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Published tor the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

and the National Science Foundation,Washington, O.C.


by Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
The achievements of the Soviet Union in
the conquest of outer space recorded in
the national press from October 1967 to
1970, TASS announcements, press con-
ference reports and articles by leading
scientists, have been included in this
collection. This collection of articles
depicts the main stages of Soviet space
exploration during this period, the first
automatic docking in space, the launch-
ing of the Soyuz manned spacecraft
and the space probes Zond and Luna for
the moon and Venera for the planets.
Material regarding international coopera-
tion and the launching of the Interkosmos
satellite have also been included. Data
on the launchings of the Kosmos, Molniya
and Meteor artificial earth satellite have
been given in Tables.
The aim of these collections is to show
the main phases of the Soviet space
program and to acquaint the reader with
some of the results of the investigations
in space. It is hoped that this material
will both enrich our knowledge and prove
useful to the scientists and specialists,
and all others interested in space
exploration.

NASA TT F-785
AKADEMIYA NAUK SSSR
Institut kosmicheskikh issledovanii
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USSR
Institute of Cosmic Studies
D HAI I i l l l FUB L I i HED II,
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2 2 CG J 3
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CbCi. 22CGJ/34 JJ392
CONQUEST OF OUTER
SPACE IN THE USSR
OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS BY TASS AND
MATERIAL PUBLISHED IN THE NATIONAL PRESS
FROM OCTOBER 1967 TO 1970
[OSVOENIE KOSMIG HESKOG O PROSTRANSTVA V SSSR
Ofitsial'nye soobshcheniya TASS i materialy
tsentral'noi pechati oktyabr', 1967-1970 gg. ]
Editor
ACADEMICIAN G . I. PETROV
Nauka Publishers, Moscow, 1971
Translated from Russian
Published for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
by Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
" 973
1973 Amerind Publishing Co. Pat. Ltd., Mew Delhi
Translated and Published for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
pursuant to an agreement with the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
by Amerind Publishing Co. Put. Ltd., New Delhi noooi
Translator: Mrs. Stefania Dhingra
G eneral Editor: Dr. V. S. Kothekar
Available from the U.S. Department of Commerce
National Technical Information Service
Springfield, Virginia
Printed at Thomson Press (India) Ltd., Faridabad
CONQUEST OF
OUTER SPACE
IN THE USSR
Page intentionally left blank
UDC 62 9.78
The achievements of the Soviet Union in the conquest of outer space recorded in
the national press from October, 1967 to 1970, TASS announcements, press conference
reports and articles by leading scientists, have been included in this collection. This
collection of articles depicts the main stages of Soviet space exploration during this
period, the first automatic docking in space, the launching of the Soyuz manned
spacecraft and the space probes Zond and Luna for the moon and Venera for the
planets. Material regarding international cooperation and the launching of the Inter-
kosmos satellite have also been included. Data on the launchings of the Kosmos,
Molniya and Meteor artificial earth satellite have been given in Tables.
Page Intentionally Left Blank
FOREWORD
The middle of the twentieth century saw a number of outstanding scien-
tific achievements. Of these the most remarkable was the beginning of
exploration in, and the conquest of, outer space.
Since the launching of the first Soviet artificial earth satellite, space
research has developed at a speed which has had, perhaps, no match in
any other field of science and technology. The intensity of space exploration
can be judged from the fact that during the first decade of the cosmic era,
about 2 50 spacecraft, with different assignments, were launched in the
Soviet Union. Of these, 2 2 craft, each weighing about 50 tons (including
the final stage of the booster rockets), possessed velocity to escape the earth's
gravitational pull.
At the beginning of the second decade of the cosmic era further outstanding
achievements were recorded: the first automatic docking in space, the
successful flights of the Venera space probes, the flight around the moon
and the recovery of the probe by its re-entry velocity, the prolonged Soyuz
flights with their packed scientific program and the construction of the
first-ever orbiting space station.
The successful flight of the space probe Luna-i6 which brought samples
of the lunar-soil to the earth, and the efficient working of Lunokhod-1, the
first independent vehicle to investigate the surface of the moon, were impor-
tant steps in the development of rocket and space technology, and provided
scope for a wider study of the universe. These experiments can be compared
with the other achievements in the conquest of space, such as the launching
of the first artificial earth satellite, the first manned flight in outer space,
the first flight beyond the earth's gravitational pull, the photographing of the
dark side of the moon and the soft landing on its surface, the direct measure-
ments taken from the depths of the Venusian atmosphere, the first walk
of man in open outer space, the transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft
to another and the final triumph, the landing of man on the moon.
The technological principles on which the Luna-i6 and Luna-i? space
probes were successfully made can be very well applied to other space probes
for studying heavenly bodies at distances much greater than the moon.
In the last three years, about 2 00 satellite of the Kosmos series alone have
been launched. This is more than the number of satellite launched in the
preceding five years.
The rate of growth of rocket and space technology has been so rapid,
that anything connected with " space" occupies a very special place in
viii Foreword
modern life (whether in industry, science, politics or the arts) and has a
great impact on the progress of the civilization. There is a wide section of
the population, particularly the youth as well as the scientists and special-
ists, interested in the problem of the conquest of space.
TASS announcements and reports published in the national press during
the period October, 1967 to 1970, have been included in the present edition.*
Another collection, containing the reports for the years 1957-1967, is being
published simultaneously. The aim of these collections is to show the main
phases of the Soviet space program and to acquaint the reader with some
of the results of the investigations in space. It is hoped that this material
will both enrich our knowledge and prove useful to the scientists and special-
ists, and all others interested in space exploration.
Academician G .I. Petrov
* Some titles of the TASS announcements have been slightly altered for publication in book
form. Certain articles have been reduced and some photographs have had to be omitted
because of lack of space. Some photographs are from TASS photo-archives.
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
Introduction i
Country of the Soviets-Shore of the Universe i
The Sky of the Twentieth Century 4
I. Automatic Docking of Soviet Satellite 13
TASS Announcement. Kosmos-i86n\ Orbit 15
TASS Announcement. For the First Time in the World
Automatic Docking in Orbit 16
TASS Announcement. Kosmos-i86 Successfully Completes Flight 17
TASS Announcement. Kosmos-i86 Still in Orbit 17
TASS Announcement. A G reat Experiment in Space Completed 18
New Chapter in the Conquest of Space 19
To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR 2 4
To the Scientists, Designers... 2 5
TASS Announcement. Kosmos-2 i2 in Orbit 2 6
TASS Announcement. Second Automatic Orbital Docking 2 6
TASS Announcement. Program Completed 2 7
Automatic Docking of Satellite Kosmos-sis and Kosmos-sig
(TASS) 2 8
II. Manned Spacecraft 3 7
TASS Announcements. Soyuz-3 in Orbit 3 9
Pilot-Astronaut G .T. Beregovoi's Statement Before the Start
(TASS) 41
Radio Message from Soyuz-3 42
Salutory Telegram to Astronaut G .T. Beregovoi from Party
and G overnment Leaders 43
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 in Orbit 43
Astronaut's Hearty Thanks 46
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-3 Still in Orbit 46
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-3 Still in Orbit 49
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-3 Lands Successfully 50
Contents
TASS Announcements. From the Verbatim Report of the Flight 51
TASS Announcement. On Completion of the Soyuz-3 Flight 52
To the Scientists, Designers... 53
Decree for Award to Comrade G .T. Beregovoi 54
Decree for Award of the Title " Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR"
to Comrade G .T. Beregovoi 54
Press Conference Devoted to G eorgii Beregovoi's Flight 55
On the Way to Space Stations (TASS) 61
G agarin Medal for Soviet Astronaut (TASS) 69
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-4 in Orbit 70
Soyuz-4 Commander, Comrade V.A. Shatalov's Statement
Before Launching (TASS) 73
TASS Announcement. Two Soviet Spacecraft in Orbit 74
Statement by the Commander of the Soyuz-5 Spacecraft,
Comrade B.V. Volynov Before the Start (TASS) 80
TASS Announcement. The First Orbital Station in the World
is Soviet! 81
G reetings from Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 86
Salutory Telegram from the Party and G overnment Leaders
to Astronauts 87
Reply to G reetings 87
To the People of the Soviet Union 87
To the People of the Socialist Nations 87
TASS Announcement. Separate Flight Again 88
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-4 Lands Safely: Soyuz-5 Still in Orbit 89
G reetings to the Peoples of the World 92
TASS Announcement. New Outstanding Scientific Experiment
is Complete 93
Flight Program Fully Accomplished 94
To the Scientists, Designers... 96
To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR 97
Big Victory in Space 98
Decrees for Awards to Astronauts 100
Press Conference Devoted to the Flight of the Soyuz-4 and
Soyuz-5 Spacecraft 104
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-6 in Orbit 116
Statement by the Soyuz-6 Commander, G .S. Shonin Before
Launching (TASS) 12 0
TASS Announcement. Spacecraft in G roup Flight 12 2
Statement by the Commander of Soyuz-7, Comrade
A.V. Filipchenko Before Launching 12 6
G reetings from the Spacecraft 12 8
Contents xi
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-8 in Orbit 12 8
TASS Announcement. G roup Flight 12 9
Statement by the Commander of Soyuz-8, Comrade
V.A. Shatalov Before Launching 13 1
To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Soviet G overnment 13 2
Salutory Telegram from Party and G overnment Leaders to
Astronauts 13 2
Reply to G reetings 13 3
G reetings from the Spacecraft 13 3
TASS Announcement. Constellation of Soyuz Spacecraft in Orbit 13 4
G reetings from the Spacecraft 13 6
TASS Announcement. Heroic Working Day in Outer Space 13 7
TASS Announcement. The First Welding in Outer Space 13 9
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-6 Crew Back on Earth 140
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-7 Lands Safely 142
TASS Announcement. G roup Flight Successfully Completed 144
TASS Announcement. The Last Circuits 145
To Scientists, Designers and Astronauts. .. 146
TASS Announcement. An Important Step in the Development
of Orbital Flight 147
Decrees for Awards to Astronauts 149
Press Conference in Moscow University 154
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-g in Orbit 167
Statement by the Commander of Soyuz-Q, Comrade
A.G . Nikolaev Before Launching (TASS) 169
TASS Announcement. J une 2 171
TASS Announcement. J une 3 172
TASS Announcement. J une 4 174
TASS Announcement. J une 5 175
TASS Announcement. J une 6 176
TASS Announcement. J une 7 177
TASS Announcement. J une 8 178
TASS Announcement. J une 9 179
TASS Announcement. J une i o 180
TASS Announcement. J une 11 181
TASS Announcement. J une 12 182
TASS Announcement. J une 13 182
TASS Announcement. J une 14 183
Radiogram from Spacecraft 184
TASS Announcement. J une 15 185
TASS Announcement. J une 16 186
TASS Announcement. J une 17 187
xii Contents
TASS Announcement. J une 18 188
TASS Announcement. Soyuz-g Successfully Completes Flight 189
Statement of the Soyuz-g Crew at the Landing Site 189
To Scientists, Designers and Astronauts. .. 190
TASS Announcement. New Step Toward Orbital Stations 191
Soyuz-g: Program Completed 193
Decrees for Awards to Astronauts 199
Press Conference in Moscow University 2 00
III. Lunar Explorations 2 11
Soviet Artificial Satellite of the Moon 2 13
TASS Announcement, ^ond-4 in Flight 2 19
TASS Announcement. Luna-i4 in Outer Space 2 2 0
TASS Announcement, ^ond-5 in Flight 2 2 0
TASS Announcement, ^ond-5 Flies Around Moon 2 2 1
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe orf-j Successfully
Returns to Earth at Planet-Escape Velocity After G oing
Around Moon 2 2 1
Automated Probe ^ond-5 Flies Around Moon and Returns
to Earth 2 2 2
Zpnd-5 Photographs 2 3 0
TASS Announcement ^ond-6 in Flight 2 3 2
TASS Announcement, ^ond-6 Flies Around Moon 2 3 2
TASS Announcement. Probe ^ond-6 Lands 2 3 3
From Moon to Earth 2 3 4
Next Stage of the Soviet Space Program (TASS) 2 3 7
How the Moon's Portrait was Taken 2 47
Zpnd-6 Photographs 2 51
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna-75 in Space 2 56
TASS Announcement. Soviet Automated Probe Luna-15 in a
Near-Moon Orbit 2 56
TASS Announcement. Luna-i5 Continues Flight in Lunar Orbit 2 57
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna-15 in New
Near-Moon Orbit 2 58
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna- 75 Completes
Flight 2 58
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe ^ond-j 2 59
TASS Announcement, ^ond-j Flies Past Moon 2 59
TASS Announcement. Probe ^ond-j Returns to Earth 2 60
Automated Probe Zond-y Photographs Moon and Earth (TASS) 2 61
TASS Announcement. Luna-i6in Flight 2 66
TASS Announcement. Luna-i6in Near-Moon Orbit 2 66
TASS Announcement. Soft Landing on Moon 2 67
Contents xiii
TASS Announcement. Start from Moon 2 68
TASS Announcement. Outer Space Rocket of Automated
Probe Luna-16 on its Way to Earth 2 69
TASS Announcement. Approaching Earth 2 70
TASS Announcement. Soft-Landing in a Predetermined Area
of the Soviet Union 2 70
TASS Announcement. Results of Automated Probe Luna-i6 2 71
To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR 2 73
To the Scientists and Designers. . . 2 73
Outstanding Soviet Achievement in Astronautics (TASS) 2 75
Press Conference Devoted to the Successful Flight of the
Automated Probe Luna-16 and Delivery of Lunar Soil to Earth 2 90
Awards for Success in Outer Space 3 03
TASS Announcement ^ond-8 in Flight 3 04
TASS Announcement, ^ond-8 Returns to Earth 3 05
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna-17 in Flight 3 05
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna- ij in Near-
Moon Orbit 3 06
TASS Announcement. For the First Time in History 3 06
TASS Announcement. Lunokhod Continues its Work 3 10
TASS Announcement. Lunokhod-i Continues to Carry Out
a Program of Scientific and Technical Investigations 3 10
TASS Announcement. Lunokhod-1 Continues its Work 3 12
TASS Announcement. Program for Lunar Day Completed 3 12
Lunokhod-1 Maintains Contact with Earth (TASS) 3 13
TASS Announcement. Lunokhod-1 Starts Program for Second
Lunar Day 3 14
9 Hours of Continuous Work by Lunokhod (TASS) 3 15
Lunokhod-1 Maneuvers (TASS) 3 16
. 2 53 Meters Southward (TASS) 3 16
82 5 Meters Covered (TASS) 3 17
102 2 Meters Covered (TASS) 3 18
Moving Southeast (TASS) 3 18
Another 3 3 7 Meters Covered (TASS) 3 19
Lunokhod-1 Selects Parking Site (TASS) 3 2 0
TASS Announcement. Soviet Lunokhod-1 Completes Program
for Second Day 3 2 1
Specific Features of Soviet Astronautics 3 2 2
IV. Exploration of Distant Planets 3 2 5
TASS Announcement. Automated Interplanetary Probe
Venera-5 in Flight 3 2 7
xiv Contents
TASS Announcement. Venera-6 will Conduct Scientific
Investigations Along with Venera-5 3 2 8
TASS Annoncement. Flight to Venus Continues 3 2 9
TASS Announcement. Flight to Venus Continues 3 3 0
TASS Announcement. Lenin's Bas-Relief on Venus 3 3 1
TASS Announcement. Outstanding Experiment Completed 3 3 2
To Scientists, Designers... 3 3 2
To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR 3 3 4
Important Step in Understanding the Universe 3 3 5
TASS Announcement. Interplanetary Route of Venera-" j 3 53
Questions to Venus 3 54
Venera-j Continues Flight (TASS) 3 57
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Venera-j Continues
Flight 3 58
TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Venera-j Completes
Flight 3 59
Questions About Venus 3 59
V. International Cooperation 3 65
For the Benefit of Mankind 3 67
Agreement Between the G overnment of the USSR and the
G overnment of France 3 68
Cooperation in Outer Space 3 70
Experiment in Outer Space (TASS) 3 71
Cooperation in the Peaceful Conquest of Outer Space (TASS) 3 72
Advancement of Space Meteorology (TASS) 3 73
USSR-France: Scientists' Collaboration (TASS) 3 74
Collaboration Between Socialist Countries in the Field of
Space Physics 3 75
J oint Exploration of Outer Space (TASS) 3 75
TASS Announcement. J oint Scientific Experiment 3 76
In Outer Space and on Earth 3 77
J oint Investigations (TASS) 3 79
Sky of Our Planet 3 79
Cooperation Strengthens (TASS) 3 80
Conference in Varna 3 81
TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-1 3 82
Experiments in 'Orbit of Friendship' 3 84
Interkosmos-1 Works in Orbit (TASS) 3 86
TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-2 3 86
Interkosmos-2 in Flight (TASS) 3 88
Collaboration in Space Exploration (TASS) 3 88
Contents xv
Collaboration in the Field of Space Meteorology (TASS) 3 89
Multiple G lobal Experiment (TASS) 3 90
TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-3 in Flight 3 90
Interfcosmos-3 Continues Flight (TASS) 3 91
Rocket of Peace 3 92
Interkosmos-3 Continues Flight (TASS) 3 93
TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-4 in Orbit 3 93
Interkosmos in Action 3 94
The Interkosmos " Swallow" 3 97
94 Circuits by a Satellite of Friendship (TASS) 3 99
About Soviet-American Tehnical Talks (TASS) 400
Cooperation in Exploration of Outer Space (TASS) 400
TASS Announcement. Launching of G eophysical Rocket
Vertikal-i 401
French Scientists Preparing for Experiment (TASS) 402
VI. Space Monitoring 403
New Experiment in Outer Space 405
2 Ooth Kosmos in Orbit 407
TASS Announcement. Proton-4 in Flight 412
Physicists' Laboratory in Outer Space (TASS) 412
Telescopes on Satellite 415
With Cosmic Velocities in the Atmosphere (TASS) 419
In the Ultralong Wave Band 419
TASS Announcement. Man-Made Constellation in Orbit 42 2
From the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of
Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR 42 3
VII. Satellite in the National Economy 42 5
Outer Space Weather Forecasting Service (TASS) 42 7
OrbitaCommunications Through Outer Space (TASS) 43 0
APPENDIX- i. Kosmos Series Satellite Launches 43 8
AppENDix-2 . Molniya-i Series Satellite Launches 443
AppENDix-3 . Meteor Series Satellite Launches 444
C O N Q U E S
O U T E R S
I N T H E
T O F
P A CE
U S S R
INTRODUCTION
COUNTRY OF THE SOVIETSSHORE OF THE UNIVERSE
Ten years have passed since the first Soviet artificial earth satellite declared
to the world a new era: the conquest by man of outer space. October 4,
1957 has become a red-letter day in the history of science and technology.
The satellite's success made the whole world sit up and take note of the
Soviet achievement.
This new achievement by the Soviet Union demonstrated the impressive
productive capacity, the economic strength and massive creative potential
of the socialist system arising out of the October Revolution, and the dramatic
progress of Soviet science and technology. In the theses of the Central Com-
mittee of the CPSU, devoted to the 5Oth anniversary of the G reat October
Revolution, it is stated that " the achievements of our science have found
their full expression in the investigation and conquest of outer space. Our
country has paved the way for its exploration, has launched the first artificial
earth satellite and accomplished the first manned flight in outer space. This is a
result of the labor, skill and selflessness of the Soviet scientists, engineers, tech-
nicians and workers, and the courage and heroism of our glorious astronauts."
Pravda received thousands of letters and telegrams during the first days
of the satellite in orbit. Soviet people were thrilled by the news that the
daring vision of conquering space had been realized. Sincere compliments
were also received from abroad. Todor Pavlov, President of the Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences wrote, " This development is a gigantic step toward
the opening of horizons which formerly had belonged to fantasy." The
launching of the earth's artificial satellite was " a great victory for man,
a turning point in the history of civilization," according to the leading
French scientist, Frederic J oliot-Curie.
Not only friends, but also those who could hardly be expected to have
any sympathy for the Soviet Union, were forced to acknowledge world
supremacy for Soviet science and technology. The New York Times stated:
" Even now it is clear that in the annals of history October 4, 1957 will
go down as a day of one of the greatest achievements of man."
Since then, the Soviet Union has been systematically achieving more
and more landmarks in the exploration of space: the first photographs of
the dark side of the moon, the first group flight of spaceships, the first woman-
astronaut, the first walk of man in open space, the first soft landing on the
moon, the first artificial satellite of the moon... In short, the Soviet Union
has done pioneering work in all the principal directions in the exploration
of the universe. This spectacular progress exemplifies the great advantages
and creative potentialities of the socialist system.
The Soviet Union, the first country in the world to penetrate outer space,
continues its victorious advance on all fronts of space exploration. Satellite
of the Kosmos series are sending more and more information about our planet
and about the physical conditions in near-earth outer space. The space
probe Venera-4 is moving steadily towards the earth's nearest neighbor in
space. A detachment of Soviet astronauts is getting ready for further achieve-
ments. The Soviet Union has in fact become, in the words of the great
scientist-designer of the first spacecraft, Academician Sergei Pavlovich
Korolev, " the shore of the universe" .
It is difficult to overestimate the great importance of space research for
different fields of human activity. It embraces and enhances the fields of
mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, metallurgy, automation,
electronics, instrument engineering, rocketry and other fields of technology.
At the same time this research enriches science with new data about the
physical conditions in outer space. It is giving birth to new scientific trends
and stimulating development in different fields of knowledge.
The conquest of space has also had considerable direct effect on scientific
and technical progress. The new technology, new instruments and outfits
created for the satellite, space probes and spaceships also find effective use
in the daily work of those enterprises which produce only " earthly" things.
Meteorological satellite help in making more correct weather forecasts for
longer periods which in turn play an important role in agriculture and
a number of other branches affecting the economy. The Molniya satellite
enable the direct transmission of telecasts, say, from Moscow to Vladivostok.
There is no doubt that the practical output and importance of space research
will continue to increase.
The Soviet Union has made many efforts towards achieving an inter-
national agreement on the exploration of outer space for the benefit of all
mankind, and the peaceful use of outer space, the moon and the planets.
An agreement, unanimously approved by the UN G eneral Assembly, en-
visages principles for the study and development of outer space, the moon
and other heavenly bodies by different countries. The concluding of this
agreement marks a step toward further cooperation and mutual understand-
ing between different countries and their peoples. It will help in the solution
of important international problems facing mankind on earth.
The 2 3 rd Congress of the CPSU has put before the Soviet space explorers
the challenge of continuing the space adventure in the interests of science
and progress. They can be expected to honestly fulfill their duty. Today,
on the auspicious occasion of the tenth anniversary of the space era, the
Soviet people wish them every success.
Pravda, October 4, 1967
THE SKY OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
by Academician B. Konstantinov
The role of science in the life of man increases daily. Our dependence on it and its
achievements raises the question of the popularization of science. The main results of
scientific studies must be disseminated even if only for the reason that they reflect the
outlook of the modern citizen and allow him to keep abreast of the latest thought. K.A.
Timiryazev has pointed out that " the chosen, those doing scientific work, must consider
the knowledge entrusted to them, as a treasure which belongs to the people." Our scien-
tists do, in fact, devote much attention to the popularization of science by writing books
and articles and delivering lectures.
However, in an article, no matter how long, it is impossible to
cover all the fields in modern science. An author can only select some
fragments from the wealth of scientific research which he considers to
be the most important and present them for the judgement of his
readers.
Today I would invite you to have a look at the sky and see what
the canopy of heaven looks like in the sixties of the twentieth century.
Let us view the latest discoveries in astronomy and ponder those
mysteries whose secrets science has yet to explain.
The inexhaustibility of the sun has always startled man's imagination.
