance Lubricants:
Cost vs. Performance, Tribology and
Lubrication Technology, Society of
Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, Park
Ridge, IL, May 2010.
9. ASTM International, D2782 Standard
Test Method for Measurement of Extreme-
Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids,
Conshohocken, PA, 2011.
10. ASTM International, D665 Standard Test
Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics
of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of
Water, Conshohocken, PA, 2011.
11. ASTM International, D130 Standard Test
Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from
Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test,
Conshohocken, PA, 2011.
12. Errichello, R., Selecting and Applying
Lubricants to Avoid Micropitting of Gear
Teeth. Machinery Lubrication, Noria
Corporation, November 2002.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
John Sander has a BS in chemistry from
Wichita State University and an MS
in environmental science from Friends
University. In 1989 he began his career
at Lubrication Engineers, where he has
been responsible for a variety of lubri-
cant quality, formulation and testing
activities. He is an STLE-certified lubri-
cating specialist, and his memberships
include SAE, NLGI, ACS and STLE. He
has authored or co-authored 20+ tech-
nical and marketing papers and one
book chapter. He is a past winner of the
NLGI Authors Award.
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JUNE 2014 43
Uncover Hidden Potentials
in Hobbing
Successful applications for the G90 in hobbing combined
with the calculation of total lifetime costs of the hobs.
By Dr. Friedrich Momper
C
COMPANIES IN TODAYS COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT ARE ALWAYS LOOKING FOR
OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THEIR MANUFACTURING PRODUCTIVITY. TURNING, MILLING,
AND DRILLING OPERATIONS UTILIZING THROWAWAY INSERT SOLUTIONS ALLOW EASY
REPLACEMENT WITH A MORE ECONOMICAL ONE.
In the gear hobbing process, the majority
of the tools are reconditioned to achieve
the best utilization and cost-effectiveness
of an expensive tool. Reconditioning
includes a proper regrinding, recoating,
and post-treatment process to generate
the same tool performance as compared
to a new tool.
The recent introduction of new tool
material, G90, closes the performance
gap between HSS materials and tungsten
carbide. The experience gained in manu-
facturing hobs with this new substrate can
also be transferred to the reconditioning
process in order to deliver the same or
nearly the same performance level as the
original tool.
This article will explain successful
applications in hobbing combined with
the calculation of total lifetime costs of
the hobs. Even if the initial costs range
from 30 to 40% higher compared to the
traditionally used powder metallurgy high
speed steels, the utilization of the G90
material will save up to 25% in produc-
tion costs.
POTENTIALS TO IMPROVE
THE HOBBING PROCESS
The requirements to design and manu-
facture gear sets often compete with each
other. Shorter cutting times combined
with longer cutting tool life often cannot
be realized even when using the latest
state-of-the-art cutting tool materials and
coatings. The boundaries presented by
the requirements of finished gears are
limiting the available options to increase
hob performance in green machining.
In gear manufacturing, the selection
of the cutting tool material is still a rela-
tively simple process. In more than 80%
of the instances, customers will choose
PM-HSS (powder metallurgical high
speed steel) combined with PVD (physi-
cal vapor deposition) coatings, while 20%
of the customers select solid carbide hobs.
The switch to tungsten carbide based
substrates and optimized coatings have
not transferred to the gear cutting world.
Hob performance can be optimized by
the application of geometrical factors like
the number of gashes or number of starts.
Fine tuning options like edge preparation
or pre- and post-treatment of coatings of
the hob are applied to keep the perfor-
mance of hobs on a high level (Figure 1).
All these process steps are realized dur-
ing the manufacturing of a new hob. But
what is happening during the recondition-
ing (regrinding and recoating) of hobs?
The customer has experienced a long tool
life with the new tool. Will the customer
receive the same performance with a
reconditioned hob? Hobs reconditioned
by the manufacturer will guarantee that
the same process steps will be applied
during the regrinding and the recoating
process. The number of reconditioning
cycles is another important factor, which
determines the performance of a hob.
The total life cycle costs are divided by the
number of gears being manufactured
present the effect of a more expensive
tool with a higher tool life compared to a
traditional hob (Figure 2).
DEVELOPMENT OF G90
MATERIAL
The G90 cutting tool material is clos-
ing the gap between traditional PM-HSS
Figure 1: Factors influencing hob performance
Figure 2: Total life cycle costs of a hob
Figure 3: Composition and microstructure
of G90
JUNE 2014 45
materials and high performance solid carbide
materials. One advantage of G90 is a higher
hardness at elevated temperatures. The strength
of the material is comparable to traditional
PM-HSS materials used in the industry. The
microstructure of G90 is quite different from
PM-HSS materials, where the hardness is built-
up by metal-carbides like vanadium-carbide,
chromium-carbide, and tungsten-carbide
(Figure 3). In the case of G90, the hardness of
the material is achieved by secondary hardening
of the -phase (compared to an internal densifi-
cation) during the heat treatment process.
The higher hot hardness of the material can
be translated into the utilization at higher cut-
ting speeds common in gear hobbing applica-
tions.
The schematic diagram Cutting Length vs.
Cutting Diagram explains the ability to increase
the cutting speed by at least 30% (Figure 4).
High cutting speeds will create a crater wear on
the hob teeth. Because of the higher hot hard-
ness of G90, the crater wear will start at a later
stage of the tool life. Many customers are look-
ing for a constant tool life e.g. of 5m. Taking this
target for the tool life, the G90 material would
allow a 30% to 50% increase in tool life. In all
cases, the Gleason Alcronite

Pro coating was


applied.
