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AVL ITC 24.4.

2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 1


Entwicklungstrends
Entwicklungstrends
Ottomotor
Ottomotor
DaimlerChrysler DaimlerChrysler, Stuttgart 20.April 2004 , Stuttgart 20.April 2004
AVL ITC, Technical Seminar
24. April 2007
Dr. Hubert FRIEDL
Highly
Highly
Advanced
Advanced
CNG
CNG
Engine
Engine
Technology
Technology
for
for
Passenger
Passenger
Cars
Cars
Higher
Higher
Fuel
Fuel
Efficiency
Efficiency
and
and
lower
lower
Emissions
Emissions
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 2
1. Market Trends
1. Market Trends
2. Configurations of CNG SI
2. Configurations of CNG SI
-
-
Engines
Engines

Turbo Charged Bi
Turbo Charged Bi
-
-
Fuel
Fuel

Mono Fuel CNG Direct Injection


Mono Fuel CNG Direct Injection
3. Conclusion and Outlook
3. Conclusion and Outlook
Content of Presentation
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 3
1.Market Trends
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 4
Volvo
BMW
Mercedes
Audi
Mazda
Nissan
Kia
Hyundai
Honda
Suzuki
Toyota
VW
Opel
Skoda
Ford
Peugeot
Seat
Renault
Citroen
Fiat
European European
CO CO
2 2
Fleet Fleet Data Data
2005 2005
2012 2012
CO
CO
2 2
Legislation
Legislation
as Technology Driver
as Technology Driver
for
for
all
all
Passenger
Passenger
Car Brands in Europe
Car Brands in Europe
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
CO
CO
2 2
[g/km] [g/km]
Extreme pressure
to invest into high
efficient powertrain
technology as well
as to promote
alternative fuels
EUROPE
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 5
Volvo
BMW
Mercedes
Audi
Mazda
Nissan
Kia
Hyundai
Honda
Suzuki
Toyota
VW
Opel
Skoda
Ford
Peugeot
Seat
Renault
Citroen
Fiat
European European
CO CO
2 2
Fleet Fleet Data Data
2005 2005
2012 2012
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
CO
CO
2 2
[g/km] [g/km]
Super / Super / Turbo Turbo- -
Charging Charging
Cylinder Cylinder
Deactivation Deactivation
Variable Variable
Charge Motion Charge Motion
GDI GDI
Stratified Stratified
Variable Variable Valve Valve
Actuation Actuation
Controlled Controlled
Auto Auto- -Ignition Ignition
Reduced Reduced
parasitic parasitic
losses losses
Improved Improved
energy energy
manage manage- -
ment ment
Energy Energy
recovery recovery
Start / Start /
Stop Stop
Hybrid Hybrid- -
ization ization
Alternative Alternative
Fuels Fuels
Technologies
Technologies
for
for
Gasoline
Gasoline
Engines
Engines
to
to
comply
comply
with
with
forthcoming
forthcoming
CO2
CO2
Targets
Targets
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 6
Global PC and LD Vehicle Production
by Propulsion Technology
15
30
45
60
75
90
1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
E
n
g
i
n
e
s

p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d

[
m
i
o
.
]
DIESEL CHARGED
DIESEL NA
CNG/LPG/
ALCOHOL/FLEX FUEL
ALTERNATIVE FUELS
GASOLINE GDI
HYBRID
GASOLINE PFI
GASOLINE Charged
Source: Global Insight
Gasoline
Gasoline
Diesel
Diesel
2007 2007
GDI GDI
charged charged
A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e

A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e

F
u
e
l
s
F
u
e
l
s
:
:
C
N
G
,

E
t
h
a
n
o
l
C
N
G
,

E
t
h
a
n
o
l
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 7
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
S
o
u
t
h

A
m
.