Our luminary has been shining with an enviable steadiness for billions of
years. The energy radiated by the sun is enormousabout 100 thousand
kilowatts per square meter of the surface of the luminary: an entire electric
powerhouse on such a small area ! Where does this huge amount of energy
come from and what keeps this powerful radiation intact?
One of the most brilliant physicists of the last century, Lord Kelvin,
tried to answer these questions. At that time, it seemed that all natural
phenomena could be explained by the laws of mechanics, and naturally
enough Kelvin tried to solve the problem from this point of view. But it
turned out that the ordinary mechanical methods of regenerating energy
such as the heating up of the sun, say, because of the falling of large meteorites
or asteroids, or simply because of the slow condensation of the luminary
could not explain such a powerful, constant radiation. So the question
remained unanswered.
Our atomic age put forward the following hypothesis: thermonuclear
reactions are the source of the energy of the sun. In the case of the formation
of chemical compounds, for example, when oxygen and hydrogen combine,
energy is released when light nuclei combine to form heavier nuclei.
In the thirties, it was calculated that the sun can continue to shine with
the same intensity for a few billion years, thanks to the presence of large
quantities of hydrogen, four nuclei of which combine to form one nucleus
of helium.
Since then, uncontrolled thermonuclear reactions have been accomplished
on earth. One can hope that in the near future we shall be able to control
them and build thermonuclear power stations. But in the meantime the
nuclear nature of solar energy continues to be only a hypothesis. So far
there has been no decisive experimental proof that the sun is a gigantic
thermonuclear reactor.
Only the study of solar neutrinosneutral particles which, like photons,
do not have rest mass-could give us such a proof. They are always in motion
and highly elusive. In a solid the neutrino can travel over millions of billions
of kilometers without " knocking" a single atom. If thermonuclear reactions
are really going on in the sun, then a flux of neutrinos must also be generated
along with them. And although, according to theoretical estimates, about
60 billion neutrinos are falling on one square centimeter of the earth, it is
extraordinarily difficult to catch them. It can be done only by using very
large special detectors, having a volume of hundreds of cubic meters. One
interaction of a neutrino with a substancefor example, with an isotope
of chlorinetakes place in approximately an hour. During the interaction,
the chlorine nucleus is transformed into a radioactive nucleus, which is how
it is detected. Such equipment is located in deep mines, so that background
interactions do not disturb the location of the neutrinos' traces. During
the last ten years in our country as well as abroad, much attention has been
paid to the improvement of the methods of locating the neutrino. At present
a special neutrino laboratory is being set up in the USSR, which will be
situated under a thick layer of rocks in a mountain.
Development of neutrino astronomy opens quite interesting prospects.
It will help us to have a look deep into the universe and into the stars, and
find out what type of nuclear reactions are taking place there.
Recently an interesting report has come from the American scientist,
Davis. By measuring the flux of neutrinos, Davis found that it is less than
the theoretical expectation. On the basis of this scientist's data we can
conclude that the temperature in the central regions of the sun is not more
than 14 million degrees. Earlier it had been thought that it was 3 0 million
degrees. Further study will show just how correct is the data given by Davis.
But if it turns out that the temperature in the middle of the sun really is about
10 million degrees, then the astrophysicists will be back where they started,
for it would mean that thermonuclear reactions are not the source of solar
radiation. And once again, the same old mystery.
The problem of the sources of energy in the universe is the most burning
topic of the day. It suddenly arose with the sensational discovery of the
QSS heavenly bodiesthe so-called quasi-stellar sources. By telescope the
QSS look like feeble stars. But in fact their luminance is more than that
of an entire galaxy, which has a hundred billion stars. The reason being
that the QSS are situated at distances of billions of light years, i.e. at the
extreme end of the visible part of universe seen through the telescope.
It is startling how the intensity of luminance of a QSS changes within
a few months or even within a few days. It means that the QSS is one huge
body and not a group of millions of stars, since not all the stars would flicker
simultaneously.
What kind of a body is it? Where does the energy for such a powerful
radiation originate? Various hypotheses including the most fantastic have
been suggested. The latest theory that the astrophysicists are inclined to
believe, is that gravitational energy is the source of the radiation of the QSS.
We have got accustomed to thinking that nuclear energy is the most powerful.
Actually this is an illusion, probably born out of the shock of nuclear bomb
explosions. G ravitational energy can produce much greater power in the
universe.
The theory of relativity proves that if the mass of a star is just 2 0% more
than the mass of the sun, it can start condensing, and collapse into a
smaller size. During this process the gravitational field of the star increases
to such an extent that it does not emit either light or radio waves.
That is why collapsed and extinguished stars are known as " gravitational
graveyards" .
A QSS, whose mass is millions or maybe even billions of times more than
that of the sun, should also collapse and be extinguished. But instead it
gives light and shines with extraordinary brightness. According to the hypo-
thesis of Academician Ya.B. Zel'dovich, the QSS are collapsed super-
stars, which attract to themselves the passing radiation and particles of
matter. The gravitational force of the QSS is extraordinarily large and
they chasesay, a passing meteorto speeds close to that of light. Huge
amounts of energy may be4iberated in the case of such collisions. This energy
can reach us in the form of radio and optical waves.
Discovery of these startling new bodies in the universe, which go outside
the normal framework, is a great stimulus for the development of astronomy.
The main way for science to progress is to achieve experimental proof of
any theory. When an experiment is proved, theory inevitably moves forward,
and as a result, the general picture of the universe becomes clearer. The
last decade has shown this. QSS is not the only mysterious object discovered
during the last decade. J ust some months ago, a report from Britain talked
about the discovery of pulsating stars, a peculiar kind of heavenly clock.
The first pulsator discovered gave a flash every 1.3 seconds. Many more
are known to exist. Another flickers every 0.2 5 seconds. It is a wonderful
phenomenon. Radio signals follow after such short intervals with an intensity
that exceeds anything imaginable on earth. The radiation power of the
first pulsator, located in our galaxy at a distance of about 10 thousand
light years, is only a million times less than all the radiation of the sun.
But if we take the " instantaneous power" of the radiation of the pulsator
(a flash lasts for less than a thousandth of a second), then it is much more
than the power of the sun.
At first scientists wondered if these signals could be messages from some
extraterrestrial civilization, but they were repeated in different tones and
contained no understandable information. It is still not clear how to decipher
this mystery of the heavens. There is no scarcity of hypotheses, but not one
of them can explain all the phenomena going on in a pulsator.
However, this does not prevent us from making practical use of the
pulsators. It was found out that the accuracy with which the signals follow
these equisignal beacons is greater than that of an ordinary astronomical
clock and inferior only to an atomic clock. The periodicity of signals is
exact to a ten millionth of a second. It is possible that the navigators of
spaceships will correct their watches with the help of the' pulsators.
We are living in an epoch when the heavens have seemingly come closer
to us. The fact that an object which is situated at a distance often thousand
light years can be used as an equisignal beacon, would have appeared to
be sensational a few years ago, but today it.is an ordinary discovery.
Such achievements as the soft landing on the moon and entry into the
atmosphere of Venus, are making us, maybe, complacent. Now probably
only the direct investigation of heavenly bodies can completely startle us
and stir the imagination of the people. These investigations are of extreme
importance for science also.
The historic flight of the space probe Venera-4 gave to astronomers more
information about Venus than all the earlier investigations combined.
The landing vehicle transmitted signals from the atmosphere of the planet
for 93 minutes. Before this practically nothing authentic was known. In-
formation was received about the temperature, pressure and density of
the Venusian atmosphere at different heights. Most important, an analysis
of the chemical composition of the atmosphere of this mysterious planet
was carried out. It was found that it consists almost entirely of carbon
dioxide. In this respect, Venus is not fit for animals, although it is quite
good for plants.
An analysis of the data on the Venusian atmosphere shows that the electro-
magnetic waves, including light waves, must undergo a strong refraction.
A ray of light, for example, may jump from the surface to the atmosphere
like a tennis ball and bounce back. In this way it can go round the entire
planet, though of course, it is not all completely reflected and so becomes
greatly weakened. To an astronaut standing on an absolutely level surface,
it would appearbecause of this phenomenonas if the surface is curved
and that he is standing at the bottom of a gigantic bowl. Because of strong
refraction, an intensive heat exchange takes place between the different
zones of the planet. Consequently, there is no big difference between the
equatorial and polar temperatures, as we have on earth, where the difference
reaches up to 100 degrees. The absence of temperature differences on the
surface of Venus must lead also to the absence of winds, at least in the lower
layers of the Venusian atmosphere.
The flight of Venera-4 has shown that the temperature and pressure in
the lower layers of the atmosphere are very high and approach 2 70 degrees
and 2 0 atmospheres respectively. For organic life, 2 70 degrees is decidedly
hot. Obviously the forms of life which have developed on earth, do not
exist on Venus.
Rocket astronomy is still very young, but as you can see, it has already
made discoveries of unusual importance. At the same time, no matter how
attractive the direct investigations of the solar system planets, no less impor-
tant are the investigations of the further depths of space with the help of
rocket technology. The atmosphere of the earth, like a protective mother,
saves us from many harmful cosmic radiations, but she also obstructs scien-
tific research. Taking instruments beyond the limits of the atmosphere
enables us to see a more complete picture of the sky. The atmosphere allows
entry only to visible light and some radio waves, while gamma-rays, ul-
traviolet and infra-red radiations remain in their original form only in
outer space. There instead of our accustomed gray picture, we suddenly
8
see the whole panorama of the sky, shining with all the colors of the rainbow.
Each " color" carries with it some new information about the structure of
the universe, and the processes going on t here....
The results of extra-atmospheric astronomy, which the scientists hope
to get in the near future, may radically change our views regarding the
origin and evolution of the world.
One of the most wonderful discoveries of recent years is indirectly con-
nected with the development of space technology. American radio-physicists,
while working out the satellite communication system on 7.3 cm bands,
discovered some noise disturbances which they could not eliminate. It
turned out that it was outer space making the noise !
All heated bodies, including yours and mine, emit electromagnetic waves.
One square centimeter of the human body emits an amount of heat which
is only five times less than the heat received by one square centimeter of the
earth's surface from the sun. This invisible emission is in the form of electro-
magnetic waves. And thus, when we turn radio telescopes towards any
part of the sky, we can catch electromagnetic radiation which corresponds
exactly to heat radiation of a temperature of 3 K. (Zero of Kelvin's Absolute
Scale corresponds to minus 2 73 C.) The so-called " empty space" of the
universe is in fact full of it.
This discovery evoked great interest among the astrophysicists, since
it throws light on the origins of the world of the stars. The question as to
which element the universe was born inwhether ice or firehas been
disputed for a long time. Now it seems the fire-worshippers were
right!
At present we observe a picture of an ever-expanding universe, i.e. all
the galaxies are moving away from us. If we reverse the process, we find
that approximately 12 billion years ago, the part of the universe we observe
in our telescopes was a coagulum of superdense substance. According
to the fire theory of the universe, originally the temperature of matter was
extremely high. At the same time, the density of radiation was billions of
times more than the density of particles of the matter. As the fireball ex-
panded, this radiation could not disappear and the wavelengths of radiations
should have increased, as if they were getting stretched. By this time, these
" relic radiations" must have turned into short and ultraviolet radio waves.
It was precisely these waves that were discovered.
Further investigations within the framework of the fire theory of the
universe will enable us to open many secrets about its evolution,
the origin of stars and galaxies and the formation of chemical elements.
In particular, it follows from this theory that at the early stages of
development of the universe, matter and antimatter were equal. And the
fact that our world is made of ordinary matter, is not a chance
happening.
Let me remind you, what is meant by antimatter. In its atoms all the
particles are replaced by antiparticles, i.e. they possess opposite characteris-
tics. If, say, a particle is positive, the antiparticle would be negative. When
they combine, they are destroyed or, to use the language of physics, they
are annihilated and are converted into neutrinos and quanta of electro-
magnetic radiation. J ust half a gram of antimatter, when combined with
matter, would give as much energy as the explosion of the atom bomb
over Hiroshima. Possibly there are 'antigalaxies' or even 'antistars' in our
galaxy, though we don't know yet. It is possible that, say, the well-known
nebula Andromeda and the bright star Vega are antiworlds. Howsoever
absurd this idea may appear to be, we cannot reject it as unscientific, for
the time being.
Contemporary astrophysics possesses a rich store of material for the
experimental verification of theoretical conclusions and giving us accurate
facts. We must get accustomed to the idea that such facts may, in many
respects, differ from the usual, settled concepts. Since astrophysics touches
upon basic problems of man's outlook, its data can be interpreted in different
ways by different philosophical schools. For example, clergymen interpret
the theory of expansion of the universe for their own purposes. Since the
universe, they say, is expanding from one point, it means that an " act of
creation" took place and that the creater is, of course, G od. One cannot
take such " interpretations" seriously.
Nature is cognizable, and science will gradually find out her secrets.
At present we do not know what kind of matter was in the superdense form,
nor do we know the story of the universe before that. Nor, again do we
know what will happen to our world in the future. Maybe it will scatter,
or maybe it will collapse into one point. These are the problems that scien-
tists are working on.
Maybe elementary-particle physicsthe science investigating the finest
" bricks of the universe" will give answers to many questions. This is natural,
since the main task of elementary-particle physics and astrophysics is to
find out how nature is organized. Sometimes the studies of the macroworld
and the microworld come very close.
I shall not talk of elementary-particle physics in detail, since it is a separate
topic. I shall mention only one interesting hypothesisyet to be confirmed
which is being discussed at present. Academician M.A. Markov has, on
the basis of some general considerations, predicted the existence of very
heavy particles at the early stage of evolution of the universe. He calls them
maximons, i.e. particles having maximum mass. Remember the stars which
collapsed almost into a point. Now scientists are trying to show that these
two are the same, that a star and a particle are identical! It is difficult to
believe it. But such a possibility is being discussed. I think the investigations
in this direction will not be fruitless.
As you can see, quite " strange" things take place in our sky. Finally I
would like to repeat the beautiful words of the materialist writer Anatole
France: " The heavens, which were thought to be immovable, have nothing
eternal except perpetual change."
Izvcstiya, September 4, 1968
I I
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T. -..
I
AUTOMATIC DOCKING OF SOVIET SATELLITE
Page Intentionally Left Blank
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
KOSMOS-i86 IN ORBIT
On October 2 7, 1967, at 12 3 0 hours Moscow time, Kosmos-i86 in the
series of artificial earth satellite was launched from the Soviet Union.
The satellite carried on board special scientific equipment for the further
investigation of outer space and for the perfecting of new systems and units
in spacecraft design, according to the schedule announced by TASS on
March 16, 1962 .
The satellite's orbit had the following parameters:
initial orbital period 88.7mi n;
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) 2 3 5 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 2 09 km;
orbital inclination 5i.7deg.
Besides special scientific equipment, the satellite had on board: a radio
transmitter, working at a frequency of 2 0.008 megahertz; a radio network
for the exact measurement of orbital elements; a radiotelemetric system
for transmitting information on the working of the instruments and scientific
equipment.
The equipment installed on the satellite functioned normally. The coordi-
nation and computation center is processing the information received.
Pravda, October 2 9, 1967
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE WORLD-
AUTOMATIC DOCKING IN ORBIT
Two satellite in joint flight
On October 3 0, 1967, a second artificial earth satellite, Kosmos-i88, was
launched by the Soviet Union for further investigations of outer space in
company with Kosmos-i86 for the perfecting of new systems and units in
spacecraft design according to the schedule announced by TASS on March
16, 1962 .
The satellite's orbit had the following parameters:
initial orbital period 88.97 min;
maximum distance from the
earth (at apogee) - 2 76 km;
minimum distance from the
earth (at perigee) 2 00 km;
orbital inclination 5i .68deg.
At 12 2 0 hours Moscow time, for the first time in the world, automatic
docking took place between Kosmos-i88and Kosmos-i86, which was launched
on October 2 7, 1967.
After the ascent of Kosmos-i88, both satellite, equipped with special
systems for orbital rendezvous and docking, carried out a number of complex
maneuvers in space.
The mutual search, rendezvous and " mooring" were all carried out
automatically and the two satellite were firmly docked. All these processes
were carried out with the help of special radio and technical means and
computers aboard the satellite.
Radio and television devices and telemetric systems aboard the satellite
transmitted a telecast of the docking and telemetric information to the
network on earth.
The docked satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 are continuing their
joint flight in orbit. According to the telemetric information, all the systems
and equipment on board are functioning normally.
Soviet scientists, designers and engineers have solved the most complicated
scientific and technical problems to make automatic orbital docking of
spacecraft possible. This achievement opens new perspectives for the cons-
truction of large scientific space stations, capable of carrying out intensive
and complex investigations of outer space and the planets.
The realization of automatic docking in orbit of two artificial earth satellite
is another great success for Soviet science and technology on the eve of the
5Oth anniversary of the glorious G reat October Revolution.
16
All systems working exactly as scheduled
On October 3 0, 1967, the docked satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88
continued their joint flight for 3 hours 3 0 minutes, completing the schedule
of scientific and technical investigations.
The automatic uncoupling of the satellite took place on October 3 0,
at 1550 hours Moscow time on receipt of signals from the earth.
The process of uncoupling Kosmos-i86 and Kosmo$-i88 was transmitted to
the earth through television and other systems.
Some time after uncoupling, the two satellite were put into different
orbits with the help of the propulsion systems on board.
All the systems which carried out the uncoupling and maneuvering process
worked normally.
Kosmos-r86a.nd Kosmos-i88, after the successful completion of the program
of automatic detection, rendezvous, docking and uncoupling in orbit, conti-
nued their separate flights for further exploration of space.
Pravda, October 3 1, 1967
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
KOSMOS-i86 SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETES FLIG HT
On October 3 1, 1967, Kosmos-i86, on receiving a signal from earth,
completed its flight in outer space on its 65th circuit. At 112 0 hours Moscow
time it made a soft landing in a predetermined area. The scientific assign-
ment, envisaged by the flight program of Kosmos-i86, the automatic docking
of two satellite, had been fully accomplished.
During all the stages of detection, rendezvous and docking and also
during uncoupling and landing, all the modified systems on board Kosmos-
186, for solving new problems of astronautics, functioned highly satisfactorily.
The second satellite, Kosmos-i88, after uncoupling, continued to carry
out the space exploration program.
Pravda, November I, 1967
KOSMOS-i88 STILL IN ORBIT
Kosmos-i88 after carrying out the first automatic orbital docking and
uncoupling with Kosmos-i86, continues in orbit.
During this flight, further study of the orientation and motion control
systems and the various power plants and radio complex are being carried
out.
Kosmos-i88 carried out orientation and maneuvers in outer space on
receiving signals from earth. All its systems are functioning normally.
The satellite Kosmos-i88 is carrying out the scheduled program and
the coordination and computation center is processing the information
received.
(TASS)
Pravda, November 2 , 1967
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
A G REAT EXPERIMENT IN SPACE COMPLETED
An important program of experimental investigations with the help
of specially equipped artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88
was completed on November 2 , 1967.
The main aim of this experiment was to carry out the automatic docking
of two artificial earth satellite and confirm in outer space scientific ideas
and design details.
The program of the experimental investigations envisaged: launching
the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 into orbit and its independent flight
for three days; launching of a second satellite Kosmos-i88 into an orbit
nearby; rendezvous of the two satellite, automatic docking, joint flight
of the coupled complex in orbit, and finally automatic uncoupling of
the satellite.
During the flight of the " active" satellite Kosmos-i86 from October 2 7
to October 3 0, all its systems on board were tested and made ready for the
main task of orbital docking.
Kosmos-i86 carried out all the planned maneuvers in space. All the
systems of the satellite, including the computers, functioned normally.
On October 3 0, Kosmos-i88 was launched into orbit for automatic docking
with Kosmos-i86.
As the deciphering of telemetric measurements and the study of telecasts
have shown, the radio capture of the " passive" satellite Kosmos-i88 took
place according to program. Kosmos-i86 maneuvering in outer space with
the help of a special propulsion system and making use of the necessary
radio network, approached Kosmos-i88 within a distance of 3 00 meters.
As a result of the maneuvers, both satellite were situated in orbits of similar
parameters, which enabled the docking to be carried out. The processes
of " mooring" and automatic docking were carried out precisely according
to the programming of the computer. The rendezvous at a distance of less
18
than 3 00 meters was carried out with the help of low thrust propulsion
systems.
The whole complex of radio equipment, computers and automatic systems
of both satellite functioned perfectly throughout the whole operation of
flight, rendezvous, docking and uncoupling.
The orbital experiments of the " passive" satellite, Kosmos-i88 continued
for two days after the uncoupling and the recovery of Kosmos-i86on earth.
During this period Kosmos-i88 maneuvered in orbit and the efficiency of
all its systems under different flight conditions was checked. Kosmos-i88
was recovered on earth after the completion of its flight program.
The results of the experiment confirmed the correctness of the scientific
ideas and design details, enabling the carrying out of the automatic orbital
docking.
This experiment in space marked another scientific and technical achieve-
ment in the development of Soviet science and opens new horizons in the
construction of big scientific space stations. The present level of technological
progress has shown that the automatic assembling of spacecraft can be carried
out in orbit without the participation of man.
The successful solution by Soviet scientists, designers and engineers, of
one of the most complicated problems of astronautics brightens the prospect
for the creation and equipping of scientific space stations, which would
ensure further development of rocket and space technology.
The automatic docking of two artificial earth satellite is a great new
achievement of the Soviet people in the conquest of outer space.
Pravda, November 3 , 1967
NEW CHAPTER IN THE CONQUEST OF SPACE
Successful accomplishment of automatic orbital
docking of spacecraft
On October 3 0, 1967, on the eve of the 5Oth anniversary of the G reat
October Revolution, another outstanding space achievement has been ac-
complished by the Soviet Union. For the first time in the history of astronau-
tics, an unmanned automatic docking of the artificial earth satellite Kos-
mos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 was carried out in orbit. This experiment was an
outstanding Soviet victory in the conquest of outer space and a new chapter
in the development of space technology.
It is well known that the launching of a payload into orbit round the
earth requires a considerable amount of energy. Orbital launching of one
'9
kilogram load of an artificial earth satellite needs about 50 kilograms of
the initial weight of the carrier rocket. Thus, for carrying out the flight of a
manned spacecraft with an astronaut for a few days, the carrier must initially
weigh a few hundred tons. Manned flight to the planets of the solar system is
still more complicated in its energy aspect. This needs the launching of a
few hundred tons payload into earth's orbit, while the initial weight would
increase up to a few thousand tons. Such carrier rockets, being unique in
their design, need a lengthy and complicated processing on the earth as
well as during flight.
Massive interplanetary stations, which can exist for long periods of time,
are required for the exploration of outer space and the solution of a number
of scientific problems, astronomical investigations and prolonged medico-
biological experiments. These stations can be assembled from separate parts
which are launched into orbit by comparatively lighter carriers.
Thus orbital docking of spacecraft solves a most important astronomical
problem. The docking can be carried out entirely automatically or with the
participation of man. Although the participation of an astronaut makes the
job easier, in a number of cases automatic docking is essential and it has in
fact many advantages. The extended functioning of the future space station
will involve continuous supply of fuel stocks and replacement of equipment
and personnel.
The automatic orbital docking of spacecraft is the best solution for all
these requirements. The execution of the docking operation by man greatly
complicates the astronaut's work at the control of the spacecraft. The presence
of a man on board requires an increase in the weight of the whole spacecraft,
since the living conditions and safety of the astronaut have to be ensured.
Also, the recovery and relief of the crew has to be ensured. This leads to a
decrease in the payload intended for scientific apparatus. Automatization of
the processes of rendezvous and docking is imperative for the solution of future
problems in the conquest of outer space and is a pressing need today.
