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Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 1

Topic: 1
Introduction to Written Communication: Some Basic Principles
1.1 Introduction to Communication
Communication is :
Defined = as giving, receiving or exchanging information, opinions or ideas
Purpose = so that the message is completely understood by everybody involved.
Importance of the Message in Communication

1.2 Problems in Communication
a) Status/Role
b) Cultural Differences
c) Choice of Communication Channels
d) Length of Communication
e) Use of Language
f) Disabilities
g) Known or Unknown Receiver
h) Individual Perceptions/Attitudes/Personalities
i) Atmosphere/Noise/Distraction
j) Clarity of Message
k) Lack of Feedback

1.3 The Communicator Behaviour
1) Be yourself, read everythings
2) Do not worry about grammar and spelling when you start out, fix it later.
3) Get your thoughts down first, talk through your topic and type the way you speak.
4) Edit and refocus the piece later.
5) Practise writing everyday
1.4 Written Communication
Communication by means of written symbols that is communicated by or to or between people or groups.
written communication is
the presentation of ideas or essays that make a
clear point
supply details supporting that point and demonstrate unity coherence of thought
Elements of written communication
The mastery of good or standard written english
Ability to comprehend
Write about information acquired through reading,note-taking and listening
Ways to Improve Written Communication
a. Improve written communication skills
Continually practise writing in the language
write with a clear purpose that meets the needs of the reader
Decide what you want to say and put this in a logical and suitable sequence.
b. Three important stages of written work
planning stage
Understand what your message
What audience you are sending
How massege will be perceived

Message is successfully received and comprehended
only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it
in the same way.

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writing stage
editing stage
c. written document should have: efficiency, equity, and effectiveness.
d. Avoid four common errors

Reports intended for readers who are external to the
organisation are often written as letter reports
Usually on the organisations letterhead.
May present a problem, proposal, solution or reply
to a request.
Standard of letter report the seven basic parts of a
business letter:
The writers address.
The date.
Reader address
Complimentary close.
Signature block.
Used for routine information.
Includes information about a special issue, problem
or information needed for decision - making and
problem - solving within an organisation.
The memorandum report format is the least formal
report format.
Standard of a short memorandum report includes
five components:
Reader name.
Writer name.
Subject line or title.

Formal and Informal Reports
To write a good report, the following three
stages must be discussed

1. Some work kept for research purposes
2. Some historical work kept for posterity
3. Some for others to know and see.
4. Used to keep abreast with on- going projects, for remembrance,
acknowledgement and as a teaching-learning tool to improve
Confusing words that can mislead
the reader
Cause communication breakdown or
barriers between the writer and the
a. Ambiguous
b. Bombastic
c. Vague
d. Sexist
e. Trendy
f. Exaggerated
g. inflated and archaic.

1. Use the familiar word to the far-
2. Concrete word to the abstract
3. Single word to the circumlocution
4. The short word to the long
use of too many words
overuse of words interferes with
interrupt the reader understanding
Too much information
Reader becomes overwhelmed and confused
Cause frustration and cast doubts on the writer credibility.

In order to produce a clear, concise and relevant written work
writing fragments instead
of completesentences
and writing sentences
that lack unity.
sentence(s) short and
compact to ensure that
they are correct, logical
and easy to read
Words ave to be structured
to the extent that what
precedes should be in
accordance with those that

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ones writing skill.
5. As avenues to project our ideas or opinions to be shared with
others as well as establish and defend our points of view.

Helping Other People Communicate with You
Think carefully about all the possibilities.
Consider all aspects of the communication process
(interpretation, understanding, feedback).
Consider the possible barriers.
Consider the complexity of the subject matter and how it
might be best conveyed.
Ask Who? Why? What? and How?
Consider whether it is going to be in the form of a letter,
e-mail, memo or report

Problems Other People May Have Writing to You
People may not want to write to you for a variety of
Some of these reasons have been stated earlier in the
text, while others may appear in the following forms:
Ones weaknesses as a writer (for example, language
Too much information in the text.
Too many grammatical errors and mistakes.
Barriers between the sender and receiver (for example,
cultural, status, role).
Message not clear or precise.
Wrong choice of channel/format deliverance.
Past experiences (for example, treatment received).
Documents not structured, messy or not well laid out.

Using Questions to Overcome Problems
Where did it go wrong?
Why was the message not understood or interpreted by
the receiver?
Was the timing wrong?
Did I use the correct channel to deliver the message?
Are there many errors or mistakes in the document?
Many other questions of this nature can shed some light
on the problems faced by the communicators.

Flow of Questions
document is report writing, we may want to ask questions
such as:
What is the report about?
What are you trying to say?
To whom is the report addressed?
Who are you writing for?
Who will read the report?
How is the content of the report?
How long can the report be?
What type of information is to be included in the report?
How shall I gather and present it?
What sort of language should I use?

Communication with People at All Organisational
To achieve a powerful effect and to ensure that your
document is easy to read,
make sure to provide the following:
A clear indication of your purpose.
Accurate and objective information.
Suitable headings.
A suitable order of information.

Giving and Receiving Good Instructions
Instructions must be clear and precise
In commenting on papers, a teacher can show
students precisely where their meaning is
pose questions designed to illuminate problems
underlying the unclear communication
provide models for expressing analysis more

Communicating at Your Own Organisational Levels
Forms and documents should be accurate, complete and
clear in meaning.

When Written Communication is Most Important
such as
Memorandum of understanding (MOU)
Memorandum of agreement (MOA)
Letters of agreement and appointment
Job applications

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Has the report been proofread?
What is the minimum length of the report?
When should the report be sent?
Topic 2: Letter Writing
2.1 The Basics of Letter Writing
We write letters to each other when we want to:
1) Inform others (the readers)
2) Persuade others to take action/to promote an
3) Propose your ideas.
4) To contact the reader whom we cannot meet in
5) They allow us to structure our thought in
6) Can file or keep to and refer back when
Begin writing a formal letter
1) Analyse your audience.
2) Determine your purpose.
3) Gather information you want to include in your letter.
4) Create an outline.
5) Write a draft.
6) Revise it.