The data collected during the first initial tests
encouraged Gleason to move forward in testing
the G90 material. In the specific case of an auto-
motive customer, which was machining small
gears at 160 m/min (480 sfm), 1,800 parts were
machined per reconditioning. G90 allowed with
cutting speed of 240 m/min (720 sfm) to manu-
facture 2,000 parts per reconditioning (Figure
5). Even with higher costs of G90 compared
to the PM-HSS material, the tooling costs per
gear are at the same level. In total the customer
could manufacture 35% more parts per shift.
By using G90 customers could gain additional
capacity on their existing machines. G90 allows
customers to significantly increase their tool life.
In this case the customer is using a G10 mate-
rial (comparable to cast HSS-material) (Figure
6). With G90 the customer could increase the
number of pieces by a factor of 2.5. In the case
of G10, tool life was determined by chipping of
the teeth. In case of G90 the cutting teeth show
a regular flank wear and a smooth crater wear
on the rake face.
In all cases, where the customer is looking to
increase the tool life, the calculation of the man-
ufacturing costs per gear is the key to evaluating
the economics for G90. In this specific case the
cost (price) difference between G10 and G90 is
80%, at first glance a real disadvantage for the
new cutting tool material (Figure 7).
Referring to the diagram of reconditioning
(Figure 2) the total life cycle costs for a hob has
to be calculated. The G90 material allows at
least 12 reconditioning cycles. During this life
time the G90 hob manufactures 57,600 gears
compared to 21,600 gears with G10. The total
savings in this case is more than 50% in tool-
ing costs per gear. One might translate this
result into the total number of hobs used in his
production. The savings by using G90, where
it is applicable will uncover big potential for
additional savings.
SUMMARY
During the last decade the development efforts
were on a low level, on the other hand the
PM-HSS materials are facing a strong competi-
tion by solid carbide hobs in many applications.
The answer to this challenge is G90, which is
closing the performance gap between solid car-
bide hobs and the traditional PM-HSS materi-
als. The results presented in this paper should
provide some ideas to our customers how to
uncover hidden potentials in gear hobbing.


Figure 6: G90 used to increase tool life
Figure 7: Potential for savings with G90
Figure 4: Schematic diagram length per tooth vs. cutting speed
Figure 5: G90 used with increased cutting speeds
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Friedrich (Fred) Momper has a PhD in
Engineering and has worked for many years
in R&D and manufacturing of cutting tools.
He has over 15 experience years in sales
and marketing of cutting tools, as well as
gear cutting tools. He has been with Gleason
for three years, and he is responsible for the
sales of Gleason tooling in Europe.
46 gearsolutions.com
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860 Connor Street

Statesville, NC 28677
F: 704.872.5777

sales@rpmachine.com

www.rpmachine.com
866.256.3708
USED
Fellows Remanufactured
Service
Keep pace with technology advances - without the expense of buy-
ing new equipment - with our full line of Fellows remanufactured
CNC gear shapers. These gear shapers are completely remanufac-
tured using the latest components from manufacturers such as
Heidenhain, FANUC, Allen Bradley, and many others. Each machine
is equipped with a new reliable CNC control with all the latest tech-
nology. These solid core machines are brought up to date with many
additional options available. Each machine is remanufactured to
your individual part requirements.
At R.P. Machine, we understand that its about more than
supplying gear machines. Thats why we provide a wide
range of service on many types of machine tools. Our state-
of-the-art facility and experienced staff allow us to handle
service of all sizes. Our service abilities do not stop at just
gear equipment, we can also assist you with machines
such as large capacity lathes and mills, no matter the
size. We offer preventive maintenance packages, rebuild-
ing and corrective service, retrotting, machine and plant
relocation, training, and replacement parts. Our goal is to
provide the highest quality of service so each of our cus-
tomers can achieve their maximum production potential.
We understand each of our customers have unique gear cut-
ting requirements, that is why we carry such a large gear
machine inventory. We carry such brands as Gleason, G&E,
Fellows, Barber Colman, Liebherr, Pfauter, and many more.
You will nd hundreds of machines on our website at all
times; from gear cutting machines to nishing and inspec-
tion machines. Dont forget, if you cant nd what you need
on our website, let us know and we can try and nd it for you.
Hera
Our line of new Hera cnc gear hobbers, manufactured by Yunil
Machinery Mfg. Co., combines high quality and efciency with
affordable pricing. Since its inception in 1963, Yunil Machinery
has specialized in the manufacturing of gear machines. Their 6
axis gear hobbing machine has been the most favored product,
globally. Based on 40 years of knowledge and experience, Yunil
developed the HERA series CNC hobbing machine line. The com-
bination of quality components, exceptional craftsmanship, and
exibility in design make this full line of horizontal and vertical
machines tough to beat.


860 Connor Street

Statesville, NC 28677
F: 704.872.5777

sales@rpmachine.com

www.rpmachine.com
866.256.3708
G&E
Gould & Eberhardt is a pioneer in
highspeed gear gashing with large
diameter carbide-inserted cutters. Our new
line of machines has a rigid design and
heads engineered with state of the art gear
gashing cutter technology. The exceptional
results achieved in gear gashing
technology have opened a wide range
of applications for gear cutting in wind
energy, mining, off highway construction
and other coarse pitch gearing.