The task of automatic orbital coupling of objects, moving at a velocity of
about 8 kilometers per second, poses great technical difficulties. J ust before
docking, the spacecraft have to be put into orbits lying in the same plane
and having extremely close parameters. Also, it is essential that the relative
velocities during the rendezvous should be small, decreasing to a few tens of
centimeters per second, at the end of the process, so that the craft couple
without collision. The craft must approach each other in particular posi-
tions, namely, their docking units must face each other.
For automatic orbital docking careful designing and highly developed
radio control systems are required. The apparatus must locate the other
satellite and establish particular relative velocities and distances. On the
basis of this data the command for mutual orientation has to be worked out.
In this process of closing up, one of the craft has to be " active" . It performs
2 0
the processes of searching, detection, closing up and rendezvous. The other
craft is " passive" (Fig. i). It simply orients itself in space in a particular way
at the time of docking and serves as a beacon for the " active" spacecraft.
'Kosmos-186"
Trajectory of launch
ito orbit
Kosmos-188"
Orbit of the satellite-'
"Kosmos-188"
Orbit of the satellite
"Kosmos-186"
Fig. 1. Launching of "passive" satellite
into the zone of automatic docking.
When the two satellite are only a few hundred meters apart-the most
important and complicated stage of the work of their guiding apparatus
begins. The satellite slowly move toward each other's docking unit (Fig. 2 )
and mechanical coupling takes place. This leads to a collision-proof firm
docking between the bodies of the two spacecraft and the connection of
electrical circuits. This is completed with a steady mechanical coupling at
the touching units and at the surfaces. Thus after docking, the two satellite
should become a single unit and should carry out the flight as a single com-
plex with the same functional tasks.
Completely automatic docking offers additional difficulties in its execution.
Specialized radio equipment and computers have to be worked out which
function as an automatic pilot. The development of such systems even on
the earth is very complicated, not to speak of conditions in outer space.
Soviet scientists and designers carried out prolonged investigations for the
building of new electronic systems and components for rendezvous and
docking. In fact most of the work was done on the earth.
2 1
Fig. 2. Automatic satellite Kosmos-186 and
Kosmos-188 at the final stage of rendezvous.
1. Docking components; 2. Search antenna and self-guide:
3. Solar batteries; 4. Radio complex antenna.
The automatic experimental satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 were
intended for the testing of scientific ideas and constructional details.
The following special equipment was put on board both the docking
satellite, Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88:
apparatus for the orientation system and automatic motion control;
recoverable power plant for orbit correction and rendezvous;
low thrust engines for orientation and " mooring" at the time of docking;
apparatus for docking control and the docking units.
After the launching of both satellite into orbit, the mutual search was
carried out by the guiding radio system, which measured the following
parameters of relative motion of the satellite:
distance between them;
rate of change of this distance;
angular velocity of the sightline, joining the centers of mass of the two
satellite;
angles between the sightline and the space vehicle axes.
The satellite orientation and motion control systems automatically turned
the spacecraft about the sightline by switching on or off different power
plants in such a way that the sightline shifts parallel to itself in space, while
the relative velocity of the satellite changes according to a specially selected
guidance law. The guidance law and the order in which the satellite turn,
2 2
were selected in such a way that a definite closing up of the satellite from a
definite distance takes place with the minimum expenditure of fuel.
The power plant for rendezvous and correction works up to a distance of
3 00 meters. They are brought still closer by low-thrust engines. This assures
a small relative velocity -of the order of o.i to 0.5 meters per second and
consequently, a collision-proof docking.
For the purpose of docking, one of the satellite has an active type of dock-
ing unit, i.e. a bar, while the other has a passive type of docking unit, i.e. a
cone. The docking cone with a hollow is the target where the bar enters
at the final stage of the satellite rendezvous.
Kosmos-i86, launched into orbit on October 2 7, 1967, was " active" . For
the first three days of the orbital flight, all the systems on board, the power
plant and the maneuvering capacity were checked. During flight, orbital
corrections were made. On October 2 9, the orbit was corrected, so that
on October 3 0 it would pass over the launching point. On October 3 0, at
a precisely fixed moment, Kosmos-i88 was launched into orbit. The launch-
ing of Kosmos-i88 with certain deviation in coordinates and relative velocity
was permissible. The relative shift of the two satellite from now on would
be determined completely automatically. They were to locate each other
in space, approach and dock. All the main operations for docking were
done outside the visual range of Soviet Union territory. Before docking,
Kosmos-186 had the following parameters:
orbital period 88.64
minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) 180 km;
maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) 2 60 km;
inclination 5 1 .68 deg.
When launched Kosmos-i88 had the following parameters:
orbital period 88.97 min;
minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) 2 00 km;
maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) 2 76 km;
inclination 51.68 deg.
At the time of the second launching into orbit, the distance between the
two satellite was about 2 4 kilometers, and their relative velocity was about 2 5
meters per second (i.e. 90 kilometers per hour). The process of detection,
rendezvous and docking, as well as the parameters of relative motion of the
satellite, were registered by the telemetric system and recorded in the data-
storage device in areas outside the zone of radiovisibility. At the end of the
first stage of flight after the docking, i.e. at the 4Qth circuit of the satellite
Kosmos-i86 and at the first circuit of /Cosmos- 1 88, when the satellite entered
the Soviet zone of visibility the whole process of docking was recorded on
the basis of telemetric data. The docked satellite were telecasted to the earth.
The docked complex continued its flight for 3 .5 hours, during which period
23
a checking of the systems and electric network on board the satellite was
carried out.
At 1550 hours Moscow time, a signal to uncouple was given. The process
of uncoupling was observed by TV at observation posts. After the signal
one could see the clear and smooth process of uncoupling and separation of
the satellite, which was followed by a gradual increase of distance between
them. Kosmos-i86, after completing its exploration program, soft landed
in a predetermined area. Kosmos-188 continues in orbit, carrying out further
investigations according to its flight plan.
The results of the experiment have fully confirmed the correctness of the
scientific ideas and constructional details underlying the successful automatic
docking.
The automatic orbital docking of earth satellite opens new perspectives
for the creation of sophisticated systems in outer space and multipurpose
automatic space stations for the exploration of outer space and for inter-
planetary flights. It is the greatest achievement in the development of space
technology.
The scientists, designers and workers have dedicated this outstanding
Soviet achievement in the field of space research to the 5Oth anniversary of
the G reat October Socialist Revolution.
Pravda, November I, 1967
To
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU,
THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR,
AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR.
We, the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who
took part in the building and launching of the two artificial earth satellite,
Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 report to the Central Committee of the CPSU,
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers,
USSR, of the successful accomplishment of automatic orbital docking and
uncoupling of two spacecraft for the first time in the world.
We, with all the Soviet people, are happy that this new, outstanding
contribution of our socialist motherland to the cause of outer space explora-
tion has come on the eve of the 5Oth anniversary of the G reat October Revo-
lution. The grand success of Soviet science and technology in the conquest
of outer space was made possible by the socialist system, the heroic labor of
all the Soviet people and the tireless care and attention of the Communist
Party and the Soviet G overnment.
We dedicate this new achievement of Soviet science and technology to
the 5Oth anniversary of the Soviet system.
2 4
We assure the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, that we shall continue
to work in the future also towards the solution of the problems involved
in the further peaceful conquest of outer space and shall work hard and
selflessly in the name of a bright future, namely, communism!
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers,
all the collectives and organizations which took part in the
creation of the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and
Kosmos-i88 and in the accomplishment of the outstanding
scientific and technical experiment
Dear Comrades!
The Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, heartily congratulate
the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians, workers and all collectives
and organizations, which took part in the building, testing and launching
of the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88.
This is a new outstanding victory for our Soviet motherland in the peaceful
conquest of outer space.
The accomplishment of the first automatic orbital docking and uncoupling
of artificial earth satellite is a fitting gift for the Soviet motherland on the
eve of the 5Oth anniversary of the G reat October Revolution.
The new victory in the conquest of outer space, as also the successful
flight of the space probe Venera-4, speaks much of the impressive develop-
ment of Soviet science and technology. All progressive people are aware
of the great achievements of our nation during the years of Soviet power.
These achievements are a result of the selfless labor of the Soviet people,
who have transformed our motherland into a major power which is playing a
leading role in the progress of the world, within a short historical period.
The Soviet people warmly greet the glorious scientists, designers, engineers,
technicians and workers, who have created the remarkable artificial satel-
lite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 and have accomplished an unmatched
experiment in outer space.
Dear comrades, we wish you further success in the noble cause of peaceful
conquest of outer space and in fulfilling the tasks put forward by the 2 3 rd
Congress of the CPSU.
Central Committee of the CPSU
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Council of Ministers, USSR
Pravda, November i, 1967
2 5
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
KOSMOS-2 I2 IN ORBIT
On April 14, 1968, at 13 00 hours Moscow time, another artificial earth
satellite, Kosmos-sis, was launched from the Soviet Union.
The satellite has scientific apparatus on board for the further exploration
of outer space and for the perfecting of new systems and design elements for
spacecraft in accordance with the schedule announced by TASS on March
16, 1962 .
The satellite was launched into orbit with the following parameters:
orbital period 88.75min;
maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) 2 3 9 km;
minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) 2 10 km;
inclination 51.7 deg.
Besides the special scientific apparatus, the satellite had on board a radio
transmitter working at a frequency of 2 0.008 megahertz, a radio unit for the
exact measurement of orbital elements, a radiotelemetric system for transmit-
ting data to the earth about the functioning of instruments and scientific
and technical apparatus.
The apparatus on board the satellite functioned normally. The coordi-
nation and computation center is processing the information received.
Pravda, April 15, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SECOND AUTOMATIC ORBITAL DOCKING
On April 15, 1968, another artificial earth satellite, Kosmos-si^ was launch-
ed from Soviet Union for conducting investigations of outer space and
for testing new systems and elements in the design of spacecraft in accor-
dance with the schedule announced by TASS on March 16, 1962 .
The satellite in orbit had the following parameters:
orbital period 89.16 min;
maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) 2 91 km;
minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) 2 05 km;
inclination -51.4 deg.
On April 14, 1968, at 13 2 1 hours Moscow time, the automatic orbital
docking of Kosmos-si^ with Kosmos-sis took place.
Kosmos-2 12 and ICosmos-sij, equipped with special systems and radio
devices and computers, carried out mutual detection, rendezvous, and
" mooring" and firmly docked with each other.
A telecast of the docked spacecraft as well as telemetric information
26
was transmitted to earth by the television and telemetric devices on board.
The firmly docked Kosmos-2 i2 and Kosmos-sig satellite are continuing
their joint flight in orbit. According to the data transmitted by the tele-
metric system, the apparatus and systems on board the satellite are function-
ing normally.
This is the second automatic orbital docking of Soviet spacecraft. Auto-
matic decking has great importance in the exploration of outer space.
On April 15, 1968, the artificial satellite Kosmos-2 i2 and
continued t) orbit docked together for 3 hours 50 minutes.
The testing of new systems and scientific and technical investigations
were carried out during the joint flight.
On April 15, 1968, at 1711 hours Moscow time, the automatic uncoupling
of the artificial satellite took place.
The television systems on board transmitted to the earth a telecast of the
uncoupling process.
Soon after the uncoupling, Kosmos-zis and Kosmos-sig were transferred
to separate orbits.
All the systems involved in the uncoupling and maneuvering of the satel-
lite functioned normally.
The satellite Kosmos-srs and Kosmos-2 i3 continue their flight and the
exploration of outer space.
Pravda, April 16, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
PROG RAM COMPLETED
An extensive program of experimental investigations, carried out by the
artificial earth satellite Kosmos-2 i2 and Kosmos-si^ was completed on April
2 0, 1968.
The main task of this program was to perfect an improved system of motion
control and design details of the spacecraft for their automatic orbital dock-
ing. The program also included the scientific exploration of outer space.
As has already been reported, the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-2 i2 was
launched into orbit on April 14, 1968. During its flight, all the systems on
board were made ready for the automatic docking.
On April 14, 1968, at 1910 hours Moscow time, a correction of the
Kosmos-2 i2 orbit was made, so that it should pass directly over the launch-
ing point of the Kosmos-2 i3 satellite.
On April 15, 1968, Kosmos-2 i3 was launched into orbit. Kosmos-siz
2?
approached its launching point. The satellite Kosmos-2 i2 and Kosmos-sig on
receiving signals from the computer and automatic control devices on board,
carried out mutual search, rendezvous and " mooring" . Firm mechanical
and electrical docking was achieved.
The satellite continued their coupled flight for 3 hours 50 minutes to
fulfill a program of scientific investigations. During this period both satellite
worked as a single research unit. On April 15, 1968, at 1711 hours Moscow
time, on receiving a signal from the earth, the automatic uncoupling of the
satellite Kosmos-zis and Kosmos-sig took place.
After the uncoupling, the satellite were transferred to separate orbits
to continue their flight programs.
TV cameras, set on the outer surface of Kosmos-2 12 , transmitted to earth
a telecast of the docked spacecraft and the uncoupling operation.
During the next few days of flight the working of the systems of satellite
was checked up, and the correction of orbits and maneuvers in outer space
were carried out.
The complex testing of the radio network, orientation and motion control
systems as well as the propulsion systems was carried out during the flight.
Throughout the flight these systems on both Kosmos-2 i2 and Kosmos-2 i3
functioned normally.
After completion of the scheduled program of experimental investigations,
Kosmos-2 i2 and Kosmos-2 i3 , on signals from earth, were returned to the
ground in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union on April 19 and
2 0 respectively.
The whole complex of operations, including the automatic docking,
carried out by Kosmos-ziz and Kosmos-zi^, confirmed the possibility of
building orbital stations and interplanetary spaceships.
Pravda, April ar, 1968
AUTOMATIC DOCKING OF SATELLITE
KOSMOS-2 12 AND KOSMOS-2 I3
The selfless labor of the Soviet scientists, engineers, technicians and workers,
inspired by the grand perspectives of communism, has once again been
crowned with success. The satellite Kosmos-2 i2 and Kosmos-2 i3 have accomp-
lished automatic docking in a near-earth orbit.
The problem of rendezvous, docking and assembly of spacecraft in outer
space is one of the most important for the study and further conquest of
outer space.
There are two possible ways of accomplishing the flight of man to the
planets of our solar system. According to one, a spaceship, assembled on
28
earth, is launched into an interplanetary trajectory with the help of a power-
ful carrier-rocket. The other method is to assemble the spaceship directly
in outer space in a near-earth orbit by docking and then guiding it on the
interplanetary track.
The launching of spacecraft from the earth makes it essential either to
limit their size or to create extremely powerful carrier-rockets. Assembly of
craft in outer space under conditions of weightlessness enables the avoidance
of unnecessary load of the construction, and the most suitable types can be
built. What is true of the assembly of spacecraft in orbit is also true of the
assembly of large orbital scientific stations for carrying out a wide range
of scientific investigations in outer space.
The orbital scientific stations of the future will be large spacecraft, with
research facilities for scientists for long periods of work in outer space in
comfortable conditions. The crew of these stations would have to be replaced
periodically. For their replacement it is desirable to utilize special space-
craft which would start from the earth and dock with the scientific station.
The necessities for living, rocket fuel and scientific equipment would also
be similarly delivered to the station.
Orbital stations can also function as a kind of dock for receiving and
repairing spacecraft, after their return from flights. These stations can be
made bases for assembling parts brought from the earth for constructing
spacecraft for long distance interplanetary flights.
The method of automatic assembling of craft and stations in orbit will
become essential for scientific expeditions to the planets of the solar system
and for the direct exploration of these planets with automated spacecraft.
For such expeditions it would be advisable to detach the planet ship from
the main spacecraft in an orbit as an artificial planet satellite. The explorers
can land on the planet in the planet craft. After completion of the work
the craft with explorers starts from the planet, approaches and docks with the
main spacecraft waiting in a near-planet orbit. This way, it is not necessary
for the main craft to land on the planet, which enables a considerable reduc-
tion in its weight.
For the study of the planets with automated spacecraft this method of
docking enables the carrying of scientific material directly from the planet
to the main spacecraft, which would deliver it to the earth.
It is necessary for helping astronauts who happen to be involved in an
accident to perfect the methods of unmanned rendezvous and docking of
spacecraft.
For example, let us suppose that the devices or the retrorocket for returning
a spacecraft to the earth fail and it is not possible to return. A rescue craft
must be sent to the craft in trouble, which would approach and then dock
and take its crew back to earth.
In such cases an automatic docking of the rescue craft with the wrecked
2 9
one is the most suitable, and it would not be necessary to send a special
rescue crew into orbit.
But for carrying out these tasks it is first necessary to perfect the automatic
docking systems.
Automatic orbital docking of artificial earth satellite, moving with a
velocity of about 8 kilometers per second (i.e. more than 2 8 thousand kilo-
meters per hour) is a very difficult technical task.
The process of automatic docking of spacecraft in a near-earth orbit
consists of the following main steps:
launching of both satellite into the zone where mutual search and
" capture" of the satellite by radio-technological means takes place;
automatic rendezvous of the satellite, during which the " active" *
satellite, with the help of a power plant for correction, approaches the
" passive" satellite up to a distance of 3 00-400 meters;
automatic " mooring" , during which both satellite approach each
other with minimal relative velocity until their docking units are touching;
the docking itself, which is completed by a firm mechanical coupling
of the satellite and connection of electric circuits, thus making it a single
complex.
The launching of the satellite into the zone of automatic rendezvous
includes also such preliminary work as the correction of the orbit of the
first satellite, calculation of the exact time of launching of the second satellite
and its entry into orbit with the required accuracy.
Firstly the " active" satellite Kosmos-siz was launched into orbit on April
14, 1968, with the following parameters:
inclination 51.7 deg;
orbital height (at perigee) 2 10 km;
orbital height (at apogee) 2 3 9 km;
orbital period 88.75 min.
After a check of the main systems on board and determination of the
parameters of the actual orbit, the necessary preparations were made for
the correction of the orbit of Kosmos-zis so that it should pass over the
launching point of Kosmos-sig.
For this purpose a correction signal was given to Kosmos-2 12 on its fourth
circuit. The control system automatically oriented the satellite and switched
on the power plant at the fixed moment. As a result of this correction, the
orbit of Kosmos-2 i2 at the time of the launching of Kosmos-si^ passed over
" That satellite is called " active" which does maneuvring operations in the process of
automatic search and rendezvous as distinct from the " passive" satellite which only
f ul f i l l s the function of following the " active" satellite.
30
the launching point as envisaged.
Kosmos-sig was launched into orbit the next day, April 15, with the
following parameters:
inclination 51.4 deg;
orbital height (at perigee) 2 05 km;
orbital height (at apogee) 2 91 km;
orbital period 89.16 min.
The timing for the launch of Kosmos-si^ into orbit was selected so that
both satellite should be in the rendezvous zone.
At the moment of the final stage of the carrier rocket, the distance between
the satellite in. orbit was about 5 kilometers and their relative velocity
was of the order of 3 0 meters per second (i.e. 108 kilometers per hour).
Immediately after Kosmos-2 13 entered the orbit, mutual search of the
spacecraft with the help of radio systems started. The search ended with
a perfect " radio capture" . The performance of the systems of both satellite
during their rendezvous was registered and transmitted to earth by telemetric
systems.
The telemetric information from the satellite enabled us to watch from
earth the maneuvering of Kosmos-2 i2 , the changing of its original orbit
and rotation in space. When the distance between the two satellite was
a few hundred meters, the low-thrust engines were switched on. With the
help of these engines the " mooring" was effected. During this process the
distance between the two satellite continued to decrease and their relative
velocities decreased to about 0.1-0.2 meters per second.
The automatic search, rendezvous and " mooring" (Fig. 3 ) were carried
out over the territory of the Soviet Union, in the zone of radio visibility
of ground control. The firm dockingmechanical coupling and connection
of electric circuitswas accomplished outside Soviet territory over the
Pacific. Information during this period of the completion of docking was
received through short-wave radio channels. The docking was carried out
47 minutes after the launching of Kosmos-2 i3 , i.e. at 13 2 1 hours Moscow
time.
In the next circuit, when the satellite returned to the ground control
zone of radiovisibility a telecast of the firmly docked satellite was received
on earth. This telecast was transmitted by a TV camera fixed on Kosmos-2 i2 .
One could clearly see the solar batteries of Kosmos-si^, its body and certain
parts of construction in the TV photographs.
The joint flight of the docked satellite lasted for 3 hours 50 minutes.
During all this period the satellite worked as a single unit mechanically
as well as electrically. During the docked flight, the working of the systems
and assemblies on board was checked and found to be working normally.
After completion of the scheduled program the uncoupling of the satellite
was carried out on receiving a signal from the earth on April 15, 1968, at
Rendezvous
"Kosmos-212"
before the
launching of
"Kosmos-213"
j'
I
Docked
satellites
Fig. 3. A schematic diagram of the automatic rendezvous and
docking of the satellite Kosmos-212 and Kosmos-213.
1711 hours Moscow time. The process of uncoupling took place over the
territory of the Soviet Union and was viewed on TV. Soon after uncoupling,
the satellite were transferred to separate orbits, where they continued
their flight for four more days. During their further flight both satellite
changed their orbits a number of times, and carried out orientation and
maneuvers in space. Scientific investigation were also carried out by
apparatus on board.
After the completion of their research program the satellite were returned
to earth on April 19 and 2 0, 1968.
Thus, in a prolonged experiment for a number of days, the working of
the whole complex of systems and devices for automatic rendezvous,
" mooring" and docking of satellite, complicated maneuvering in orbit
and landing in a predetermined area, was checked up.
The different systems for the launching of spacecraft into the automatic
rendezvous zone for docking can be divided into three groups:
simultaneous launching of the spacecraft from two launching pads
and their entry into the area of automatic rendezvous. In this case the process
of rendezvous starts immediately after the satellite's ascent and the separation
of the satellite from the last stages of the carrier-rockets;
sequential launching of spacecraft into orbit from one or two launching
pads. Here the orbit of the first satellite is selected in such a way that the
path of its flight should pass approximately over the launching point of
the second satellite. The launching time of the second satellite is so chosen
that it directly enters the automatic rendezvous zone;
sequential launching of spacecraft into orbits lying in the same plane.
The craft move for some time in separate orbits and then are launched into
the automatic rendezvous zone with the help of a number of corrections
in the orbit.
The selection of one particular system for the launching of spacecraft
into the automatic rendezvous zone depends upon the flight program.
For the launching of Kosmos-sis and Kosmos-zig the system of sequential
launching was selected and the automatic rendezvous was carried out im-
mediately after the ascent of the second spacecraft into orbit as an artificial
earth satellite.
This system permits great accuracy of launching since the position of
the first satellite is determined exactly by the preliminary trajectory measure-
ments. It was envisaged that both the carrier-rockets would be launched from
the same launching site with an interval of one day between the two
launchings.
During the orbiting period of the first satellite, the parameters of its
orbit gradually changed because of many factors. The main factors included
the atmospheric deceleration and the effect of the earth's oblateness. Also
the orbital height of the first satellite in the rendezvous zone changed.
For ensuring minimal deviations between the orbital heights of Kosmos-2 i2
and Kosmos-2 i3 , the carrier rocket of Kosmos-si^ was equipped to attain
the required orbital height. The launching of the carrier-rocket was made
by a special device, which exactly sustained the computed launching time,
taking into account the deviations in the distance between the two satellite
along the orbit.
Kosmos-2 i2 was launched on April 14, at 13 00 hours and Kosmos-2 i3
on April 15, at 12 3 4 hours Moscow time.
