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1. What are two ways of looking at urbanisation?
a. The proportion of a population living in cities/urban areas
b. The movement of people from rural areas into urban areas.
2. What is a push factor?
A push factor is a factor that forces or drives someone to move away from their
current location.
3. Give three examples of a push factor.
a. War and conflict
b. Lack of resources
c. Transfer of land uses
4. What is a pull factor?
A pull factor is a factor that encourages someone to live in another place.
5. Give three examples of a pull factor.
a. More educational opportunities
b. More health facilities
c. Higher standard of living

Informal Settlements
6. How do informal settlements arise?
Informal settlements arise from rapid and large scale rural-to-urban migration.
7. Give three names for informal settlements.
a. Slum
b. Favela
c. Squatter settlement
8. Who might live in informal settlements?
a. Poor
b. Low-income/Unemployed
c. Young adults
9. Why would these people need to live in informal settlements?
In these areas it is hard to find a job, so when people move to urban areas but
have no income they are forced to move to an informal settlement (if they have
no friends or family to fall back on).

Land Use/Urban Development
10. Why are land use models used?
Land use models are used in cities of developed countries to predict possible
changes in land use in the future and to help describe land use patterns.
11. What does CBD stand for?
Central Business District
12. Name five types of land use in the CBD, and give an example for each.
a. Offices Stock Exchange
b. Retailing Myer
c. Transport Flinders Street Station
d. Entertainment Crown Casino
e. Government buildings Parliament House
13. Give two reasons why the CBD is central
a. Transport routes extend from the CBD into the outer suburbs; therefore it
is of easy access.
b. CBD has highest land values of the whole urban area
14. Give two reasons why there would be a decline in department stores in the
a. Increase in Regional Shopping Centres
b. Urban sprawl
15. The percentage of retail sales in the CBD has steadily declined over the past
fifty years. How can this percentage be brought back up? Give five possible
solutions for this issue.
a. Creating traffic-free malls in the CBD, e.g. Bourke St Mall, where only
trams can travel.
b. Creating open spaces in the CBD, for a more pleasant atmosphere.
c. Hosting more activities in the CBD, inviting people to come.
d. Free public transport in the CBD.
e. Let it die.
16. Every workday, approximately 300,000 people go in and out of the CBD, which
creates a lot of congestion. Give three possible solutions for this issue.
a. Staggering work hours so that the times that commuters are most active
are spread out.
b. Reduce/stop CBD growth and divert the development to
regional/suburban/rural areas, hence reducing the need to travel into the
c. Creating an electronig pricing system, where vehicles need to pay a fee
for entering and exiting the CBD.
17. What sort of people might choose to live in the CBD? Give five possibilities.
a. CEOs of businesses in the CBD
b. Students
c. Foreigners/immigrants with employment in the CBD
d. Empty nesters
e. Singles
18. What does IMZ stand for?
Inner Mixed Zone
19. Give three example suburbs from Melbourne that come under the category of
a. Collingwood
b. South Yarra
c. Toorak
20. Give three changes in land uses in the IMZ from the 1880s to now.
a. Laneways used to be places where rubbish was stored until collected;
now laneways are converted into driveways
b. Shops are converted into housing
c. Factories demolished and land use is changed, or they may still operate.
21. Give four types of people who might move into the IMZ.
a. Yuppies/Dinks
b. Overseas arrivals
c. Empty nesters; Retirees
d. Students
22. Give three types of people who might move out of the IMZ.
a. Young couples starting families
b. Renters
c. Low-income
23. Give three effects of population movements in the IMZ.
a. More diverse range of people
b. Very large decrease of population in the IMZ
c. Slow increase of population as new developments arise.
24. What is a large scale private project (i.e. who is involved in a large scale private
project and what is their influence on the project)? Give an example of a large
scale private project in Melbourne.
A large scale private project is run by private, non-government organisations.
There is government direction the government gives permission and guidelines
but the money and resources must be private. E.g. Docklands
25. What is the difference between a greenfield and a brownfield?
A greenfield is land that has never been built on. A brownfield is land where a
building has been demolished and thus the land is now available for new
developments and projects.
26. What are four options for small scale private projects on individual houses on
the IMZ?
a. Extend (horizontally or vertically)
b. Knock down and rebuild
c. Renovate
d. Subdivide and rebuild
27. What are three land uses for suburban areas?
a. Residential
b. Retail
c. Recreation
28. Give five possible land uses for land in the Rural Urban Fringe (RUF)
a. Waste Treatment/Landfill
b. Airport
c. University
d. Factories
e. Farming
29. Give two advantages and two disadvantages for living in an inner suburb of
a. Easy access to services e.g. hospitals +
b. Lots of transport routes +
c. No open spaces
d. No sense of community
30. Give two advantages and two disadvantages for living in an outer suburb of
a. More spacious +
b. Cleaner +
c. Far from CBD -
d. Hard to reach services -
31. Why have outer suburbs become very car-based? How can this be overcome?
Outer suburbs have become very car-based because as you get further from the
CBD, the density and frequency of public transport and its routes lessens.
Therefore, people are more likely to take the car to travel from one place to
another, rather than take public transport which is more cumbersome in the
outer suburbs. This problem can be overcome by adding more transport routes
or making public transport timetables more frequent (especially buses).
32. Give two examples of large scale developments. (i.e. on a country-wide scale)
a. Australia National Broadband Network
b. Brazil Hosting large sporting events (World Cup/Olympics)
33. Give two examples of small scale developments.
a. Reducing illiteracy
b. Tree planting
34. What is the difference between a free enterprise/market economy and a
government controlled economy?
A market economy is run by private companies/organisations. The government
has a minor role in a market economy, and the private organisations initiate
change themselves. A government controlled economy is run by the government
solely and is characterised by very detailed planning, goal setting and

