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A.M. No.

Whereas, case congestion and delays plague most courts in cities, given the huge volume
of cases filed each year and the slow and cumbersome adversarial syste1n that the
judiciary has in place;
Whereas, about 40% of criminal cases are dismissed annually owing to the fact that
complainants simply give up con1ing to court after repeated postponements;
Whereas, few foreign businessmen make long-term investments in the hilippines because
its courts are unable to provide ample and speedy protection to their investments, keeping
its people poor;
Whereas, in order to reduce the time needed for completing the testimonies of witnesses in
cases under litigation, on !ebruary "1, "01" the #upreme $ourt approved for piloting by
trial courts in %ue&on $ity the compulsory use of judicial affidavits in place of the direct
testimonies of witnesses;
Whereas, it is reported that such piloting has 'uickly resulted in reducing by about two-
thirds the time used for presenting the testimonies of witnesses, thus speeding up the
hearing and adjudication of cases;
Whereas, the #upreme $ourt $ommittee on the (evision of the (ules of $ourt, headed by
#enior )ssociate *ustice )ntonio +, $arpio, and the #ub-$ommittee on the (evision of the
(ules on $ivil rocedure, headed by )ssociate *ustice (oberto ), )bad, have
recommended for adoption a *udicial )ffidavit (ule that will replicate nationwide the
success of the %ue&on $ity e-perience in the use of judicial affidavits; and
Whereas, the #upreme $ourt .n /anc finds merit in the recommendation;
NOW, THEREFORE, the #upreme $ourt .n /anc hereby issues and promulgates the
Section 1. Scope. - 1a2 +his (ule shall apply to all actions, proceedings, and incidents
re'uiring the reception of evidence before0
112 +he 3etropolitan +rial $ourts, the 3unicipal +rial $ourts in $ities, the
3unicipal +rial $ourts, the 3unicipal $ircuit +rial $ourts, and the #hari4 a
$ircuit $ourts but shall not apply to small claims cases under ),3, 05-5-
1"2 +he (egional +rial $ourts and the #hari4a 7istrict $ourts;
182 +he #andiganbayan, the $ourt of +a- )ppeals, the $ourt of )ppeals,
and the #hari4a )ppellate $ourts;
142 +he investigating officers and bodies authori&ed by the #upreme $ourt
to receive evidence, including the 9ntegrated /ar of the hilippine 19/2;
1:2 +he special courts and 'uasi-judicial bodies, whose rules of procedure
are subject to disapproval of the #upreme $ourt, insofar as their e-isting
rules of procedure contravene the provisions of this (ule,
1b2 !or the purpose of brevity, the above courts, 'uasi-judicial bodies, or
investigating officers shall be uniformly referred to here as the ;court,;
Section 2. Submission of Judicial Affidavits and Exhibits in lieu of direct testimonies. - 1a2
+he parties shall file with the court and serve on the adverse party, personally or by licensed
courier service, not later than five days before pre-trial or preliminary conference or the
scheduled hearing with respect to motions and incidents, the following0
112 +he judicial affidavits of their witnesses, which shall take the place of
such witnesses4 direct testimonies; and
1"2 +he parties4 docun1entary or object evidence, if any, which shall be
attached to the judicial affidavits and marked as .-hibits ), /, $, and so
on in the case of the complainant or the plaintiff, and as .-hibits 1, ", 8,
and so on in the case of the respondent or the defendant,
1b2 #hould a party or a witness desire to keep the original document or object
evidence in his possession, he may, after the same has been identified, marked as
e-hibit, and authenticated, warrant in his judicial affidavit that the copy or
reproduction attached to such affidavit is a faithful copy or reproduction of that
original, 9n addition, the party or witness shall bring the original document or object
evidence for comparison during the preliminary conference with the attached copy,
reproduction, or pictures, failing which the latter shall not be admitted,
+his is without prejudice to the introduction of secondary evidence in place of the original
when allowed by e-isting rules,
Section . Contents of judicial Affidavit. - ) judicial affidavit shall be prepared in the
language known to the witness and, if not in .nglish or !ilipino, accompanied by a
translation in .nglish or !ilipino, and shall contain the following0
1a2 +he name, age, residence or business address, and occupation of the witness;
1b2 +he name and address of the lawyer who conducts or supervises the
e-amination of the witness and the place where the e-amination is being held;
1c2 ) statement that the witness is answering the 'uestions asked of him, fully
conscious that he does so under oath, and that he may face criminal liability for
false testimony or perjury;
1d2 %uestions asked of the witness and his corresponding answers, consecutively
numbered, that0
112 #how the circumstances under which the witness ac'uired the facts
upon which he testifies;
1"2 .licit from him those facts which are relevant to the issues that the
case presents; and
182 9dentify the attached documentary and object evidence and establish
their authenticity in accordance with the (ules of $ourt;
1e2 +he signature of the witness over his printed name; and
1f2 ) jurat with the signature of the notary public who administers the oath or an
officer who is authori&ed by law to administer the same,
Section !. Sworn attestation of the lawyer. - 1a2 +he judicial affidavit shall contain a sworn
attestation at the end, e-ecuted by the lawyer who conducted or supervised the e-amination
of the witness, to the effect that0
112 <e faithfully recorded or caused to be recorded the 'uestions he
asked and the corresponding answers that the witness gave; and
1"2 =either he nor any other person then present or assisting him coached
the witness regarding the latter4s answers,
1b2 ) false attestation shall subject the lawyer mentioned to disciplinary action,
including disbarment,
Section ". Subpoena. - 9f the government employee or official, or the re'uested witness,