One of the most important systems on board both satellite was the orien-
tation and motion control system. This system carried out the damping of
the initial angular velocities of the satellite after separation from the carrier-
rocket, orientation of the solar batteries toward the sun, orientation of the
fore-and-aft axis of the satellite along the orbit velocity vector, and the
orbit corrections. The systems on board carried out mutual search of the
satellite, rendezvous, " mooring" , delivery of retrothrust for leaving the
orbit and stabilization during the process of leaving the orbit.
The system consisted of amplifying and transforming devices, computers,
sensors and slave mechanisms.
The amplifying and transforming devices and computers are meant for
processing the information received from the sensors and formation of a
33
steering signal for the slave mechanisms.
The sensors in the system are:
angular velocity sensors, i.e. gyroscopic instruments, which measure
the components of angular velocity of the satellite for leading the damping
and control signals into the control system;
photoelectric sun-position indicator, which generates signals for the
detection of the sun and its " capture" , and then turns the satellite around
on its axis, perpendicular to the plane of the solar batteries, and other
sensors of the orientation system;
free gyroscopes, which generate signals necessary for the stabilization
of the satellite during the process of delivery of corrective or retro thrust;
integrator of linear accelerations, which acts for the forming of the
signals for motor shutdown when the required increase in velocity has been
attained;
radio location apparatus for search and detection, which carried out
mutual detection of the satellite, generates signals necessary for mutual
orientation of the satellite, and for the determination of the distance between
the satellite, velocity for the change of the distance, angular velocity of
the line joining the satellite (sightline) and the angles of mutual
orientation.
The slave mechanisms of the control system consist of rendezvous and
corrective power plant, and " mooring" and orientation engines.
The rendezvous and corrective power plant has comparatively a larger
thrust and is envisaged for thrust application a number of times. The
" mooring" and orientation engines are low-thrust jet engines, which have a
relay-impulse mode of functioning.
The rendezvous and corrective power plant works during the process
of orbit correction at the stage of rendezvous and leaving the orbit.
The low-thrust engine works during orientation, stabilization and
" mooring" of the satellite. The analysis of telemetric measurements showed
that the control systems of the satellite functioned normally.
The docking process took place as follows:
After the entry of the second satellite into orbit, and mutual radio " cap-
ture" , and after the turning of the satellite into the necessary position with
respect to the sightline, the process of automatic rendezvous started.
The computers received from the radio detection devices information
about the distance between the satellite, rate of change of this distance,
angular velocity of the sightline, and the angles between the sightline and
the constructional axes of the satellite. They also received information
about the angular velocities of rotation of the satellite.
On the basis of this information the maneuvering of the active satellite
was calculated and carried out, while the passive satellite was put in the
required position.
34
The process of automatic rendezvous of the satellite continued till the
distance between the satellite was 3 50 meters. The relative velocity of the
satellite at this time was of the order of 2 meters per second. At this moment
the process of automatic " mooring" of the satellite began. At the time of
" mooring" the satellite were stabilized with respect to the sightline in such
a way that their docking units faced ea,ch other while the mutual roll attitude
remained within the particular 'mrntsv'SHOHf'< ;" ?.
:
;' , . ; ; '
The " mooring" ended with the mechanical coupling of the satellite.
When the satellite touched each other, the relative displacement of the
axes, of the docking units did not exceed 0.4 meters, while the relative velocity
was of the order of 0.1-0.2 meters per second.
The docking units have shock absorbers which ensured a careful and
shockproof mechanical coupling.
After the alignment, the satellite were brought closer till the butt joints
coincided. Meanwhile the plug joints were connected, and electric connection
between the spacecraft was established.
The automatic functioning of the docking units at the time of docking
and uncoupling was provided by special sensors, computers and control
instruments.
On receiving the signal for uncoupling, the mechanical coupling was
unlocked and the satellite separated because of the reaction of the springs.
After uncoupling, the satellite continued in orbit according to the flight
program.
During the flight, which continued for a number of days, scientific investi-
gations as well as the testing of satellite devices, and systems were carried
out. Throughout the flight, the radio devices, power plants and computers
on board functioned normally and reliably.
After the completion of the scheduled program of experimental and
scientific investigations, the satellite Kosmos-2 i2 and Kosmos-2 i3 , on a
signal from the earth, were returned to the earth in a predetermined region
in the Soviet Union on April 19 and 2 0 respectively. The descent and landing
systems of both satellite functioned normally.
The whole complex of operations, especially the automatic docking,
carried out by the artificial satellite Kosmos-zis and Kosmos-sig, is a big
new step towards the creation of orbital stations and interplanetary spacecraft.
(TASS)
Praada, April 2 1,1968
35
Page Intentionally Left Blank
II
MANNED SPACECRAFT
Page Intentionally Left Blank
TASS ANNOUNCEMENTS
SOTUZ-3 IN ORBIT
On October 2 6, 1968, at 113 4 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz~3 spacecraft
entered into orbit as an artificial earth satellite with the help of a powerful
carrier rocket.
The spacecraft is piloted by Soviet citizen, Pilot-Astronaut Colonel
G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, Hero of the Soviet Union, and Honored
Test Pilot of the Soviet Union.
Reliable two-way radio communication has been established with the
spacecraft. The craft transmits at frequencies of 15.008 and 2 0.008 megahertz.
Pilot-Astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi reports that he is feeling
well.
The Soyuz-3 spacecraft was launched into an orbit close to the planned
one, and has the following parameters:
orbital period88.6 minutes; maximum distance from the earth (at
apogee)2 2 5 kilometers; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee)2 05
kilometers; orbital inclination-51 degrees 40 minutes.
The systems on board the Soyuz-3
are
functioning normally. Pressure
and temperature are within the prescribed limits. Pilot-Astronaut G eorgii
Timofeevich Beregovoi has begun the flight program.
The spacecraft Soyuz-3 continues in orbit. During the process of launching
as well as during flight, the astronaut carried out all the operations envisaged
39
by the program. He reported in detail about the functioning of the systems on
board. Pilot-Astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is feeling well.
On the first circuit, Soyuz-3 carried out rendezvous with the unmanned
spacecraft Soyuz-2 . In the first stage the craft were brought to a distance of
2 00 meters by an automatic system. After that the operations for rendezvous
were carried out by Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi manually.
The Soyuz-2 was launched into orbit as an artificial earth satellite on
October 2 5, 1968, for carrying out joint experiments with the manned
spacecraft Soyuz-3 - The initial parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-2 were:
orbital period88.5 minutes; maximum distance from the earth (at
apogee)2 2 4 kilometers; minimum distance from the earth (atperigee)185
kilometers; orbital inclination
1
51.7 degrees.
A telecast was transmitted from Soyuz-3 -
According to the telemetric measurement data, the systems on board the
spacecraft are functioning normally. Temperature and pressure are within
the prescribed limits.
Commander of the Soyuz-3 spacecraft. Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi.
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi is successfully carrying out the scheduled
program of experiments and research.
The spacecraft Soyuz-3 completed five circuits of the earth by 1845 hours
Moscow time. In regular radio contact with earth, Pilot-Astronaut G eorgii
Timofeevich stated that the flight program was being successfully carried
out. He is feeling well.
The systems on board the Soyuz-3 are functioning normally: pressure in
the spacecraft cabin is 760 mm Hg and the temperature is 17C.
In accordance with the program, solar orientation of the spacecraft was
carried out.
On the fifth circuit Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi shifted to a compartment
adjoining the astronaut's cabin, meant for scientific investigations and for
the astronaut's rest-periods.
From 1918 hours on October 2 6 to 0516 hours on October 2 7, the space-
craft Soyuz-3 will orbit beyond the Soviet radiovisibility zone.
During this period Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi will rest.
Pracda, October 2 7, 1968
PI LOT-ASTRONAUT G .T. BEREG OVOI'S STATEMENT
BEFORE THE START
Before leaving for space in Soyuz-3 , Pilot-Astronaul G eorgii Timofeevich
Beregovoi said:
" Dear Comrades and Friends!
" The conquest of outer space continues successfully. The automatic dock-
ing of Soviet satellite in a near-earth orbit has been successfully accomplished.
The historical space probe flights of Venera-j and %ond-5 have been
completed. These outstanding new achievements of Soviet science and
technology are a result of the creative boldness and heroic labor of our
people.
" I have been given the great honor of carrying out a flight in the space-
craft Soyuz-3 - This new space flight will be carried out on the eve of the
5 ist anniversary of the Socialist G reat October Revolution. We dedicate
this flight to this auspicious occasion. I am eager to carry out this honorable
task for my motherland. I assure the Central Committee of the Communist
Party, the Soviet G overnment and our people that I shall make every effort
to fulfill the tasks entrusted to me.
" Till we meet again on our native earth, dear friends!"
(TASS)
Pravda, October 2 7, 1968
41
Biographical notes
G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi was born on April 15, 192 1, in Fedorovka,
a village of Karlovka district in Poltava province. He spent his childhood in
the town of Yenakievo.
After finishing the 8th class of the middle school, G eorgii started working
at the Yenakievo Steel Plant.
Since his youth G eorgii had been interested in aviation. After completing
the course at the local aeroclub, he joined the Lugansk School for Military
Pilots in December 193 8. G eorgii Timofeevich has served in the Soviet Air
Force for thirty years.
From the very beginning of the G reat Patriotic War he was with the field
forces. He took part in field operations in fighter aircraft on different fronts.
In August 1943 , G eorgii Timofeevich joined the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union.
In October 1944 he was honored with the title of the Hereof the Soviet
Union, for his courage and heroism displayed in the battles against the Nazi
army of occupation.
After the war G eorgii Timofeevich finished the Higher Officer's School
and also the course for test pilots.
In 1956 while continuing his work as a test pilot, he finished the Red
Banner Air Force Academy (now named after Yu.A. G agarin).
G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi worked as a test pilot from 1948 to 1964.
In 1961 he was awarded the title of " Honored Test Pilot of the Soviet Union."
In 1964 he was taken into the detachment of astronauts.
G eorgii Timofeevich is a Hero of the Soviet Union and has been decorated
with a number of orders and medals.
G eorgii Timofeevich is married. His wife, Lidiya Matveevna, born in
192 9, studied in the History Faculty of the Moscow State University and is
now working as a history teacher in a secondary school.
Their son Viktor is a student, and daughter Lyudmila is studying in school.
Comrade Beregovoi's father was a worker in railway communications and
died in 1950. His mother, Mariya Semenona, born in 1898, is living with
the family of her son.
Pravda, October 2 7, 1968
RADIO MESSAG E FROM
I am reporting to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union and to the Soviet G overnment that the flight is continuing
normally.
42
The maneuvering and rendezvous with Soyuz-s has been successfully
carried out. Mood is fine. Warmly thank the Central Committee of the
Party and the Soviet G overnment for the faith shown in me. The flight is
continuing according to program. Carrying out scientific experiments.
Systems are working fine. Condition is excellent.
Pilot-Astronaut G . Beregovoi
Piauda, October 2 7, 1968
SALUTORY TELEG RAM TO ASTRONAUT G .T. BEREG OVOI
FROM PARTY AND G OVERNMENT LEADERS
Dear Comrade G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi:
On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and Council of
Ministers, USSR, we heartily congratulate you on a successful start of the
flight and for the completion of the operations of maneuvering and
rendezvous of spacecraft in a near-earth orbit. The whole nation is watching
your flight with unabated attention. We affectionately embrace you and wish
you a'safe landing.
Till we meet on earth!
L. Brezhnev, N. Podgornyi, A. Kosygin
Pravda, October 2 7, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
-s AND SOYUZ-3 IN ORBIT
Today, on October 2 7, 1968, at 0516 hours Moscow tune, the spacecraft
Soyuz-3 piloted by Pilot-Astronaut Comrade Beregovoi entered the zone
of radiovisibility of the Soviet Far-East observation posts during its I3 th
circuit of the earth.
The tracking system on earth again established direct radio contact with
Comrade Beregovoi after a ten-hour interval. G eorgii Timofeevich reported
that he had rested well, was cheerful and that all the spacecraft systems were
functioning excellently.
At 043 0 hours Moscow time he began the program for the second day of
the flight.
Comrade Beregovoi slept in a special compartment, designed for carrying
out investigations and for rest. He slept well. After getting up he did some
physical exercises and had breakfast. His appetite was good.
43
The medico-biological control system confirmed that the astronaut is in
good health. While sleeping he had a smooth pulse rate of 56-60 per minute
while the breathing rate was 16 per minute. At present his pulse rate is 64-66
per minute. According to the telemetric data there is no change in his
cardiogram. His organism is adjusted to the conditions of space flight.
There is a normal pressure of 780 mm Hg and a temperature of 2 1 G in
the cabin.
The observation posts in the Soviet Far-East received a clear telecast of
the astronaut from the spacecraft.
While orbiting over the territory of Vietnam, Comrade Beregovoi conveyed
a salutory message to the heroic people of Vietnam: " From the spacecraft
Soyuz-3 I send hearty greetings to the courageous Vietnamese people, who are
heroically fighting against the American aggressors for freedom and
independence."
On October 2 7, Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi has to carry out a big program
of scientific investigations. Radio communications are being maintained with
him.
The Soyuz-3 spacecraft continues in orbit. At 1056 hours Moscow time
;
Soyuz-3 completed its i6th circuit around the earth. Pilot-Astronaut
Beregovoi, during a session of radio communications, reported that he has
completed all the scientific experiments which were to be carried out during
this period.
In particular, he took observations of the luminous particles, photographed
cloud and snow covers of the earth, and the day and dusk horizons of the
earth.
At the end of the session Beregovoi reported: " The flight is normal and no
complaints about the working of the systems. Feeling excellent."
Soyuz-3 continued in orbit for the second day. The scheduled program
of scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments and investigations
was fulfilled.
During the flight a large number of maneuvers were carried out at the
time of its rendezvous with the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 , by using
automatic and manual controls. For changing the orbit of Soyuz-3 Comrade
Beregovoi independently carried out the spacecraft orientation in outer
space and switched on the power plant.
During the first 2 4 hours, the astronaut observed the sky and the earth
both with and without optical instruments. He took photographs of the cloud
and snow covers of the earth as well as the visible earth-horizon.
Along with the prescribed schedule of work and rest, Comrade Beregovoi
44
took food, did physical exercises, shifted to the adjoining compartment of
the spacecraft and slept there for seven hours.
Comrade Beregovoi had constant radio contact with the earth. He reported
to the Party and government leaders about the flight and conveyed greetings
to the people of our planet.
An analysis of the telemetric medical data confirmed that the astronaut
was in good physiological condition. Blood circulation and respiration at
the time of launching into orbit, during the changeover to the condition of
weightlessness and during the course of flight in orbit were in conformity with
flight conditions. The astronaut's organism got accustomed to the flight
conditions in a short time. There were no deviations from normal in the
electro-cardiogram, seismo-cardiogram and the pneumogram.
Psycho-physiological analysis of the astronaut's actions while carrying
out complicated scientific and technical experiments, functional tests, radio
conversations as well as observations during the telecasts, revealed that
Comrade Beregovoi had retained his large working capacity.
Soyuz-3 continues in orbit, G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is successfully
carrying out the scheduled program of space research. Steady radio contact is
being maintained with him.
On October 2 7, at 1850 hours Moscow time the spacecraft Soyuz-3
Soyuz-s completed 2 2 and 3 8 circuits around the earth respectively.
During the day, maneuvering (by automatic as well as by manual devices)
was carried out according to program. After the rendezvous the spacecraft
separated into orbits having the following parameters:
For Soyuz-3 '-
orbital period 88.6 min;
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 52 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 179 km;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg.
For Soyuz-2 :
orbital period 88.4 min;
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) -2 3 1 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 181 km;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg.
During the day television broadcasts showing the astronaut at work were
transmitted. In the course of the flight the astronaut carried out experimental
investigations and took observations.
45
Comrade Beregovoi is in good health. His pulse rate is 63 per minute and
his respiration rate is 16 per minute.
All the systems of Soyuz-3 and Soyuz-2 are functioning normally. The
pressure in the cabin of Soyuz-3 is 785 mm Hg while the temperature is 2 3 C.
From 1850 hours on October 2 7, up to 0448 hours on October 2 8, Soyuz-3
will be orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone. During this period
Comrade Beregovoi will rest in the adjoining compartment.
Pravda, October 2 8, 1968
ASTRONAUT'S HEARTY THANKS
Astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi conveyed this message from
Soyuz-3 '
" I heartily thank the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union and the Soviet G overnment for its warm greetings and good
wishes. I shall make every effort to complete my task successfully."
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi
Pravda, October 2 8, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOTUZ-3 STILL IN ORBIT
On October 2 8, 1968, at 0448 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 during its
agth circuit of the earthentered the zone of radiovisibility of the observation
posts in the Soviet Far-East.
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi shifted from the compartment where he had
slept, to the spacecraft cabin, where a session of television and radio
communications was held with him.
According to information received from Soyuz-3
tne
astronaut is in good
health and all the systems on board are functioning normally.
After 2 5 minutes of physical exercise and breakfast, Comrade Beregovoi
prepared himself for the program for the third day.
According to program, on October 2 8, 1968, Soyuz-s landed in a predeter-
mined place in the Soviet Union. On receiving a signal from the earth, at
102 5 hours the retrosystem was switched on. At 1051 hours the spacecraft
entered the dense atmospheric layers, made a guided re-entry with aero-
dynamic control and landed on the earth. The spacecraft descended on a
46
parachute, making use of the soft-landing system at the touchdown. During
its flight Soyuz-2 fulfilled the scheduled program of working the spacecraft
systems as well as of joint maneuvering and rendezvous with Soyuz-3 -
At 12 00 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed 3 3 circuits of the earth.
All the spacecraft systems continue to function normally. Pressure and
temperature are being maintained within the prescribed limits. Comrade
Beregovoi is feeling well. The astronaut continued to conduct planned
scientific experiments, namely, visual observation of the cloud cover of the
earth and observation of the starry sky. On the 3 3 rd circuit he noticed three
regions of forest fires and in the equatorial region he clearly saw thunder
building up. A steady two-way radio contact is being maintained with the
astronaut.
Meanwhile Soyuz-3 continues in orbit.
On October 2 8, 1968, at 12 15 hours Moscow time another telereport was
made by Comrade Beregovoi from Soyuz-3 during the 3 4th circuit of the earth.
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi during the flight (TV photograph).
Millions of TV viewers watched the astronaut describing the arrange-
ments in the cabin and in the adjoining compartment for scientific research
and for rest.
-17
The internal structure of the cabin, the control panel with which the
astronaut controls the spacecraft and the layout of handles for control,
instruments and windows were shown to the TV viewers.
The astronaut demonstrated weightlessness by releasing the portable TV
camera from his hand, which floated freely in the cabin.
With the help of the TV camera, the viewers could observe the same
scene as the astronaut through the spacecraft windows: the earth with
contours of seas and oceans, and cloud covers.
Astronaut Beregovoi continues to conduct scientific and technical experi-
ments, working the control, lifesaving and thermal control systems.
G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is in good health. All the systems on board
the spacecraft are functioning normally.
On October 2 8, at 192 3 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed 3 8 circuits
of the earth.
In accordance with the program for finalizing the Soyuz-3 spacecraft
systems, Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi carried out in 3 6th circuit orientation
of the spacecraft in space with the help of manual control and switched on
the engine. On completion of this maneuver the astronaut orientated the
spacecraft with respect to sun using the solar batteries and achieved its
stabilization in this position.
The parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-3
a
f
ter
this maneuver are:
orbital period 88.8 min;
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 44 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) - 199 km;
inclination 51.7 deg.
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi ate according to a prescribed diet and had a
good appetite. His ration consisted of food-stuffs of full nutritional value.
For example, on the third day his lunch consisted of Caspian roach, chicken
fillet, biscuits, cocoa with milk, and prunes.
J udging from the telemetric information and his own report and observa-
tions made during the TV transmissions, G eorgii Timofeevich is in good
health and is feeling well. During the whole of the third day his pulse rate
was within 63 -68 per minute and his respiration rate was within 12 -15 per
minute.
From 183 0 hours on October 2 8, to 043 0 hours on October 2 9 Soyuz-3
will be orbiting beyond the Soviet radiovisibility zone. During this period
Comrade Beregovoi will rest in the compartment adjoining the control cabin.
Pravda, October 2 9, 1968
48
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOYUZ-3 STILL IN ORBIT
On October 2 9, 1968 at 072 8 hours Moscow time, when Soyuz-3 was
passing over the territory of the Soviet Union, normal radio contact with
the Pilot-Astronaut was re-established and a TV broadcast was made from
the spacecraft cabin. Trajectory measurements were carried out and tele-
metric information was received.
All the systems of the spacecraft Soyuz-3 are functioning normally. During
the session of radio contact Beregovoi described the working of the space-
craft systems and his own condition in the words: " Every thing is excellent."
Comrade Beregovoi conveyed from Soyuz-3 his greetings to Soviet Youth:
" Heartily greet all members of the Young Communist League, boys and
girls of our motherland on the glorious jubilee50 years of the Leninist
Young Communist League of the Soviet Union" .
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi
On October 2 9, at ion hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed its 48th
circuit around the earth. Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel G .T. Beregovoi
has now been in space for three days.
During this period the astronaut has carried out a big program of scientific
and technical experiments and a number of orientations and maneuverings
of the spacecraft by using manual and automatic systems. Throughout the
flight the astronaut carried out a fixed regime for the day, according to
which the prescribed work was alternated with rest, physical exercises and
meals.
An analysis of the medico-biological data shows the astronaut's mainte-
nance of a high working capacity, activeness and quick adaptability to
space flight conditions. For example, the astronaut's pulse rate at the time
of the launching of Soyuz-3 into orbit was 102 -103 per minute while after
some time it came down to 75 per minute. At the end of the first day and
afterward the pulse rate never exceeded 65, and it came down to 52 per
minute during sleep. The respiration rate also became stabilized.
All the lifesaving systems are functioning normally: the spacecraft cabin
temperature varies from 17 to 2 iC and the pressure is around 800 mm Hg.
During the period of the flight, the astrophysical observatories and
geophysical stations in the country registered an increase in solar activity.
However the solar radiation levels measured in the compartments of the
spacecraft correspond to the estimated ones and do not exceed the limits
safe for the astronaut. Comrade Beregovoi is feeling well and his working
capacity remains at a high level.
49
Pilot-Astronaut Comrade Beregovoi continues to carry out the scheduled
program of research and is maintaining steady radio contact with the earth.
On October 2 9, 1968, at 143 7 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed
its 5ist circuit around the earth. Radio and television sessions with the
astronaut are being maintained during the day.
On the 5oth circuit, the astronaut made one of his usual reports from the
space. In this report he narrated in detail his observations of the starry sky,
and the relative positions of the sun, moon and constellations. Afterwards
he demonstrated how the food and water were kept in the spacecraft compart-
ments and demonstrated their use.
The astronaut next showed the viewers around his cabin, and in the
adjoining compartments. The large size of these compartments and the
rational layout of the equipment enables the astronaut to work and to rest
freely. He narrated his impressions about the sensation of weightlessness.
He said, " Such swimming is very pleasant and gives great enjoyment."
Astronaut Beregovoi carried out a number of investigations, envisaged
by the program. In particular, he carried out experiments on working out
astro-orientation and accomplished orientation of the spacecraft with the
manual control system.
The state of health and mood of the astronaut is good. All the spacecraft
systems are functioning normally.
On October 2 9, 1968, at 1903 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed
its 54th circuit around the earth. Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi completed
the program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments
envisaged for the day.
According to the telemetric information and the astronaut's reports,
all the systems on board Soyuz-3 are functioning normally. Pressure and
temperature in the compartments are within the normal limits. The state
of health and mood of the astronaut are good.
At 1808 hours Moscow time Soyuz-3 went out of the Soviet radiovisibility
zone. The astronaut has shifted from his cabin to the adjoining compartment
where he will rest.