Since its establishment in 1972, Tokyo Technical Instruments
Inc. (TTi) has been dedicated to the manufacturing of gear
measuring instruments. We are proud to be the ofcial North
American distributor of this extensive line of inspection equip-
ment. The TTi line of gear inspection equipment can be found
in manufacturing facilities all over the world, proven to be high
quality and long lasting machines. TTi maintains their products
from the development of the program software to the aftercare
maintenance. With patented software and components, the TTi
product line is sure to become the industry leader.
TTi
50 gearsolutions.com
GEAR ACCESSORIES, PARTS & TOOLING
FELLOWS Model #10-4/10-2, All Parts Available REF#102
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G&E #60 S-2 CNC Gasher/Hobber REF#103
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MUIR CNC Gear Hobber, 4-Axis, 118 Dia REF#103
LIEBHERR #L-252 3-Axis, 9.8 Dia, recontrolled 2008 REF#103
LIEBHERR #ET-1802 CNC 98 Dia Internal, 3-Axis REF#103
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PFAUTER P400H, 5-Axis, 18 Dia, 1 DP, Recontrolled 03 REF#103
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BARBER-COLMAN #16-16, Multi-Cycle, Dual Thread Worm and/or Single Thread Worm
REF#103
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BARBER-COLMAN #16-56, 16 Dia, 56 Face, Differential REF#103
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BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2 -4, S/N 119, 62 Hi-Production Spur Gear REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 SYKES, Triple Thrd w/Lever Operated Collet Assy REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 B&C Ltd, S/N 8079, Triple Thrd REF#104
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REF#104
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REF#103
GEAR HOBBERS
Barber Colman Model 4-4HRS, Hob Sharpener 4 Max OD, 4 Length REF#103
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FEATUREDSUPPLIERS
Midwest Gear Corporation REF #101
Phone: 330-425-4419 Fax: 330-425-8600
Email: sales@mwgear.com
Website: www.mwgear.com
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Phone: 860-223-7778 Fax: 860-223-7776
Email: jeff@newenglandgear.com
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MACHINERY
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JUNE 2014 51
Barber Colman Hobber Type T REF#103
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G&E Model 5.2 CNC Internal Gear gashing head REF#103
Jeil JDH-3, Gear hobber, Max Dia 31.5, 3DP, 22.8 Table Diameter REF#103
Jeil JDP-2, Gear hobber, Max Dia 26, 4 DP, 19.5 Table Dia, Differential and tailstock
REF#103
Liebherr ET 1802, Internal Gashing head, Fanuc 16i Control, 98Max dist 17 Face REF#103
Liebherr L-402 Gear hobbing Machine, New 1977 REF#103
Liebherr LC 752, 6 Axis CNC Hobber, Max OD 29.5, Max Face width 23.6 REF#103
Micron Model 120.01 w/bevel Cutting Attachment, New 1975, 1.6 dia, 25.4 DP REF#103
Nihon Kakai Model NTM-3000, Spline Hobbing Machine, Max dia 400mm, 3150mm between
Center REF#103
Pfauter P900 Reman and Recontrolled, Max OD 120 REF#103
Pfauter Model PE125 CNC Gear hobber REF#103
Pfauter model PE300 CNC, Max OD 12, Max gear face 15, 3 DP, 6 Axis REF#103
Reinecker Heavy Duty Gear Hobber REF#103
Scheiss Model RF10 Horizontal Hobber, 60 dia, 144 face, 180cc, 8 DP REF#103
G&E 96H, roughing & finishing 104 dia. REF#106
TOS FO-16 single index 80 dia. Yr 1980 REF#106
Craven spline & pinion hobber 36 x 96 REF#106
G & E 48H 48 dia. Diff, OB, change gears REF#106
Pfauter hobber P-1800 70 dia. 29 face yr 1980 REF#106
Lees Bradner 7VH, 8PD, 10 Face, , Magnetic Chip Conveyor , Hob Shift REF#107
Lees Bradner 7VH, 8PD, 4PD, Magnetic Chip Conveyor, Hob Shift REF#107
Mitsubishi Model GH300, 15.7, 3 DP, Differential, 2 Cut REF#107
Tos 32A, 320mm Gear Dia.,3.6 DP, Differential, 2 Cut REF#107
Gleason 775 8PD, High Helix Head, Infeed, Very Light Use REF#107
Barber C. 16-15, 7 Hob, Crowning, Differential, 2 Cut REF#107
Barber Colman 14-15, 2 Cut, Fast Approach, 4 Bore REF#107
Barber Colman 16-36, Type A Very Good, Double Thread Index REF#107
G & E Model 48HS 48PD, 18 Face, 2.5 DP REF#107
GEAR SHAPERS
FELLOWS #10-2, (10 Dia), 2 Face REF#102
FELLOWS #10-4, (10 Dia), 4 Face REF#102
FELLOWS (200) 10-4 / 10-2 Shapers REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 50-8 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 36607 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20-8 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 35932 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) #7 125A Face Gear Machine REF#102
FELLOWS (2) #3 Face Gear Machine REF#102
