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ZXWN uMAC

MME Mobility Management Entity


Product Description
Version 3.09.01
ZTE CORPORATION
ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South,
Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Nanshan District, Shenzhen,
P. R. China
518057
Tel: (86) 755 26771900
Fax: (86) 755 26770801
URL: http://ensupport.zte.com.cn
E-mail: support@zte.com.cn

LEGAL INFORMATION

Copyright 2006 ZTE CORPORATION.

The contents of this document are protected by copyright laws and international treaties. Any reproduction or
distribution of this document or any portion of this document, in any form by any means, without the prior written
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contractual confidentiality obligations.

All company, brand and product names are trade or service marks, or registered trade or service marks, of ZTE
CORPORATION or of their respective owners.

This document is provided as is, and all express, implied, or statutory warranties, representations or conditions
are disclaimed, including without limitation any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose,
title or non-infringement. ZTE CORPORATION and its licensors shall not be liable for damages resulting from the
use of or reliance on the information contained herein.

ZTE CORPORATION or its licensors may have current or pending intellectual property rights or applications
covering the subject matter of this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license between ZTE
CORPORATION and its licensee, the user of this document shall not acquire any license to the subject matter
herein.

ZTE CORPORATION reserves the right to upgrade or make technical change to this product without further notice.

Users may visit ZTE technical support website http://ensupport.zte.com.cn to inquire related information.

The ultimate right to interpret this product resides in ZTE CORPORATION.

Revision History
Date Revision No. Serial No. Reason for Issue
Sep.4, 2009 R1.0 sjzl20095195 First edition

ZTE CORPORATION
Values Your Comments & Suggestions!
Your opinion is of great value and will help us improve the quality of our product
documentation and offer better services to our customers.
Please fax to (86) 755-26772236 or mail to Marketing Department, ZTE University,
ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South, Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Shenzhen, P. R. China
518057.E-Mail to doc@zte.com.cn
Thank you for your cooperation!
Document
Name
ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description
Product Version V3.09.01
Document Revision
Number
R1.0
Serial No. sjzl20095195
Equipment
Installation Date

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Contents

About This Manual ............................................................ i
Purpose................................................................................ i
Intended Audience ................................................................. i
Prerequisite Skill and Knowledge.............................................. i
What Is in This Manual ........................................................... i
Related Documentation.......................................................... ii
Conventions......................................................................... ii
How to Get in Touch............................................................. iii
Chapter 1.......................................................................... 1
Overview.......................................................................... 1
Location and functions of ZXUN uMAC in mobile network ............ 1
Interfaces and Protocols of the ZXUN uMAC .............................. 4
Chapter 2.......................................................................... 7
Highlight Features ........................................................... 7
Advanced Design .................................................................. 7
Large Capacity & High Integration Unified All-IP Platform, Less
TCO.................................................................................... 8
Common Elements for GSM/EDGE/UMTS and EPS...................... 8
Open Interfaces and Flexible Networking Capabilities ................. 9
Outstanding Reliability and Excellent Performance ..................... 9
Abundant Service Functions.................................................. 10
Smooth Expansion Capabilities.............................................. 10
Convenient Operation and Maintenance.................................. 10
Chapter 3........................................................................ 13
System Architecture ...................................................... 13
Physical Structure ......................................................... 13
Hardware Architecture ................................................... 15
Hardware Structure of EPC Unified Platform............................ 16
ZXUN uMAC Hardware Structure ........................................... 17

Software Architecture ..........................................................19
Chapter 4........................................................................21
Technical Specifications.................................................21
Physical Indices ..................................................................21
Equipment Power ................................................................21
Power Consumption Indices ..................................................22
Working Environment ..........................................................22
Capacity Indices..................................................................24
Clock Indices ......................................................................24
Chapter 5........................................................................27
ZXUN uMAC Services and Functions..............................27
Mobility Management ...........................................................28
Relocation Processing ..........................................................29
Session Management ...........................................................29
Mobile Intelligent Services ....................................................29
Short Message Service.........................................................30
Iu/Gb Flex..........................................................................30
IMSI Range Based Area Restriction ........................................30
IMSI Range based EPLMN List ...............................................31
IMSI Range Based Maximum Qos Restriction...........................31
QoS Management................................................................32
Security Functions...............................................................32
IP Routing..........................................................................32
Lawful Interception..............................................................32
Warning Message Transfer Function .......................................32
S1 Flex ..............................................................................32
PDN-GW Selection based Redundancy ....................................33
Chapter 6........................................................................35
Operation and Maintenance ..........................................35
Operation and Maintenance Tools ..........................................35
Configuration Management System........................................37
Alarm Management System..................................................37
Performance Management System.........................................37
Diagnosis Test System.........................................................38
Signaling Tracing System.....................................................38
Service Observation System .................................................39

Variable Management System............................................... 39
Chapter 7........................................................................ 41
Reliability Design........................................................... 41
System Reliability Design ............................................... 41
Hardware Reliability Design ............................................ 42
EMC Design........................................................................ 42
Simplification Design ........................................................... 42
Redundancy Design............................................................. 43
Harsh Environment Resistance Design.................................... 43
Chapter 8........................................................................ 45
Networking Knowledge................................................. 45
Networking for ZXUN uMAC.................................................. 45
Appendix A..................................................................... 49
Abbreviations................................................................. 49
Figures............................................................................ 53
Tables............................................................................. 55


Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION i
About This Manual

Purpose
This manual provides detailed descriptionfor our product ZXUN
uMAC MME Mobility Management Entity.
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for engineers and technicians who
perform operation activities on ZXUN uMAC MME Mobility
Management Entity.
Prerequisite Skill and Knowledge
To use this manual effectively, users should have a general
understanding of wireless telecommunications technology.
Familiarity with other manuals about this product is helpful:
What Is in This Manual
This manual contains the following chapters:
TAB L E 1 CHA PTER SUMMARY
Chapter Summary
Chapter 1, Overview Introduces location, functions of ZXUN
uMAC, as well as associated interfaces
and protocols.
Chapter 2, Highlight
Features
Introduces special features of ZXUN uMAC.
Chapter 3, System
Architecture
Introduces the hardware and software
architecture of ZXUN uMAC system.
Chapter 4, Technical
Specifications
Introduces technical specifications involved
in ZXUN uMAC.
Chapter 5, ZXUN uMAC Introduces the services and functions

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

ii Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

Chapter Summary
Services and Functions provided by ZXUN uMAC.
Chapter 6, Operation
and Maintenance
Introduces operation and maintenance
involved in ZXUN uMAC.
Chapter 7, Reliability
Design
Introduces design for reliability,
simplification, redundancy, and harsh
environment resistance.
Chapter 8, Networking
Knowledge
Introduces networking knowledge.
Related Documentation
The following documentation is related to this manual:
ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Configuration
Guide
Conventions
ZTE documents employ the following typographical conventions.
TAB L E 2 TYPOGRAPHI CAL CONVENTI ONS
Typeface Meaning
Italics References to other Manuals and documents.
Quotes Links on screens.
Bold Menus, menu options, function names, input
fields, radio button names, check boxes, drop-
down lists, dialog box names, window names.
CAPS Keys on the keyboard and buttons on screens
and company name.
Const ant wi dt h
Text that you type, program code, files and
directory names, and function names.
[ ] Optional parameters.
{ } Mandatory parameters.
| Select one of the parameters that are delimited
by it.

TAB L E 3 MOUSE OPERATI ON CONVENTI ONS
Typeface Meaning
Click Refers to clicking the primary mouse button (usually
the left mouse button) once.
Typographical
Conventions
Mouse
Operation
Conventions


About This Manual

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION iii
Typeface Meaning
Double-click Refers to quickly clicking the primary mouse button
(usually the left mouse button) twice.
Right-click Refers to clicking the secondary mouse button
(usually the right mouse button) once.
Drag Refers to pressing and holding a mouse button and
moving the mouse.