2.1.1 Write Your Letter Persuasively
Things to consider:
(a) Try to anticipate the readers reaction to your letter.
(b) Think of the readers benefit first, yours second.
(c) Adjust language and use reader familiar terms / concepts.
(d) Write with a positive attitude and show confidence.
(e) Do not condescend and talk down to the reader.
(f) Show humility but not too much.
(g) Do not preach your ideas.
(h) Be service - oriented.

2.1.2 How to Write the Introduction
1) The Letterhead or Return Address - name, address,
phone number
2) The Inside Address
3) Attention Line
4) Salutations Dear Sir or Madam
5) The Subject Line - Use a concise and precise phrase
2.1.3 How to Write the Body of the Letter
1) The Introductory Paragraph - one idea per piece
2) Body/Middle of the Letter - supports that
introduction idea by giving it more detail and
3) End The Letter conclusion, express your
gratitude, add a salutary close, Yours sincerely or

2.3 Letter Writing Activities
How to Add Substance to Your Plan Sheet
- transfer the sentences or ideas into a language that is more fitting for formal letter by translating the plans into more
appropriate language.
Making some things clear in your letter. These things include:
The actual reason you are writing:
Convincing someone is by making your requests clear.
State the aim of your request

2.4 Formal Replies and Follow-Ups
To reply to business letters, follow some basic steps.
1) Make sure you understand what your client requires.
2) Think of ways you can fulfill their request, if at all.
Follow up letter .Why?
1) Your letter may have been unnoticed
2) To make sure that your contacts have information

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3) Express your plan or ideas in clear, precise and easily
understood language.

about your business
3) Give other person a chance.
4) Cheaper that getting legal council
Topic 3: Models of Writer Communication: The Elements of Good Communication Models

3.1 Claude Shannons Model
Information is transmitted from an information source
through a channel to a receiver

3.3 A Model Based on Ulric Neissers Work
Explore our world or specific phenomenon guided by
our desires, needs, ideas, images of the world and
such, and this exploration gives us a perception or
new information of the world.
The new information, in turn, affects our needs,
desires, images, and such, thus changing our
perception of the world and so we begin our
exploration again.
This cycle goes on and on as long as we are still
learning and exploring.

3.2 Roman Jakobsons Model
Information is transmitted from an information source
through a channel to a receiver

3.4 A Model Based on Michael Polanyis Work
A person discovers meaning in an experience
The person expresses the meaning he gained from
his experience in writing (a poem, a novel, an essay,
a letter, a journal entry, etc).
Someone reads the text and discovers meaning in it.
The reader may be the writer himself or herself
Or a complete stranger
Text does not convey the original experience to the
reader. Instead, it conveys meaning to the reader.

3.5 Some Ideas About Communication
Signs Symbols Metaphor
Anything that is used to point
to/stand for something else (to
representideas, experiences,
images, objects, feelings,
concepts and everything else.).
To refer to complex things
Symbols have complex meanings
in addition to the literal ones
The more significant or important
the symbol, the more meanings it
It is a statement, phrase or word
that stands for something else.

3.5.3 Understanding, Explanation, Meaning and Interpretation
1) Make sure reader understands your literal meaning and plainly understand your message.

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2) If he does not, you need to explain yourself.
3) You have to define your words, supply background information or supply the reader with additional information
he needs to understand your text. (Interpretation)

Topic 4: Report Writing
4.1 The Process of Preparing a Report
1. Stages of Report Preparation researched, gathered, presented in a coherent and easily understood way to
the relevant parties.
execute a plan and carry out a project
2. Gathering the Data Tips Data Gathering
Note your opinions and information relating to your opinions
Make note of how you want your data presented in the report
Keep progress notes
Document your plan in detail
3. Analysing and Sorting the
Choosing relevant data and then review your earlier opinions in relation to
the report you want to write.
Following steps:
1) Write down results and observations in no particular order
2) Note down all the opinions
3) Note down new opinions
4) Choose the ones that you need.
5) Arrange all your data in the order of their importance.
6) Sort out the data you want to put into your conclusion
7) Turn your points into illustrations
8) Outline your final report and draft it.
4. Outlining the Report A clear report is logically organised, concise, and easy to read.
Natural progression from analysis and sorting.
Outline should contain descriptive headings of each significant part of the
report and your expanded outline
a. complete scope of the report;
b. relation of the various parts of the work discussed;
c. amount of space to be given each part;
d. order of treatment;
e. places for inclusion of illustrations;
f. conclusions.
three levels of headings and subheadings for simplicity and clarity, stick
to just
Main Heading
Run-in heading: This heading is indented on the same line as
the first line of the paragraph.
Below run-in heading: This heading is indented on the same
line as the first line of the paragraph.
5. Writing the Rough Draft First draft
Start writing soon after finishing your outline
Keep writing; follow your flow of ideas
Second draft
Check for style
Remember your audience (they be able to understand your draft easily or not)

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Behonest. Be tactful. Be concise and logical.
6. Revising the Rough Draft The Three Stages of Revision
Stage One - Check for material
Stage Two - Check for organisation, mechanics and conventions
Stage Three - Check your language

4.2 The Report Style Style determine the success
of report
Good reports are:
flow smoothly;
written from an objective point of view.

4.3 Report Introduction
Your introduction is important because:
it guides the readers to what they will encounter
in the rest of the paper.
It prepares the reader to easily receive what the
writer intends to present.
It launches you immediately into the task of
relating your readers to the subject matter of the
It makes clear the precise subject to be
considered, indicates the reasons for
considering the subject, and lays out the
organisation and scope of the report.
It tells your readers what you plan to tell and
why and how you will tell it.
It focuses your readers attention on the subject
to be treated. It should enable them to approach
the body of the report naturally and intelligently.

Primary functions of the introduction
Statement of Subject
Statement of Purpose
Statement of Organisation and Scope
Style and Length

1. Arrangement of Your Report - Title, Abstract,
Introduction, Method (and logistics), Results,
Discussion and Conclusion.
2. Citing References
3. Content and Style

4.4 The Writing Style
Use words and phrases that come naturally to
Concentrate on conveying your exact meaning
Get to your point quickly.
Always emphasise your main ideas.
Keep your facts and opinions separate.
Only add figures and tables that are
valuable to your reports;
never repeat something
Choose to present
your data in a way that is easiest for your reader
to understand.
If your report is multimedia, Technical films,
videotapes, video clips and animations can be
very informative

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Topic 5: The Language of Business Writing
5.1 The Language of Business Writing
job-related writing
it usually represents a direct communication between one person and another.