35. What were the conditions of Dubai prior to its drastic transformation?
Dubai, prior to its transformation, had no basic services no health services, no
form of education, no stable government system - and it had an incredible lack of
basic resources its desert environment made water hard to come by.
36. What sparked the development of Dubai?
The development of Dubai started when the sheikh of Dubai realised that he
could use the revenues paid by developers of oilfields.
37. What did the sheikh of Dubai do to ensure that Dubais wealth would remain?
The sheikh of Dubai knew that its oil would inevitably run out, so he made sure
to build up Dubais infrastructure, trade and tourism so that Dubais wealth
wasnt derived solely from oil revenues.
38. What are seven major projects undertaken by Dubai in order for it to become a
major financial centre for both the Middle East and the world?
a. Hosting major sporting events
b. Building one of the most successful airports in the Middle East to bring in
businessmen and tourists.
c. Building a huge dry dock complex
d. Constructing luxury hotels, apartments and palaces for foreigners
e. Creating a free trade zone, where no tax is required, including personal
income tax
f. Developing a Media/Internet City
g. Opening large shopping malls
39. From which countries have most of Dubais foreign workers come from?
India and Pakistan
40. Describe one positive and one negative aspect of Dubais development.
+ Dubai has invested in improving its infrastructure, trade and tourism so its
wealth can remain long after its oil resources have gone. Due to good planning,
Dubai can continue to grow after its main source of income runs out.
- Dubai faces serious environmental concerns. Due to the abundance of cars, air-
conditioners, etc., Dubai faces the big problem of pollution. Even though Dubai
has little water of its own, the water consumption per person is very high. The
chance of an oil spill in the Gulf is also quite high.

Foreign Aid
41. What does ODA stand for?
Official Development Assistance
42. What is bilateral aid? Give an example.
Bilateral aid is when one country/government gives aid to another. An example
of this is Australia giving bilateral aid to Papua New Guinea.
43. What is multilateral aid? Give an example.
Multilateral aid is when multiple countries give aid to a governmental
organisation, who then distributes this aid accordingly. An example of this is the
44. What is non-governmental organisation aid? Give an example.
Non-governmental organisation is run by an organisation not affiliated with the
government, like World Vision.
45. Give three forms of foreign aid.
a. Financial aid
b. Military aid
c. Education
46. Why do countries provide foreign aid?
Countries either provide foreign aid for humanitarian reasons for example,
giving money or resources to a country recently struck by a national disaster or
if they know that they can get something in return (tied aid).
47. What is the difference between tied and untied aid?
Tied aid is aid where the donor country expects something specific to be done
with the money e.g. buying goods and services from that country with the
money. Untied aid is aid without any conditions attached to it. The country may
do as they please with the money.
48. What are two criticisms of foreign aid?
a. Some argue that foreign aid isnt an effective way to help a country. A
more suitable option may be for a donor country to provide employment
to a country in need.
b. Some argue that foreign aid helps in the short term, but doesnt really
affect a countrys development status. For instance, many countries in
Africa who have received foreign aid are still in the same situation that
they are in as before.