How to Get in Touch
The following sections provide information on how to obtain
support for the documentation and the software.
If you have problems, questions, comments, or suggestions
regarding your product, contact us by e-mail at
support@zte.com.cn. You can also call our customer support
center at (86) 755 26771900.
ZTE welcomes your comments and suggestions on the quality
and usefulness of this document. For further questions,
comments, or suggestions on the documentation, you can
contact us by e-mail at doc@zte.com.cn; or you can fax your
comments and suggestions to (86) 755 26772236. You can also
browse our website at http://ensupport.zte.com.cn, which
contains various interesting subjects like documentation,
knowledge base, forum and service request.
Customer
Support
Documentation
Support

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

iv Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

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Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 1
Ch a p t e r 1
Overview

This chapter introduces location, functions of ZXUN uMAC, as well
as associated interfaces and protocols.
Topics included in this chapter are as listed below:
Topic Page
Location and functions of ZXUN uMAC in mobile
network
1
Interfaces and Protocols of the ZXUN uMAC 4

Location and functions of ZXUN
uMAC in mobile network
uMAC is the core of EPS domain and a functional entity to
manage the access control and transmits the packet data of
mobile stations in its coverage area. It also confirms the
subscribers location (in home network or visited network)
through mobility management executes radio resource
management. In addition, it supports network management
through O&M.
Integration of core network and access agnostic is the trend of
mobile network. According to this trend, ZTE provides an
integrated control plane core network product, ZXUN uMAC
(intelligent Mobile Access Controller) which could support 2G, 3G
and LTE access. ZXUN uMAC could be deployed as a SGSN, MME
and SGSN/MME combo node to satisfy different scenarios during
the evolution to pure LTE/EPC.
ZXUN uMAC working as SGSN is the core of PS domain and a
functional entity to manage the access control and transmits the
packet data of mobile stations in its coverage area. It also
confirms the subscribers location (in home network or visited
network) through mobility management executes radio resource
management and provides routing functions to forward packet
Description
Topic
Introduction

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

2 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

data between RNCs and also between SGSN and other GGSNs.
In addition, it collects charging data for CG and supports
network management through O&M.
ZXUN uMAC working as MME is the core of EPS domain and a
functional entity to manage the access control. It also confirms
the subscribers location (in home network or visited network)
through mobility management executes bearer management and
provides routing functions to help forward packet data between
eNodeB and SAE-GWs.
ZXUN uMAC working as SGSN/MME combo node provides SGSN
and MME functions as described above.
The location of the ZXUN uMAC is as described below:
The location of the ZXUN uMAC working as SGSN in the
network is shown in Figure 1.
FI GURE 1 L OCATI ON OF ZXUN UMAC AS SGSN I N MOB I L E NETWORK


The location of the ZXUN uMAC working as MME in the
network is shown in Figure 2.
Location of ZX
UN uMAC


Chapter 1 Overview

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 3
FI GURE 2 L OCATI ON OF ZXUN UMAC AS MME I N MOB I L E NETWORK

HLR
SGSN
GGSN
RNC
NodeB BTS
BSC
BTS
NodeB
eNodeB eNodeB
HSS
MME
PGW
SGW
PDN/IMS
Gi SGi
Gc
Gr
Gn
Gb
Iu-PS
S6a
S1-MME
S1-U
Abis
Um Uu
Iub X2
LTE-Uu
R8
SGSN
S12
Gn
Gn
S4
S3
S5
S11
MME
S10
PCRF Gx
GSM W/TD
LTE

The location of the ZXUN uMAC working as SGSN/MME
combo node in the network is as shown in Figure 3.
FI GURE 3 L OCATI ON OF ZXUN UMAC AS SGSN/ MME COMB O I N MOB I L E
NETWORK
HLR
GGSN
RNC
NodeB BTS
BSC
BTS
NodeB
eNodeB eNodeB
HSS
SGSN MME
PGW
SGW
PDN/IMS
Gi SGi
Gc
Gr
Gn
Gb
Iu-PS
S6a
S1-MME
S1-U
Abis
Um Uu
Iub X2
LTE-Uu
S5
S11
PCRF
Gx
GSM W/TD
LTE
Gx
Rx


ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

4 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

NOTE: ZXUN uMAC has a module structure and executes
different functions through different modules. By combining
modules in different ways, ZXUN SGSN can provide 2G Gb, 3G
Iu and LTE S1 access functions, and provides multiple physical
interfaces like E1, Ethernet, ATM and POS to meet different
requirements. And it is integrated with the GPRS-SSF function to
implement mobile intelligent service
Interfaces and Protocols of the
ZXUN uMAC
The related interfaces, protocols and functions of ZXUN uMAC
are listed in Table 4.
TAB L E 4 REL ATED I NTERFACES AND PROTOCOL S OF THE ZXUN UMAC
Interworking
NE
Name of
interface
Protocol Interface function
SGSN-BSS Gb BSSGP Accessing 2.5G BSS
SGSN-RNC Iu-PS RANAP/GTP Accessing RNC
SGSN-MSC
Server/VLR
Gs BSSAP+
Updating/paging the joint
location of CS/PS,
allocating TMSI
SGSN-HLR Gr MAP
Managing subscription
attributes of packet
subscribers
SGSN-SGSN Gn/Gp GTP
Implementing mobility
management between
SGSNs
SGSN-
SMS-GMSC
Server
Gd MAP
Processing short
messages
SGSN-GGSN Gn GTP
Managing tunnels of
packet data subscribers
CG-GSN Ga GTP
Collecting the GSN CDR
in real time
MME-eNodeB S1-MME S1AP
Accessing eNodeB for
control plane
MME-HSS S6a Diameter
Managing subscription
attributes of packet
subscribers
MME-MME S10 GTP
Implementing mobility
management between
MME
MME-SGW S11 GTP
Bearer management for
UE
Description


Chapter 1 Overview

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 5
Interworking
NE
Name of
interface
Protocol Interface function
MME-Gn SGSN Gn GTP
Implementing mobility
management between
SGSN and MME

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

6 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

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Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 7
Ch a p t e r 2
Highlight Features

This chapter introduces the features of ZXUN uMAC.
Topics included in this chapter are as listed below:
Topic Page
Advanced Design 7
Large Capacity & High Integration Unified All-IP
Platform, Less TCO
8
Common Elements for GSM/EDGE/UMTS and EPS 8
Open Interfaces and Flexible Networking Capabilities 9
Outstanding Reliability and Excellent Performance 9
Abundant Service Functions 10
Smooth Expansion Capabilities 10
Convenient Operation and Maintenance 10

Advanced Design
ZXUN uMAC has advanced design, as described below:
Designed strictly in accordance with the 3GPP R8
specifications, ZXUN uMAC can be built in SGSN, protecting
users investment.
The software is developed in strict accordance with the
software engineering requirements on the basis of the top
downward, hierarchical and modular design concept, which
makes the software maintainable and expansible.
Draw on the advantages of various mobile switching systems
at home and abroad; the hardware structure, software
structure and the integrated equipment expertise live up to
the state of arts of peer products.
Introduction
Topic
Introduction

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

8 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

The hardware design adopts the internationally advanced
very large integrated circuits to reduce stand-alone
components, improve the reliability and reduce the power
consumption.
The software adopts the hierarchical and modular structure,
and works in the load sharing mode. The load between
modules is balanced dynamically, and the tasks are taken
over automatically.
The NE is based on unified full IP software and hardware
platform, which reduces the system development and
maintenance cost.
The ZXUN series are distributed processing platform, and can
provide high expansibility. The whole system adopts the
multi-level modular design to make the whole system
installed easily and expanded smoothly
Large Capacity & High Integration
Unified All-IP Platform, Less TCO
All CN products are based on All-IP unified hardware platform.
Based on the advanced hardware platform and technology, with
the modular design, large capacity and high integration are
featured, which means less equipment, and therefore less
construction, maintenance personnel & cost, and power
consumption.
Common Elements for
GSM/EDGE/UMTS and EPS
ZXUN system can support GSM/EDGE/UMTS and EPS services
and subscribers in the same network elements. This ensures
continuity of the existing GSM services. It also facilitates an easy
migration of subscribers from GSM/EDGE/UMTS to EPS, without
affecting the network topology or network element configuration
during upgrading.
ZXUN system supports access to BSS and UTRAN network
simultaneously. One unified core network reduces the
investment greatly with resource shared:
Signaling process, call process, switch resources etc, can be
shared to save investment and ensure smooth evolution.
Soft capacity: during the evolution from 2G/3G to LTE, either
2G/3G or LTE user number may increase suddenly. ZTE
equipments can adjust the system resources automatically to
meet the 2G/3G and LTE capacity. It can base on any 2G/3G
Description
Description