5.1.1 Process of Writing Business Letters
First, establish your purpose, your reader Es needs, and your scope.
Second, prepare an outline
Third, write a rough draft from the outline.
Fourth, set the draft aside for a coolingperiod. The cooling period is especially important in the case of a letter
written in response to a problem.
Fifth, revising the rough draft, go over your work carefully, checking for sense as well as grammar, spelling, and

5.1.2 Choice of Words and Tone
In general, the active voice creates a friendlier, more courteous tone than the
passive, which tends to sound impersonal and unfriendly. Polite wording,
such as the use of please, also helps to create goodwill.

5.1.3 Direct and Indirect Patterns
More effective to present good news directly and bad news indirectly
Bad news present directly would cause an abruptly phrased rejection early in the letter may prevent us from re-
establishing an amicable relationship.

5.1.4 Paragraph/Sentence Structure
The way of writing a bad news letter is to manipulate
paragraph/sentence structure.
A better, general structure of writing a bad news letter is as
1. Buffer - either neutral information or an explanation that
makes the bad news understandable.
2. Bad news - puts the bad news in perspective or makes
the bad news seem reasonable maintains.
3. Goodwill. between the writer and the reader.
The pattern for good news business letters
should be as follows:
1. Good news.
2. Explanation or facts.
3. Goodwill.

5.2 The Format of Business Letters
Punctuation Styles/Grammar
Those are mechanics of writing
In business, accuracy and attention
to detail are equated with
carefulness and reliability.
The kindest conclusion a reader
Parts of a Letter/Layout
Almost all business letters
have at least five major parts:
inside address;
Block/Modified Block Layout
Full block style, every line begins
at the left margin and is suitable
only with letterhead stationery.
Modified block style, the return
address, date and complimentary

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can come to about a letter
containing mechanical errors is
that the writer was careless.
Do not give your reader cause to
form such a conclusion.
complimentary close.
close are placed to the right of the
centre of the page. The remaining
elements are aligned at the left
5.3 Business Letters

A good letter is better understood if
Clear - clear idea
Concise - the language is simple
Correct - are no errors.
conversationtioninalthe tone is friendly

Tips to write a good business letter

Use Plain English simple English
The Reader is Your Priority 1. find the correct one, use appropriate
2. language and insert just enough facts or information to suit your
Short, Plain and Straight to the Point 1. focused on the information that supports your main aim come up with
a guideline or outline plan.
2. Styles may be adopted.
Use contractions.(add the human touch; the close,personal and
human feel to your writing)
Use personal references. (use words such as I, we,you, your, my
and our in your writing)
Use direct questions.( direct question to get a
reaction from your reader and to give your writing impact.)

Responding to Enquiries 1. Treat them equally and with grace
2. providing the materials or information that the perspective client has
asked for

Letter of Enquiry

(a) The Beginning

Dear Sir, Madam, Ms, Mr, Ybg.Prof/DatoE/Tan Sri (if they
carry such titles).

(b) Giving Reference

With reference to your advertisement (ad) in the Straits
Times dated
14th June, Tuesday 2005 Regarding your advertisement
in the Star dated
9th May, 2005 could you
(c) Requesting a Catalogue, Brochure, etc. After the reference, add a comma and continuewould
(could) you please
send me

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(d) Requesting Further Information I would like to know Could you tell me whether
(e) Signature

Yours Faithfully (very formal as you do not know the
whom you are writing to)

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Topic 6 Short Forms of Written Communication
6.1 E-mails
Electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending and
receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
Electronic mail has evolved from only able to send short
messages to can be used to send messages and data thatcan
range from pictures to animation to programmes
Kinds of e-mails:
1) Personal e-mail;
2) Legitimate business e-mail;
3) Subscription (approved by recipient);
4) Unknowingly approved by recipient;
5) Spamming not approved by recipient; and
6) Virus mail (sent by infected systems).
Update and protect your systems with the latest virus
programmes to assured that e-mails are clean and free from any
6.1.1 Selecting and Narrowing Topics
Select one topic per e-mail.
Do one thing at a time.
Not to compress everything into one e- mail. Write three
separate ones with three different titles.
Easy for
Your reader or his secretary can read each mail and categorise
them according to his/her own system and priority of tasks to be
6.1.2 To Read, Reply, Forward and Delete E-mail
(a) To Read - click on the message subject.
(b) To Reply
1. Click on the message subject then click reply
2. Replying message screen appear and you can write back to
the sender of the message.
reply all
1. To send a reply to the original recipients of the message.
2. Useful tool for group communication.

(c) To Forward
1. Click on the message subject then click forward
2. This will take you to a forward
Message screen and you can forward the message
to one or more people.
(d) To Delete
Click delete button to delete one message a time
when they are open.
Click check box in box view to delete a selection of
messages and then click delete
Deleted e-mail(s) will be transferred from inbox to
your trash folder
6.1.3 Evaluating and Making Notes from Sources
of Information
To ensure that your material is relevant and your
sources are acknowledged.
Forwarding e-mails is great for keeping in contact with
friends and relatives
Not good in the business context because they may
clutter your recipients inbox, and this gives him/her
more work to do to clear his/her inbox. (wasting your
readers time )
1. Get message to the readerquickly
2. They are cheap
3. They can carry massive amounts of information
4. You can send a single piece of information to
several different people at once
5. They are easy to store
6. Enable you to contact your clients or business
contacts easily

6.2 Memorandum and Executive Summaries
The memorandum = communication in appropriate language that you send
to people who work with you(your colleagues, bosses,
workers and everyone else in your organisation
Appropriate language = language that suits the purpose and context
you are working in.
Basic Appropriate language
Use Gender-neutral
Gender specific actor, actress, chairman Chairwoman, and some terms of references that are the
same mr and mrs.