2
0
0
6
E
U
R
O
P
E

2
0
0
6
N
A
F
T
A

2
0
0
6
A
S
I
A

2
0
0
6
J
A
P
A
N

2
0
0
6
R
O
W

2
0
0
6
G
l
o
b
a
l

2
0
0
6
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
5
Region/Year
M
a
r
k
e
t

S
h
a
r
e
H2/Electric
Hybrid
FlexFuel,
Alcohol
CNG/LPG
Diesel
Gasoline
Global Vehicle Production by
Propulsion Technology
Source: Global Insight, AVL
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 8
2. Configurations for
CNG SI-Engines
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 9
Diesel Gaso- Metha- Etha- LPG CNG DME
line nol nol
Chemical Formula (-) C
15
H
28
C
7
H
15
CH
3
OH C
2
H
5
OH C
3
H
9
CH
4
C
2
H
6
O
Molecular Weight (-) 208 99 32 46 45 16 46
Carbon Content (%m) 86.1 84.9 37.5 52.2 80.0 75.0 52.2
Hydrogen Content (%m) 13.9 15.1 12.5 13.0 20.0 25.0 13.0
Oxygen Content (%m) 0 0 50.0 34.8 0 0 34.8
Density Liquid at 20 (kg/l) 0.840 0.740 0.795 0.790 0.540 - 0.668
Lower Heating Value (MJ/kg) 42.7 42.5 19.7 26.8 46.0 47.7 28.4
Heat of Evaporation (kJ/MJ) 6.0 8.0 56.4 33.8 8.6 - 14.4
Octane Rating RON (-) - 95 >110 >100 100 130 -
Cetane Number CN (-) 45-55 - - - - - >55
CO
2
Emission (g/MJ) 74.2 73.3 70.0 71.5 63.8 57.7 67.5
LPG: Liquified Petroleum mGas (50%mass C
3
H
8
+ 50% C
4
H
10
)
CNG: Compressed Natural Gas (mainly Methane CH4)
DME: Dimethylether
Properties of Fuels
Properties of CNG Properties of CNG
most attractive most attractive
for SI for SI- -Engines ! Engines !
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 10
High knock resistance of CNG (RON 120-140) allows high
compression ratio, but this leads to higher combustion pressure and
higher mechanical loads
Higher ignition energy and different ignition timing compared to
liquid fuels
CNG lacks cooling effect unlike other liquid fuels, but due to higher
compression ratio the exhaust temperatures are lower
As CNG is gaseous and combustion is without soot formation,
special attention has to paid for valve seat material
Max torque with CNG occurs very close to =1 and enrichment /
leaning leads to drop in torque
Power drop in CNG 10 ~ 12 % (due to lower volumetric efficiency)
Lean burn power drop 20 ~ 30% (partially compensated by turbocharging)
CNG in Combustion Process
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 11
Bi Bi fuel fuel
(Petrol or Gas) (Petrol or Gas)
Stoichiometric Stoichiometric
( ( = = 1) 1)
SI Spark Ignition SI Spark Ignition
Lean burn ( Lean burn ( > 1) > 1)
Mono fuel Mono fuel
(Optimized for gas) (Optimized for gas)
Most common solution Most common solution
Development Paths for CNG SI-Engines
Potential for higher Potential for higher
fuel efficiency fuel efficiency
Turbo Charging Turbo Charging
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 12
Bi-Fuel vs. Dedicated Mono-Fuel CNG Engines
High compression ratio
CH4 optimized catalyst
CH4 optimized lambda control
CH4 tolerant O2 sensors
One set of fuel injectors
Pressure regulator instead of
fuel pump
Monofuel PC gas engines
Knock limited CR (for gasoline)
is compromising thermal efficiency
Gasoline optimized catalyst
Lambda control optimized for
gasoline
Cold start usually with gasoline
Two sets of fuel injectors and dual
tank infrastructure required
Bi-fuel PC gas engines
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 13
2.1 Turbo Charged
Bi-Fuel Application
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 14
Development Tasks:
Integration of CNG fuel system
adapt mechanical system for specific
requirement when running engine with
CNG (e.g. valve seat rings)
Key Tasks and Challenges for
Turbo-charging Bi-Fuel CNG Engine
Challenges:
provide similar power and torque for
CNG as with gasoline fuel
Fulfill stringent emission standards
(ULEV, Euro 5) even maintaining
with gasoline dedicated exhaust
aftertreatment
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 15
BOSCH Natural Gas System (Bi BOSCH Natural Gas System (Bi- -Fuel) Fuel)
Source: Robert BOSCH GmbH, GS/EVP
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 16
Integration of CNG Fuel System to Engine
A combined CNG / gasoline fuel rail was designed for
optimized packaging
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 17
Full Load Performance of 2.0L Turbo Engine
CNG compared to Gasoline Fuel
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Engine speed [rpm]
T
o
r
q
u
e
[
N
m
]
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
P
o
w
e
r