Pravda, October 3 0, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOTUZ-3 LANDS SUCCESSFULLY
On October 3 0, 1968, at 102 5 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 , piloted by
astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, landed in a predetermined area
of the Soviet territory.
As in the case of Soyuz-2 , the descent of Soyuz-3 was guided with the use
of aerodynamic control. For the guided descent, an orientation of the space-
craft in the required direction was made in space. The braking engine
worked for 145 seconds, thus giving the spacecraft the necessary impulse
for deceleration. After this the spacecraft started to leave the orbit. Then
the landing vehicle was separated from the spacecraft and was turned with
the help of the descent control engines for an orientated re-entry into the
dense atmospheric layers. During the flight of the landing vehicle in the
atmosphere, the control system was giving orders for the necessary orientation
of the spacecraft to ensure an accurate landing in a predetermined area in
Soviet Union territory. At the final stage the parachute system was brought
into service and when the landing vehicle was very near the earth, the
engines for soft-landing were switched on.
G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi feels well after the landing. At the landing
site he was met by his friends and some correspondents.
The spacecraft Soyuz-3 was in orbit for four days. The program of scientific
and technical investigations conducted by Pilot-Astronaut G eorgii Timo-
feevich Beregovoi was successfully completed.
Pravda, October 3 1, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENTS
FROM THE VERBATIM REPORT OF THE FLIG HT
At 0408 hours on October 3 0, 1968, a new working day in outer space
started for G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi.
As usual, after waking up, Comrade Beregovoi did some physical exercises,
took breakfast and started work.
On the 6 ist circuit, radiotelemetric information on the normal working
of the spacecraft systems and the parameters of orbit was received from
Soyuz-3 -
During the radio communication session the astronaut reported that
the systems on board the spacecraft were working normally.
A steady radio contact is being maintained with the astronaut.
On October 3 0, the usual radio communication session with Soyuz-3
was held from 0708 hours to 072 0 hours.
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi reported that all the spacecraft systems were
functioning normally, the temperature and pressure were within the pres-
5'
cribed limits and that he continues to carry out the scheduled program of
scientific experiments and investigations. Comrade Beregovoi is in good
health. As before he retains his high working capacity.
Prai'da, October 3 1, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ON COMPLETION OF THE SOTU^-3 FLIG HT
As has already been reported, Soyuz-g, piloted by Astronaut G eorgii
Timofeevich Beregovoi, after a four-day flight in a near-earth orbit, landed
in the vicinity of the town of Karaganda, at 102 5 hours Moscow time, on
October 3 0, 1968.
Comrade Beregovoi told his friends, correspondents and sport commissars
who received him, that he was feeling well. He held a high opinion of the
technical equipment of Soyuz-3 -
Afterward Pilot-Astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi arrived at the
cosmodrome for a post-flight medical checkup and for a report to flight
officials about the fulfillment of the program of spacecraft testing and the
investigations carried out.
Soyuz-3 made 64 circuits of the earth. During this period, a number of
maneuvers using different methods of orientation were carried out by the
spacecraft in orbit. Rendezvous with the spacecraft Soyuz-s was accomplished
twice and many testings of the spacecraft systems were carried out during
the flight.
A large numberof scientific investigations and observations were completed.
In particular, observations of the earth, starry sky, and the heavenly bodies;
photography of the cloud and snow covers, daytime and dusk horizons of
the earth; detection of typhoons and cyclones, study of the brightness of the
earth; and the psycho-physiological investigations of the working capacity
of the visual analyzer were carried out.
Throughout the flight, Comrade Beregovoi was in good health: his pulse
rate was within 62 -76 per minute and the respiration rate was 12 -18 per
minute.
J udging from the telcmetric measurements, radio conversations and
observations on TV, Comrade Beregovoi's working capacity remained at
a high level throughout the flight. The lifesaving system functioned normally
and maintained comfortable conditions in the spacecraft cabin.
Regular radio-contact was maintained with Comrade Beregovoi during
the flight. The astronaut transmitted some TV reports from the spacecraft
describing the equipment and working conditions on board a spacecraft
during flight in a near-earth orbit.
52
The most important results of the flight of the Soyuz-3 were the perfecting
of the processes of maneuvering and rendezvous with the help of different
orientation and flight control systems, an appraisal of the convenience of
working with the spacecraft equipment and the perfecting of astro navigational
elements.
Important technical data about the functioning of all the spacecraft
systems during orbiting, maneuvering and during landing on earth has
been received. Experimental investigations conducted by the astronaut
carry great importance for the development of manned spacecraft technology
and for astronauts conducting scientific work at orbital stations, which in
turn have scientific and economic value for the nation.
The results of the Soyuz-3 flight are being processed and studied.
Pravda, October 3 1, 1968
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers,
all the collectives and organizations which took part in the
success of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-3 flight in outer space
and in carrying out the operations of maneuvering and rendez-
vous with spacecraft Soyuz-2 in orbit, and to the Soviet astronaut,
Comrade G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi.
Dear Comrades!
A new achievement of Soviet science and technology in the history of
the conquest of outer space has been recorded on the eve of the 513! anniver-
sary of the G reat October Socialist Revolution.
The launching of the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 and the spacecraft
Soyuz-3 , piloted by astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, has enabled
us to carry out a number of new scientific and technical experiments and
investigations necessary for the further study and conquest of outer space.
After the successful completion of the scientific and technical investigations
and experiments in the near-earth space, the spacecraft were recovered
on the earth in a predetermined area with great accuracy.
The spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 built by our scientists, designers, engi-
neers and workers, completed their tasks under complex space flight condi-
tions. Throughout the flight all the apparatus and systems of the spacecraft
Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 worked efficiently and reliably.
The Soviet people are proud of the new achievement of our motherland
in the conquest of outer space and of Comrade G .T. Beregovoi's feat.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers,
USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear Comrade G .T. Beregovoi, for the
53
successful completion of the flight and fulfillment of the responsible task
entrusted to you.
We heartily congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians
and workersall those who took part in the construction of the spacecraft
Soyuz-2 and Sqyuz-j and in the successful accomplishment of their flights.
G lory to the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and
workersbuilders of the wonderful spacecraft!
G lory to the valiant Soviet astronauts!
G lory to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the inspirer and the
the organizer of all the triumphs of the Soviet people!
Pravda, October 3 1, 1968 Central Committee of the CPSU
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Council of Ministers, USSR
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR,
FOR THE AWARD OF THE ORDER OF LENIN AND SECOND
" ZOLOTAYA ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO HERO OF THE SOVIET
UNION, PILOT-ASTRONAUT COMRADE G .T. BEREG OVOI
For accomplishing a space flight in the Soyuz-3 spacecraft and for courage
and heroism displayed during the flight, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-
Astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is awarded the Order of Lenin
and a second " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal; a bronze bust of the Hero is to
be erected at his birth place.
-V. Podgornyi
Kremlin, Moscow, November i, 1968 Chairman of the Presidium of
Pravda, November 2 , 1968 the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET,
USSR, ON CONFERMENT OF THE TITLE " PILOT-ASTRONAUT
OF THE USSR" TO COMRADE G .T. BEREG OVOI
For accomplishing a space flight in Soyuz-3 , Soviet citizen, Hero of the
Soviet Union, Comrade G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is awarded the
title of " Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR."
J V. Podgornyi
Kremlin, Moscow, November, i, 1968 Chairman of the Presidium of
Pravda, November 2 , 1968 the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
54
PRESS CONFERENCE DEVOTED TO G EORG II
BEREG OVOI'S FLIG HT
The whole world watched with great interest the flight of the Soviet
spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 , the latter piloted by Pilot-Astronaut G eorgii
Beregovoi. The press conference of Soviet and foreign journalists, held
on November 5, in the auditorium, of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State
University, speaks of the unabated interest of the people in this new achieve-
ment of Soviet science and technology.
The press conference was inaugurated by Academician M.V. Keldysh,
President of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
M.V. Keldysh referred to some of the landmarks in the cosmic era.
About 11 years ago, before the historic first artificial earth satellite was
launched on October 4, 1957, outer space seemed to be unknown, mysterious
and inaccessible to mankind. At that time it was not clear what kind of
meteorite hazards or radiational conditions existed in outer space, or
what were the chances of survival of living organisms in the weightless
state.
Also unclear were the ways for the solution of many important scientific
and technical problems concerning space flights, such as the assurance of
thermal conditions in the craft, power supply, problems of radio communica-
tions and information transmission, and problems of recovery of space
vehicles to the earth. The flights of the artificial earth satellite and then the
long distance space vehicles, gradually solved such problems one after another.
In 1959, the Soviet space probe Luna-2 reached the moon for the first
time. In February, 1966, the space probe Luna-g made a soft-landing on
the moon and the first information about the surface of the moon was received.
The flight of the space probe Venera-4 which reached the planet Venus
last October made the first direct measurements of the parameters of the
atmosphere there and was of great scientific importance.
Academician M.V. Keldysh further stated that the recent flight of %pnd-ij
had opened new prospects before space science. Having orbited round the
moon on September 18, %ond-5 returned to earth with planet-escape velocity
and splashed down in the Indian Ocean. The flight of %ond-5 is an
important step in the further development of long-distance space
exploration.
Fundamental scientific information was received with the help of automated
space vehicles. The first flight of Yurii G agarin in the spacecraft, satellite
Vostok. started the era of penetration of man into outer space. The prospects
of the astronaut's practical work in outer space were further increased by
the extravehicular operations carried out by Aleksei Leonov. Next the
scientist gave an appraisal of the importance of the latest experiment.
He stressed that the new great step in the further conquest of outer
55
space was the flight of Soyuz~3 piloted by G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi
and that of the automatic spacecraft Soyuz~3 which was used for experi-
ments on rendezvous and maneuvering of the two spacecraft.
M.V. Keldysh pointed out that the spacecraft of the Soyuz series possess
great potentialities for maneuvering in outer space, which in turn has great
importance in solving several different problems. These spacecraft are
equipped with the automatic docking system which was twice demonstrated
by pairs of spacecraft in the Kosmos series. The Soyuz has a special compartment
for carrying out scientific research. The spacecraft equipment and systems
assure its smooth re-entry with great accuracy.
The scientist stated that the construction of the Soyuz spacecraft was
only possible because of the whole process of Soviet space science and because
of the high level of industry, which has been achieved during the years
of Soviet power.
In conclusion, M.V. Keldysh said that G .T. Beregovoi had accomplished
a large program of scientific research during his flight in Soyuz-g. The
marvelous thing was that along with geophysical, astronomical and
medico-biological investigations, the astronaut observed typhoons, cyclo-
nes and forest fires also. Artificial earth satellite are already being used
for radio communications, weather forecasts, navigation and other
purposes.
Manned space flights open new, wider prospects for the practical use
of outer space. This is characteristic of the present stage of the development
of astronautics.
The heroic flight of Pilot-Astronaut G .T. Beregovoi is a new step in the
conquest of outer space. The president announced that the USSR Academy
of Sciences had awarded the K.E. Tsiolkovskii Medal to G .T. Beregovoi
for his achievement in Soyuz-3 - There was a burst of applause and M.V.
Keldysh presented the medal to the hero.
Then astronaut K.P. Feoktistov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Hero
of the Soviet Union, spoke. He talked about the construction of the Soyuz
type spacecraft, designed for scientific and technical investigations in orbit
as earth satellites.
He said that flights up to 3 0 days can be carried out in the Soyuz. One
can also remain in ordinary dress without a spacesuit during the flight.
The orbital compartment has scientific apparatus, control and communi-
cation equipment and portable TV camera etc. The compartment has
4 windows.
The re-entry vehicle is designed to accommodate crew at the time of
launching the spacecraft into orbit, maneuvering and descent.
The outer surface of the vehicle, continued K.P. Feoktistov, has a
special heat insulation cover to save the body from aerodynamic heating
during descent. Because of this cover and the internal heat insulation of
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi and the President of
the USSR Academy of Sciences. M.V. Keldysh.
the spacecraft (which also helps in sound insulation), the cabin temperature
at the time of landing does not exceed 2 5-3 0 C.
Inside the vehicle has apparatus fitted for re-entry control, radio network
for communications and lifesaving equipment. The parachute system is
accommodated in a special container. The body is fitted with jet engines
for the descent control system and soft-landing engines. The pilot has the
spacecraft control panel in front of him. There are three windows in the
body of the re-entry vehicle.
The scientist pointed out that the principle of descent by aerodynamic
control has been used in the construction of the re-entry vehicle. This permits
the decrease of the acceleration force acting on the astronaut during the
atmospheric phase of the descent to 3 -4 units (as compared to 8-10 units
during ballistic descent). Thanks to the descent with aerodynamic control not
only is the acceleration force reduced, but the accuracy of landing of the vehi-
cle is also considerably increased. In case of emergency, ballistic descent is
also possible. After deceleration of the vehicle in the atmosphere during des-
cent, the deceleration parachute opens at a height of about 9 kilometers
and then the main parachute, with which the landing is carried out, opens.
J ust before landing, at a height of about one meter, the gunpowder
retro-rockets operate for soft-landing. Besides the main parachute system,
the re-entry vehicle has an extra parachute system, which operates in case
of any fault in the functioning of the main system.
Special automatic machines control the whole complex of landing devices.
The re-entry vehicle is equipped with radio systems for detection after
landing. These systems help in direction finding in the parachuting region
even after landing or splashing.
The instrument and assembly compartment accommodates the main
equipment working during orbital flight, and also the power plant of the
spacecraft. The equipment is contained in a sealed portion of the compart-
ment. The unsealed portion contains a liquid jet power plant, which is
used for maneuvers in orbit, as well as for the descent of the spacecraft. This
power plant has a duplicate. The thrust of each is 400 kilograms. Depending
on the flight program and on the corresponding refuelling of the power
plant, the Soyuz can carry out maneuvers up to a height of 1,3 00 kilometers.
He went on to say that the spacecraft Soyuz-s and Soyuz-3 had the task
of improving the automatic spacecraft systems and equipment, particularly,
the automatic rendezvous system, also to give a finishing touch to the manual
control regimes of the spacecraft and to carry out scientific and technical
experiments.
The flight program was fully carried out. The correctness of the technical
solutions which formed the basis of this new type of manned spacecraft
intended for research in a near-earth orbit, was confirmed.
Next, O.G . G azenko, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy
of Sciences, addressed the press conference.
He said that the vast scientific information received through the spacecraft
Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 was being processed and the results would be publi-
shed in detail in special scientific journals. But even now one could
make some preliminary conclusions about the medico-biological investi-
gations. These investigations served the scientific and practical purposes
of checking the health and working capacity of the astronaut, as well as
the lifesaving systems during flight.
A preliminary analysis of the telemetric information affirms the efficiency
of the lifesaving systems during the flight. As has already been reported in
TASS announcements, the hygienic conditions in the spacecraft compart-
ments were maintained at a prescribed level. Thus, the general pressure
varied between 755 and 83 0 mm Hg while the partial pressure of oxygen
was 2 00 mm Hg. The temperature and humidity of air were also maintained
within comfortable limits.
The scientist stressed that the flight program was made keeping in mind
the usual " earthly" rhythm of life. The astronaut took food, did physical
exercises, worked and took rest approximately at the same time as he used
58
to on the earth. There was a wide variety of food, rich in. food value and
vitamins (2 ,600 large calories per day).
O.G . G azenko pointed out that G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi was
well prepared for the action of dynamic factors during flight. During the
active phase of the spacecraft's entry into orbit some increase in the respira-
tion rate and the pulse rate was adequate for the acting acceleration forces.
Thus the pulse rate was about 100 per minute, while the respiration rate
was about 3 0.
At the time of changing over to the orbital phase of flight, the astronaut
clearly felt the emergence of the state of weightlessness, and an increase
in the pulse rate was noticed. But during the first few circuits G eorgii Timofee-
vich Beregovoi's organism got completely adjusted to the flight conditions.
During the remaining days of flight, the pulse and respiration rates were
approximately the same as on earth. There were no noticeable changes
in the electro-cardiogram or in the seismo-cardiogram.
The astronaut was feeling well and had a good appetite. The dynamics
of the recorded physiological parameters reflected the normal periodicity
during 2 4 hours. The astronaut enjoyed good sleep also. Different working
operations and physical loads were accompanied by adequate reactions of
the physiological systems of the organism. The maintenance of a high working
capacity enabled the astronaut to carry out successfully an exhaustive pro-
gram of scientific and technical experiments.
G reat attention was paid to radiation protection. The solar activity
observation system included astrophysical observatories and heleophysical
stations, situated indifferent regions of the Soviet Union, which were regularly
making optical, magnetic and radio observations of the sun. The dose
received by the astronaut due to primary cosmic radiation and trapped
radiation was as predicted and of no danger to the astronaut.
The scientist revealed that the detailed clinical and physiological checkups
after the flight did not show any substantial change in the astronaut's state
of health.
Only a moderate and temporary decrease in some functional characteristics
of the cardiovascular system, a minor feeling of overall exhaustion and a
loss of about 2 kilograms in weight were recorded.
The journalists welcomed with a big ovation Twice Hero of the Soviet
Union, Pilot-Astronaut G .T. Beregovoi as he mounted the rostrum. His
story of his ride to the stars was heard with great interest.
He said that after the entry of the spacecraft Soyuz-3 into orbit, the pro-
gram envisaged rendezvous with Soyuz-2 and joint maneuvering. Moreover,
the approach up to a distance of 2 00 meters was to be carried out automati-
cally, but further rendezvous and maneuvers were to be carried out with
the help of manual control.
G .T. Beregovoi further said that even at the stage of automatic rendezvous
59
he saw Soyuz-2 , and had the chance of controlling the operation of the
automatic machines after the completion of the maneuver. Twice the rendez-
vous was carried out according to the flight program with great
accuracy.
The astronaut mentioned the exceptionally high qualities and maneuvering
performance of Soyuz-3 , as well as the high reliability and efficiency of the
functioning of the automatic systems and the manual control.
He stressed that as a test pilot he was extremely satisfied with the potential-
ities of the spacecraft. It is easy to control and submits easily to the will
of the astronaut. The processes during dynamic conditions are controlled
in a simple and infallible manner by a well-planned indicator system on
the control panel. The astronaut mentioned that Soyuz-3 is a spacecraft
of new type and has many more potentialities than the Vostok or Voskhod.
11 differs from them not only in being much bigger in size and layout, but
also in the design of the spacecraft systems. The flight of this type of space-
craft greatly increases the prospects for solving different astroiiautical
problems.
The astronaut added: " Throughout the whole flight I had steady and
reliable radio contact with the earth, which was carried out on different
wave bands.
" While in orbit, I received a congratulatory radio telegram from the
Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presi-
dium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR,
which deeply touched me, I can't express my gratitude for those kind and
warm words which I received when I was on board the spacecraft. My
motherland, having sent me to outer space, did not forget me for a single
moment.
" The TV programs I transmitted during the flight illustrating the craft
and its features gave me great pleasure. TheTVsystemsfunctioned accurately.
For example in a session after conducting experiments on the observation
of heavenly bodies, I demonstrated the schematic drawing of the passage
of stars from the spacecraft log. My colleagues on earth, who received this
telecast, were quite satisfied with it. During the flight, the feeling of great
distance between us was completely lost. We had intimate talks when I
showed them the graphs and schematic drawings. Only sometimes my
colleagues on earth requested me to slightly change the position of the
logbook before the TV camera lens. It was felt as if we were sitting together
and discussing.
" The spacecraft's re-entry was guided, with the use of aerodynamic
control, and the landing was in a predetermined region.
" Before descent, I carried out the spatial orientation of the spacecraft
with the help of the manual control system and then switched on the program
of automatic descent. The retro-system stopped working exactly at the
60
prescribed time after imparting the necessary thrust. The spacecraft entered
the dense atmospheric layers. While passing through them the system for
guided descent was switched on.
" The landing was carried out with the help of the parachute systems,
and when very close to the earth, the engines for soft-landing were put into
action. How accurate the landing was, can be judged from the fact that
before getting out of the vehicle I saw through the window the smiling face
of a man from the search squad. A helicopter was waiting for me near the
landing site."
G .T. Beregovoi continued, " Finally I would like to express my sincere
thanks to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and to the Soviet
G overnment for the faith shown in me by permitting me to carry out this
space flight.
" Please permit me once again to convey my sincere gratitude to the great
Soviet people and to the Communist Party, which brought me up, educated
me and gave me the opportunity to become a test pilot in aviation and then
in space. I am extremely thankful to the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers,
technicians and workers, who created the wonderful Soyuz-3 spacecraft.
I am thankful to my fellow-astronauts and to all others who trained me and
helped me accomplish the flight.
" I, being a son of the multinational Soviet people, am happy that I could
carry out the task entrusted to me by my motherland. For the cause of
progress, peace and happiness, I am ready to carry out any task given to me
by the Party, government and people."
The scientists, engineers, designers, technicians and workers dedicated the
flight of the spacecraft Sqyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 to the 515! anniversary of the
G reat October Revolution.
Afterward, the astronaut and the scientists answered questions put by the
journalists.
(TASS)
Pravda, November 6, 1968
ON THE WAY TO SPACE STATIONS
The Soviet scientists and designers have marked the occasion of the 5151
anniversary of the G reat October Revolution with a new achievement in the
conquest of space. The flight of the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 and the
manned spacecraft Soyuz-3 , piloted by astronaut G eorgii Timofeevich
Beregovoi, has been accomplished successfully.
6l
During the 4-day flight of Soyuz-3 a number of maneuvers \vcre carried
out with the help of automatic and manual control systems. Twice,
rendezvous with the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 was carried out.
A complete set of tests for spacecraft systems in the course of flight has
been accomplished. A large number of scientific investigations and observa-
tions of the starry sky, the earth and the stars, photography of the cloud and
snow covers of the earth and of the earth horizon during daytime and at
dusk, observations of typhoons and cyclones, and some medico-biological
investigations in spaceflight conditions were carried out.
The flights of the spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 constitute an important
step toward the perfecting of manned spacecraft which can maneuver and
toward the building of space stations for scientific and economic purposes.
The Soyuz type spacecraft signify a new stage in the development of manned
space vechicles. The two living compartments (astronaut's cabin and the
compartment for scientific research and rest), reliable spacecraft systems,
economical power plants, a variety of scientific equipment, and big spatial
maneuvering potentialities, enable the Soyuz spacecraft to carry out an
extensive program of complex investigations.
The Soviet space program in the field of manned flights is marked by a
series of successive stages.
The first manned space flight of Yurii Alekseevich G agarin in the Vostok
demonstrated the feasibility of manned space flight. The 2 5-hour flight by
G erman Stepanovich Titov gave valuable information for the preparation
of longer manned space flights which followed. The first group flights by the
Soviet astronauts A.G . Nikolaev and P.R. Popovich, and V.F. Bykovskii
and the first woman astronaut V. V. Tereshkova, proved the possibility of a
prolonged manned spaceflight fora number of days. In the process of these
flights an extensive program of medico-biological and scientific investi-
gations was carried out and information for the perfecting of space technology
was received.
A new achievement was the creation of the multiseatcr Voskhod spacecraft.
The flight by the Pilot-Astronaut V.M. Komarov, Scientist-Astronaut
K.P. Feoktistov and Doctor-Astronaut B.B. Egorov demonstrated the new
potentialities of Soviet space technology. This outstanding experiment
enabled the study of the working capacity and reciprocity in a group flight
of astronauts who were specialists in science and technology. It also enabled
the carrying out of various physico-technical and medico-biological
investigations in space.
During the second multiseater Voskhod-2 flight, for the first time in the
history of mankind, astronaut A.A. Leonov carried out extravehicular
operations, thus proving the possibility for astronauts to stay and work in
free space.