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Try to use language that does not differentiate or discriminate between the sexes
Use Slang-free
Slang is a local variation of a language
Working in a company consisting of a multinational workforce - avoid using too much Manglish
Try to use the standard adopted by our school system when write memos
Formal Tone
1. Firstly, courteous to fellow workers for able to be sincerely courteous to people outside your
2. Secondly, memo is a record of the communication with fellow workers for us in future to refer to this
piece of writing, and bring it up in a meeting or report. (avoid embarrassment)
3. Thirdly, get support and approval from people in organisation, impressing the people in your
organisation with proofread your memos for style, mechanics and content before send them. (Never
send embarrassing memos to create a positive image with your colleague)

Feedback Share drafts with your colleagues and get their comments to improve your writing
Sure that they will understand what you wish to convey
Helps your colleagues as writing is not an easy thing to do for many people and often an also helping
each other to start
Make yourself important to your colleagues, because provided them with reference or a source of
valuable information

Format not need an address,but to know where the memo is from
indicate your department position and project code when sending memos to people outside your

Executive Summaries
1) To provide a condensed version of the content of a longer report.
2) Are written for someone who most likely DOES NOT have time to
read the original.
3) Be called an abstract when it accompanies a scholarly
4) An abstract is a shortened form of a work that retains the general
sense and unity of the original.
5) An abstract is basically a miniature version of the original and it
looks like the original.
6) An executive summary let the reader in on
What the real significance of the report is
What is the reader expected to respond to?
The reader is a decision - maker who will have the
responsibility of deciding on some issue(s) related to the
7) The executive summary
Must not longer than 10% of the original document. Can be 1-
10 pages depending on the length of the report.
They are self- contained, stand-alone documents.
Accuracy is essential because decisions made by people
based summary and who have not read the original
(a) Functions of an Executive Summary
Gives readers essential contents of document in 1-10 pages.
(b) Processes of Writing an Executive Summary
Write after research is finished. Try to:
1) Scan research to determine content, structure and length
of report
2) Highlight key points; determine purpose/central theme
of the report.
3) Review research and determine what the key ideas or
4) Group ideas in a logical fashion and prepare a point-
form outline of the summary.
5) Edit the outline to eliminate secondary or minor points
(keep the summary concise)
6) Determine subtitles, bullets, selective bolding of
organisational structure to the clarity to summary.
7) Write the summary in your own words, using
professional style.
8) Read aloud or record yourself reading your summary.
(c) Elements of an Executive Summary
You should choose the elements depend on the
1) Purpose and nature of your document purpose and
scope of document
2) Methods
3) Results

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Previews the main points to enable readers to build a mental
framework for organising and understanding the detailed
Helps readers determine the key results and recommendations

4) Conclusion
5) Recommendations
6) Other supportive information

Topic 7 Persuasive Writing

7.2 Type of Persuasive Writing

when the writer
asserts a certain
opinion to the
state the problem or
controversy and
may appear clearly
and succinctly.
expressed in the
thesis statement
writer does not
exaggerate or
distort the
opponents view
do not defend the
opposing side but
fairly and
reasonably state
what these views
presents the evidence
for the assertion
using a series of facts,
examples, instances
and observations to
support the argument
restatement of the

Element for good Arguments
(a) Element Evidence
In order to convince the reader to agree with you. You must
ensure that your evidence is convincing & satisfy the following
Enough evidence?
The evidence trustworthy? Reliable?
Informed, valid sources?
Evidence verifiable?

Reasons for and Purposes of Persuasive Writing
1) To influence or change an audiences thoughts or actions.
2) Want people to believe us, remember what we have written
and will take the necessary action based on our written

Types of Reasoning Processes
begins with a general principle or premise
and draws a specific conclusion from it.

supports a general conclusion by examining
specific facts or cases.
The process itself
Appeal to Reason
argument is an appeal to persons sense of
its a measured, logical way of trying to
persuade others to agree with you
choose one side of an issue clearly in an
effort to persuade others
Appeal to Emotion
evoking emotion in our reader is to use
vivid images.
Appeal to Good Personality/Character
The appeal to our good behaviour or our ethics
Evidence must
sufficient, trustworthy
and can be verified

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(B) Element Appeal To Authority
To clear the uneasiness authoritative, we must consider the
following elements. They are:
Do people question your authority on a particular subject?
Is your expert opinion current or up to date?
Do your peers accept and respect your opinion?
Is your expert advice free of bias?

(C) Element Improper Evaluation Of Statistics
Use them ethically, accurately & as objective as possible.
Have samples which are pool representative and unbiased.
Have statistics accurately tabulated and see that the
statistics are not taken out of context

can occur at one or more of the following levels
in any argument:
Are you a reasonable person? (Are you
willing to listen, compromise and concede
Can someone reason with you? (Are you
ready to listen?)
Are you authoritative? (Do you have the
mandate or power to stand by your
Are you an ethical/moral person?
Are you concerned for the well-being of
your audience? (Do you have them at
7.2 Persuasive Strategies
Possible persuasive strategies include:
1. Emphasising Readers
explains to readers how they will benefit from performing the action/taking the position/purchasing
the product recommended
readers are members of organisation, stress organisational objectives and growth needs
2. Addressing Readers
predict what thereaders responses.
to counteract any negative thoughts or arguments that arise in readers minds.
3. Showing Sound
writer needs to persuade readers that the decisions or actions recommended will actually bring
about benefits and explain why
4. Presenting Reliable
o readers are willing to accept Reliable evidence depending on the field.
o A writer needs to use common sense to determine what type of evidence is needed.

7.3 The Reasoning Process ( 2 basic types or reasoning processes: deduction and induction refer to 7.2 )
In order to have confidence in the writer, readers must understand the:
(a) Writers Claim The claim is the position the writer wants readers to accept.
(b) Evidence The evidence consists of observations, facts and other information provided in support of the claim.
(c) Line of Reasoning

The line of reasoning is the connecting link between the claim and the evidence the reasons given
for believing that the evidence proves the claim.

7.4 Direct and Indirect Patterns of Organisation
(a) Organising to Create a Positive Response
carefully choose the organisational pattern which best
suits your purpose.
Ensure that all the parts of your persuasive piece fit
together tightly.