who is neither the witness of the adverse party nor a hostile witness, unjustifiably declines to
e-ecute a judicial affidavit or refuses without just cause to make the relevant books,
documents, or other things under his control available for copying, authentication, and
eventual production in court, the re'uesting party may avail himself of the issuance of a
subpoena ad testificandum or duces tecum under (ule "1 of the (ules of $ourt, +he rules
governing the issuance of a subpoena to the witness in this case shall be the same as when
taking his deposition e-cept that the taking of a judicial affidavit shal1 be understood to
be ex parte,
Section #. ffer of and objections to testimony in judicial affidavit. - +he party presenting
the judicial affidavit of his witness in place of direct testimony shall state the purpose of such
testimony at the start of the presentation of the witness, +he adverse party may move to
dis'ualify the witness or to strike out his affidavit or any of the answers found in it on ground
of inadmissibility, +he court shall promptly rule on the motion and, if granted, shall cause the
marking of any e-cluded answer by placing it in brackets under the initials of an authori&ed
court personnel, without prejudice to a tender of e-cluded evidence under #ection 40 of
(ule 18" of the (ules of $ourt,
Section $. Examination of the witness on his judicial affidavit. - +he adverse party shall
have the right to cross-e-amine the witness on his judicial affidavit and on the e-hibits
attached to the same, +he party who presents the witness may also e-amine him as on re-
direct, 9n every case, the court shall take active part in e-amining the witness to determine
his credibility as well as the truth of his testimony and to elicit the answers that it needs for
resolving the issues,
Section 8. ral offer of and objections to exhibits. - 1a2 >pon the termination of the
testimony of his last witness, a party shall immediately make an oral offer of evidence of his
documentary or object e-hibits, piece by piece, in their chronological order, stating the
purpose or purposes for which he offers the particular e-hibit,
1b2 )fter each piece of e-hibit is offered, the adverse party shall state the legal
ground for his objection, if any, to its admission, and the court shall immediately
make its ruling respecting that e-hibit,
1c2 #ince the documentary or object e-hibits form part of the judicial affidavits that
describe and authenticate them, it is sufficient that such e-hibits are simply cited
by their markings during the offers, the objections, and the rulings, dispensing with
the description of each e-hibit,
Section %. Application of rule to criminal actions. - 1a2 +his rule shall apply to all criminal
112 ?here the ma-imum of the imposable penalty does not e-ceed si-
1"2 ?here the accused agrees to the use of judicial affidavits, irrespective
of the penalty involved; or
182 ?ith respect to the civil aspect of the actions, whatever the penalties
involved are,
1b2 +he prosecution shall submit the judicial affidavits of its witnesses not later than
five days before the pre-trial, serving copies if the same upon the accused, +he
complainant or public prosecutor shall attach to the affidavits such documentary or
object evidence as he may have, marking them as .-hibits ), /, $, and so on, =o
further judicial affidavit, documentary, or object evidence shall be admitted at the
1c2 9f the accused desires to be heard on his defense after receipt of the judicial
affidavits of the prosecution, he shall have the option to submit his judicial affidavit
as well as those of his witnesses to the court within ten days from receipt of such
affidavits and serve a copy of each on the public and private prosecutor, including
his documentary and object evidence previously marked as .-hibits 1, ", 8, and so
on, +hese affidavits shall serve as direct testimonies of the accused and his
witnesses when they appear before the court to testify,
Section 1&. Effect of non!compliance with the judicial Affidavit "ule. - 1a2 ) party who fails
to submit the re'uired judicial affidavits and e-hibits on time shall be deemed to have
waived their submission, +he court may, however, allow only once the late submission of
the same provided, the delay is for a valid reason, would not unduly prejudice the opposing
party, and the defaulting party pays a fine of not less than 1,000,00 nor more
than :,000,00 at the discretion of the court,
1b2 +he court shall not consider the affidavit of any witness who fails to appear at
the scheduled hearing of the case as re'uired, $ounsel who fails to appear without
valid cause despite notice shall be deemed to have waived his client4s right to
confront by cross-e-amination the witnesses there present,
1c2 +he court shall not admit as evidence judicial affidavits that do not conform to
the content re'uirements of #ection 8 and the attestation re'uirement of #ection 4
above, +he court may, however, allow only once the subse'uent submission of the
compliant replacement affidavits before the hearing or trial provided the delay is for
a valid reason and would not unduly prejudice the opposing party and provided
further, that public or private counsel responsible for their preparation and
submission pays a fine of not less than 1,000,00 nor more than :,000,00, at the
discretion of the court,
Section 11. "epeal or modification of inconsistent rules. - +he provisions of the (ules of
$ourt and the rules of procedure governing investigating officers and bodies authori&ed by
the #upreme $ourt to receive evidence are repealed or modified insofar as these are
inconsistent with the provisions of this (ule,#$wphi#
+he rules of procedure governing %uasi!judicial bodies inconsistent herewith are hereby
Section 12. Effectivity. - +his rule shall take effect on *anuary 1, "018 following its
publication in two newspapers of general circulation not later than #eptember 1:, "01", 9t
shall also apply to e-isting cases,
3anila, #eptember 4, "01",