For the first time in the history of astronautics, an automatic docking of
two artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 was carried out on
October 3 0, 1967. On April 15, 1968, this experiment was successfully
repeated by the artificial satellite Kosmos-2 12 and Kosmos-zi^. In these ways
the most complicated scientific and technical problems were brilliantly
solved.
The operations in the Soyuz program are meant for the further study of
near-earth space. They also envisage a big program of scientific and techni-
cal investigations, and afterwards, the building of inhabited space stations.
The scientific and technical tasks which can be carried out with the help
of Soyuz spacecraft are:
- allround investigations of the earth and its atmosphere, for more
successful solutions to astrophysical, geophysical and space navigational
problems;
study of problems concerning the conditions that prevail in near-earth
space (high vacuum, weightlessness, radiation) for scientific and practical
purposes;
study of the sun, stars, planets and their satellite.
The capacity of the Soyuz spacecraft to maneuver in outer space, approach
another space vehicle and maneuver in its vicinity, has great importance
in the creation of scientific stations directly in orbit by assembling inde-
pendent parts launched into orbit.
Design of the Spacecraft Soyuz
While designing the spacecraft, special attention was paid to the creation of
suitable conditions for the astronaut's working and living at the time of
launching, orbiting and descent. The perfected construction and equipment
of the spacecraft and its high maneuverability give it great potential for
use as a long term scientific laboratory in outer space.
The Soyuz consists of the following main compartments (Fig. 4): orbital
compartment (Fig. 5), which is a scientific laboratory for the astronaut to
conduct scientific research and for rest; pilot's cabin-cum-landing vehicle
(Fig. 6) is intended for the launching of the crew into orbit and recovery
on earth; instrument-cum-equipment compartment, containing apparatus
and equipment of the main spacecraft systems and power plants.
The orbital compartment is situated in the front portion of the spacecraft
and is connected with the landing vehicle by a hermetic hatch. The large
size of the working compartment of the spacecraft (up to 9 cubic meters)
assures the astronaut's comfort while working and while resting. Behind the
landing vehicle is the instrument-cum-equipment compartment.
During the launching into orbit, the spacecraft is protected from the
reaction of aerodynamic and thermal loads by the nose fairing, which is
dropped after passing the dense atmospheric layers.
Fig. 4. Soyuz-3
1. orbital compartment; 2. access hatch; 3. astronaut's cabin; 4. astronaut's working
place; 5. resting place; 6. instrument-cum-equipment compartment: 7. solar batteries
Fig. 5. Orbital compartment of the Soyuz. Fig. 6. Landing vehicle of the Soyuz.
64
The orbital compartment is a room, a sort of laboratory, suitable for
working. Here the astronaut can carry on scientific research, do the necessary
physical exercises and eat. The compartment contains outfits for the
astronaut's work, rest and sleep. The control and communication equipment,
portable TV camera, movie and photographic cameras and scientific
apparatus are arranged at the working place near the windows in the zones
where they can be easily operated. Depending on the tasks of a particular
flight, the composition of the scientific apparatus can vary. The compartment
has four windows, through which the scientific observations and photographs
are taken.
The orbital compartment has, besides the equipment for special radio
communications, an all-wave radio for receiving programs from radio
stations on the earth. The astronaut transmits the telecast of the internal
structure of the compartments and the surroundings outside with the help
of a portable TV camera. The results of the observations are either recorded
on the dectaphone or in the spacecraft log.
The cabin body is hermetic. On its outer surface there is a special heat
insulation layer for protecting it from intensive aerodynamic heating during
descent. Because of this outer heat insulation layer on the landing vehicle
and because of the internal heat insulation layer in the cabin, which also
helps in sound insulation, the temperature in the cabin at the moment of
landing does not exceed 2 5-3 OC.
In the cabin there is an easy-chair for the astronaut. The astronaut's
position in the chair and his position with respect to the acceleration forces,
as well as the modelling of the chair according to the astronaut's body,
enable the astronaut to endure high acceleration forces.
The radio equipment for communications, instruments for descent control
and the lifesaving system are fitted in the astronaut's cabin. The main para-
chute system and the emergency parachute system are accommodated in a
special container. The jet engines of the control system and engines for soft-
landing are fitted on the case. Directly in front of the pilot is the space-
craft control panel. The instruments for the control of the operations of the
spacecraft systems and assemblies, navigational equipment, TV screen and
key switches for the control of the systems, are arranged on the control panel.
Next to the panel an optical sighting device is fitted on a special window.
On the sides of the chair there are two levers for spacecraft control. The
right one is for the attitude control around the center of mass, while the
left one is for changing the linear velocity of the spacecraft at the time of
maneuvering. On the left and right sides there are windows for visual
observations, motion-picture filming and photography.
The spacecraft equipment ensures the possibility of a completely autono-
mous flight and piloting of the spacecraft without any participation of the
ground control system.
The containers with water and food products are installed in the
astronaut's cabin. In the upper part of the landing vehicle there is a
door for the astronaut's entry into the orbital compartment of the spacecraft.
During all the phases of flight, the normal atmospheric pressure, humidity
and temperature are maintained in the pressurized cabin with the help of
thermal control and regenerative systems. Thanks to the hermetic construc-
tion of the spacecraft, the astronaut can remain in the cabin in ordinary
flight dress without any spacesuit.
The cabin-cum-landing vehicle of the Soyuz has a number of advantages
over the cabins of the earlier spacecraft. The shape of the landing vehicle
provides thenecessary aerodynamic lift during the motion in the atmosphere.
Here the motion is controlled by changing the magnitude of the lift.
The descent trajectory and the use of the aerodynamic control makes it
possible to reduce the acceleration forces acting on the crew at the downward
trajectory, to 3 -4 units (as compared to 8-10 units in the ballistic re-entry
of the earlier vehicles). The re-entry control is affected not only by the
magnitude of the lift, but also by the direction of the overall aerodynamic
force acting on the vehicle. Thus there is a possibility of maneuvering in the
atmosphere with regard to height as well as direction of flight, which increases
the accuracy of the vehicle landing. In case of an emergency, ballistic re-
entry is also possible.
During descent from the orbit, after atmospheric deceleration of the vehi-
cle, the deceleration parachute comes into operation at a height of about 9
kilometers. Then the main canopy of the parachute opens upon which the
landing is carried out. J ust before landing, at a height of about one meter,
the gunpowder braking engines for soft-landing start functioning. Thus the
velocity at the time of landing does not exceed 2 -3 meters per second.
A special automatic system controls the landing devices.
For the detection of the vehicle after landing, there are radio systems
which carry out the direction finding during the parachuting phase and
after the landing or splashing. The radio devices operate in different wave-
bands which enables detection from various distances by ground aviation
and fleet stations.
The instrument-cum-equipment compartment is for containing the main
equipment and power plant, which work while the spacecraft is orbiting.
The apparatus and the equipment are accommodated in a sealed instrument
compartment, inside which the conditions necessary for normal functioning of
the apparatus are maintained. It contains the assemblies of the thermal control
system, common power system, apparatus for long-distance radio communi-
cations and radio telemetry, and instruments for the orientation system and
for computer control. In the unsealed part of the compartment there is the
liquid-propelled jet engine system used for maneuvers in orbit as well as
for the descent. This system has two motors (main and duplicate), each
66
having a thrust of 400 kilograms. It must be noted that the motor system of
the Soyuz spacecraft enables maneuvering up to a height of 1,3 00 kilometers.
For orientation and moving of the spacecraft during maneuvers, there is
a low-thrust power plant.
Outside the equipment compartment there are sensors for the orientation
system. Solar batteries with a useful area of 14 square meters, and the main
antenna and feeder devices of the spacecraft radio systemwhich ensure
radio communications with ground controlare fitted on the instrument-
cum-equipment compartment.
Main systems on board the spacecraft
The system for orientation and motion control is one of the main systems of
the spacecraft. It carries out spatial orientation of the spacecraft, stabili-
zation at the time of operation of the motors and control during the processes
of orbital corrections, rendezvous with other space vehicles and maneuvering
near them. The system can be operated automatically as well as manually.
It consists of: a number of orientation sensors and an optical sighting device
for orientation by the astronaut, gyroscopic instruments and electronic
computer units for control, radio technical devices for detection and guidance
at the time of rendezvous, and the system of actuating organs, i.e. low thrust
engines.
In order that the solar batteries are illuminated all the time, there is
provision for their solar orientation with the rotation of the spacecraft around
its axis to the sun, at a rate of a few degrees per second. The apparatus on
board gets power from the central power system.
The TV system on board has 4 cameras (2 in the spacecraft compartments
and 2 outside) which ensure a high quality standard TV broadcast (62 5
lines with 2 5 frames per second), capable of relaying directly into the TV
network on the earth. During the flight of Soyuz-g astronaut G .T. Beregovoi
more than once conducted TV reports while in orbit. He made use of the
portable camera for showing the arrangements in the spacecraft and also
depicted the earth through the windows.
The Soyuz-3 is fitted with an automatic docking system which was tested
twice during the flights of the Kosmos satellite and was found to be fully
reliable.
The systems on board the spacecraft can be controlled by the astronaut
from the panel, as well as automatically by signals from the earth.
The multi-channel telemetric systems of the spacecraft enable the trans-
mission of a large amount of information. During the flight of the spacecraft
outside the ground control, radiovisibility zone, the gauging information is
accumulated in the spatial data-storage device and is transmitted to the
earth during the next session of radio communications.
6?
The lifesaving systems' complex creates the necessary physiological and
hygienic conditions for the crew on board.
The air regenerative system contains stocks of alkali metals which absorb
carbon dioxide and at the same time generate oxygen. This system functions
automatically and maintains in the living compartments the same gas
composition as on the earth. The same system absorbs other harmful
ingredients exhaled by the astronaut into the atmosphere.
The temperature regime in the spacecraft compartments is maintained
by the thermal control system. It ensures not only the required temperature,
but also the necessary humidity in the spacecraft compartments where the
astronaut lives. For this purpose, the heat transfer devices, simultaneously
with the temperature control, condense the excessive moisture contained in
the atmosphere of the living compartments and collect it in special moisture-
collectors. The astronaut can change the temperature level and humidity in
the compartments according to his wishes.
Medico-biological maintenance
Active participation by the astronaut in control necessitated the widening
of the astronaut's training program. For training in approximately the same
conditions which prevail during flight, special simulators were built.
The regime of the astronaut's work and rest during the flight of the Soyuz-j,
was based on the continuity of a cycle (sleeping-waking), which corres-
ponded to the normal day and night on the earth. About 8 hours were set
apart for sleep. The astronaut used to sleep in the orbital compartment
tied to a sofa, so as not to " float" in the state of weightlessness. After getting
up, the astronaut would do different physical exercises for 2 5 minutes. G .T.
Beregovoi's meals for a day consisted of breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper.
Regular medical control of the astronaut's health during the flight was
accomplished with the help of the telemetric system. In case of need, the
astronaut could make use of the first-aid outfit on board.
The construction of the Soyuz ensures the safety of the crew from cosmic
radiation.
J oint action of spacecraft in orbit
As is well known, first Soyuz-2 was launched into orbit on October 2 5.
On October 2 6, at 113 4 hours Moscow time, when Soyuz-2 was passing over
the area of the cosmodrome, Soyuz-3 piloted by astronaut G .T. Beregovoi,
was launched into orbit. After its separation from the carrier rocket, Soyuz-3
carried out radio search of Soyuz-2 and then the process of rendezvous started.
After an automatic approach up to a distance of 2 00 meters, the further
closing up was carried out under the astronaut's control. After the comple-
68
tion of this operation, the spacecraft departed up to a distance of 565 kilo-
meters and then again approached close. When the spacecraft approached
close for the second time, G .T. Beregovoi took photographs of Soyuz-2 and
measured the parameters of the relative motion of the two spacecraft.
After the completion of the joint experiments, the spacecraft Soyuz-2 was
recovered on the earth.
Soyuz-3 continued its independent flight according to the envisaged
program for perfecting the systems and equipment on board. During this
period the astronaut tested the different processes of spacecraft orientation
and carried out maneuvers in orbit by putting the power plants into
operation. Regular TV broadcasts were transmitted from Soyuz-3 during
its flight. G .T. Beregovoi himself transmitted TV reports.
Soyuz-3 successfully completed its flight on October 3 0, after fulfilling
the scheduled program of investigations. After decelerating, the landing
vehicle was separated from the spacecraft. It made a guided re-entry into
the atmosphere, using aerodynamic control, and made a soft-landing in a
predetermined area.
The joint flight of the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 and manned space-
craft Soyuz-3 , piloted by astronaut G .T. Beregovoi, was successfully comple-
ted. It confirmed the correctness of the technical principles, forming the
basis of the construction of this new type of spacecraft, which has wide
maneuvering potentialities. The rationale of its construction and reliability
of the systems on board were proved. The processes of orbital maneuvering
with automatic and manual control were perfected. New important data
were received as a result of the scientific and technical experiments conducted.
The flights of the spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 denote anew step toward
the perfecting of manned maneuvering spacecraft and toward the building of
orbital stations.
(TASS)
Pravda, November 17, 1968
G AG ARIN MEDAL FOR SOVIET ASTRONAUT
The Council of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) decided
at a meeting in Paris to award the G agarin G old Medal to the Soviet
astronaut, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi.
As is well known, this medal, instituted in honor of the first man in outer
space, is now awarded by the FAI every year for the best performance in
the conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes.
Astronaut G .T. Beregovoi is the first recipient of the G agarin Medal.
Simultaneously, the FAI awarded a gold medal to Academician
S.V. Il'yiishin for his contribution to the development of aviation. The
certificate of honor was also awarded to the team of the designing bureau,
headed by Academician A.N. Tupolev.
The Council has decided to award the " Kosmos" gold medal to the
crew of the U.S. spacecraft Apollo-8. Earlier, A. Nikolaev, P. Popovich,
V. Nikolaeva-Tereshkova, V. Komarov, K. Feoktistov, B. Egorov and
A. Leonov had received this medal.
(TASS)
Pravda, May 6, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOTUZ-4 IN ORBIT
Today, J anuary 14, 1969, at 103 9 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz-4 space-
craft was launched into orbit as an artificial earth satellite by a powerful
carrier-rocket.
The spacecraft is piloted by Soviet citizen, Pilot-Astronaut Lieutenant-
Colonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov.
The orbital parameters of Soyuz-4 are close to those calculated, viz:
orbital period 88.2 5 min;
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) -2 2 5 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) - 173 km;
orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
A steady two-way radio contact has been established with Soyuz-4-
Communications from the spacecraft are transmitted at a frequency of
2 0.008 megahertz.
According to Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov's report and the telemetric
measurement data, he is in good health.
The systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally and are
maintaining pressure and temperature within the prescribed limits.
Pilot-Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov has started working
011 the flight program.
The Soyuz-4 continues its flight. Steady radio contact has been maintained
with Lieutenant-Colonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov since the
70
Commander of the Soyuz-4 spacecraft, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov.
launching and entry into orbit. He reported that he felt well during the
launch, and that the spacecraft systems are functioning normally.
The astronaut has begun to work on the flight program and carried out
the sun orientation of the spacecraft.
Comrade Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov is feeling excellent.
According to the astronaut's report and the telemetric data, all the space-
craft systems are functioning normally. TV observation of the astronaut's
condition and his actions is being carried out.
The reception from the spacecraft to the earth is good.
The launching of the carrier-rocket with Soyuz-4 was relayed through
the central TV network.
The flight of Soyuz-4 continues.
Soyuz-4 completed 3 circuits around the earth at about 1500 hours Moscow
time on J anuary 14.
During a normal session of radio communication with Soyuz-4 Lieutenant-
Colonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov reported that he had completed
the flight program experiments and scientific investigations envisaged for
the first three circuits. In the course of manual orientation, the spacecraft
accurately carried out all the maneuvers and its solar batteries were exactly
directed toward the sun, which ensured a normal power supply for its systems.
Comrade Shatalov conducted observations of the cloud layers and of the
earth's surface. He also transmitted a TV report from the spacecraft. The
quality of the TV broadcast was good. During the second circuit Vladimir
Aleksandrovich ate with a good appetite. The Pilot-Astronaut is feeling
well. The pulse rate is 66 per minute, and respiration 18 per minute.
During the second circuit, the astronaut shifted to the orbital compart-
ment for conducting experiments.
The systems on board the spacecraft Soyuz-4 are functioning normally:
the pressure in the cabin is 800 mm Hg and the temperature is igC.
Pilot-Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov continues to carry
out the scheduled program of experiments and research.
On J anuary 14, at 1800 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz-4 completed four
circuits of the earth.
During the usual session of radio communications with the earth, Pilot-
Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov reported that the flight
program was being fulfilled successfully. According to his report and tele-
metric information, the astronaut is feeling well. The systems on board the
spacecraft are functioning normally.
As envisaged in the flight program, the astronaut carried out orientation
of the spacecraft during the fourth circuit, while on the fifth circuit he carried
out the correction of orbit for Soyuz-4 with the help of the power plant.
The orbital parameters after correction are as follows:
orbital period 88.75 min;
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) 2 3 7 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 2 07 km;
orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
TV broadcasts from the spacecraft continued. In these broadcasts Comrade
Shatalov spoke about the construction of the astronaut's cabin and its
equipment.
The spacecraft Soyuz-4
W
'U remain outside the zone of Soviet radiovisibility
from 1816 hours, J anuary 14 to 0412 hours, J anuary 15.
The astronaut will rest from 2 000 hours on J anuary 14 to 03 00 hours on
J anuary 15.
Pravda, J anuary 15, 1969
SOYUZ-4 COMMANDER,
COMRADE V.A. SHATALOV'S STATEMENT
BEFORE LAUNCHING
Dear Comrades and Friends!
Already two months have passed since my colleague and friend G eorgii
Timofeevich Beregovoi accomplished a 4-day flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-3 -
It is a great honor for me to continue the experiments in these wonderful
Soyuz spacecraft. I am eager to fulfill this honorable task delegated to me by
the motherland. Departing for this long journey, I assure the Central Com-
mittee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet G overn-
ment that I shall devote all my strength and knowledge to fulfilling the tasks
entrusted to me.
G oodbye, dear friends!
See you soon on the earth!
(TASS)
Pravda, J anuary 15, 1969
Biographical notes
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov was born on December 8, 192 7 in the
town of Petropavlovsk in Severe-Kazakhstan district. He spent his childhood
in Leningrad.
Since childhood Vladimir had been interested in aviation. He completed
the Special Air Force School and the school for the initial training of pilots.
In 1945 he joined the Kachinsk Air Force College as a student.
After completing the college, Vladimir Aleksandrovich worked as an
instructor pilot. In 1953 he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
In the same year he was admitted to the Red Banner Air Force Academy,
which he successfully completed in 1956.
After the completion of his studies at the Academy, V.A. Shatalov worked
at key positions in the aviation wing of the Soviet Army.
In J anuary 1963 , Vladimir Aleksandrovich was admitted to the detach-
ment of astronauts.
73
When the spacecraft Soyuz-3 was launched, Shatalov was a double for
G eorgii Timofeevich Beregovoi.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich is married. His wife Muza Andreevna who is a
Ph. D. in agriculture, works in the USSR Ministry of Agriculture.
The Shatalovs have two children. Igor' is a student in the tenth grade,
while daughter Elena is studying in the fourth grade.
The astronaut's mother Zoya Vladimirovna and father Aleksandr Boriso-
vich are pensioners.
Earlier the father worked on the railroad where he was awarded the title
of Hero of Socialist Labor in 1943 .
Pravda, J anuary 15, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
TWO SOVIET SPACECRAFT IN ORBIT
On J anuary 15, 1969, at 1014 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-5
with a crew of three astronauts on board, was launched into orbit as an
artificial earth satellite.
The following Soviet Pilot-Astronauts are on board the spacecraft : Com-
mander of the spacecraft, Lieutenant-Colonel Boris Valentinovich Volynov
and crew membersSpace Engineer Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev,
Kandidat of Technical Sciences, and Research Engineer Lieutenant-
Colonel Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov.
The spacecraft was launched into a precalculated orbit with the following
parameters :
orbital period 88.7 min;
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) - 2 3 0 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 2 00 km;
orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
After the launching of Soyuz-5 into orbit, its commander, Boris Valentino-
vich Volynov, established two-way radio contact with the earth and the
second spacecraft Soyuz-4-
As reported by Comrade B.V. Volynov, he and the members of the crew
are in good health. The temperature and pressure in the spacecraft compart-
ments are normal.
The commanders of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, Comrades Vladimir
Aleksandrovich Shatalov and Boris Valentinovich Volynov have reported
that they have started working on the program of joint experiments in
outer space.
74
Commander of Soyuz-5. Boris Valentinovich Volynov.
On J anuary 15, at 0412 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4 while making its
13 th circuit around the earth, entered the radiovisibility zone of the Soviet
Far-East observation posts.
Thus began a new working day for Comrade Vladimir Altksandrovich
Shatalov in outer space. After doing physical exercises and taking breakfast
according to schedule, the astronaut checked the spacecraft systems, regulated
the clock and began work on the program for the second day's flight. In
particular, he conducted observations of the luminous particles, and took
photographs of the cloud and snow covers of the earth, and of the day and
dusk horizons of the earth.
A session of radio communications with the astronaut was conducted.
According to the data transmitted from the spacecraft, Comrade Vladimir
Aleksandrovich Shatalov is in excellent condition. Arterial pressure and
75
pulse are normal. His organism is well adjusted to the conditions of space
flight.
At 0900 hours Moscow time, on J anuary 15, 1969 Soyuz-4 had completed
its 15th circuit around the earth.
The astronaut's second working day continues successfully.
After rotating the spacecraft with the help of the manual control systems
to orientate the solar batteries toward the sun for the recharging of the
chemical sources of current, and after reporting the success of this operation,
Comrade Shatalov continued the experiments envisaged by the program.
It included observation of the cloud and snow covers of the earth and of
geological and geographical objects on the earth's surface.
Space Engineer of Soyuz-5, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.
As scheduled, the radio and TV broadcasts were held from the spacecraft
cabin. A TV report was transmitted also from the orbital compartment,
where the astronaut conducted experiments and rested.
According to the information received from the spacecraft, the pressure,
humidity and the temperature in the cabin and orbital compartments are
normal.
Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov is in excellent health and feeling fine.
The Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 spacecraft continue in their orbits. At 13 00
hours Moscow time on J anuary 15, 1969, Soyuz-4 had completed its 18th
circuit of the earth, while Soyuz-5 had completed its second.
The commander of Soyuz-4, Comrade V.A. Shatalov reported that he
had observed the entry of Soyuz-5 into orbit.
Comrade B.V. Volynov, commander of Soyuz-5, carried out manual sun-
orientation of the spacecraft and afterward took observations of the heavenly
Research Engineer of Soyuz-5, Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov
77
bodies. Space Engineer A.S. Eliseev and Research Engineer E.V. Khrunov
took still and cine pictures of the cabin interior.
Comrade B.V. Volynov conducted a TV report from the astronaut's
cabin and orbital compartment. During the telecast, Engineer Khrunov
introduced the other members of the crew of Soyuz-5 and also showed the
place of work of each astronaut. The observation posts received a clear TV
broadcast from the spacecraft.
The reports from Soyuz-5 are transmitted at a frequency of 15.008 mega-
hertz.
The spacecraft crew conducted scientific investigations according to the
program. The crew members ate according to the prescribed diet for the day.
As reported by the crew commanders the temperature and air pressure
in the compartments of both Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 were normal.
At 173 0 hours Moscow time on J anuary 15, 1969, Soyuz-4
na
d completed
2 1 and Soyuz-5, 5 circuits of the earth.