(b) Direct Pattern Organisation
o In a direct pattern of organisation, the writers main
point is started first.
o Evidence and other related information are given
o The direct organisational pattern works well when
the readers initial response is all important
(c) Indirect Pattern of Organisation
Indirect pattern of organisation postpones the bottom-
line statement until all the evidence and related
information have been presented.
You first discuss the situation, then make your
recommendations after presenting your arguments.
The writer can prepare readers for the
recommendations about to be made
Indirect pattern is particularly useful when you convey
information which your readers might view as
The indirect pattern avoids of inciting the readers
initial negative reactions.

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you recommend a course of action or presenting
an analysis which you expect your readers to view

It can frustrate the reader who wants to know the
abottom line first.

7.5 Voice and Credibility
Be a credible and can be trusted writer
1) Consider the Reasoning Process and Types of Reasoning - to think and consider how he reasons out his writing
2) Choosing an Appropriate Voice
3) Establishing Credibility
Belief your readers have regarding whether you are a good source of information and ideas
When people believe you are credible, they are more likely to accept the things you say.
If people do not find you credible, they may refuse to consider your ideas seriously
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------

Topic 8 Writing and Presenting Proposals
8.1 Definitions of Terms: Proposals and Feasibility Studies
Proposals are informative and persuasive writing because they attempt to educate the reader and to convince that
reader to do something.
a research proposal should contain all the key elements involved in the research process and include sufficient
information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study.
All research proposals must address the following
1. What do you want to do?
2. What do you plan to accomplish?
3. Why do you want to do it?
4. How are you going to do it?
5. What is the subject of the proposal?
6. For whom the proposal intended?
The Good proposal should
1) have sufficient information to convince your readers to
research idea, good grasp of the relevant literature and
major issues and methodology is sound.
2) The quality of your research proposal depends on the
quality of proposed project and proposal writing.

8.2 Writing a Proposal

b) Recognition of Critical Factors in Proposal
A clearly outlined evaluation process can help to
clarify goals, define objectives and refine
procedures during the initial development of the
Evaluation serves a number of useful purposes
Assessment assists everyone in understanding
what made the project successful and why and
what hindered its success.
Ask a few questions yourself

c) Problems in Proposal Writing and Getting a
Proposal Together
1. Problem to get the right title
Weak title: Improving English Education in Primary Schools

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 16

8.3 Proposal Writing to Fit the Needs of
Organisation or Clients
a) Main Concerns of Proposal Writing
people who will carry out the work of the proposal who
could be your tutor or supervisor
the supervisor or whoever you are dealing with is
reputable and will be able to fulfill that contract the
people in the institution submitting the proposal
Better title: Innovative Instructional Materials to Improve
English Education in Primary Schools
2. Problems keep on cropping up
3. Tough time in organising documents
4. What should or should not be included.
5. Cannot organise their material in a logical way.

Major points that a researcher has to address.
1) The filtration process for writing a thesis proposal.
2) Keep on filtering, redefine your title and content
so that it becomes a doable project.
3) Talk to yourself keep on selling your ideas to
your friends or supervisor. Talking assists in
clarifying your ideas.
4) Write a brief note about your idea in one or two
pages, especially on your area of interest. Try to
read through and put it aside for a moment (as if to
forget about it), come back to it and think whether
you have done a good job.
5) Keep on reading spend time in the library, read
through various texts and
6) Attend to your areas of interest. Take notes
(never forget to reference the texts).
7) Mull through the write-up because you might find
some things to change.
8) Discipline, which is sorting out the various topics
so that they are in order.
9) Referencing so that you acknowledge other
peoples work.

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 17

8.4 Informal and Formal Proposals
A formal proposal is usually submitted by or through an
organisation such as a school, college, university, non-profit
organisation or museum to an organisation such as a
foundation, funding agency or corporation.
A proposal often begins with a person acting upon a
wholehearted desire to fulfill a need, to do something for ones
own benefit and for the benefit of others.
Motivated by deep personal convictions, people experiencing
this strong desire often recognise that solving a pressing
problem, performing critically important research or achieving a
particular goal, can make the world a better place.
The researcher will go all out and is willing to devote his or her
personal time and energy to satisfy this burning desire.

8.4.1 Nature of Formal/Informal Proposal (Differentiate)
Formal Proposal Informal Proposal
1. to be written in a formal
business-like manner
2. means you have your to
right and clear
3. present it to the board
or to whoever it is for
4. from the beginning, to
the methods and the
1. written neatly and structured like the
formal one, it may be done on a smaller
scale and normally carries less weight
compared with a formal proposal
2. it consumes almost the same amount of
3. the informal proposal is prepared not to
seek funding or for an academic degree
4. done to undertake a small research
project on something
5. can be completed sooner than a formal

8.4.2 Business Proposal
Proposal writing is a lengthy process and costs time and money
every time you are not awarded the contract/tender
It takes researchers a long time to set up
Present business proposal in well laid-out, looks highly
professional and is compelling
Lay out specific terms within the law to prevent being taken for a
With the right proposal, you will be assured of winning the
Business proposals are developed for two possible reasons (June
Campbell, 2002)
1. A business company has
called for tenders or has
invited you to submit an RFP
(Request for Proposal).
Your proposal must stand
out among possibly dozens
of submissions.
Goal is to be shortlisted
2. You have an idea, concept
or project that you want to
propose to someone with the
goal of gaining support,
funding or an alliance.
No competitive bidding
Make a favourable
impression and explain all
aspects of your proposed
concept clearly and quickly.

Business proposal guidelines
Strive to communicate
not to impress
Error free
Print and bind
Visual elements
Title page
Be politically correct
Jargon free

8.5 Funding of Proposals
Internal funding from his/her own employer
If done outside ones institution, he/she has to look for external
Sponsorship/funding may come from
Ones own employer
Business establishment
Multinational companie
External sources (such as ford foundation, rockefeller
foundation or other renowned sponsors)

8.6 Feasibility Studies And Reports
feasibility means Feasibilitys 3 parts meaning
capable of being done,
executed or effected
1. The degree to given alternative
mode, management strategy,
design or location is economically
capable of being
managed, utilised or
dealt with successfully
2. The degree to an alternative is
considered preferable from an
environmental or social perspective.
reasonable, likely 3. The degree to construction and
operation of such an alternative can
be financed and managed
(a) There are two general types of feasibility study reports
1. Interim reports document findings and if appropriate,
general interest reports made during the course of feasibility
2. Final reports should contain an executive summary or
should briefly define the study approach, briefly summarise
the types of analysis methods used, summarise the results
and state a conclusion
(b) Problems in feasibility report
1. Write a good introduction situation, audience, overview
2. State requirements - factors that influence the decision
3. Indicate how option being compared
4. Organise the comparison - using the point-by-point approach
5. state the best choice of each comparative section
6. include a key data summary in table form and provide
technical background
7. Discuss the background of the problem or opportunity
8. Include sections of definitions, descriptions
9. Include a conclusion section
10. Include a recommendation section