(1) 4ags with adjustable Helical Guide s/n 30634 REF#102
(1) #7 125A adjustable Helical Guide REF#102
FELLOWS (1) FS630-200 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 36943 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (3) Tilt Table 10-4 / 10-2 w/ 4 axis 21i Fanuc
Controller (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (2) Swing-away center support for 10-2 / 10-4 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) FS630-170 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 36732 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (2) FS400-170 Hydrostroke Shaper w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (4) FS400-125 Hydrostroke Shaper w/ 6
axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20-4 Shaper s/n 35687 w/ 4 axis
21i Fanuc Controller (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 48-8Z Shaper w/ 14 throated riser (53 of swing) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) Horizontal Z Shaper s/n 21261 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 4-B Steering Sector Gear Shaper w/ 18iMB
4 axis Fanuc controller s/n 34326 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 36-10 Gear Shaper REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 10x6 Horizontal Z Shaper REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 36-6 Gear Shaper w/ 13 riser s/n 27364 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 10-4 Shaper w/ 3 riser w/ 4 axis 21i
Fanuc Controller (2009) REF#102
All Parts for 10-4/10-2 Fellows Gear Shapers REF#102
FELLOWS #36-8, 36 Dia, 8 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #100-8 100 Dia, 8 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #612A, 615A, #645A REF#103
FELLOWS #10-4, 10 Dia, 4 Face, 4 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #4A Versa, 10 Dia, 3 Face, 4 DP, New 70s REF#103
FELLOWS #10-2, 10 Dia, 4 Face, 4 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #20-4, 20 Dia, 4 Face, 4 DP, 70s REF#103
FELLOWS #3-1,/3GS, 3 Max Dia, 1 Face, Pinion Supp, High Precision REF#103
FELLOWS #48-6 INTERNAL GEAR SHAPER ONLY,0-72"OD,6" Face REF#103
MAAG #SH-150, 57" Dia.12.6" Face REF#103
PFAUTER #SH-180 Shobber 7" capacity hobbing, 9.45" cap REF#103
FELLOWS #36-6 Max Dia 36 6 Face, 3 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #HORZ Z SHAPER, 10 x 6 Dia 27.6 Face 8.5 REF#103
FELLOWS #4GS & 4AGS, 6 Dia, 2 Face, 4DP, 68, Ref.# Several REF#103
FELLOWS #624A, 18 Max Dia, 5 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #7, #7A, #715,# 75A, #715, #725A, 7 Dia, 0-12 Risers,
Several Avail REF#103
MICHIGAN #18106 SHEAR-SPEED GEAR SHAPER,14" Dia, 6"Face REF#103
FELLOWS Model Z Shaper, 5" Stroke, 50s REF#103
STAEHELY SHS-605, Gear Shaper REF#103
FELLOWS #6, #6A, #61S, From 18-35 Dia, 0-12 Risers REF#103
FELLOWS #8AGS Vertical Gear Shaper, 8 Dia, 2 Face, 6-7 DP REF#103
TOS OHA50 CNC 5 20 Dia 5 Face REF#105
Fellows 36-6 Shaper (2) 12.5" Risers 6" Stroke Mint YR 1969 id 3616 REF#106
Fellows 36-6, shaper W/6 riser, change gears REF#106
Magg shaper SH4580-500S, 206dia. 26 face REF#106
Magg shaper SH250, 98 dia. 26 face REF#106
Fellows #10-4,7 riser yr 1980 REF#106
Fellows 3, 6, 7, 10, 18, 42, 100, Some CNC REF#107
GEAR DEBURRING/CHAMFERING/POINTING
CROSS #50 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 18 Dia, Single Spindle REF#103
REDIN #20D, 20 Dia, Twin Spindle, Deburrer/Chamfer REF#103
SAMPUTENSILI #SCT-3, Chamf/Deburrer, 14 Dia, 5 Face, 82 REF#103
SAMPUTENSILI #SM2TA Gear Chamfering Mach, 10 Max Dia, (3) New 96 REF#103
REDIN #24 CNC Dia 4 Setup Gear Deburring REF#103
CROSS #60 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 10 Dia, Single Spindle REF#103
FELLOWS #100-180/60 CNC Max Dia 180, Single Spindle REF#103
CIMTEC #50 Finisher REF#103
CROSS #54 Gear Deburrer, 30 Dia, 18 Face REF#103
RED RING #24 Twin Spindle Dia 4 REF#103
GLEASON GTR-250 VG CNC 5-Axis REF#103
Gleason- Hurth Model ZEA 4, Max Dia 250mm, Max Module 5mm REF#103
Redin Model 36 universal Chamfering and Deburring Machine, Max OD 36, Twin spindle,
Tilt table REF#103
Samputensili SCT3 13.7, SM2TA 10, (5), 2003 REF#107
Mitsubishi MA30 CNC, 11PD, Fanuc, Powermate, 1999 (2) REF#107
GEAR HONERS
Kapp #CX120 Coroning 4.7 Dia REF#103
Red Ring GHD-12, 12 Dia, 5.5 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring GHG, 12 Dia, 5.5 Stroke REF#103
Kapp #VAC65 Coroning 10 Dia REF#103
GEAR SHAVERS
Red Ring #GCX-24" Shaver, 24 Dia, 33 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring #GCU-12, 12 Dia, 5 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring #GCY-12, 12 Dia, 5 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring GCI 24, 12.75 Dia, 5 Stroke REF#103