According to the work schedule, the crew moved from the astronaut's
cabin into the orbital compartment and carried out the envisaged program
of experiments and scientific investigations during flight.
Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov carried out medical investigations. He took
observations of the earth's horizon and its brightness.
In the radio communications the commander of Soyuz-4 reported that he
was happy to learn about the launching of Soyuz-5 carrying his friends into
orbit. He remarked that any job is easier with a friendly team.
The crew of the spacecraft Soyuz-5 took cine pictures of the inside of the
astronaut's cabin and performed an extensive program of scientific investiga-
tions. In particular, they observed the heavenly bodies in an oriented position,
studied the passage of radio waves through the ionosphere, carried out
medical investigations and took observations of geological and geographical
features on the earth's surface. Research Engineer Khrunov took navigational
measurements.
The crew members of Soyuz-5 congratulated all who had built their space-
craft.
According to the telemetric data and the reports from Comrades Shatalov
and Volynov, all the systems continue to function normally. The astronauts
are all in good health and feeling fine. They are all eating with a good ap-
petite. Their food includes dehydrated products and normal food, such as
soup " Kharcho" , chicken fillet, chocolate and different juices etc.
The flights of Soyuz-4
an
d Soyuz-5
are we
'l safeguarded by ground and
control measurement assemblies. A network of observation posts is spread
throughout the Soviet Union, right from its European border up to the
Pacific. These observation postsequipped with devices for trajectory and
78
telemetric measurements, television broadcasts and communications, radio
stations for giving commands and other equipment for control and observa-
tionare continuously receiving and processing the information from the
spacecraft and are in direct touch with the crews. The scientific research
ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences Morzhovets and Nevel' in the Bay of
G uinea, and Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov in the northwest Atlantic are also
taking part in control and measurement work.
On J anuary 15, 1900 hours Moscow time Soyuz-4 completed its 2 2 nd and
Soyuz-5, i
ts
6th circuit around the earth.
After checking the working of the systems on board, the Soyuz-4 com-
mander, Shatalov, will move to the orbital compartment to rest.
The work of the first day's program on Soyuz-5 is near completion. B.V.
Volynov carried out manual orientation of the spacecraft. After that, the
power plant was switched on and the spacecraft shifted to a new orbit with
the following parameters :
orbital period 88.92 min;
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) 2 53 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 2 11 km;
orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
During a telecast from the Soyuz-5, the astronauts demonstrated the state
of weightlessness.
All the systems are functioning perfectly. The astronauts are feeling well.
After an intensive working day the crew will move to the orbital compart-
ment to rest.
The flights of Soyuz-4
an
^ Soyuz-5 are continuing successfully.
From 2 000 hours on J anuary 15 up to 0400 hours on J anuary 16, the crew
of both spacecraft rested. After performing a set of physical exercises, toilet
hygiene and breakfasting, the astronauts entered upon another day's work
program. As reported by commanders Shatalov and Volynov, and supported
by the telemetric measurements, all the systems of both spacecraft are
functioning normally. The temperature and pressure in the compartments
are being maintained within the prescribed limits. All the astronauts
are feeling well.
The scientific, technical and medico-biological investigations continue.
Pravda, J anuary 16, 1969
79
STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF THE
SOTUZ-5 SPACECRAFT, COMRADE B.V.
VOLYNOV BEFORE THE START
Dear Comrades and Friends!
Soviet space science and technology are gradually solving the most dif-
ficult problems of space research.
Yesterday we saw off Pilot-Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov
on his space journey. Today, my Comrades, Pilot-Astronaut Aleksei Stanisla-
vovich Eliseev and Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov and myself, have the great
privilege of carrying out a spaceflight in the multiseater Soyuz-5-
We are proud that we have been entrusted with this mission in the peaceful
conquest of outer space for the progress of humanity.
On behalf of the crew of Soyuz-5, I assure the Central Committee of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the G overnment and people, we shall
faithfully carry out the responsible task entrusted to us by our motherland.
Till we meet again on the earth, dear friends!
G oodbye!
(TASS)
Pravda, J anuary 16, 1969
Biographical notes
Boris Valentinovich Volynov was born on December 18, 193 4 in Irkutsk.
Boris completed his secondary school in Prokop'evsk and then went to
aviation school.
From 1956, after completing Volgograd Air Force College, Boris Valenti-
novich served in the Air Force wing of the Soviet Army. In 1958 he became a
member of the CPSU.
He started his training as an astronaut in 1960. Having successfully comple-
ted training, he was a double for Valerii Bykovskii in 1963 and for G eorgii
Beregovoi.
In 1968 Volynov, while continuing his main work, completed the Zhukov-
skii Air Force Engineering Academy.
Boris Valentinovich is married. His wife Tamara Fedorovna is a metal-
lurgy engineer by profession and works at a machine-tool plant. The Voly-
novs have two children : Andrei, born in 1958, and Tat'yana, born in 1965.
Boris was left without a father at an early age. He was brought up by his
mother Evgeniya Izrailovna, a doctor by profession, now on pension.
Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev was born on J uly 13 , 193 4 in the town of
Ho
Zhizdra in Kaluga district. He spent his childhood in the outskirts of
Moscow, where his family was living.
After finishing secondary school Aleksei joined the Bauman Moscow
Higher Technical College in 1951 and completed it successfully.
While working in a design bureau, Aleksei Stanislavovich defended his
thesis for the Kandidat of Technical Sciences degree in 1967.
From 1966 Eliseev started training as an astronaut. In 1967 he became
a member of the CPSU.
Eliseev's wife, Larisa Ivanovna, works as an engineer in a design bureau.
Their daughter Elena is eight years old. The astronaut's mother, Valentina
Ivanovna, holds a degree of Doctor of Chemical Sciences, and works as a
professor in the Institute of Physical Chemistry under the USSR Academy of
Sciences.
Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov was born on September 10, 193 3 in Prudy,
a village in the Volovsk region of Tula district.
Evgenii finished the seven-year school and agricultural school. From a
young age he was interested in aviation. Evgenii completed the Army Avia-
tion School and in 1953 , became a student of the Aviation College.
After completing college Evgenii Vasil'evich served in the Air Force
wing of the Soviet Army. In 1959 he became a member of the CPSU.
He joined the astronauts' detachment in 1960. While undergoing training,
he was a double for Aleksei Leonov.
In 1968, -Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov completed the Zhukovskii Air
Force Engineering Academy with distinction.
Evgenii Vasil'evich is married. His wife Svetlana AnatoPevna, born in
193 9, is working as a teacher in a secondary school.
The Khrunovs have a son, Valerii, born in 1959. The astronaut's mother,
Agrafena Nikolaevna, is a pensioner.
Praoda, J anuary 16, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
THE FIRST ORBITAL STATION IN THE WORLD IS SOVIET!
Morning
On J anuary 16 at 0900 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4 and Sqyuz-5 completed
their 3 2 nd and I5th circuits respectively around the earth.
During the 3 ist circuit the commander of Soyuz-4 V.A. Shatalov carried
out medical investigations and observed the luminous particles.
81
On the 3 2 nd circuit, after orientation of Sqyuz-4 by the manual control
system, the power plant was switched on. The spacecraft shifted into a new
orbit with the following parameters :
orbital period 88.85
m
i
n
>
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) 2 53 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 2 01 km;
orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
During this period the crew of Soyuz-5 carried out a set of scheduled ex-
periments and investigations under the guidance of their commander B.V.
Volynov.
Space Engineer Eliseev continued his observations of geological and
geographical features on the earth's surface and of heavenly bodies and also
took navigational measurements.
Research Engineer Khrunov carried out medical investigations and studied
the passage of radio waves through the ionosphere.
The commanders of the spacecraft reported that all the astronauts are
feeling excellent, and that the systems on board the spacecraft are functioning
normally.
The spacecraft continue in orbit.
Docking of spacecraft
On J anuary 16, 1969, at 112 0 hours Moscow time, manual docking was
successfully carried out by the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5- The docking
took place over Soviet territory, during the 3 4th circuit of Soyuz-4 and the
18th of Soyuz-5. Before docking the crew checked all the systems on board
(Figs. 7 and 8) and reported back to earth. At 103 7 hours the automatic
rendezvous df the spacecraft began (Figs. 9 and 10), and the distance between
the spacecraft was reduced to 100 meters.
Next, V.A. Shatalov, Soyuz-4 commander, changed over to manual control,
and maneuvering the spacecraft carried out " mooring" with Soyuz-ff. After
" mooring" (Fig. 11), the spacecraft mechanically captured each other,
and were coupled by electric circuits. All the systems functioned normally
during the processes of rendezvous, " mooring" and docking. Thus for the
first time in the world an experimental space station was assembled and
started functioning in orbit as an artificial earth satellite. This space station
now had four compartments for the crew, which provide facilities for carrying
out a large number of experiments and investigations, and have comfortable
conditions for work and rest. There is an internal telephone link between
the compartments.
Fig. 7. The Soyuz with its active docking unit.
Fig. 8. The Soyuz with its passive docking unit
83
Fig. 9. A diagram showing the rendezvous of the Soyuz spacecraft.
Fig. 10. Rendezvous of the Soyuz spacecraft.
Fig. 11. "Mooring" of the Soyuz spacecraft. The space station is assembled.
For accomplishing the further flight program, the orbiting space station
was oriented by the commander of Soyuz-5. The rendezvous and docking
operations were relayed to earth by the telecameras on the outer surface of
the spacecraft.
Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov reported that all the systems aboard the space
station are functioning normally. The parameters of microclimate inside
the compartments are within the prescribed limits. The astronauts are
feeling well.
The crew of the space station continue the program of experimental
work. Steady radio contact is being maintained with the astronauts.
The experimental space station continues in orbit.
Unprecedented experiment
On J anuary 16, 1969, the crew of the Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, while continu-
ing their docked flight in orbit, carried out an outstanding new experiment
in outer space.
During the 3 5th circuit, Pilot-Astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev, members
of the Soyuz-5 crew dressed themselves in spacesuits and made an exit into
open space through the door of the orbital compartment. After carrying
out a number of scientific experiments and taking some observations in
space, Eliseev and Khrunov went over and entered the orbital compartment
85
of Soyuz-4- There they took off their spacesuits and occupied their new
working places along with spacecraft commander V.A. Shatalov.
The operations outside the spacecraft and the changeover to another
spacecraft were carried out by the astronauts in spacesuits which had a new
self-contained regenerative type lifesaving system.
Astronauts Eliseev and Khrunov remained together in open outer space
for about an hour.
For the first time in the world two astronauts had moved from one space-
craft into another. This experiment creates the basis for such operations in
outer space as crew replacement for long-term orbital space stations or rescue
of spacecraft crew in case of accident.
The TV systems on board transmitted to the earth the preparations of
the astronauts for their exit into space. The whole process was viewed on the
ground.
The exit of astronaut E.V. Khrunov from the spacecraft, his work in open
space and transfer to the other spacecraft took place over South America
and was registered by the outside cinecamera.
Astronaut Eliseev's exit from the spacecraft, his work in open space and
transfer to the other spacecraft took place over Soviet territory and was
transmitted to the earth by the TV camera.
Steady contact between the astronauts was maintained during the exit
operations and transfer to the other spacecraft. The commanders of Sqyuz-4
and Soyuz-5 reported that all the astronauts are feeling well. The systems
functioned perfectly and enabled the accomplishment of all the operations.
Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 continue in orbit docked together and the program of
scientific investigations continues successfully.
Pravda, J anuary 17, 1969
G REETING S FROM
AND SOYUZ-5
Kremlin, Moscow
From the Soyuz-4
an(
i Soyuz-5 spacecraft we are reporting to the Central
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and to the Soviet
G overnment : the flight is continuing normally; the docking and the transfer
of astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev from Soyuz-5 to Soyuz-4 have been carried
out successfully.
We are feeling well. Our mood is excellent. We heartily thank the Central
Committee of Lenin's Own Party and the Soviet G overnment for the great
trust shown in us.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov
Salutory telegram from the Party and G overnment leaders
to the astronauts, Comrades Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov,
Boris Valentinovich Volynov, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev
and Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov
Dear Comrades!
On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of
Ministers, USSR, we heartily congratulate you for carrying out the maneu-
vers, rendezvous and docking of the Soyuz spacecraft, and for the successful
transfer of astronauts A.S. Eliseev and E.V. Khrunov from Soyuz-5 to
Soyuz-4.
This outstanding achievement confirms the great potential of Soviet science
and technology.
All the Soviet people are proud of you and wish you successful comple-
tion of your task.
We warmly embrace you, and look forward to meeting you on earth.
L. Brezhnev, N. Podgornyi, A. Kosygin
REPLY TO G REETING S
We sincerely thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, for their
warm greetings and concern for us. We are feeling well. We assure them
that the work entrusted to us by our motherland will be fulfilled.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov
TO THE PEOPLE OF THE SOVIET UNION
From the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5
we
warmly greet the great Soviet
people, valiant builders of communism.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov
TO THE PEOPLE OF SOCIALIST NATIONS
From the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5
we
warmly greet the
8?
working people of socialist countries. Let the friendship and cooperation
between our peoples grow and prosper.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov
Pravda, J anuary 17, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SEPARATE FLIG HT AG AIN
As has already been reported, on J anuary 16, at 112 0 hours Moscow
time, the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5docked, thus forming an experimental
space station flying in a near-earth orbit.
During the flight, two astronauts E.V. Khrunov and A.S. Eliseev moved
from, one spacecraft to another and made the first space transfer in history.
During the flight and exit operations into open space, scientific, technical
and medico-biological investigations and experiments were conducted.
After moving to the other spacecraft, the astronauts occupied their new
working places. They carried out experiments on the control of the orbital
station, and checked the reciprocity of the systems.
The orbit of the first experimental space station had the following para-
meters :
orbital period 88.85 min;
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) 2 50 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 2 09 km;
orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
During a radio communications session the commander of the space
station Comrade Shatalov reported that the rendezvous, docking and
transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another were carried out strictly
according to program.
At the time of transfer the astronauts worked efficiently and confidently.
On J anuary 16, at 1555 hours Moscow time, the linked spacecraft Soyuz-4
and Soyuz-5 were undocked. They are now continuing their flights separately.
As reported by the spacecraft commanders and according to the telemetric
data, all the astronauts are in good health. The systems are functioning
normally. The pressure and temperature inside the spacecraft compartments
are within the prescribed limits.
The program of scientific and technical experiments and investigations
in outer space is being successfully carried out by the spacecraft.
After undocking, Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 continued their flights.
The crew of both spacecraft are carrying out their programs successfully.
88
The new members of the Soyuz-4 crew, Khrunov and Eliseev, adjusted
themselves well to their working places. They checked the functioning of
the systems and carried out observations and experiments according to
the flight program. After completing their program of experiments in open
space, the astronauts are feeling well. They said they had no difficulty and
carried out the transfer confidently, since all these operations had been
mastered during their training on earth, which had included flights in air-
craft-laboratories in the condition of weightlessness.
At 183 0 hours Moscow time, Khrunov and Eliseev retired to the orbital
compartment for rest. Shatalov will rest in the spacecraft cabin.
Soyuz-5 commander Volynov, after completing his program at 183 0
hours Moscow time, moved to the orbital compartment to sleep.
The telemctric data and the astronauts' report agree that the crew are
feeling fine and the systems functioning normally.
The group flight of Soyuz-4
an
d Soyuz-5 continues. At i 73 2 hours Moscow
time the spacecraft went outside the Soviet radio visibility zone.
Pravda, J anuary 17, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOYUZ-4 LANDS SAFELY:
SOTUZ-5 STILL IN ORBIT
Today, J anuary 17, 1969, at 0953 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4, piloted
by its commander Comrade Shatalov and crew members Eliseev and
Khrunov, after completing its scheduled space flight landed in a predeter-
mined area in Soviet territory, about 40 kilometers northwest of Karaganda.
The astronauts are feeling well.
Before descent the crew of Soyuz-4 packed the scientific apparatus and
photographic materials in the landing vehicle. Then they fastened themselves
to their seats. The commander of the spacecraft carried out manual orienta-
tion and at a particular moment the landing program was put into action.
At a predetermined point the braking engine was switched on, which
gave a definite impulse; the orbital velocity was decreased and the spacecraft
moved into a descending trajectory (Fig. 12 ).
After the braking engine had been switched off, the landing vehicle with
the astronauts was separated from the orbital compartment. The landing
vehicle made a guided descent through the atmosphere with the use of
aerodynamic control. It reached the predetermined landing area, where
the parachute system and soft-landing engines provided for a smooth landing.
Back on earth, the astronauts Shatalov, Eliseev and Khrunov were met
by the search group, friends, sport commissars and journalists.
Fig. 12. Sketch showing the landing of the Soyuz.
The flight of Soyuz-4 had been successfully completed.
Meanwhile Soyuz-5 continues its flight. Astronaut Volynov is carrying
out the scheduled operations of the flight program. He is feeling excellent.
The spacecraft systems are functioning normally.
Circuit after circuit
Today, J anuary 17, 1969, at 03 3 3 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft
Soyuz-4
an
d Soyuz-5 entered the radiovisibility zone of the Soviet Far-East
observation posts.
After a refreshing sleep and having completed a required set of physical
exercises and toilet hygiene, the astronauts had breakfast with good appetites.
After that they checked the condition of the systems, regulated the clock
and entered upon their work for the third day of the flight program.
The spacecraft commanders carried out a number of experiments and
took observations and photographs according to program.
Astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev recorded the results of their transfer
and work in open space in the spacecraft logbook.
The spacecraft commanders reported that all the members of the crew
are feeling fine and that the spacecraft systems are functioning normally.
The group flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 continues successfully.
At 0900 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4
na
d completed 48 and Soyuz-5,
3 2 circuits of the earth.
The crew of Soyuz-4 took cine photographs, carried out experiments as
per the flight program and transmitted reports from the spacecraft.
The commander of Soyuz-5 tested the control systems and carried
out orientation of his craft.
The systems are functioning normally. Pressure, temperature and relative
humidity in the living compartments are within the prescribed limits.
The astronauts are in excellent spirits. Regular radio contact is main-
tained with them. The quality of the communications is good. The astronauts
of both spacecraft are in a jolly mood and are talking and joking together.
On J anuary 17, at 1400 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 completed 3 5 circuits
around the earth.
On the successful completion of the Soyuz-4 flight) Sqyuz-5 commander
Volynov conveyed his greetings to his comrades, Shatalov, Khrunov and
Eliseev and also to the builders of the wonderful Soyuz spacecraft. Comrade
Volynov reported that he maintained radio contact with Soyuz-4 right
till its landing.
Continuing in orbit, Comrade Volynov tested the spacecraft systems,
carried out scientific investigations and made the necessary records in the
logbook.
According to his daily routine, the astronaut had dinner. He is feeling
fine and in excellent spirits.
The systems on board are functioning normally: pressure in the cabin
is 815 mm Hg, temperatute is 18.5 C.
The flight continues.
On J anuary 17 at 183 0 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 completed its 3 8th
circuit.
Spacecraft commander Volynov carried out orientation with the manual
control system. On the 3 6th circuit he put the propulsion system into action
for correction of the orbit.
After correction, the parameters of the orbit are as follows:
orbital period - 88.6 min;
maximum distance from
earth (at apogee) - 2 2 9 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) - 2 01 km;
orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
9
1
During the third day of flight, Volynov carried out the scheduled program
of tests and scientific and technical investigations.
TV broadcasts were conducted from the astronaut's cabin and the orbital
compartment. Astronaut Volynov described the different scientific instru-
ments, demonstrated the state of weightlessness and showed the earth through
the windows of the orbital compartment.
According to the astronaut's reports and the telemetric data, all the
spacecraft systems are functioning normally.
Boris Valentinovich is feeling excellent: his pulse rate is 60 per minute,
and respiration rate 15 per minute. After supper the astronaut is resting in
the orbital compartment.
The flight of Soyuz-5 continues.
Pravda, J anuary 18, 1969
G REETING S TO THE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD
Soviet astronauts V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, A.S. Eliseev and E.V.
Khrunov, during their group flight, conveyed the following greetings:
To the people of Australia
We send our best wishes to the people of Australia.
To the brotherly people of Vietnam
Wish you new successes in the building of Socialism, in your struggle for
the freedom, independence and unity of Vietnam.
To the people of Asia
From outer space we send our sincere best wishes to the people of Asia
for success in building independent nations.
To the people of China
We send our greetings to the great Chinese people. We believe in lasting
friendship between the Soviet and Chinese peoples.
To the people of Latin America
We convey our good wishes for the success of the people of Latin America
92
in their struggle for independence and freedom from imperialistic slavery.
To the people of U.S.A.
From the Soviet spacecraft we send our friendly greetings to the people
of U.S.A.
To the people of Europe
On behalf of the crew of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 we
send our good wishes for prosperity and the strengthening of peace.
To the people of Africa
We greet the freedom-loving people of Africa and wish them success in
their struggle for the strengthening of national independence and social
progress.
Prav da, J anuary 18, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
NEW OUTSTANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT IS COMPLETE
On J anuary 18, 1969, at i i oo hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5, piloted by
astronaut B.V. Volynov, after fulfilling its scheduled flight program, made
a soft-landing in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union, about 2 00
kilometers southwest of Kustanai.
The astronaut is feeling well.
For leaving orbit, the braking engine was switched on at a precalculated
moment. After the braking engine had finished its work, the landing vehicle
carrying the astronaut, separated from the orbital compartment. After
braking in the atmosphere, the parachute system and soft-landing engines
provided a smooth descent and landing of the vehicle in the landing area.
On the earth, astronaut B.V. Volynov was received by the search group,
friends, sport commissars and journalists.
The flight of Soyuz-5 has been successfully completed. The complete
program of scientific experiments and investigations by the two spacecraft
Soyuz-4
an(
i Soyuz-5
nas
been accomplished.
More and more circuits
On J anuary 18, astronaut B.V. Volynov's working day started at 013 0
hours Moscow time.
93
After doing a set of physical exercises, toilet hygiene, and taking breakfast
according to the daily chart, the astronaut checked the spacecraft systems.
Then he began the program of scientific and medico-biological investigations
for the fourth day of flight.
At 03 11 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 during its 45th circuit entered the
Soviet radiovisibility zone.
According to the telemetric data and the reports of the astronaut, the
systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally. The astronaut
is feeling excellent.
The flight of the spacecraft goes on.
On J anuary 18, at 0900 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 completed its 48th
circuit.
After turning the spacecraft manually for sun orientation, and making
a report of this operation, the commander continued carrying out experi-
ments. These included observation of cloud and snow covers of the earth
and geological and geographical features on the earth's surface.
According to the data from the spacecraft, the pressure, humidity and
temperatures in the cabin and orbital compartment are normal.
Pilot-Astronaut Volynov is feeling well and continuing the flight success-
fully.
Pravda, J anuary 19, 1969
FLIG HT PROG RAM FULLY ACCOMPLISHED
The group flight of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 has been
successfully completed.
As has already been reported, on J anuary 14-15, 1969 Soyuz-4
an(
i Soyuz-5
were accurately launched into precalculated orbits as artificial earth satel-
lite.
After completing their flight programs Soyuz-4
an
d Soyuz-5 returned to
the earth on J anuary 17 and 18, 1969 respectively. The crew consisted of
Commanders Shatalov and Volynov, Space Engineer Eliseev and Research
Engineer Khrunov.
The spacecraft's landing vehicles carrying the astronauts landed exactly
in the predetermined areas. All the astronauts were in good health after
landing. Pilot-Astronauts Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev and Khrunov have
been taken to the cosmodrome for a post-flight medical checkup.
The Soyuz-4
an
d Soyuz-5 spacecraft have accomplished three-day flights
in a near-earth orbit. A number of extremely important scientific and
technical experiments have been carried out during the course of the group
flight.
