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# 2/13/2014 target IES: Real Time System by Jane W. S. Liu Chapter 5.

1(a)(b) Solution
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Wednesday, October 30, 2013
Real Time System by Jane W. S. Liu Chapter 5.1(a)(b) Solution
Q.5.1: Each of the following systems of periodic tasks is scheduled and executed according to a cyclic schedule. For each system, choose an
appropriate frame size. Preemptions are allowed, but the number of preemption should be kept small.
a) (6, 1), (10, 2), and (18, 2)
Sol: The frame size has to meet all three criteria discussed in the chapter.
1. f max(e
i
), 1 i n
f 2
2. f divides at least one of the periods evenly:
f {2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 18}
3. 2f - gdc(f, p
i
) D
i
, 1 i n
f = 2
2 2 - gcd(2, 6) = 2 - 2 = 0 2
2 2 - gcd(2, 10) = 2 - 2 = 0 5
2 2 - gcd(2, 18) = 2 - 2 = 0 5
f = 3
2 3 - gcd(3, 6) = 6 - 3 = 3 > 2
f = 5
2 5 - gcd(5, 6) = 10 - 1 = 9 > 2
f = 6
2 6 - gcd(6, 6) = 12 - 6 = 6 > 2
f = 9
2 9 - gcd(9, 6) = 18 - 3 = 15 > 2
f = 18
2 10 - gcd(10, 6) = 20 - 2 = 18 > 2
f = 18
2 18 - gcd(18, 6) = 36 - 6 = 30 > 2
The only frame size that works for this set of tasks is f = 2.
b) (8, 1), (15, 3), (20, 4), and (22, 6)
Sol: The frame size has to meet all three criteria discussed in the chapter.
1. f max(e
i
), 1 i n
f 6
2. f divides at least one of the periods evenly:
f {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 15, 20, 22}
3. 2f - gdc(f, p
i
) D
i
, 1 i n
f = 8
2 8 - gcd(8, 8) = 16 - 8 = 8 8
2 8 - gcd(8, 15) = 16 - 1 = 15 15
2 8 - gcd(8, 20) = 16 - 4 = 12 20
2 8 - gcd(8, 22) = 16 - 2 = 14 22
f = 10
2 10 - gcd(10, 8) = 20 - 2 = 18 > 8
f = 11
2 11 - gcd(11, 8) = 22 - 1 = 21 > 8
f = 15
2 15 - gcd(15, 8) = 30 - 1 = 29 > 8
f = 20
2 20 - gcd(20, 8) = 40 - 4 = 36 > 2
f = 22
2 22 - gcd(22, 8) = 44 - 2 = 42 > 2
The only frame size that works for this set of tasks is f = 8.
Since the parameters of all jobs with hard deadlines are known can construct a static cyclic schedule in advance Processor time allocated to a
Clock-driven Cyclic Scheduler
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2/13/2014 target IES: Real Time System by Jane W. S. Liu Chapter 5.1(a)(b) Solution
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Real Time System by Jane W. S. Liu Chapter 5.1(a)(b) Solution
Q.5.1: Each of the following systems of periodic tasks is scheduled and executed according to a cyclic schedule. For each system,
choose an appropriate frame size. Preemptions are allowed, but the number of preemption should be kept small. a) ( 6, 1), (10, ...
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Posted by Targeties blognee at 2:59 PM
job equals its maximum execution time Scheduler dispatches jobs according to the static schedule, repeating each hyperperiod Static
schedule guarantees that each job completes by its deadline
No job overruns all deadlines are met
Schedule calculated off-line can use complex algorithms Run-time of the scheduling algorithm irrelevant Can search for a schedule that
optimizes some characteristic of the system
e.g. a schedule where the idle periods are nearly periodic; accommodating aperiodic jobs
Arbitrary table-driven cyclic schedules flexible, but inefficient Relies on accurate timer interrupts, based on execution times of tasks High
Easier to implement if structure imposed: Make scheduling decisions at periodic intervals (frames) of length f Execute a fixed list of jobs with
each frame, disallowing pre-emption except at frame boundaries Require phase of each periodic task to be a non-negative integer multiple of
the frame size
The first job of every task is released at the beginning of a frame = kf where k is a non-negative integer
Gives two benefits: Scheduler can easily check for overruns and missed deadlines at the end of each frame Can use a periodic clock interrupt,
rather than programmable timer
Next Topic:
Q.5.1: Each of the following systems of periodic tasks is scheduled and executed according to a cyclic schedule.
For each system, choose an appropriate frame size. Preemptions are allowed, but the number of preemptions should
be kept small.
e) (5, 0.1), (7, 1.0), (12, 6), and (45, 9)
SOLUTION
Previous Topic:
Q.4.7: Consider the set of jobs in Figure 4-3. Suppose that the jobs have identical execution time. What maximum
execution time can the jobs have and still can be feasible scheduling on one processor? Explain your answer.
SOLUTION
Structured Cyclic Schedules
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