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 18

8.6.1 What is a Feasibility Study
1. Designed to provide an overview of the primary issues related to a business idea
2. To identify any make or break issues that would prevent your business from being successful in the marketplace
3. Be considered a brief formal analysis of a prospective business idea
4. To give the entrepreneur a clear evaluation of the potential for sales and profit of a particular idea
5. Provides a lot of information necessary for a business plan
6. A feasibility study looks at three major areas

Market Issues Organisational/Technical Issues Financial Issues
Market analysis begins by
1. What precisely is the
2. The more specific you
can be, the better it is.
3. Is the market growing,
shrinking or staying the
4. Is it worth your while?
5. Is the market enough to
make it worth the time?
Key questions to answer include:
1. What organisational structure is right for your project?
2. Who will manage the business?
3. What qualifications needed to manage business?
4. Who will sit on the board of directors? What are their

The cost and availability of technology may be of critical
importance to the feasibility of a project
Key issues to answer include:
1. What technology needed?
2. What other equipment needed?
3. Where to obtain this technology & equipment?
4. When can acquire it?
5. How much equipment & technology cost?
Third and final step of a feasibility analysis is to take a
look at key financial issues.

Costs incurred at start of new business
Ongoing costs, such as rent, utilities,
How will you price goods and services?
Source of
Need to borrow money
Will the business bring enough revenue?
Will it break even, lose money or make a

8.6.2 Benefits of Feasibility Studies
Benefit cost analysis developed during a feasibility
study may well attract more attention and produce
more controversy than any other product of the study.
Benefit cost analysis is generally considered the most
objective and credible product of such studies.
Implementing feasibility studies can:
1. Map out for lenders your proposals strengths
and potential.
2. Realistically analyse the impact of expansion.
3. Show you the pros and cons
4. Analyse the business data.

8.6.3 The Feasibility Study

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 19

Topic 9 The Fundamentals of Writing A Research Paper
9.1 Researching for a Paper
Research Papers Documented Essays
Students search for and use outside
sources to support their main argument.
Sources are cited within the paper
Publication information about each
source or reference is included at the
end of the paper in a a works cited
Student uses quotes
from one or more
sources that he or
she has read in a

9.2 What is a Research Paper
1. An extended essay that summarises information about a
particular subject in order to prove a point.
2. A sustained inquiry about a particular subject
3. Research paper not an english assignment
4. A tool for the student to use as he explores one of the
content areas of the curriculum something he is
interested in.

9.3 Choosing a Topic
Read the assignment very carefully and select a topic or a
thesis that fits within the assignment
Choose topic that you are interested & capable of adequately
pursuing in the space you have
Avoid topics that too broad or too narrow.
Better to do something more narrowly focused

Key feature of successful research.
You need to choose a topic that
1. Fulfills the course requirements; and
2. Is doable.
3. Has available resources in the library or on the internet
Is not too extensive and, in actuality, is several topics in one, so
that it is manageable in the time available

Ask Question
(1) have a strong opinion? (2) read a newspaper article that tested your curiosity?
(3) have a personal issue, problem? (4) have a research paper due in a class this current?
(5) Is there an aspect of one of your courses that you are interested in learning about more?
Write down any words or phrases that may be of interest to you.
Be aware of certain overused topic ideas.

Read a general encyclopedia article on the top two or three topics you are

Limit a topicgeographic region;culture,time frame, discipline and population group.
Topic more difficult if itlocally confined, recent, broadly interdisciplinary & popular
If uncertainties discuss topic with your tutor/instructor & librarian.

Keep track of the words that are used to describe your topic.
words that best describe your topic.
synonyms, broader and narrower terms to expand your search capabilities.
Keep a list of these words

modify research topic during the research process.

develop a more focused interest in an aspect of something relating to that word and then
begin to have questions about the topic

Use the key words, need some research and reading before you select your final topic

Write your topic as a thesis statement.
Development of a thesis assumes is sufficient evidence to support the thesis statement.

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 20

The title should clearly convey the focus, purpose and meaning of your research.

Remember to discuss and follow any specific instructions from your instructor.
9.4 Research and Analysis
1. Reason = to provide evidence to prove your thesis.
2. Ways to research or analyse = methodology
3. Research
Include looking up other research on the same or similar
To find out what other people have said about it.
Can help you prove your thesis, clarify your methodology
or even find contrary opinions you need to disprove

Research Suggestions.
Start Out by Reading a General Study or Two on Your Subject
Treat Research Like a Detective Story
Look at the Most Recent Books and Journal Articles First
Photocopy Important Material

9.5 Research Sources
1) Reference Works
materials in the reference room are valuable resources for
beginning to
structure the basic outline or your topic. Language
encyclopedias and
dictionaries are one of the many resources

2) Books
OUM Virtual System (VLS) Headings for ways to cross-
reference your search for books

3) Scholarly Journal Articles
sources of new information and analysis

4) Government Publications
a report of a government agency, hearing or reports of a
parliamentary committee, the PAC (Public Accounts
Committee), the transcript of the proceedings of
Parliament or a document from a government printer
5) News magazines and Newspapers
not good sources of analysis
check with tutor to ensure that these are considered acceptable

6) World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic
Government bureaucracies.
Network government resources.
Malaysian government links.
Included data references:
Author of the web page;
Date of the web page;
Title of the web page; and complete url.

7) Miscellaneous Sources
References to sources that are not found in your library

8) External Sources
Conduct an interview with a decision-maker or some other
relevant person

9) Thesis Statement
A thesis statement in an essay is a sentence that explicitly
identifies the purpose of the paper or previews its main ideas.
important to lets the reader know:
There is one main point rather than several main points;
Your position on a particular issue
What exactly you are trying to prove or substantiate.