Kanzaki model GSP 320 Gear shaver REF#103
Red Ring GCU 12 Crowning, 1956 to 1988 (6) REF#107
Mitsubishi FB30, 12.2 CNC Fanuc, 1997 REF#107
Sicmat Raso 100, CNC Fanuc 16M, New, Guarantee REF#107
GEAR GENERATORS
GLEASON #37 Str. Bevel Planer, 6 Dia REF#103
GLEASON #496 Straight.& Spiral. 7.5 Dia REF#103
GLEASON 725-Revacycle, 6 Dia REF#103
GLEASON 726-Revacycle, 5 Dia REF#103
Farrel Sykes Model 12C herringbone max dia 264, max face width 60 REF#103
Farrel Model 5B herringbone gear generator. REF#103
Gleason 529 gear quench press, Auto cycle 16 Diam, New 1980 REF#103
Gleason 614 hypoid finishing machine, 10.5 pitch, dia 5.25 Max cone dist REF#103
Oerlikon/klingelnburg Model C28, Max dia 320 mm, Max Module 7.5 mm REF#103
Gleason Model 26 Quench press and Hypoid Generator Max OD 16, Max face Width Air Cylinder
REF#103
Gleason Model 36 Gear Quenching Press, Max Ring 28 OD, 8 Face, Universal REF#103
Gleason Model 450 HC CNC Hypoid Cutter, Face width 2.6, fanuc 150 Controls REF#103
Gleason 24 Rougher, Gears, Finishing Tool Holder REF#107
12 Gleason, Gears, Gauges Tool Blocks REF#107
Gleason 116 Rougher & Finisher (6) REF#107
Gleason Phoenix 175HC CNC 1994 REF#107
Gleason 22 Rougher & Finisher (8) REF#107
Gleason 610 Combination Rougher & Finisher, 1988 REF#107
Gleason 608 & 609 Rougher & Finisher REF#107
Gleason 7A, 7PD Helical Motion, Gears & Cams REF#107
Gleason Cutters, 3 to 25 in stock, 1000 REF#107
GEAR GRINDERS
#27, #137, and #463 Gleason Hypoid Spiral Bevel gear grinder
generating Cams (2 full sets) REF#102
Springfield Vertical Grinder, 62" Table, #62AR/2CS, 3.5A Rail Type, 70" Swing REF#102
REISHAUER ZA, Gear Grinder, 13" Dia, 6" Face, Strait & Helix REF#103
GLEASON #463, 15 Dia REF#103
Hofler model Rapid 2000L, CNC Grinder, Max OD 78, CNC Dressing REF#103
Matrix model 78, Reman CNC Thread grinder, 24 Dia, 86 grind Length, 106 between
centers REF#103
Mitsu Seiki Model GSW-1000 Gear Grinder REF#103
Reishauer RZ 362 AS, CNC Grinder, Max Dia 360mm REF#103
Sundstrand/Arter Model D12 Grinder REF#103
Teledyne-Landis Gear Roll Finishing Machine, 5 Diam, 42k lbs Rolling Force REF#103
Reishauer RZ301AS CNC, 13 Measuring System (3) REF#107
Reishauer ZB, 27.5 PD Gears, Coolant REF#107
GEAR RACK MILLERS/SHAPERS
MIKRON #134 Rack Shaper, 17.4" Length, 1.1" Width, 16.9 DP REF#103
SYKES VR-72 Vert Rack Shaper, 72" Cut Length, 4DP, 4" Stroke, 80 REF#103
Fellows 4 60 Rapid Traverse, 2 Cut REF#107
GEAR THREAD & WORM, MILLERS/GRINDERS
BARBER-COLMAN #10-40, 10" Dia., 40" Length, 4 DP REF#103
EXCELLO #31L, External Thread Grinder, 5" OD, 20" Grind Length REF#103
EXCELLO #33 Thread Grinder 6 Dia 18 Length REF#103
HURTH #KF-33A Multi-Purpose Auto-Milling Machine 88 REF#103
LEES BRADNER #HT12x102, Extra Large Capacity REF#103
LEES BRADNER #HT 12"x 144" Thread Mill, 12" Dia, REF#103
LEES BRADNER # LT 8 x 24 8 Dia REF#103
HOLROYD 5A 24.8 Dia REF#103 LEES BRADBER WORM MILLER REF#103
Dranke CNC Internal Ball Nut Grinder REF#107
GEAR TESTERS/CHECKERS (incl CNC)
FELLOWS (1) RL-600 Roll Tester s/n 35814 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 24H Lead Checker s/n 32289 REF#102
GLEASON (1) #14 Tester s/n 31907 REF#102
GLEASON (1) #6 Tester s/n 19316 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20 M Roller Checker REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20 M w/ 30 Swing Roller Checker REF#102
FELLOWS (1) #8 Micaodex s/n 36279 REF#102
David Brown #24 Worm Tester REF#103
Gleason #4, #6, #13 and #17 Testers REF#103
Hofler EMZ-2602 Int/Ext Gear Tester 102 REF#103
Klingelnberg #PFSU-1600 Gear Tester-2001 REF#103
Kapp Hob Checker WM 410 REF#103
Maag #ES-430 Gear Tester REF#103
Maag #SP-130 Lead and Involute Tester REF#103
National Broach Gear Tester GSJ-12 REF#103
Oerlikon #ST2-004 Soft Tester REF#103
Maag #SP-60- Electronic Tester REF#103
Parkson #42N Worm Gear Tester REF#103
Vinco Dividing Head Optical Inspection REF#103
Gleason model 511 Hypoid tester Max Dia 20, max spindle centerline 3.5 REF#103
Klingelnberg Model PFSU-1600 63 Dia, 1.02 DP, Rebuilt REF#103
MAAG ES401 Pitch tester With Process Computer REF#103
Fellows 12 & 24M Involute, 12 & 24 Lead REF#107
Fellows 36 Space Tester, Hot Pen Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 17A Running or Rebuilt Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 511, 20 Reconditioned in 2010 Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 27, 26, Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 515, 24 REF#107
Gleason 523, 20 Reconditioned, 2010 REF#107
MISCELLANEOUS
WARNER & SWAYSEY #4A M-3580 Turret Lathe, 28 1/4 Swing, 80 Centers, 12 Spindle Hole
50/25 Motors, 480/3 Phase, Year 1965 REF#101