Chapter 2 Highlight Features

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 9
and LTE service ratio. Therefore, the evolution may become
quite smooth.
Unified support and management system also can decrease
investment.
Facility such as transmission and equipment room can be
shared.
Open Interfaces and Flexible
Networking Capabilities
ZXUN series provides open and standard interfaces. It supports
GSM, 3GPP R99~R8, networking and allows smooth upgrade and
expansion.
IP, TDM, and ATM transport are supported and can be integrated
into any of the existing networks. A safe integration is also
ensured by supporting the current interfaces and signaling
protocols towards the existing network elements
Outstanding Reliability and Excellent
Performance
ZXUN system has reliability and performance as described below:
ZXUN system has distributed processing design.
This means that the protocol processing units operate
independently to ensure excellent general performance. The
failure of a unit will not affect other processing units.
ZXUN system has high-performance processor chips. This
ensures high processing capabilities of the system. Network
processor, Centrino processor and embedded high-
performance RISC processor are used in the system to
provide impetus and expansible communication functions for
the system, and prevent the processing capability from being
a system bottleneck
ZXUN system has desirable redundancy design.
1+1 active/standby hot backup mode is utilized for key
components such as service processing unit, signaling
processing unit, and switching plane;
N+M redundancy backup mode is utilized for interface
and user plane processing units. Thus provide automatic
switching function and ensure system work without break.
Load sharing mode is utilized for the processing units.
Thus data load is transferred to other nodes automatically
when one node fails.
Description
Description

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

10 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

Dual machines and dual buses are utilized in the control
system, dual-networking is used, and the system
reliability is further improved.
Hot swap is available for all boards for easy maintenance.
Abundant Service Functions
The system supports all PS data services, SMS service, mobile
intelligent service, and location service.
The system design meets the future communication
development trend, and meets the general structure
requirements of mobile telecommunication systems such as EPS
and IN, as well as the requirements of various new services.
Smooth Expansion Capabilities
Smooth evolution with Investment Protection: since adopting the
unified hardware, hardware can be reserved when evolve from
GSM/UMTS to LTE. So, hardware can be shared and reused to
protect hardware invests.
The system has hierarchical and modular structure and can be
flexibly expanded and applied. Flexible configuration is available
for users.
Convenient Operation and
Maintenance
The operation and maintenance with ZXUN uMAC is convinient,
as described below:
C/S structure is adopted to ensure high networking capability
and satisfatory system expandability.
With Windows operating system, the client provides user-
friendly interfaces and flexible, convenient and reliable
operations.
It provides multiple remote and local system access ways.
The O&M can be implemented locally or remotely. Besides,
the entire system or some specific entities can be managed.
It features reliable security and multi-level authorization
protection.
With such functions as charging management, performance
measurement, traffic statistics, security management,
service observation, user (equipment) tracing, signaling
tracing, data configuration, version upgrading, alarming,
Description
Description
Description


Chapter 2 Highlight Features

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 11
loading, data backup and transmission, the system provides
multiple accurate, reliable, practical and convenient O&M
approaches. Moreover, functions can be added according to
the actual network operation and the operators
requirements.
The O&M system provides user-friendly interfaces,
comprehensive functionality and flexible networking
capability to implement centralized management over all
kinds of network entities of GSM/UMTS/LTE.


ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

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Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 13
Ch a p t e r 3
System Architecture

This chapter introduces the architecture of ZXUN uMAC system.
The topics involved in this chapter include:
Topic Page
Physical Structure 13
Hardware Structure of EPC Unified
Platform
16
ZXUN uMAC Hardware Structure 17
Hardware
Architecture
Software Architecture 19
Physical Structure
The overall system adopts the standard 19-inch rack, with the
max internal space of 42U. Details are provided below:
A single rack can be configured to have at most 4 service
shelves of 8U high, 1 power shelf of 2U high, 4 wiring
shelves of 1U-high, 3 fan shelves of 1U-high, and 1 dummy
panel of 1U high. So the rack is totally 42U high.
In the rack the following corresponding modules are
configured: power supply leading-in filter, bus-bar, and rear
horizontal cabling management frame.
The overall system structure is as shown in Figure 4.

Introduction
Topic
Description
Schematic
Diagram

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

14 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

FI GURE 4 ZXUN UMAC SYSTEM STRUCTURE
Blank panel (1U)
Power distribution subrack (2U)
Fan subrack (1U)
Servicesubrack (8U)
Cablesubrack (1U)
Servicesubrack (8U)
Cablesubrack (1U)
Fan subrack (1U)
Servicesubrack (8U)
Cablesubrack (1U)
Servicesubrack (8U)
Cablesubrack (1U)
Dust filter
Fan subrack (1U)
500
2
0
0
0

NOTE: The rack is dark blue (ZX-01*02), whereas the frames
and the panel are gray (ZX-02*02).
The dimensions of the components are as listed in Table 5. Dimensions


Chapter 3 System Architecture

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 15
TAB L E 5 DI MENSI ONS OF COMPONENTS
Item Height(mm) Width(mm) Depth(mm)
The dimensions of
the rack
2,000 600 800
The dimensions of
service shelves
354.8 (8U) 482.6(19) 479.2
The dimensions of
the power supply
shelf
88.1(2U) 482.6(19) 374
The dimensions of
the cabling shelf
43.6(1U) 482.6(19) 394.35
The dimensions of
the fan shelf
43.6 (1U) 482.6(19) 402.7
The dimensions of
the front-inserted
board PCB
322.25 2.0 (or 2.4) 340
The dimensions of
rear-inserted board
PCB
233.35 2.0 100

Hardware Architecture
The principles for ZTE hardware and software platforms are as
described below:
The principle for ZTE hardware platform
A whole new hardware platform based on full IP architecture
has been adopted, to meet the needs of smooth upgrading
of R99, R44, R5, R6, R7, R8 network, and the latest
achievement of electronic technology is used as well to
improve the system integrity and reduce the network
construction cost.
The principle for ZTE software platform
NGN software platform is developed on the basis of well-
developed and commercialized fixed network SoftSwitch
ZXSS10 series products, on which the fixed and mobile NGN
will be developed jointly, set the basis for bringing
integrative NGN products converged with fixed and mobile
NGN into market.
Various Network Elements (NE) involved in ZTE R99, R4,
R5/R6/R7/R8 version, such as uMAC, MSC, SGSN, GGSN, MGW,
MSC Server, MGCF, CSCF, and HLR/HSS all utilize the same
basic hardware platform, share the same board. Thus the
consistency and the reliability of the system is assured and this
avoids different platforms provided by different NEs of various
manufacturers.
Description

ZXUN uMAC-MME Mobility Management Entity Product Description

16 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

Hardware Structure of EPC Unified
Platform
NGN-oriented network equipment (WCDMA, cdma2000 and TD-
SCDMA) all are based on ALL-IP unified hardware platform (V3),
which guarantees the consistency, service portability, system
reliability and stability of the hardware for all 3G systems.
The structure of ZTE 2G/3G/LTE unified platform is as shown in
Figure 5.
FI GURE 5 STRUCTURE OF ZTE 2G/ 3G/ L TE UNI FI ED PL ATFORM