The supporting paragraphs should all work to support the
thesis statement. Its can
Clarify your position on an issue;
Provide key definitions related to the topic;
Discuss the how and why aspect of the thesis statement
Discuss patterns or inconsistencies in development.
Thesis Statement:
1) Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic;
2) States the conclusions that you have reached about your
3) Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose and
direction of your paper;
4) Is focused and specific enough to be proved within the
boundaries of your paper;
5) Is generally located at the end of the introduction;
6) Is expressed in several sentences or in an entire paragraph;
7) Identifies the relationships between the pieces of evidence
that you are using to support your argument
10) Outlining and Organisation
Introduction establish your topic and state your thesis;
Move to the body of paper in a clear, logical manner
Prove your thesis, step by step and convince your reader
End with a conclusion
11) Argument
convince your.
organise your thoughts, logically and provide evidence
Look for gaps in your own argument and try to fill those in
Avoid errors in reasoning (stereotypes, invalid assumptions,
hasty generalisations or appeals to the emotions)
12) Writing
Methodology include laboratory research, surveys, close textual
analysis and psychoanalytic search.

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 21

1) Not to write in a colloquial style unless it is necessary;
2) Avoid lots of choppy short sentences and paragraphs
3) Each paragraph has a central idea and that paragraphs are
4) Clearly connected
5) Avoid using the same words repeatedly
6) Double check your paper for grammatical, punctuation, spelling and other errors
13) Citation
a) To cite is to point to evidence, authority or proof.
b) need to collect and assemble details of where your
information came from and note this in your text.
c) Citing to protect ourselves against charges of plagiarism.
It is also vital to:
prove that our work has a substantial, factual basis;
show the research we have done reaches our conclusions
allow our readers to identify and retrieve the references for
their own use.
d) There are two main styles of citing
Harvard Is a type of author-date style;
Requires only the name of the author(s)
and the year of publication (with no
punctuation between the two items)
Requires citations to be placed at the end
of a sentence (before the concluding
adnin (1990: 564) has argued that
Vancouver A footnote/endnote style
References are numbered in the order in
which they are cited in the text.

e) For Notes, Footnotes and Endnotes
Make your argument coherent and sound
Since they provide the reader with the sources/evidence
to back your argument.
Indicating thoughts and ideas of a secondary nature.
Explain or to make a comment on something
Footnotes(little notes) found on the same page
Endnotes (little longer notes ) found on back pages

f) For Bibliography
presents them in a way that permits a prospective reader to
see how you did your research

Author (One Only)/ Title /Place Published Company/Year.

14) Presentation
a) writing it clearly sentences
b) need also be clear and concise
c) checked for syntax, punctuation and style.
d) paragraphs and sentences should flow easily paper is
cleanly typed or printed without any missing pages or errors
e) figures or illustrations are clearly labelled.

9.6 Looking for a Paper
1. Means that you as a writer have to do some background
reading, think hard and speak with your tutor or instructor in
order to identify a good topic.
2. Begin by reading in the field
3. Read a few books or articles on topics you find of interest.
4. Follow up by reading on the course syllabus or the footnotes
or bibliographies of the texts you are reading for the course.
5. Speak to your tutor or instructor about some of your general
ideas and the possible research directions you are thinking
about pursuing.
Typical Structure
1) Start with a paragraph that summarises the key results in the
context of the question (s) you asked in the introduction
2) Compare and contrast with others in the literature.
3) List the limitations might resolve them.
4) Discuss implications in other fields such as culture and
5) Hypothesise and speculate on the data. (provide a model)

9.7 Looking for Materials
Materials for research can be divided into three categories:
(a) Background Information - brief and to the point that a
summary either:
Explains why the topic that you chose is significant
Provides a brief history of your chosen topic.
(b) Supporting Information
Drive your argument forward.
Validates your opinion.(more believable and plausible)
(c) Opposing Information
Its useful to strengthen your position on an issue.
Include opposing information
Useful tactic to persuade the reader to take your side.

9.8 The Craft of Note-Taking
One note card should be used for each major point
Information incidentbe written in a corner of the note card
(name of book or article, place and year published and
published company.
process of note-taking.
(a) Examine the Books and Articles
Skim sources, locating useful material, then make good
notes of it,. (icluding quotes & nformation for footnotes. )
Make these notes on separate cards for each author.
(b) Take Care in Note-taking
Be accurate and honest.(not distort the authors
do not want to collect only those things that will support
your thesis while ignoring other facts or opinions.

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 22

(c) Get the Right Kind of Material
Get facts, not just opinions.
Compare the facts with the authors: deas,
opinions.Deliberations.Quotations.Closure, conclusions.

9.8.1 How to Take Research Notes
1) Write down all the bibliographical information (authors name, publisher,
date & place of publication) on a 3-by-5 index card source card
2) Number all your source cards.
3) Skim each source for information on your subject.
4) Write down the information you wish to note on an
5) information card. (using a direct quote, a paraphrase)
6) Jot down the page number of the source from information card.
7) Number each information card to refer back to the source.
8) Organise your information cards according to subject matter.
9.9 Writing a Research Paper
Clarity in writing
Be written in the third person
Good writing can be divided into three parts:
effort, style considerations and technical

9.10 Looking at Different Sets of Research Papers

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 23

Step 1 Choose a Topic
Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned or specialised, very narrow
range of source materials.
Step 2 Find Information
a) evaluate web sites critically and to search effectively on the Internet
b) Use Search Engines to search in the Net for general or background information, check out useful URLs,
general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online
c) check out materials available in your own universityEs library or in other libraries
d) jot down full bibliographical information
Step 3 State Your Thesis
Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement in one sentence.
Step 4 Make a Tentative
Step 5 Organise Your
a) Organise according to your outline and critically analyse your research data
b) Check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up to date and correct
c) Effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights and research findings to others through written
words or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.
d) Jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your
word cited page.
Step 6 Write Your First
a) Use a technique that suits you to Summarise, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in
your paper.
b) Put all your note cards or paper in order of your outline
c) well-organised research paper completed exactly as outlined
Step 7 Revise Your
Outline and Draft
a) Read your paper for any errors in content.
b) Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline.
c) Reorganise your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind.
d) Re-read your paper for grammatical errors
e) Correct all spoted errors and improve the overall quality of the paper.
Steps to Ensure a Good Research Paper