Springfield Vertical Grinder, 62" Table, #62AR/2CS, 3.5A Rail Type, 70" Swing REF#102
GLEASON #529 Quench, 16" Diameter REF#103
Klingelnberg Model LRK-631 Gear Lapper REF#103
VERTICAL TURNING LATHES AND MORE - Please Check Our
Website To View Our Entire Inventory REF#103
TOS SU & SUS Series Conv Lathes REF#105
TOS SUA Series CNC Flat-Bed Lathes REF#105
Change gears for G & E hobber REF#106
PRODUCT
SHOWCASE
New products, equipment, and resources
New Gear Grinding Wheel From Burka-Kosmos
The MIRA ICE product line of gear grinding wheels was developed in
order to meet the requirements of profile grinding larger gears. A new
approach in the development of this grinding wheel enables results
to be achieved in terms of economic efficiency and cool grinding
that were previously unheard of in the profile grinding of gears.
The MIRA ICE grinding wheel has been further optimized on
the basis of the leading product line from Burka-Kosmos and
sets new standards throughout the industry.
The use of new grain qualities and the new high-strength
bond system guarantees particularly cool grinding.
Longer cycle times between dressing and shorter
grinding times significantly reduce the processing costs
per gear. During testing against the Burka-Kosmos
SK23 ceramic grinding wheel stock removal volume
was increased by almost 400% on a 3.6 diametral
pitch gear. This increase, along with the need for
fewer dressing cycles, resulted in a 30% reduction in
total machining time.
If you need modern grinding operations for your
product, Burka- Kosmos can help you to produce
your product better and more economically. Whether
in machine or tool construction, in the automotive
industry, in drive technology, in power train and gas
turbine construction, or in the electrical technical
and fine mechanical industry: Burka-Kosmos' grinding
mediums work in all of these areas with the highest
precision.
Located in Rockford, Illinois, our in-house, factory-
trained sales and service engineers are readily available
when you need them. You will receive everything and more that
you would expect from an American supplier. Having over 95%
of our customers as repeat clientele speaks volumes to our sales,
service and spare-parts departments.
Contact JRM International with any questions or to request a
quotation against the wheel you are presently using. Visit www.
jrminternational.com for more information.
52 gearsolutions.com
JUNE 2014 53
A new version of the F-senso spindle pull-in force measuring device from RHM Products of
America is engineered for use with clamping systems for smaller tool shanks including HSK A
25, A 32 and A 40 and steep taper SK [CAT/BT] 30. Initially introduced for shank sizes from HSK
50 HSK 125 or SK 40 SK 60, the F-senso device measures the pull-in force of machine tool
clamping systems, making it possible to detect changes in force before they affect machining
quality. Fitted with adapters for HSK or steep taper shanks, the F-senso device is pulled into the
spindle taper of the machine tool and provides an exact measure of pull-in force. Force readings
cover a range of 0 15 kN (3,370 lbs.)
The adapters are contoured to permit use with a machines automatic tool changer, and a
revolving ring with a scale makes it possible to simulate the tolerances of the tool and the
machine spindle over a wide range. User-friendly features of the F-senso device include the ability
to automatically save the last displayed reading for reference, and extended operating times
provided by a 9V battery.
The pull-in force of a spindles tool clamping system has a crucial role in processing quality and
safety. The new compact F-senso design makes it easy to monitor and detect changes at an early
stage and take any countermeasures necessary.
When it comes to efficient clamping devices, RHM is the one capable to offer everything
the customer needs. To produce products which meet highest expectations, all requirements
from the consulting, over the engineering and production up to the service are fulfilled right from
the start. RHM is regarded as a driving force which has a decisive influence on how progress
develops.
Visit www.rohm-products.com for more information.
ROHM Offers New Version of F-senso Measuring Device
We ofer a competitive salary and an excellent
benet package.
Please submit a cover letter and resume in PDF
format to: Employment@klingelnbergusa.com
KLINGELNBERG AMERICA IS
SEEKING SERVICE ENGINEERS.
KLINGELNBERG America, Inc.
118 East Michigan Avenue, Suite 200
Saline, Michigan 48176, USA
Phone: +1 734 470 62 78
Fax: +1 734 316 21 58
54 gearsolutions.com
Manufacturing excellence
through quality, integration, materials,
maintenance, education, and speed.