[
k
W
]
CNG Torque [Nm]
Gasoline Torque [Nm]
CNG Power [kW]
Gasoline Power[kW]
Low end torque is lower on
CNG compared to Gasoline.
CNG calibrated to 125kW
Gasoline std calibration 135kW
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 18
TEMPERATURES, PRESSURES
CNG compered with gasoline at full load
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Engine [rpm]
P
_
p
l
e
n
u
m
[
b
a
r
]
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
[
C
]
Full Load Conditions of 2.0L Turbo Engine
CNG compared to Gasoline Fuel
Gasoline P Plenum
CNG P Plenum
Gasoline Cat 1 end
CNG Cat 1 end
Catalyst Temperature Limit 950 C
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 19
Measures to reduce Exhaust Temperatures
Measures to reduce Exhaust Temperatures
with Turbo
with Turbo
-
-
charged CNG Engines
charged CNG Engines
Integrated Exhaust Manifold
Integrated Exhaust Manifold
Water Cooled Turbine
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 20
Slightly reduced power (7,5%) in CNG operation with 2.0L
engine due to compromised layout for gasoline
Equalizing of performance gap to gasoline fuel operation
feasible with higher compression ratio and further
secondary measures (integrated exhaust manifold, cooled
turbine)
Euro 5/ULEV Emission limits achieved in CNG operation
due to optimized catalyst design and by calibrating
lambda control as well as transient A/F control.
Results for Turbo charged Bi-Fuel
CNG Application Project
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 21
2.2 Mono Fuel CNG
Direct Injection
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 22
Key Features of CNG Direct Injection
Combustion System Application
Engine Capacity 450 ccm/cylinder
Compression ratio: 1:13
Injector: AVL proprietary DMI-Injector
(Piezo Injector as Option)
CNG System Feed Pressure: 12 bar
Standard CNG pressure regulator
and CNG system components as
commercially available
Operation with homogeneous (=1)
and stratified lean (>1) air/fuel ratio
Such dedicated system is able
Such dedicated system is able
to utilize the full potential and
to utilize the full potential and
advantages of CNG Fuel !
advantages of CNG Fuel !
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 23
CNG-supply
CNG / Mixture chamber (for pure CNG
operation and DMI operation)
Nozzle (different geometries)
HP-oil supply
solenoid valve
Actuation piston
Lift adjustment (0.6 and 0.3mm variant)
Oil leakage draining
CNG - DI Injector for combustion development
(AVL Research Injector, no series product)
Key Features of CNG Direct Injection
Combustion System Application
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 24
Principle of stratified CNG-DI Combustion Process
TDC
Swirl charge
motion of intake
air supports
stratification of
mixture cloud
[m
2
/s
2
]
0.0 100
Turbulent Kinetic Energy
20 CA bTDC 20 CA bTDC
CFD simulation shows toroidal
rotation of mixture cloud
Key Features of CNG Direct Injection
Combustion System Application
Central Injector Position,
spark plug close to injector tip
Piston Bowl design for Wall-
guided Mixture Formation
High turbulence due to gas-jet
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 25
CNG - DI Combustion CFD Simulation
CFD- Simulation for mixture formation in stratified and
homogeneous operation (2000rpm / 3bar IMEP)
5 DEG CRA bTDC
x
y
30 DEG CRA bTDC
z
z
y
z
x
y
x
y
x
z
x
z
y
30 DEG CRA bTDC
z
y
z
x
y
x
5 DEG CRA bTDC
y
x
z
x
z
y
Homogeneous early injection, A/F 1.0 Stratified late injection, A/F 2.6
Spark Plug
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 26
2000rpm / 3bar imep - isfc [g/kWh]
M
F
B
5
0
%
[d
e
g
C
A
a
T
D
C
]
S
O
I