This structure brings out the following advantages for ZTE uMAC:
Large capacity, high integration and investment saving
With todays increased traffic and Declining ARPU, network
elements need to have high capacity and they use little floor
space. ZXUN uMAC only needs 3 racks to support 6 million
subscribers and thus saves the investment of network
construction for operator, since ZXUN CN equipment needs
less equipment room area and power supply system.
All WCDMA/EPC Nodes share the racks and boards
All WCDMA/EPC nodes can share racks and 16 kinds of
physical boards, including the WCDMA CN nodes MGW, MSC
Server, HLR, SGSN, GGSN and also RNC, the EPC CN nodes
uMAC, Serving GW, PDN GW, HSS. The same board can be
inserted in any of the equipment to save operators
Description
Structure
Advantages


Chapter 3 System Architecture

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 17
investment to the utmost. ZTE now is the only vendor to
realize the sharing of racks and boards among WCDMA
nodes.
All-IP hardware platform, easy migration to all-IP network
ZXUN (V3) hardware platform are based on all-IP
architecture, adopts high-performance packet processing
platform of Crossbar technology and provides 80Gbps
switching capability, which guarantee that WCDMA/EPC
nodes will have no congestion of switching capability.
Additionally, the hardware platform provides 256k * 256k
TDM switching capability, meeting the requirements of TDM
interconnection and flexible networking.
Abundant interfaces and supporting various networking
scenarios
ZXUN CN equipment support the access interfaces such as
E1, ATM STM-1, SDH STM-1, FE etc. and different
networking scenarios based on the practical requirements.
ZXUN CN equipment support various applications, such as
2G SGSN/ /2G&3G SGSN/3G uMAC/2G&3G&LTE uMAC/LTE
uMAC, etc.
Supporting LTE access, as well as handover and roaming
between 2G/3G and LTE systems
ZTE WCDMA CN equipment supports GSM/GPRS/UMTS/EPS
access, intra-MSC, intra-SGSN, intra-MME, inter-MSC (2G-
MSC and 3G-MSC), inter-SGSN (2G-SGSN and 3G-SGSN),
inter-MME handover and roaming. Various tests results of
ZTEs handover process between 2G/3G/LTE systems
demonstrated it to be among the best in industry.
ZXUN uMAC Hardware Structure
The hardware structure of ZXUN uMAC is as shown in Figure 6. Description

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18 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

FI GURE 6 STRUCTURE OF ZXUN UMAC HARDWARE SYSTEM


The boards as shown in Figure 6 are introduced in Table 6.
TAB L E 6 BOA RD NAME AND FUNCTI ONS
Board Name Board Functions
OMP Operation and Maintenance Processor
SMP Service Main Processor
SGLP Service Ge Line interface Processing
SGUP SGSN GTP-U Processor
SGSP SGSN Processor
SGBP SGSN Gb Processor
GLIV Vitesse Quad Gigabit Ethernet Line Interface
SIUP SGSN Iu Processor
PSN Packet Switch Network
UIMC Universal Interface Module Control
CHUB Control HUB
SPB Signaling Process Board
CLKG Clock Generator
USI Universal Server Interface




Chapter 3 System Architecture

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 19

The hardware structure as shown in Figure 4 is described in
detail below:
ZXUN uMAC has multiple interfaces, which employ IP and
POS as their basic access modes. In practical networking,
one or more relevant access mode(s) should be selected
according to the actual situations. The processing to the
application services and signaling is the important part of the
system, in which CPU pool and distributed processing mode
are adopted.
ZXUN uMAC system is divided into three parts: interface unit,
switching unit and processing unit.
Interface unit is used to implement all kinds of interfaces
to the outside, and implements the processing of the L2
protocol. Generally, the interface unit consists of L1
physical interface and its relevant L2 protocol processing,
ZXUN uMAC provides IP (physically adopts 100M/1000M
Ethernet access, SIGTRAN is supported) and narrowband
SS7 interfaces (both 64k link and 2M HSL, physically
adopts E1 access).
Processing unit is used to fulfill the upper layer services
and processing of signaling protocols.
Switching unit is used to connect the interface unit and
the processing unit, and also connect different frames.
Software Architecture
ZXUN uMAC software has a modular and hierarchical structure.
Invoking between layers is unidirectional in the primitive mode,
while invoking between the modules of the same layer is in the
message interface mode. The interfaces between modules and
layers are clear, concise, and are easy to be upgraded. The
independence of modules and community of interfaces is
emphasized. The ZXUN uMAC consists of a series of functional
subsystems, which are independent of each other, and
communicates with each other with the message mechanism.
Each subsystem can further be divided into multiple functional
modules.
The ZXUN uMAC software system is composed of the operation
supporting subsystem, database management subsystem,
signaling subsystem, mobile subscriber subsystem and O&M
subsystem. Figure 7 shows the system hierarchy.
Detailed
Introduction
ZXUN uMAC
Software
System

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20 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

FI GURE 7 SYSTEM HI ERARCHY
Datab
ase
subsy
stem
IP protocol stackIPGRE
UDPTCP,DNS
Service processing subsystem
Route protocol
Networ
k
manage
ment
subsyst
em
Running support subsystem
BSP
Signaling
system
Teleco
mmunic
ation
interfac
e
module
Mobile
intellige
nt
subsyste
m


ZXUN-uMAC software consists of such subsystems as the
bottom-layer drive module (BSP), the running support
subsystem, the IP protocol stack, the database subsystem, the
network management subsystem, the signaling subsystem and
the service processing subsystem. Details are provided below:
The relationship between modules is shown in Figure 7.
The support subsystem provides a virtual operating system
environment for other modules.
IP protocol stack provides static route, dynamic route and
built-in route functions to connect with the upper-level route
directly.
The signaling system processes all kinds of
narrowband/wideband signaling.
The service processing subsystem implements service
functions for subscribers, including activation and mobility
management.
The network management subsystem implements operation,
maintenance, performance statistics, data configuration and
fault management functions for the uMAC subsystem.
The database subsystem, on the basis of the OS, is
independent of the application database system. It uses the
object-oriented relation data mode to manage the data,
including defining, describing, operating and maintaining the
data table. It can flexibly provide and perform the system
data configuration and provide data configuration and
maintenance and other functions. It also stores and manages
the subscriber data and other information, providing the
service processing subsystem with efficient and reliable data
service.


Details

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 21
Ch a p t e r 4
Technical Specifications

This chapter introduces technical specifications related with
ZXUN Umac.
The topics included in this chapter are listed below:
Topic Page
Physical Indices 21
Equipment Power 21
Power Consumption Indices 22
Working Environment 22
Capacity Indices 24
Clock Indices 24
Physical Indices
This topic describes the physical indices, including mechanical
dimension, weight and floor bearing, and color.
Rack dimension (excluding the rack base):
2000mm 600mm 800mm (Height Width Depth)
Rack weight (kg) 350kg (full configuration of a single rack)
Floor weight bearing: Larger than 450kg/m2
The rack is dark blue (ZX-01*02), whereas the frames and the
panel are gray (ZX-02*02).
Equipment Power
This topic introduces indices required for the power of equipment,
for example, the power supply range, and power consumption
indices.
Introduction
Topic
Description
Mechanical
Dimension
Weight and
Floor Bearing
Color
Description

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22 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

The system power supply is fully distributed. The power modules
on the functional boards convert and isolate -48V power supply
into/from the power supply needed by this board (such as
+5VDC/+3.3VDC/+2.5VDC /+1.8 VDC).In board power design,
the following factors must be considered: EMC filtering, isolation,
hot swap, power-on slow start, input overcurrent protection,
output over-voltage protection and power-on sequence.
Normal working voltage of the system is ranged from -57V to
-40V.
For equipment with AC power as its primary power, such as a
server, the nominal input power is single-phase 220V AC
power, the permitted input voltage ranges from 176V to
264V, and the frequency change ranges from 45Hz to 65Hz.A
The power distribution module (PDM) mounted at the top of
the rack is installed at the -48V power inlet of the rack, and
also the EMC filter, the general power circuit breaker and the
circuit-breakers for the shelves are installed at the inlet. The
PDM module supplies -48V power for four board shelves and
two fan shelves are individually connected through
independent -48V busbar.
Power Consumption Indices
The power consumption parameters of the ZXUN uMAC are as
listed in Table 7.
TAB L E 7 POWER CONSUMPTI ON PARAMETERS OF THE ZXUN UMAC
Node Capacity (10,000) Power Consumption (W)
20 600
60 1800
100 3000
600 5000
Working Environment
The working environment of ZXUN uMAC refers to the conditions
of temperature, humidity, cleanness, and air pollution in the
equipment room.
The temperature and humidity requirements of the ZXUN uMAC
are shown in Table 8.
Power Supply
Range
Description
Description
Temperature
and Humidity