MARKET
PLACE

Incorporate
for as little as $99
Visit www.incorporate.com
or call 888-743-7440
Save $25 by
scanning this code
Custom gear racks in AMERICAN and
METRIC standards, STRAIGHT and
HELICAL, VARIOUS materials, FINE
and COARSE pitch (254 D.P. 0.5 D.P.;
0.10 Module 50 Module); hard-cut
(up to 60 Rc) and soft-cut (up to 40
Rc); 32 face width; Up to 82 lengths
longer lengths through resetting
Custom gears in AMERICAN and
METRIC standards (3 D.P. 72 D.P.,
10 Diameter)
Precision Quality up to AGMA 12
Prototype & Production quantities
Breakdown Service Available
Reverse Engineering
Unique Tooth Congurations
Heat Treating
Complete CNC Machining

SHARP HOBS
Change Downtime To Productivity
You Need Your Tools Back FAST
Eliminating Downtime &
Tuned To Meet or Surpass
Original Design Specs
and Thats Where We Come In
Stripping & Re-Coating
Gear Shaper Sharpening
Milling Cutter Sharpening
Gear Tool Certifications
Tel: 216-642-5900 Fax: 216-642-8837 5755 Canal Road Valley View, OH 44125
Email: gallen@gallenco.com WWW.GALLENCO.COM
Providing quality service since 1985.
1/8" to 24"O.D.
180 D.P. to 4 D.P.
Module
1pc. to production, Machine breakdowns, Prototype and Rush orders
Competitive pricing and quick turn around!
Capabilities:
Shaping internal and external
Hobbing helical, spur, pinions, splines, serrations, pulleys,
ratchets, worms and worm gears, segments, special tooth forms
Carmona Gear Cutting, Inc.
2415 Kishwaukee St. Rockford, IL 61104
ph.815-963-8236 fax 815-963-9203
E-mail us a quote today carmonagear@yahoo.com
WWW.STORLOC.COM
1-800-786-7562
1-800-STORLOC
THE BOX
THINK
OUTSIDE
MADE BY AMERICAN CRAFTSMEN IN THE USA
JUNE 2014 55
ADVERTISER
INDEX
COMPANY NAME .............. PAGE NO.
All Metals & Forge Group ........................................................... 10
Allen Adams Shaper Services .................................................... 54
Apollo Broach ............................................................................ 54
Bourn & Koch ............................................................................ 55
Carmona Gear Cutting ............................................................... 54
Circle Gear & Machine ............................................................... 55
Clarke Gear Co .......................................................................... 40
CNC Machinery Sales Inc .......................................................... 40
DT Technologies ........................................................................ 32
Encoder Products ...................................................................... 39
Engineered Tools Corporation ............................................... 28-29
Forest City Gear ....................................................................... IBC
Gear Motions ............................................................................. 16
Gear Solutions ........................................................................... 47
Gleason Corporation .................................................................. 21
Index Techologies ...................................................................... 54
Ingersoll Cutting Tools ................................................... 9,11,13,15
Innovative Rack & Gear .............................................................. 54
Ipsen International...................................................................... 12
KAPP Technologies ................................................................... IFC
KISSsoft USA LLC ..................................................................... 32
Klingelnberg ............................................................................... 53
McInnes Rolled Rings ................................................................ 33
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America Inc .................................... BC
New England Gear ....................................................................... 7
Process Equipment Company .................................................... 14
Proto Manufacturing Ltd ............................................................ 42
R P Machine Enterprises Inc ................................................. 48-49
Raycar Gear & Machine Co ........................................................ 43
Repair Parts Inc ......................................................................... 43
Russell Holbrook & Henderson ................................................... 38
Sandvik Coromant ....................................................................... 2
STD Precision Gear ................................................................... 39
Stor-Loc .................................................................................... 54
The Broach Masters Inc ............................................................... 4
The Company Corporation ......................................................... 54
TMFM LLC ................................................................................ 53
Toolink Engineering Inc ................................................................ 1
Wenzel America Ltd ................................................................... 37
Since 1951 Circle Gear has served
Chicago land as a full service gear
manufacturing facility. In addition
to bevel gears Circle Gear also
provides spur gears, helical gears,
herringbone gears, worm and gear
sets, internal gears, splines, racks
and sprockets.
CIRCLE GEAR and MACHINE
STRAIGHT BEVEL GEARS
SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS
.25 to 34 Diameter
32 DP to 1.5 DP
.5 Module to 16 Module
.25 to 33 Diameter
32 DP to 2 DP
.5 Module to 12 Module
56 gearsolutions.com
GS: What is turbo abrasive machining
(TAM)?
MM: AM machines could be likened to free
abrasive turning centers. They utilize fluidized
bed technology to suspend abrasive materials
in a specially designed chamber. Parts interface
with the abrasive material on a continuous basis
by having part surfaces exposed and interacted
with the abrasive bed by high-speed rotational
or oscillational movement. This combination of
abrasive envelopment and high-speed rotational
contact produces important functional surface
conditioning effects and deburring and radius
formation very rapidly. Unlike buff, brush, belt,
and polish methods, or even robotic deburring,
abrasive operations on rotating components
are performed on all features of the part
simultaneously. This produces a feature-to-
feature and part-to-part uniformity that is almost
impossible to duplicate by any other method.
GS: What is its use in gear
manufacturing?
MM: Mass-finishing techniques, such as barrel
and vibratory finishing, have long been recognized
as the primary tools for metal part deburring
and surface conditioning and, as such, have a
wide application throughout the gear industry.
As gear production techniques have evolved in
recent years, it seems that an increasing number
of parts require more sophisticated deburring
and surface conditioning methods. Many parts
routinely manufactured now have size and
shape considerations that preclude the use of
conventional mass media finishing techniques.