[
d
e
g

C
A

b
T
D
C
]
isfc - OPT:
SOI.....63 deg CA bTDC
EGR...20 %
MAP...810 mbar
IGN....19 deg CA bTDC
Restrictions:
CoV <3 %
isNOx <3 g/kWh
i
s
f
c

[
g
/
k
W
h
]201 g/kWh
2000rpm / 3bar imep - CoV [%]
M
F
B
5
0
%
[d
e
g
C
A
a
T
D
C
]
S
O
I

[
d
e
g

C
A

b
T
D
C
]
C
o
V

[
%
]
3%
isfc - OPT
isfc - OPT:
SOI.....63 deg CA bTDC
EGR...20 %
MAP...810 mbar
IGN....19 deg CA bTDC
Restrictions:
CoV <3 %
isNOx <3 g/kWh
2000rpm / 3bar imep - isNOx [g/kWh]
M
F
B
5
0
%
[d
e
g
C
A
a
T
D
C
]
S
O
I

[
d
e
g

C
A

b
T
D
C
]
isfc - OPT:
SOI.....63 deg CA bTDC
EGR...20 %
MAP...810 mbar
IGN....19 deg CA bTDC
Restrictions:
CoV <3 %
isNOx <3 g/kWh
i
s
N
O
x

[
g
/
k
W
h
]
3

g
/
k
W
h
isfc - OPT
2000rpm / 3bar imep - isHC [g/kWh]
M
F
B
5
0
%
[d
e
g
C
A
a
T
D
C
]
S
O
I

[
d
e
g

C
A

b
T
D
C
]
isfc - OPT:
SOI.....63 deg CA bTDC
EGR...20 %
MAP...810 mbar
IGN....19 deg CA bTDC
Restrictions:
CoV <3 %
isNOx <3 g/kWh
i
s
H
C

[
g
/
k
W
h
]
14 g/kWh (at isfc - OPT)
Stratified CNG-DI: Very stable Operation
(Part Load Optimisation with DoE)
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 27
Combustion simulation with different operation strategies in part load
The 3D-CFD combustion
simulation shows the same
tendency regarding combustion
speed as the measurements.
Due to the turbulence introduced
by the DI-gas-jet the combustion
speed increases significantly with
late injection.
Heat release curves for different combustion strategies
(CFD Simulation)
-1,0
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
8,0
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Crank Angle [deg CA]
R
a
t
e

o
f

H
e
a
t

r
e
l
e
a
s
e

[
%
/
d
e
g

C
A
]
Homogeneous early - CFD Simulation
Homogeneous late - CFD Simulation
Stratified lean - CFD Simulation
Heat release curves for different combustion strategies
(Measurement)
-1,0
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
8,0
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Crank Angle [deg CA]
R
a
t
e

o
f

H
e
a
t

r
e
l
e
a
s
e

[
%
/
d
e
g

C
A
]
Homogeneous early - Measurement
Homogeneous late - Measurement
Stratified lean - Measurement
Homogeneous early
Homogeneous late
Stratified lean
Flamefront 20deg CA after Ignition
CNG - DI Combustion CFD Simulation
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 28
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Combustion Efficiency CO2 Emission
Homogeneous
Gasoline DI
Homogeneous
CNG DI
Stratified lean with EGR
CNG DI
-40%
-25%
Part Load:
2000 rpm
3 bar IMEP
Improvement Potential for CNG Direct Injection
compared to stoichiometric homogeneous GDI
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 29
Part load: Part load:

The CNG The CNG - - DI combustion system shows 25% better efficiency DI combustion system shows 25% better efficiency
compared with homogeneous compared with homogeneous stoichiometric stoichiometric combustion combustion

Compared to homogeneous Compared to homogeneous stoichiometric stoichiometric combustion with combustion with
gasoline a CO2 reduction of more than 40% is possible due to gasoline a CO2 reduction of more than 40% is possible due to
beneficial H/C ratio of CNG beneficial H/C ratio of CNG
Full Load: Full Load:

Reduced volumetric efficiency as it is known from manifold gas Reduced volumetric efficiency as it is known from manifold gas
injection can be fully compensated by late direct injection (aft injection can be fully compensated by late direct injection (after er
intake closing), which results in +12% charge mass in cylinder intake closing), which results in +12% charge mass in cylinder

No necessity for spark retardation due to high knock resistance No necessity for spark retardation due to high knock resistance
of CNG, possibility to use a CR of 13, which gives 13% higher of CNG, possibility to use a CR of 13, which gives 13% higher
efficiency in low end WOT compared to gasoline operation efficiency in low end WOT compared to gasoline operation

Together with the beneficial H/C ratio of CNG also at full load Together with the beneficial H/C ratio of CNG also at full load a a
CO2 advantage of more than 30% is possible CO2 advantage of more than 30% is possible
Results Achieved for CNG Direct Injection
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 30
3. Conclusion
and Outlook
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 31

CNG is highly attractive fuel for vehicles and will become more CNG is highly attractive fuel for vehicles and will become more
important due to the demand of CO2 reduction and have less important due to the demand of CO2 reduction and have less
dependency on crude oil dependency on crude oil

Bi Bi- -fuel vehicles represent a short term solution to introduce fuel vehicles represent a short term solution to introduce
CNG into the market on bigger scale CNG into the market on bigger scale

CNG in combination with turbo charging reduces power gap CNG in combination with turbo charging reduces power gap
compared to gasoline operation by achieving better volumetric compared to gasoline operation by achieving better volumetric
efficiency, and turbo charging opens door for downsizing and efficiency, and turbo charging opens door for downsizing and
achieving higher fuel efficiency achieving higher fuel efficiency

New mono New mono- -fuel systems and technologies (e.g. Direct Injection) fuel systems and technologies (e.g. Direct Injection)
are under development to utilize even more advantages of CNG are under development to utilize even more advantages of CNG
operation for passenger cars in near future operation for passenger cars in near future
Conclusion and Outlook
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 32
Thank
Thank
you
you
very
very
much
much
for
for
your
your
kind
kind
attention
attention
!
!
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 33
Abbreviations (1/2)
A/F Air-/Fuel Ratio of Mixture (Lambda)
CA Crank Angle
BMEP Brake Mean Effective Pressure
CNG Compressed natural Gas
CR Compression Ratio
DI Direct Injection
DeNOx Nitrogen oxide reducing catalyst
DMI Direct Mixture Injection (Air +Fuel pre-mixed)
DoE Design of Experiments
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EURO5 European Emission Limit Stage 5
FE Fuel Economy
FTP Federal Test Procedure (USA)
GDI Gasoline Direct Injection
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 34
Gen.1 Generation 1 (first development stage of engine technology)
HSDI High Speed Direct Injection (Diesel)
IMEP Indicated Mean Effective Pressure
LDV Light Duty Vehicle
LPG Liquified Petrol Gas
NA Naturally Aspirated
NEDC New European Driving Cycle
PC Passenger Cars
PFI Port Fuel Injection
ROW Rest of the World
SI Spark Ignition
SULEV Super Ultra LowEmission Vehicle
TWC 3-Way Catalyst
ULEV Ultra LowEmission Vehicle
Abbreviations (2/2)
AVL ITC 24.4.2007, Advanced CNG Engine Technology Page 35