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 24

f) Get someone else to read it over
Step 8 Type Final Paper
a) be type-written using a word processor or in a rare case, a typewriter
b) Read the assignment sheet again
c) Proof read your final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words
d) ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat and attractive.
9.11 Writing Your Research Paper in Four Steps
Step 1 Select a Paper Topic Topic which is of interest to you
Consult your course instructor or tutor you are writing the paper for before you see the advisor.
Step 2 Locate Relevant Academic
Deepen the understanding of your chosen topic
Reviewing the existing literature
Step 3 Make an Argument Organise your thoughts, present them logically and provide evidence to back them up.
Be detailed and cite sources and specific things you have found to clearly ground your argument
Anticipate counter- arguments or counter-evidence and to argue against those in your paper
Avoid errors in generalisations or appeals to emotions.
Step 4 Support Your Argument with
Good argument is only as good as the evidence that supports it
Library research advisor can assist you
Examples of evidence to support an argument = transcripts of interviews and speeches by
Legislative acts, court decisions, internal memos and other official documents

9.12 Referencing and Editing
Show evidence of what an author has said;
Avoid misrepresentation through restatement
Save unnecessary writing when ideas have been well-
expressed by the original author

1) Editing is the process of refining a piece of writing so that
it suits a particular purpose. It gets your document ready
to do its job (Bandy, 2004).
2) To reveal hidden mistakes and will ensure that your best
possible work is being submitted.
3) Find and eliminate all common mistakes from the
document as previously stated
4) Proper editing cures inconsistent statements, ambiguities,
poorly written sentences and weak word choices.
Three types of editing:
1. Substantive Editing- deal primarily with the content and
message of the copy.
2. Stylistic Editing - focuses on matters specifically related to
the actual writing, such as clarity, flow, sentence length and
word selection.
3. Copyediting - focus on grammar, internal inconsistencies,
headline writing and spelling.

According to Bandy, once you have finished writing the
document, you can take the following steps:
1) Run spell-check.
2) Let it rest, then read for sense and tone.
3) Reread backwards for the following common mistakes (invalid
sentences, non-parallel constructions, bad apostrophes and
wrong words).
4) Run spell-check again

Topic 10 Writing Collaboratively
10.1 Stages in Collaborative Writing (Three stages)

Learners are engaged in preliminary discussions of
ideas and approaches using
Note sharing
Brainstorm about the topics first then trade notes
and materials with the others
Preliminary debating
Prepare a debate/idea on a topic
Group members gather support for their positions,
which then becomes shared materials for papers.

Three models
Chunk mode - divides the writing of a project into
Good everyone involved
Bad-result in an incoherent paper
Blended model-learners be present in the same place
and discuss every aspect of the paper
Compiler model-each group member does the whole
assignment, final best product be selected to create the
final draft.

Andrew Booth (2002) divides collaboration into two types

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 25

Group members have to revise the paper
1) The group members can revise one anothers
2) The best writer of the group can become the chief
editor of the draft.
3) Other group members can give comments or

10.2 Team Communication
Effective writing teams know what they intend to accomplish.
They know their responsibilities, resources, strengths and
weaknesses and know how to communicate well.
But such problems can include:
1) unsatisfactory negotiations;
2) non-acknowledgement of ideas/opinions;
3) over-zealous editing;
4) missed deadlines/non-delivery; and
5) non-understanding of subject matter

10.5 Management of Time/Writing/Documents
# Time - deadlines affect group writing tasks constantly
# Writing - bulletin board to show the writing cpmpleting
progress, using a type of story-board format to post sections
of the work Itself.
# Document - an outline of the steps that will occur in the
writing process

When all done, they must make decisions
1) Group versus Individual Work
decide activities to be done by group and by individual group
2) Equivalency of a Task
Each group member have an equal amount of work
complete the job as quickly as possible and will ensure
3) Best Use of Individual Skills
Match up individual skills with a job that utilises those skills.
If group members are comfortable with each other, they will be
less hesitant to state their own strengths and weaknesses.

10.6 Managing Collaborative Writing Projects

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10.3 Team Building
Practising democracy is another aspect of team building.
Every member needs to be given the chance to speak and
respect must be shown for each persons ideas or opinions.
More creative energy as well as better quality product will
emerge as a result of team- work.
Students working as a team will maximise use of resources
and improve their profile.

10.4 Analysis of Task
The group must analyse the task to be done so that each
member has the same interpretation.
They must consider the major questions to be answered
concerning the writing project.

10.7 Practice in Writing Step-By-Step

# Develop a style and format guide at the very beginning of
the writing project.
# questions to consider
1) What style guide? Which spelling conventions?
2) What size for font type, margins and headings ?
3) Will abbreviations be allowed and which ones?
4) Which technical terms necessary to define?
5) Will processes be explained in point form or paragraph

10.8 Conflict Management
Groups need to face these conflicts with patience,
understanding and respond to them directly
Take steps to resolve the conflict as soon as they become
aware that it exists
Find the source of the problem
10.12 Writing as a Group
Writing collaboratively tends to take a bit more time than
writing alone.
Each writer might have different ideas on what to write, how
to write and how much to write.
Group should lay out a detailed series of deadlines and
dates for meeting in order to eliminate as much of the last-

Ringkasan Nota Modul daripada FKC Kumpulan 3 (2009) 27

What is the issue
Where did it come from
Who started it

10.9 Collaborative Writing Practice
Group members need to know what they are supposed to do
following is an example of a group project
Get students to work as a team to brainstorm, research,
outline, draft and revise the material which will be submitted
to the tourism board

10.10 Preparing Manuals and Other Forms of
Team Writing
# Guidelines in the manual should be clear, straightforward
and easy to understand
# Guidelines to be considered when preparing a manual:
1) Purpose
2) Amount of detail
3) Heading
4) Format
5) Inclusion of diagram
6) Level of language
7) User friendliness
8) Other appriopriate consideration
minute rush as possible.
Collaborative writing also has the potential to be far superior
to individual writing, because
The weaknesses and inadequacies of individuals are
checked upon by one another
The strengths of the individuals are pooled together.
Tips for