Additionally, manufacturers of high-value parts
now prefer manufacturing methodologies in
which parts are processed singly and continuously
rather than in batches, obviating the possibility
that large numbers of parts will be scrapped
or reworked due to human error or process
maladjustment. Another important factor in
evaluating current mass-finishing processes is
their wet waste effluent stream, the treatment
PRESIDENT,
TURBO-FINISH CORPORATION
cost of which often approaches the cost of the actual deburring or surface conditioning operations
themselves. Industry has long had a strong incentive to seek out mass-finishing methods that could
achieve surface-finish objectives in a dry abrasive operation. In contrast with conventional methods
turbo-abrasive finishing (TAM) operations are completely dry and produce surface effects rapidly in
single-part operations.
GS: What kinds of problems does it solve in gear production?
MM: TAM processes were developed originally to address deburring and surface conditioning
problems on complex rotating components within the aerospace industry. Aerospace parts
such as turbine and compressor discs, fan discs, and impellers pose serious edge finishing
problems. Manual methods used in edge finishing for these parts were not only costly and time-
consuming, but more to the point, human intervention, no matter how skillful at this final stage
of manufacturing, is bound to introduce some measure of non-uniformity in both effects and
stresses in critical areas of certain features on the part. TAM provides a method whereby final
deburring, radius formation, and blending in of machining irregularities could be performed in
a single machining operation. This machining operation can accomplish in a few minutes what
in many cases took hours to perform manually. It soon became obvious that the technology could
address edge-finishing needs of other types of rotationally oriented components such as gears,
turbo-charger rotors, bearing cages, pump impellers, and many other rotational parts. One area
of current focus for the company is the large gears utilized in wind energy applications. One
technical discussion made this problem statement: Typical multiple megawatt (MW) gearboxes,
1.5 MW and higher, are designed to operate for 20 years without requiring major maintenance
to the drivetrain. However, many owners are experiencing gearbox failures after only a few years
of service.
Although there are a number of methodologies that can be used to produce this surface effect,
TURBO-FINISH may very well be the only practical method for processing the very large gears
used in some of this equipment. Previous experience in aerospace industry applications involving
rotating parts has shown dramatic service life improvement by 30-40% because of processs
simultaneous compressive stress generation and isotropic surface development. Non-rotational
parts can also be processed by fixturing them to the periphery of disk-like fixtures. The TAM
method provides manufacturers with the ability to utilize a high-speed precision final machining
and finishing method that accommodate the current trend toward continuous processing of
individual parts. Many larger and more complex rotationally oriented parts, which pose a severe
challenge for conventional mechanical finishing methods, can easily be processed.
TAM as a surface-conditioning method is a blend of current machining and surface-finishing
technologies. Like machining processes, the energy used to remove material from the part is
concentrated in the part itself, not the abrasive material interfacing with part surfaces. And like
many surface-finishing processes, material removal is not accomplished by a cutting tool with a
single point of contact, but by complete envelopment of the exterior areas of the part with abrasive
materials. As a result deburring, edge finishing, surface blending and smoothing, and surface
conditioning are performed on all exterior exposed surfaces, edges, and features of the part
simultaneously. Many metal parts that are machined by being held in a rotational work-holding
device (for example: chucks, between centers, rotary tables, etc.) are potential candidates for TAM
processes, and in many cases, these final deburring and surface conditioning operations can be
performed in minutesif not seconds.

michaelMASSARSKY
Q
&
A
TO LEARN MORE:
To ask about the sample processing and beta-testing program,
visit www.turbofinish.com or call (917) 518-8205.
Operational Work?
Were Armed to the Teeth
11715 Main Street, Roscoe, IL 61073
815-623-2168
MISSION: SAVING TIME. Our elite, highly trained Gear Team 6
is heavily armed with the latest gear production and
inspection technologies to take on your cut teeth only
operational work. Cut to part print, inspected, and shipped
before your competition even knew what hit them.
Get a quote in 48 hours or less. See if you qualify for our
Guaranteed Lead Times. Call today or visit:
www.forestcitygear.com/OPS
SCAN NOW!
The Reality of
Having

it all
Quality Production
Without Compromise
Having it all should not be just a dream.
With Mitsubishis new for 2011 ZE40A
gear grinding machine, it is a reality.
Mitsubishi has built a reputation for
providing the job shops of America
with exible and accurate gear hobbing,
shaping and shaving machines for
nishing or roughing gears in their
soft state. Now with the ZE40A, they
introduce a exible gear grinder that
fullls the needs of customers who
require accurate gears in their hard state.
The ZE40A delivers a complete and
comprehensive package that requires
little or no additional options.
The full circle of features include:
Single index form and Multi-Start
Generating grinding of gears up
to 400mm diameter
Swing away tailstock arm for ease
of loading heavy parts
Integrated onboard inspection
Integrated CNC dressing
Integrated automatic meshing
Integrated automatic wheel balancing
Automatic bias adjustment
Automatic pressure angle adjustment
400mm axial travel for grinding
shaft gears
To personally experience the world-
class performance of the Mitsubishi
ZE40A visit mitsubishigearcenter.com
or contact sales 248-669-6136.
Machine Tool Division / Gear Technology Center 46992 Li bert y Dri ve Wi xom, MI 48393 mitsubishigearcenter.com
MEASURE DRESS GRI ND