Chapter 4 Technical Specifications

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 23
TAB L E 8 TEMPERATURE AND HUMI DI TY REQUI REMENTS
Temperature Relative Humidity
Equipment
Type
Long-term
working
condition
Short-term
working
condition
Long-term
working
condition
Short-term
working
condition
ZXUN uMAC 0
0
C~40
0
C 5
0
C~45
0
C 20%~90% 5%~95%
NOTE:
The temperature and humidity of the operating
environment inside the equipment room are measured at
the spot that is 1.5m above the floor and 0.4m before the
equipment when there is no protective plate in front or
back of the equipment rack.
The short-term working condition means that the
continuous operation period is no more than 48 hours
and the accumulated operation period in a year is no
more than 5 days.
The concentration of dust particles with the diameter greater
than 5m should be 3 104 particles/m3.
There is no explosive, conductive, magneto conductive and
corrosive dust, as well as gases that can corrode metal and
affect insulation.
The standards complied with by the interfaces of the ZXUN
uMAC and the cables supported are shown in Table 9.
TAB L E 9 ZXUN UMAC I NTERFACE I NDI CES
Interface
Type
Physical Standard Cable Types
Gn
100Mbps/1000Mbps
Ethernet
STM-1/STM-4
Category-5 twisted
pair
Fiber jumper
LC/PC-LC/PC
Gb E1
Category-5 twisted
pair
IuPS
155Mbps ATM optical
interface
Fiber jumper
LC/PC-LC/PC
Ga
100Mbps/1000Mbps
Ethernet
Coaxial cable
Gr E1 Coaxial cable
S1-
MME/S11/S10/
S3
100Mbps/1000Mbps
Ethernet
STM-1/STM-4
Category-5 twisted
pair
Fiber jumper
LC/PC-LC/PC
S6a
E1
100Mbps/1000Mbps
Ethernet
Coaxial cable
Category-5 twisted
pair
Requirements
for Cleanness
Air Pollution
Requirements
Interface
Indices

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24 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

Interface
Type
Physical Standard Cable Types
Network
management
100Mbps Ethernet
Category-5 twisted
pair

Capacity Indices
The capacity indices of the ZXUN uMAC are shown in Table 10.
TAB L E 10 ZXUN UMAC TYPI CAL CAPACI TY I NDI CES
Technical
Features
Parameter
Specific
Indices
Max. number of attached users 6M
Number of activated PDP Contexts 6M
Number of intercurrent 8000pps
Number of eNodeB supported 4096
Number of PDN-GW supported 1024
Capacity indices
Data throughput
Gb: 960Mbps
Iu over ATM:
8.4Gbps
Iu over IP:
30Gbps
Number of narrowband 64Kbps
links
3200
Number of narrowband 2Mbps
links
200
Signaling
indices
Number of max. configurable
signaling points
256
FE interface 168
GE interface 42 Interface indices
E1/T1 interface (Frame Interface) 1536

Clock Indices
The clock indices of ZXUN uMAC are shown in Table 11.
Description
Description


Chapter 4 Technical Specifications

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 25
TAB L E 11 ZXUN UMAC CL OCK I NDI CES
Parameter Specific Indices
Clock Level Level-2 clock class A
Lowest clock accuracy 410
-7

Pull-in range 410
-7

Max. frequency deviation 10
-9
/day
Initial max. frequency deviation 510
-10

Clock working mode:
Fast capture, locked, hold-over
and free-run


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Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 27
Ch a p t e r 5
ZXUN uMAC Services and
Functions

This chapter introduces the services and functions provided by
ZXUN uMAC, including:
Mobility management services
A fundamental feature of mobile communication is mobility;
therefore SGSN must be able to manage the subscribers in
the local SGSN area to enable them to roam in the network
legally.
Relocation processing service
SRNS relocation function is a necessity for SGSN to ensure
that service is not interrupted by subscribers mobility.
Packet session service
Session service is the fundamental service provided by
SGSN, which enables SGSN subscribers data transmission to
be conducted normally.
SMS service
SMS service is a text message service. SGSN provides SMS
services such as MS originated and MS terminated.
Mobile intelligent service
ZXUN SGSN supports 100 percent of CAMEL subscribers. It
has SSP function and can access mobile IN to provide
multiple intelligent services for subscribers.
Iu/Gb Flex
Iu/Gb Flex is the optional service provided by SGSN, which
can make a RAN node connect to multiple CN node.
IMSI Range based Area Restrict
It is the optional service provided by SGSN. The max
capability of IMSI range supported is 4096.
IMSI Range based EPLMN List
Introduction

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28 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

It is the optional service provided by SGSN, which enables
network resource sharing between different PLMNs.
IMSI Range Based Maximum Qos Restriction
It is the optional service provided by SGSN. The max
capability of IMSI range supported is 4096.
The topics included in this chapter are listed below:
Topic Page
Mobility Management 28
Relocation Processing 29
Session Management 29
Mobile Intelligent Services 29
Short Message Service 30
Iu/Gb Flex 30
IMSI Range Based Area Restriction 30
IMSI Range based EPLMN List 31
IMSI Range Based Maximum Qos Restriction 31
QoS Management 32
Security Functions 32
IP Routing 32
Lawful Interception 32
Warning Message Transfer Function 32
S1 Flex 32
PDN-GW Selection based Redundancy 33
Mobility Management
The location of a mobile subscriber is always changing. To obtain
the location information of a mobile subscriber in the cases of
call and short message services and increase the efficiency of
the radio resources, the mobile subscriber is required to register
and update the routing area information and report the status of
mobile subscribers. The location update service falls into the
following three categories:
Attach: accomplishing the subscribers registration.
Normal routing area update: Registering new routing area
information with the network.
Periodical routing area update: Periodically informing the
network of the mobile subscriber availability.
Specific processing flow varies with the routing area information
in the mobile subscriber report and location information
registered with HLR. When the mobile subscriber is in a new
Topic
Description


Chapter 5 ZXUN uMAC Services and Functions

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 29
routing area out of the home SGSN, or the mobile subscriber
routing area information is not for sure, it is required to initiate
location update to HLR; otherwise, location update request is not
necessary.
Relocation Processing
When a mobile subscriber moves to a boundary area of two cells,
Node B detects that the signal of the mobile subscriber is weak
and automatically sends the relocation request to SGSN in order
to sustain the existing service. The relocation requests can be
categorized into three:
SRNS relocation after soft handover.
SRNS relocation associating with hard handover.
SRNS relocation associating with CELL/URA updating.
And handoffs and relocations can take place alternately, so the
combination conditions are more complicated.
Relocation falls into two types:
Relocation inside an SGSN.
Relocation between SGSNs
NOTE:
Relocation between different RNCs within an SGSN is called
internal relocation. The relocation between different SGSNs is
called inter-SGSN relocation.
Session Management
SM (Session Management) manages PDP contexts of subscribers,
receives PDP session requests sent from MS and sets up,
modifies and deletes corresponding PDP contexts in SGSN. At
the same time, initiates different kinds of PDP session contexts
to GGSN/P-GW according to the different requirements of MS
and accomplishes the deactivating and parameter modifying of
packet data transmission of corresponding MS (such as QOS).
Accepts and executes the PDP reverse activating requests
initiated by GGSN/P-GW side. Sets up the data transmission
channel of subscriber terminal and external data network with
MM mobility management module.
Mobile Intelligent Services
Presently, ZXUN SGSN/SSP (V3.0) system supports the
complete CAMEL Phase 3 specification.
Description
Description
Description

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30 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

Short Message Service
The short message service (SMS) contains two parts:
PTP short message service (Point-To-Point SMS)
Broadcast short message service.
The SMS pertaining to the mobile switching center is only the
PTP SMS.
The point-to-point SMS is the service for transmitting length-
limited messages between UMTS PLMN mobile station and the
Short Message Entity (SME) through the Service Center (SC).
NOTE:
The SC can store and forward messages. It is a short message
processing entity that integrates storing, interacting and relay
functions. But UMTS PLMN should support short message
transfer between the SC and the MS.
PTP SMS defines short message mobile originated (SM MO)
service and short message mobile terminated (SM MT) service.
SM MO refers to the short message sent from MS to SC, which
may be sent to other MSs or fixed network subscribers. The SM
MT refers to the short messages forwarded from the SC to the
MSs..
The PTP message processing procedure consists of three parts:
SM MO processing procedure.
SM MT processing procedure.
Alert message transmission.
The ZXUN SGSN supports all above SMS flows and provides PTP
short message service.
Iu/Gb Flex
The Rnc connects all the SGSNs in the pool at the same time, if
any SGSN failed, the load will be redistributed to other SGSNs in
the pool. Inter SGSN RAU is replaced by intra SGSN RAU when
user moving in the pool, so signaling interchange is reduced.
IMSI Range Based Area Restriction
ZXUN SGSN supports IMSI range based area restriction, and
IMSI range can be used to distinguish home subscribers and
different VPLMN subscribers.
Some area restriction policies can be configured in ZXUN SGSN
as follows:
Description
Details
Description
Description
Restriction
Policies


Chapter 5 ZXUN uMAC Services and Functions

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 31

IMSI
range
LAI/RAI Cause
Code

IMSI range is the range restricted. LAI/RAI is route area
restricted for the IMSI range. Cause Code, which is referenced
as 3GPP 24.008, is the cause value SGSN sends to subscribers
for area restriction.
The IMSI range can be MCC+MNC or more detailed number
serials. When MS comes into a route area not allowed to access
(IMSI is in IMSI range witch is restricted in current route area),
SGSN sends attach Reject or Route Area Update Reject the MS
with configured error cause code.
It benefits that operators have a choice of restricting home
subscribers or roaming subscribers access in some route areas,
e.g. restricting roaming subscribers which have only 2G roaming
agreement accessing from 3G network.
IMSI Range based EPLMN List
IMSI range can be configured based EPLMN list in SGSN.
Different EPLMN lists are sent to different subscribers for IMSI
range.
The max numbering capability is 16 IMSI range, and 15 EPLMN
per IMSI range.
It allows subscribers to select other EPLMN which provides
network resource for service, besides their home PLMN.
IMSI Range Based Maximum Qos
Restriction
SGSN can assign and limit different QoS qualities to different
subscribers classed by IMSI ranges. For example, if a roaming
user subscribes in home HLR QoS of 256Kbps Max bit rate, and
IMSI is in the range with limit of 128Kbps MBR, then SGSN will
assign QoS less than 128Kbps MBR to the user, according to
QoS limit based on IMSI range.
It benefits that operators have the ability of control roaming
subscribers QoS qualities, which can make utilizing of user
plane resource more efficient
Description
Description

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32 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

QoS Management
Quality of Service is a basic function that allows operators to
optimize the use of network resources and accommodate traffic
so that it satisfies the end-user needs. Also, QoS makes it
possible for operators to offer a richer variety of services and a
higher level of service personalization.
Security Functions
The ciphering function preserves the confidentiality of user data
and signaling across the radio channels. The integrity protection
function ensures the integrity of the signaling between the UE
and the network
IP Routing
The routing functions are needed on the S11/S1-
uMAC/S10/S6a/S3 interface to provide connectivity to other
uMACs/HSS/SGSN (uMACs and SAE-GWs). ZXUN uMAC supports
static routing as well as routing protocols including OSPF, RIP,
BGP and IS-IS.
Lawful Interception
Lawful Interception (LI) ensures that the operator meets the
local authority requirements for interception of mobile users
data call.
Warning Message Transfer Function
Warning message delivery is similar to Cell Broadcast Service, it
permits a number of unacknowledged Warning messages to be
broadcast to UEs within a particular area.
S1 Flex
The eNodeB connects all the MMEs in the pool at the same time,
if any MME failed, the load will be redistributed to other MMEs in
the pool. Inter MME RAU is replaced by intra MME RAU when
user moving in the pool, so signaling interchange is reduced.
Description
Description
Description
Description
Description
Description


Chapter 5 ZXUN uMAC Services and Functions

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 33
PDN-GW Selection based
Redundancy
The MME can select PDN-GW from the PDN-GW address list
returned by DNS according to the PDN-GW priorities. PDN-GW of
highest priority will be selected first, when this PDN-GW fails,
less high PDN-GW will be selected instead. Multiple PDN-GWs
can be put in the same priority class. In the same priority class,
PDN-GWs are selected by load-sharing rule. With this feature,
PDN-GW redundancy can be implemented.
Description

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34 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


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Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 35
Ch a p t e r 6
Operation and
Maintenance

This chapter introduces the operation and maintenance on ZXUM
uMAC.
The topics included in this chapter are listed below:
Topic Page
Operation and Maintenance Tools 35
Configuration Management System 37
Alarm Management System 37
Performance Management System 37
Diagnosis Test System 38
Signaling Tracing System 38
Service Observation System 39
Variable Management System 39
Operation and Maintenance Tools
The network management system comprises the operation &
maintenance center (OMC) and the charging management part.
It provides perfect authentication mechanism to avoid illegal
access. The OMC comprises O&M server and O&M client. And the
charging management part is made up of the CG processing unit,
the charging client and the charging OMM server.
The structure of the network management system is as shown in
Figure 8.
Introduction
Topic
Description
Structure of
NMS

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36 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

FI GURE 8 STRUCTURE OF O&M SYSTEM
LAN
LAN
Internet
Router
CG2
OMCserver
2G/3G/LTENEgroup1
Printer
Operationterminal
Diskarray
CG1
Chargingand
operationserver
2G/3G/LTENEgroup2
Operationterminal Printer
Router
WWWserver
DNS
Mail server
RedirectedCGgroup
FTAM/FTP
Remoteterminal
CG2
Diskarray
CG1 RedirectedCGgroup
Chargingcenter
Up-level NMC


Functionally, the NMS comprises the following modules:
Configuration management module
Performance management module
Fault management module
Diagnosis and test module
Service observation module
Signaling tracing module
Security management module
Charging management module
The charging operation server provides centralized configuration
and processing of circuit domain and packet domain and
powerful charging mechanism control so that it can satisfy the
charging content requirements in charging content time, flow,
quality and service. The dual-system is adopted to guarantee
that charging is running without error. The charging system
provides diversified interfaces and FTP and FTAM file
Charging
Management
Part


Chapter 6 Operation and Maintenance

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 37
transmission mode to output bill contents. NM system is divided
into foreground module, server module and client module
according to software structure. The whole software frame
complies with TMN (telecommunication network management)
structure.
Configuration Management System
The configuration management system provides user-friendly
interfaces for the configuration and management of network
resources. The configuration management system provides
centralized configuration and management of different NEs in
GPRS/WCDMA/EPS, such as the configuration and management
of physical equipment, switch and signaling. Additionally, the
system provides tools for data transmission, data backup and
recovery, and initial system configuration.
Before data configuration, to guarantee the version has been
correctly installed and can run normally, it is necessary to
confirm the following data:
Entity type of the current exchange, which is uMAC here.
Rack configuration of the current exchange.
Signaling point type of the current exchange, GT (Global Title)
and IP address.
The configuration data of the neighboring office of the
current exchange: the type, signaling point and associated
mode (associated or quasi-associated) of each neighboring
office, signaling link coding and DNS address configuration.
Alarm Management System
The alarm management system is made up of two parts: real-
time display of current alarms and alarm-related operation.
Performance Management System
Current alarms for devices, communication, services and
processors are displayed through interfaces. Real-time display
provides in list form the detailed information about each alarm,
including:
Alarm source
Alarm level
Alarm time
Alarm content
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction

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38 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

Alarm cause
Alarm type
Additional information.
The performance management system provides statistic data
about some performance parameters and traffic data of the
mobile system for reference by operation departments.
The maintenance client can define performance measurement
flexibly. A performance measurement job consists of the
start/end time, days of duration, measurement object set and
granularity period. The maintenance client allows you to
generate, delete, modify and observe in real time the
performance measurement.
The performance measurement has a wide coverage, ranging
from traffic and signaling performance, service quality
measurement, network configuration verification, availability
measurement, throughput measurement and switching function
measurement.
Diagnosis Test System
The diagnosis test system, a part of fault management, provides
functions of routine test and iuMACdiate test for the CS domain
and PS domain devices of the core network, to ensure normal
and stable operation of the entire system. In daily maintenance,
the diagnosis test system is used to test the physical devices
and communication links through routine test. If the test result
is likely to be abnormal, the engineers should pay attention and
take proper measures to avoid any fault. In case of any fault,
the diagnosis test system helps the engineers find the fault
causes and locate the fault quickly with the iuMACdiate test
function to remove the fault as soon as possible. This system
can also be used by the engineers to judge whether the
equipment and even the entire system resumes normal
operation.
The ZXUN uMAC system adopts a multi-module & fully
distributed control structure. Each module consists of a series of
basic units. The diagnosis test function is divided into intra-
module test and inter-module test. The intra-module test is used
to test the functions of the component units of the module, links
between the units and MPs, speech channels between units and
switching networks. And the inter-module test is used to test the
communication and speech channels of the adjacent modules
Signaling Tracing System
The signaling trace system is used to trace the signaling data of
the network operation and analyze the service operation. It
Introduction
Description


Chapter 6 Operation and Maintenance

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 39
comprises No.7 signaling trace, circuit domain signaling trace
and packet domain signaling trace.
uMAC signaling trace covers:
Tracing and displaying in real time Diameter signaling, GTPC,
S1AP signaling through S1-uMAC interface and signaling
through S6a interface.
Showing explanation for the signaling.
Providing daily maintenance tools for data maintenance, such
as tools for sorting, filtering, searching and deleting the
signaling trace records.
Providing tools for reestablishing the database table for you
to use to install the database table for the first time or when
the database table is damaged.
Creating a new database table for the signaling trace record.
Service Observation System
The service observation system, as a part of the O&M system, is
used to view the service operation status of the NEs and conduct
analysis and processing accordingly.
Variable Management System
The security variable system is used to maintain the service
parameters that should be modified dynamically. Currently, the
parameters to be maintained are system control parameter,
EMM parameters, GTP parameters, SM parameters, packet
domain NE configuration parameters, authentication parameters
and charging parameters.
The security variable functions to modify data at the background
and transfer them to synchronize the data of the foreground and
the background, making the service parameter configuration
flexible.
The security variable system is used to configure the parameters
below:
System control parameters
Security parameters
S1 interface parameters, and NE configuration parameters of
packet domain.

Description
Description

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Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 41
Ch a p t e r 7
Reliability Design
This chapter introduces design for reliability of the hardware,
software, simplification, redundancy, and harsh environment
resistance in ZXUN uMAC.
The topics included in this chapter are listed below:
Topic Page
System Reliability Design 41
EMC Design 42
Simplification Design 42
Redundancy Design 43
Hardware Reliability
Design
Harsh Environment
Resistance Design
43
System Reliability Design
Theoretically, the reliability value of a fully maintainable system
can be equated in Markov process when the failure rate and the
recovery rate are constant. Table 12 shows the reliability indices
in ZXUN uMAC.
TAB L E 12 REL I AB I L I TY I NDI CES I N ZXUN UMAC
Parameter
Specific
Indices
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) 148000 hours
System Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) <30 minutes
System availability (A) >99.9997%
System annual average interruption time <3 minutes
Introduction
Topic
Description

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Hardware Reliability Design
Hardware reliability design here refers to EMC design,
Simplification design, Redundancy design, and Harsh
environment resistance design.
EMC Design
The EMC design of the ZXUN uMAC system involves filtering,
grounding, overlapping and cabinet electromagnetic shielding.
The EMI power filter and lightening arrestor are used for the
power cables of the overall system. Filters are recouMACnded at
the input/output terminals of power modules of boards.
Boards and parts must satisfy Grade B requirements of ESD air
discharge 8KV and touch discharge 6KV. To satisfy the
requirements, the following measurement should be taken in
addition to overlapping and shielding:
Grounding points should be sufficient, and well distributed on
the in-board sockets.
Components (except indicators and switches) should be kept
at a proper distance from the panel (>10 mm), away from
panel edge.
Holes for indicators and switches should be of proper size
and there should be no excessive gap.
There should be no wire alongside the panel edge. Any wire
(except the indicator wire) should be at least 5 ~ 10 mm
away from the panel edge.
The clock cable should run inside, not on the top or the
bottom and should be as short as possible.
The devices to be used should be of high ESD protection
level. Normally the ESD of a device should be at least 2000V.
The grounding wire layer should be larger than the boundary
of the wires and components. At the panel side, the
grounding wires should be installed with spaces of at least
5mm.
The wires on the backplane must undergo crosstalk
emulation, and signal lines of high working frequency should
be suppressed and shielded as necessary.
Boards and parts should bear anti-static labels.
Simplification Design
For the purpose of reliability, the system is designed in the
following principles: Simplifying the system structure and board
Introduction
Introduction
Measurement
Description


Chapter 7 Reliability Design

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 43
circuits, reducing the quantity of devices on the board,
specifying uniform board signal definitions and implementing
uniform backplane design so that relevant function boards can
be reused and mixed. Reuse function and compatibility are fully
recognized. For example, multiple function boards are integrated
into one board and circuits of the same functions are integrated
into one standard circuit. Use more general-purpose
devices/parts. General purpose here means the compatibility
inside this system and with other products. Units and modules of
the systems are designed according to relevant industry
standards.
Redundancy Design
Redundancy design of the system is shown in the backup of key
boards. They should be backed up as follows:
The Ethernet switching board, OMP and control plane service
processing board are exclusively backed up in 1+1 mode. The
active/standby boards send "Heartbeat" signals to each other
through the internal Ethernet to detect the status of the other.
The changeover follows the active/standby changeover
mechanism of the system. The active and standby boards can
not be online/offline at the same time and their data are
synchronized through the internal Ethernet.
The interface board is backed up in load-sharing mode.
Harsh Environment Resistance
Design
The ZXUN uMAC is an indoor product, which should be installed
in the central equipment room under good conditions. Air-
conditioning is required. Therefore, the product is not required
to be moisture-proof, smoke-proof, mould-proof, burglar-proof
and water-proof. It is not necessary to do 3Proof processing to
the boards.
To prevent any damage in shipping and storage, cabinets should
be well protected. The cabinet surface should be dust-proof and
corrosion-proof.
Boards are shipped in the cabinet. Therefore cabinets should be
packed in vacuum pads and shockproof foams. Since the
cabinets are heavy, they should be shipped in moisture-proof
crates.

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Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 45
Ch a p t e r 8
Networking Knowledge

This chapter introduces networking knowledge inZXUN uMAC.
The topics included in this chapter are listed below:
Topic Page
Networking for ZXUN uMAC 45
Networking for ZXUN uMAC
The ZXUN uMAC is a functional entity for connecting eNodeB to
the PDN-GWs. The configuration and networking of uMAC are
very flexible.
The national PS network backbone comprises several regional
nodes that are connected to each other in mesh. A pair of top-
level Domain Name Servers (DNS) are set on the national
network, responsible for domain names that cannot be
translated by provincial DNS. The provincial networks access the
backbone network nodes through routers. Routers are usually
set in pairs, for accessing different backbone nodes to ensure
the network reliability.
The logic structure of the national backbone network is shown in
Figure 9.
Introduction
Topic
Description
Structure of
National
Backbone
Network

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FI GURE 9 PS/ EPS BACK B ONE NETWORK
PS/EPS network in
Site B
PS/EPS network in
Site A
PS/EPS network in
Site C
PS/EPS backbone
network
Router
Router
Router


NOTE:
When the EPS backbone network is based on the national IP
backbone network, no new routing device is necessary. But
when it is independent of the national IP backbone network, the
regional nodes can be connected through the dedicated line.
There are multiple networking schemes for the provincial PS
backbone network construction.
When there is an IP backbone network in a province, the
uMAC serves as the node to access the IP backbone network.
When there is no IP backbone network in the province, the
provincial backbone network may have one or multiple
backbone nodes according to the capacity at the beginning of
the network construction. When the needs for the PS are not
great and are centralized in only a few cities, the uMAC and
SAE-GW in these cities are usually connected through the
LAN in order to reduce the cost and speed up the network
construction. In some local networks, there are only SAE-GW
but no uMACs. In this case, the provincial network accesses
the national backbone network through routers and the local
networks can be connected through the leased dedicated
circuit.
In a signaling network, the uMAC communicates with HLR
through the SS7 network. This network is simple in structure
and can provide the packet service throughout the province
quickly.
If the need for the EPS is great, there will be many backbone
nodes in the province. The backbone nodes are responsible for
service convergence in some areas and they are interconnected
into a mesh network. The provincial backbone network is
connected to the national backbone network. If there is an IP
Networking
Schemes


Chapter 8 Networking Knowledge

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 47
backbone network in the province, the uMACs are directly
connected to the IP backbone network.
The following configuration modes for the EPS local network
construction are available according to the EPS volume.
Mode 1: The uMAC is needed in the local network, but the
SAE-GW is not needed.
Mode 2: Multiple uMAC and SAE-GW are needed in the local
network.
In Mode 1, only the uMAC is configured in the local network and
different local networks share one SAE-GW. In this case, the
uMAC is only responsible for the EPS subscribers in the local
network. The uMAC is connected to the outside through the
provincial backbone nodes.
In Mode 2, there is a great need for the EPS in the local network,
so multiple uMACs/SAE-GWs should be set. All the nodes can be
placed together to connect each other through the LAN or placed
separately through the MAN.
At the initial stage of the EPS network construction, the
capacities of the uMAC and SAE-GW are small, so they can be
combined into one in structure (but they are two entities to
outside). The combined uMAC can provide WAN S11 and SGi
interfaces for other uMACs and SAE-GWs, but use an Ethernet
interface for the local SAE-GW. The S11 interface between the
combined uMAC and SAE-GW adopts the standard protocol.
When combined, no separate rack should be set for the SAE-GW.
In this case, as the SAE-GW capacity is small, the uMAC and
SAE-GW can be connected to the EPS backbone network or the
external PDN through a router.
The networking structure of the SAE-GW and the uMAC in the
same LAN is shown in Figure 10.
Configuration
Modes
Networking
Structure

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FI GURE 10 NETWORK I NG MODE OF XGW AND UMAC I N THE SAME L AN
ZXWN-
xGW

Firewall
ZXWN-
iMAC
IW/GMSC
MSCS /VLR
HSS/HLR/AUC
No7
signaling
network
Internet
GERAN/UTRAN/
EUTRAN
IP
backbone
IP
backbone
DHCP ZXWN-CG ZXWN-OMC DNS

If the address pool mode is used or the IP address of the mobile
phone is static, then the DHCP server is not necessary. In
addition, as the uMAC and SAE-GW are both connected to the
EPS backbone network, the DNS can be the DNS on the EPS
backbone network.
The independent networking mode is often used. In this mode,
the ZXUN uMAC is connected to the ZXUN uMAC or the uMAC of
other equipment manufacturer through the EPS backbone
network.


Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 49
A p p e n d i x A
Abbreviations

Name Explanation
2G Second Generation
3G the third Generation mobile communications
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
3GPP2 Third Generation Partnership Project 2
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUC Authentication Center
AVP Attribute Value Pair
BOSS Business Operator and Supporting System
BSC Base Station Controller
CAMEL
Customized Application for Mobile network
Enhanced Logic
CAP CAMEL Application Part
CAPEX Capital Expenditure
CBC Content Based Charging
CCG Content based Charging Gateway
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA2000 Code Division Multiple Access-2000
CG Charge Gateway
CN Core Network
CS Circuit Service
CSCF Call Session Control Function
EIR Equipment Identity Register

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Name Explanation
EPS Evolved Packet System
EUTRAN Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GMSC Gateway MSC
GSM Global System for Mobile communications
HLR Home Location Register
HSS Home Subscriber Server
IM-SSF IMS Service Switch Function
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IOT Inter-Operation Test
ISUP ISDN User Part
ITU International Telecom Union
LAI Location Area Identity
MAP Mobile Application Part
uMAC Mobility Management Entity
MMS Multimedia Message Services
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MSISDN MS ISDN
NAT Network Address Translation
NM Network Management
NRI Network Resource Identifier
OMC Operation and Maintenance Center
OCS Online Charging System
OPEX Operating Expense
PDP Packet Data Protoco1
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network


Abbreviation A Abbreviations

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 51
Name Explanation
POS Packet Over SONET/SDH
PS Packet Service
QoS Quality of Service
R99 3GPP Release V.99
R5 3GPP Release V.5
R4 3GPP Release V.4
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
RAN Radio Access Network
RANAP Radio Access Network Application Part
RNC Radio Network Controller
RNS Radio Network Subsystem
RRU Remote Radio Unit
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SGW Signaling GateWay
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SIGTRAN Signaling Transport
SMS Short Message Service
SMSC Short Message Service Center
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SS7 Signaling System Number 7
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TD-SCDMA
Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple
Access
UMTS Universal mobile telecommunication system
WCN WCDMA Core Network
WAP Wireless Application Part
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
ZXW10
General term for ZTE WCDMA 3G mobile
communication system
ZXUN ZTE WCDMA core network subsystem
ZXUN GGSN The GGSN in ZTE WCDMA core network subsystem
ZXUN SGSN The SGSN in ZTE WCDMA core network subsystem

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Name Explanation
ZXUN HLR/AUC
The HLR/AUC in ZTE WCDMA core network
subsystem
ZXUN MSCS
The MSC server in ZTE WCDMA core network
subsystem
ZXUN MGW The MGW in ZTE WCDMA core network subsystem
ZXWR RNC ZTE WCDMA radio network controller





Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 53
Figures

Figure 1 location of ZXUN uMAC as SGSN in mobile network....2
Figure 2 Location of ZXUN uMAC as MME in mobile network.....3
Figure 3 Location of ZXUN uMAC as SGSN/MME combo in Mobile
Network............................................................................3
Figure 4 ZXUN uMAC System Structure............................... 14
Figure 5 Structure of ZTE 2G/3G/LTE Unified Platform .......... 16
Figure 6 Structure of ZXUN uMAC Hardware System............. 18
Figure 7 System Hierarchy................................................ 20
Figure 8 Structure of O&M System..................................... 36
Figure 9 PS/EPS Backbone Network.................................... 46
Figure 10 Networking Mode of xGW and uMAC in the Same LAN
..................................................................................... 48


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Tables

Table 1 Chapter Summary ...................................................i
Table 2 Typographical Conventions ...................................... ii
Table 3 Mouse Operation Conventions .................................. ii
Table 4 Related Interfaces and Protocols of the ZXUN uMAC ....4
Table 5 Dimensions of Components.................................... 15
Table 6 Board Name and Functions .................................... 18
Table 7 Power Consumption Parameters of the ZXUN uMAC... 22
Table 8 Temperature and Humidity Requirements ................ 23
Table 9 ZXUN uMAC Interface Indices................................. 23
Table 10 ZXUN uMAC Typical Capacity Indices ..................... 24
Table 11 ZXUN uMAC Clock Indices.................................... 25
Table 12 Reliability Indices IN ZXUN uMAC.......................... 41