The first functioning experimental space station was established as an
artificial earth satellite. The space station had four compartments which
enabled many scientific investigations, observations and experiments to
be carried out.
The parameters of the microclimate in the compartmentspressure,
temperature, humidity and atmospheric gas compositioncorresponded
to earth conditions. There was a telephone link between compartments.
During the rendezvous, " mooring" and docking operations, the systems
for automatic and manual control were put to a practical test and were
found to be highly reliable. During the flight of the inhabited space station,
the orientation of the whole complex and its stabilization in the oriented
position were successfully carried out.
An outstanding experiment was the transfer of two astronauts-Research
Engineer Khrunov and Space Engineer Eliseev-from one spacecraft to
another via open space.
Astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev, dressed in special spacesuits, were in
open space for about an hour. They carried out a number of assembly,
photographic and filming operations, and scientific observations and ex-
periments. They also delivered some newspapers, telegrams and letters
from the earth to Soyuz-4-
Spacesuits equipped with a new self-contained regenerative lifesaving
system provided conditions for the normal functioning of the human orga-
nism in open space. Throughout the transfer process, regular TV and radio
contact was maintained between each of the astronauts and ground control.
A large number of scientific investigations, observations and experiments
were accomplished. In particular, the principles of navigation were perfected,
observations of geological and geographical formations on the earth's surface
and cloud and snow layers were carried out, investigations of the brightness
of the earth and stars, and the detection of cyclones and typhoons were
conducted. In an extensive program, medico-biological research on the
influence of space flight on the human organism was carried out.
Throughout the flight, medical control of the astronauts' state of health
was carried out.
An analysis of the medical telemetric information, received while the
crew was conducting complicated experiments, the radio conversations
and the observations at the time of telecasts confirm the high working
capacity of the astronauts at all stages of the space flight.
Constant radio contact was maintained with Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5- Regular
TV broadcasts and reports were transmitted from the spacecraft. The quality
of telecasts was good.
The control and measurement complex, including the ground control
95
posts and scientific research ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences ensured
the simultaneous control of both spacecraft and regular contact with them.
The successful completion of the flight tasks by the crew and their efficient
actions at all stages of flight were the result of a well-organized, purposeful,
preliminary training which provided a complex of training equipments
which closely simulated all the elements and operations of space flight.
The search and rescue complex enabled the quick detection and evacuation
of the astronauts.
The main results of the flight are:
successful accomplishment of maneuvers, detection, rendezvous,
" mooring" and docking of die spacecraft;
creation of an inhabited experimental space station in orbit;
transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to anotheran experi-
ment which has provided the basis for such operations in outer space as
the supply of goods, repair and assembly work, replacement of crew of
manned orbital stations or their rescue in case of emergency;
overall testing and checking of systems, assemblies and components
of the spacecraft under the conditions of individual flight and as part of
an experimental space station;
- carrying out of a large number of scientific and technical and medico-
biological investigations, observations and experiments.
The results of the flight of Soyuz-4 and Sqyu^-5 are of great importance
for the further perfecting of space technology and will be used for the develop-
ment of manned orbital stations for the nation's scientific and economic
purposes.
Prauda, J anuary 19, 1969
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers,
all the collectives and organizations which took part in the pre-
paration, launching and successful accomplishment of the
docking of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 and the
first transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another
in the course of flight.
To
The Soviet astronauts, Comrades Vladimir Aleksandrovich
Shatalov, Boris Valentinovich Volynov, Evgenii Vasil'evich
Khrunov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.
Dear Comrades!
In the conquest of outer space, the beginning of the year 1969 is marked
by a great new achievement in Soviet science and technology. After the
successful launching of the interplanetary space probes Venera-5 and Venera-6
96
the wonderful space flights of four Soviet Soyuz spacecraft have been success-
fully accomplished.
The spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 commanded by astronauts V.A.
Shatalov and B.V. Volynov, carried out mutual detection, maneuvering,
" mooring" and docking in orbit. After accomplishing docking, astronauts
E.V. Khrunov and A.S. Eliseev, in spacesuits fitted with self-contained
lifesaving systems, left Soyuz-5 and entered Sqyuz-4 via open space. After-
wards the spacecraft were undocked and returned to the earth in predeter-
mined areas on completion of their flight programs.
Throughout the flight, the apparatus and systems on board functioned
perfectly and ensured the successful completion of the scientific and technical
program.
The heroic crew of both spacecraft completed all their tasks.
This experiment in outer space, achieved for the first time in the world,
has great importance for the further development of manned space flights
and for the construction of orbital stations, which will enable the solution
of a wide range of scientific and economic problems of national importance.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers,
USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear comrades V.A. Shatalov, B.V.
Volynov, E.V. Khrunov and A.S. Eliseev, for the successful accomplishment of
the space flight and for carrying out such a complicated and responsible task.
We congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and
workers, all the collectives and organizations, which took part in the pre-
paration, launching and accomplishment of the docking of the manned
spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 and of the first ever transfer of two astronauts
from one spacecraft to another during the course of a flight.
G lory to the Soviet astronauts, blazing new trails into outer space!
G lory to the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers,
building new spacecraft!
G lory to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which inspires and
organizes all the victories of the Soviet people!
Central Committee of the CPSU
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet USSR
Council of Ministers, USSR
Pravda, J anuary 19, 1969
To
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF
THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION,
PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR,
AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR
97
We heartily thank you for your warm greetings on the completion of
our space flight in the spacecraft Soyu^-4 and Soyuz.-5.
We express our brotherly gratitude for the great faith you have shown
in us during the space flight.
We assure the Leninist Central Committee of the Communist Party,
our Soviet G overnment and all the Soviet people that while we are alive,
we shall devote all our energy, knowledge and experience to the prosperity
and strengthening of our beloved country.
Pilot-Astronauts: V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov,
E.V. Khrunov, A.S. Eliseev
Pravda, J anuary 2 0, 1969
G REAT VICTORY IN SPACE
Soviet people have a feeling of great satisfaction and happiness. An
important new victory has been achieved in outer space. Valiant Pilot-
Astronauts Vladimir Shatalov, Boris Volynov, Evgenii Khrunov and Aleksei
Eliseev have successfully completed an outstanding scientific and technical
experiment: mutual search, maneuvering, " mooring" and manual docking
of two Sqyuz spacecraft have been accomplished in the course of the flight.
For the first time in the history of space flight, astronauts A.S. Eliseev and
E.V. Khrunov moved over from one spacecraft to another through open
space. After successfully completing the complicated and responsible mission
entrusted by their motherland, the space heroes returned safely to
earth.
The Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet, USSR and the Council of Ministers, USSR, have warmly congra-
tulated the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all
the collectives and organizations, which took part in the preparation and
accomplishment of the remarkable scientific and technical experiment,
and our valiant astronauts for their successful completion of the space
mission.
The great victory in outer space has been received enthusiastically through-
out the country. It fills the hearts of Soviet people with pride and calls
forth their patriotic urge to contribute further to the welfare of the mother-
land and for the strengthening of her might.
The new Soviet achievement in the conquest of outer space has been
welcomed with a feeling of great satisfaction in the allied socialist countries
and by all progressive people all over the world. The Polish newspaper
" Trybuna Ludu" has characterized the establishment of the first orbital
98
space station as " one of the most important achievements in the history
of astronautics" . Not only the proletarian papers, but also the bourgeois
press has commented on the flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-Swith such appre-
ciative epithets as " a glance into the third millennium" , " grand success of
the Soviets" , " unprecedented walk by astronauts from one spacecraft to
another" etc.
Scientists of many countries and the world community have stressed
that the heroic deed of the four astronauts and the brilliant success of Soviet
science and technology open new horizons in the field of astronautics. The
experiment carried out for the first time in the world, has great importance
for the further development of manned space flights and for the construction
of orbital space stations which will help in solving a wide range of scientific
and economic problems of national importance. These space stations will
help in deepening our knowledge of the universe, provide for more active study
of our own planet and help arrange its resources in the service of mankind.
The Soviet people have the satisfaction that it was their own country
which opened these new prospects for the conquest of space. Again it shows
the great productive power of the socialist system and the potentialities
of Soviet science and technology. Our achievements in space reflect the
great social, economic, cultural and scientific transformations, accomplished
by the Soviet people after the G reat October Revolution. The Soviets have
proved to the world that they can tackle the most daring projects successfully.
Following the path shown by the Communist Party, the Soviet Unionthe
first country to lead the way into outer space-is confidently achieving its
systematic program of investigation and practical use of outer space. Eleven
years have passed since the beginning of the space era, when the first Soviet
artificial earth satellite was launched, and more than seven years since the
first flight to outer space was accomplished by a communist, Yurii G agarin.
This is a short period, but how much has been achieved! Within less than
two weeks, our country has sent two automated space probes to cover
hundreds of millions of kilometers and smoothly enter the atmosphere of
Venus, and conducted the flight of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-4 and
Soyuz-5-
These remarkable achievements have been made possible by the outstand-
ing quality of Soviet science and technology, the experience of our talented
working class and the deep knowledge and technical boldness of our designers,
scientists, engineers and technicians. The Soviet space program is characteri-
zed by a breadth of scientific pursuit, innovation, and a deep anp organic
relationship with present and future needs of science and the national
economy.
When the Soviet people consider the great contribution of their
motherland to the conquest of outer space and see their country leading
the rest of the world in science and technology, their attention is at once
99
directed toward the Communist Partythe inspirer and organizer of all
these victories. Only communists could recognize the great potentialities
and genius of the founder of astronautics, K.E. Tsiolkovskii who did not
achieve recognition by Czarist Russia. Lenin's Party took care of the
great scientist and created the conditons for his fruitful labor and
that of his followers. The Party led the selfless battle of the Soviet
people for the creation of a first-rate socialist industry, on the basis of which
our space flight program which amazes the world today, became possible.
The party fostered millions and millions of dutiful patriots, faithful to com-
munist ideas, from whom astronautics can select its personnel.
The crew of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 started their
bold space journey with the name of Lenin in their hearts. Their courageous
and skillful work in outer space was entered in red letters in the records of
the National Labor Shift, devoted to the centenary of Lenin, founder of
the Communist Party and the Soviet G overnment. With their work on
the earth and on their way to the distant worlds in space, the Soviet
people are accomplishing more and more glorious deeds in the name
of a great aim-communism.
Pravda, J anuary 2 0, 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO
PILOT-ASTRONAUT V.A. SHATALOV
For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the
first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the
orbital flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for courage and
heroism displayed during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union"
is conferred on the commander of the Soyuz-4 spacecraft, Pilot-Astronaut
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin
and the " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgomyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
IOO
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT B.V. VOLYNOV
For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the
first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the
orbital flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for courage and
heroism displayed during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union"
is conferred on the commander of the Soyuz-5 spacecraft, Pilot-Astronaut
Boris Valentinovich Volynov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the
" Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT A.S. ELISEEV
For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the
first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the
orbital flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for courage and
heroism displayed during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union"
is conferred on Pilot-Astronaut Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev. He is awarded
the Order of Lenin and the " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
101
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT E.V. KHRUNOV
For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the
first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the
orbital flight of the spacecraft Sqyuz-4
an(
l Sqyuz-5, and for courage and
heroism displayed during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union"
is conferred on Pilot-Astronaut Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov. He is awarded
the Order of Lenin and the " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO
COMRADE V.A. SHATALOV
For accomplishing a space flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-4, the title of
" Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred on Soviet citizen Comrade
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO
COMRADE B.V. VOLYNOV
For accomplishing a space flight in the Soyuz-5 spacecraft, the title of
102
" Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred on Soviet citizen, Comrade
Boris Valentinovich Volynov.
J V. Podgorryi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO
COMRADE A.S. ELISEEV
For accomplishing a space flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5,
the title of " Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred on Soviet citizen,
Comrade Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO
COMRADE E.V. KHRUNOV
For accomplishing a space flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5,
the title of 'Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR' is conferred on Soviet citizen,
Comrade Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov.
N. Podgorryi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J anuary 2 2 , 1969
Pravda, J anuary 2 3 , 1969
103
A PRESS CONFERENCE DEVOTED TO THE
FLIG HT OF THE SOYU^-4 AND
SOYUZ-5 SPACECRAFT
The earthly orbit of our astronauts'passes through the Conference Hall
of the Moscow State University. Traditionally the USSR Academy of
Sciences and the Ministry of External Affairs, USSR, organize the press
conferences of our space heroes in this hall. The attraction on J anuary 2 4 is
the brilliant success of four astronautsVladimir Shatalov, Boris Volynov,
Aleksei Eliseev and Evgenii Khrunov. Hundreds of Soviet and foreign
journalists living in Mosow have come to the Moscow State University to
hear a first-hand account of the working of the first-ever space station, and
of the transfer of astronauts in space.
It is 3 p.m. The space comrades V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, A.S. Eliseev
and E.V. Khrunov, outstanding Soviet scientists and astronauts come to
the Presidium. Academician M.V. Keldysh, President of the USSR Academy
of Sciences opens the press conference devoted to the launching and docking
of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and to the first-ever transfer
of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another during orbital flight.
Speech by Academician M.V. Keldysh,
President of the USSR Academy of Sciences
Comrades!
Ladies and G entlemen!
Between J anuary 14 and 18 a complicatedscientificand technical experiment
was successfully carried out in a near-earth orbit. On J anuary 14, the Soyuz-4
spacecraft, piloted by astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, was
launched. On J anuary 15, another spacecraft, Soyuz-5, was launched with a
crew consisting of astronauts Boris Valentinovich Volynov, Aleksei Stanis-
lavovich Eliseev and Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov. During the course of
the group flight the spacecraft carried out maneuvers. On J anuary 16,
the spacecraft automatically approached to a distance of about 100 meters,
when astronaut Shatalov switched over to manual control and carried out
" mooring" . After this, the mechanical " capture" , firm docking and connec-
tion of the electrical circuits of both spacecraft took place. Thus, the first-ever
experimental space station was created in orbit as an artificial earth satellite.
During the flight of the space station, Research Engineer Khrunov and
Space Engineer Eliseev performed an outstanding experiment. Wearing
spacesuits they went out of the Soyuz-5 spacecraft into open space, checked the
docking units and verified the feasibility of assembly operations in open space.
They carried out visual observations and took photographs and films. The
astronauts remained in open space for about an hour, after which they en-
104
tered the second spacecraft, Soyuz-4- Afterward, the spacecraft Soyuz-4
and Soyuz-5 were undocked and continued to orbit separately. On J an-
uary 17, Soyuz-4 landed on earth followed by Soyuz-5 on J anuary 18. The
program of the new test flight was successfully completed, much interesting
scientific information was collected and a large number of experiments were
carried out. A big step has been taken toward the conquest of outer space.
Since October 4, 1957when the first artificial earth satellite was launch-
edthe complexity and significance of experiments in outer space have
gradually increased. Yurii G agarin's flight in April 1961 laid the foundation
for the conquest of outer space by man. To accomplish this the most complica-
ted scientific and technical problems had first to be solved. In 1965, for the
first time a man made an exit into open space. This was the Soviet astronaut,
Aleksei Leonov. Space flights were further developed by the American G emini
spacecraft. On these for the first time manual docking with the Agena rocket
was carried out. In 1967 and 1968 automatic docking was successfully carried
out twice by the artificial earth satellite of the Kosmos series. In October
1968, the joint flight of the Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 spacecraft with Pilot-Astro-
naut G .T. Beregovoi on board, carried out experiments for search, rendezvous
and maneuvering in space. Now, the first assembling of an experimental space
station in orbit and the experiment for the replacement of crew have been
accomplished. The space station consisted of four compartments for the crew,
with good conditions for work and rest, and was equipped with different
outfits. This space flight opens great prospects for carrying out various pro-
longed investigations in outer space on a permanently functioning space
station, and makes it possible to send scientists to these stations for a definite
period. The experiments of the Soyuz-4
an
d Soyuz-5 spacecraft have great
importance also for the preparation for future expeditions to other planets,
since it is more rational to carry out these expeditions by docking a few
vehicles in space.
A wide and multipurpose program of study for the conquest of outer space
for peaceful purposes is being systematically realized in our country. It
covers different methods of space research, including the use of automated
probes for those regions of the universe which are far away and difficult to
reach, and enables us to get a large amount of radiotelemetric and TV
information about the physical processes going on in these regions. The
automated probe Luna-g enabled us for the first time to have a close look at
the surface of the moon, while the successful flight of Venera-4 in October
1967 enabled us to make the first direct measurements in the atmosphere
of this mysterious planet, which is situated at a distance of more than 70
million kilometers from the earth. At present our automated interplanetary
probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 are on their way to this planet to continue the
atmospheric investigations started by Venera-4. The probe ^ond, which
enables automatic as well as manned space flights to distant places and
105
makes re-entry with escape-velocity, has been created and successfully
tested a number of times.
There are a lot of things unknown about the moon and other planets
which can be studied by automated probes, while for a number of problems,
long-term research by scientists and specialists of different fields is essential.
Orbital stations will be widely used for astrophysical, geophysical, meteoro-
logical and other investigations, and may serve as a platform for man's
entry deep into space. They will enable scientists to get closer to the objects
of their study, and will considerably aid observations, which can be conducted
over long periods. Orbital stations will undoubtedly be used in solving
national economic problems.
The successful flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 has solved the
most important problems connected with the creation of-these stations.
This wonderful experiment is a great victory for Soviet science and technology
and reflects the high level of development of our industry.
The heroic flight of comrades V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, A.S. Eliseev
and E.V. Khrunov is an important stage in the conquest of near-earth space,
and ultimately of the further regions of outer space.
M.V. Keldysh informed the press that for carrying out the flight and
docking of the two spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for the first-ever
transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another during flight,
the USSR Academy of Sciences had awarded the K.E. Tsiolkovskii G old
Medal to Pilot-Astronauts V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, E.V. Khrunov
and A.S. Eliseev.
M.V. Keldysh handed over the medals to the astronauts to the accom-
paniment of a big ovation from those present in the hall.
Speech by V.A. Shatalov
Comrades! Friends! Ladies and G entlemen!
On J anuary 18, the flight program of the two spacecraft Soyuz-4 and
Soyuz-5
was
fully accomplished.
The flight program envisaged :
distant approach of the spacecraft, rendezvous, manual " mooring"
and docking, for establishing an experimental space station;
transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another through
open space, and accomplishment of a number of experiments and assembly
tasks;
testing of spacecraft systems during flight, especially for docking, rendez-
vous and transfer of astronauts;
conducting a series of scientific, technical and medico-biological experi-
ments during single, group and joint flights.
106
The Soyuz-4 was launched on J anuary 14, 1969, at 103 0 hours Moscow
time.
After entry into orbit, I checked the functioning of systems and started
manual orientation of the spacecraft with the solar batteries towards the
sun. After this operation the spacecraft, like a gigantic gyroscope, would
remain in a sun-orientated position, providing electric power for the space-
craft systems from solar energy.
The state of weightlessness has already been described a number of times.
I would simply point out that for clear, accurate and coordinated actions,
one needs time for the organism to get accustomed to this unusual condition.
I got accustomed to it after 3 -4 hours of the flight. During the initial
circuits I had to carry out the correction of the spacecraft orbit so that
it passed through the in-orbit launching point of Soyuz-5 after 2 4 hours. For
this purpose I orientated the spacecraft and switched on the corrective
engine at a calculated moment, after which the spacecraft entered a new orbit.
On the first day of the flight, besides orbit correction I carried out a number
of experiments connected with the observation and photography of the earth's
surface, meteorological conditions on the earth and the earth's horizon,
and took astronomical observations. For conducting the experiments I left
the spacecraft cabin and moved over to the orbital compartment.
Next day, J anuary 15, while passing over the Baikonur region I observed
the launching of Soyuz-5 from its exhaust trail.
The second stage of the flightrendezvous and orbital dockingstarted
after the successful entry of Soyuz-5
mto
orbit. The spacecraft Soyuz-4 and
Seyuz-5 carried out a number of maneuvers using manual control, approach-
ing from a distance of more than 1,000 kilometers. When the spacecraft
were a few kilometers away, the automatic rendezvous system started
functioning. On signals from this system, the rendezvous-cum-corrective
propulsion system on Soyuz-4
was
P
ut
into operation a number of times.
During this the spacecraft approached with a variable velocity, depending
upon the distance between them. I controlled the automatic approach
through instruments, as well as visually through the optical sightlines and
TV set. At the time of rendezvous of Soyuz-5 the docking unit was orien-
tated toward Soyuz-4.
At a distance of 100 meters, Boris Volynov and I changed over to the
manual spacecraft control.
While controlling the spacecraft, we maintained their necessary mutual
orientation. I changed the velocity of approach depending upon the distance
between the spacecraft.
Near the shores of Africa, at a distance of 7-8 thousand kilometers from
Soviet territory, our spacecraft approached each other to about 40 meters
and carried out hovering operations. At this distance Boris Volynov and
I carried out some maneuvers, changing the relative position of the space-
107
craft and taking photographs of each other. We continued the further closing
up of the spacecraft, and accomplished docking in the zone of direct TV
contact with the earth. We could see this process on our TV screens.
To avoid collision, the relative velocity at the moment of touching was
reduced to a few tens of centimeters per second.
The " mooring" of Soyuz-4 with Soyuz-5 took place at this very low relative
velocity. During the process of " mooring" the bar of the docking unit of
Soyuz-4 entered the hollow of the cone of the Soyuz-5 and mutual mechanical
" capture" took place. After that, further constriction and connection of the
electric circuits took place.
In this way the first space station was assembled and started functioning
in orbit.
The space station had four living compartments with a total volume of
18 cubic meters. All the compartments were connected by telephones. Com-
fortable conditions for the crew to work and rest were maintained in the
compartments : temperature of the air could be regulated between 15 and
2 5C, the relative humidity was of the order of 40-70% and pressure was
760-800 mm Hg. Composition of the atmosphere inside the craft was same
as on the earth i.e., oxygen 2 1 % and the rest, nitrogen. The content of carbon
dioxide was less than one per cent. Two compartments of the space station
could be used as locked chambers enabling the astronauts to move out
into open space. The testing of the locking system took place in the course
of the actual flight on J anuary 16, 1969, when two crew members of
Soyuz-5, Evgenii Khrunov and Aleksei Eliseev, put on spacesuits and
moved over through space to Soyuz-4-
The transfer was guided visually with the help of TV and optical sighting
devices. Telephone contact was maintained with the astronauts throughout
the operation. After the transfer the astronauts handed me newspapers with
material about the flight of Soyuz-4, and letters from friends and relatives.
I was very happy to meet my comrades in outer space and was glad to read
about my flight in the newspapers.
The flight center did not intend the space station to continue for a long
time, and after three circuits of joint flight, a signal was given from the control
panel for the undocking of the spacecraft.
The assembly and flight of the experimental space station has provided
material necessary for establishing scientific research stations to exist for long
periods.
The future orbital stations will require crew replacement, supply of goods
and scientific equipment, assembling and dismantling of structures and
despatch of scientific material to the earth. Many elements of these operations
were worked out during the flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5.
In the course of further flight I again had to act as an instructor, this time
not of an airplane but of a spacecraft! By turn Evgenii Khrunov and Aleksei
jo8
Eliseev occupied the commander's seat and controlled the spacecraft. I
must say that the spacecraft reacts obediently to every movement of
the control points, and takes up the required position very easily and
exactly.
My comrades also noted that the control of the spacecraft was very similar
to the control in the training simulators on earth.
After undocking, it was much easier for me to work now that my friends
were there along with me. They shared the duties which I had carried out
alone during my solo flight.
First, Aleksei Eliseev and Evgenii Khrunov recorded in the spacecraft
logbook their impressions about the transfer, working of the spacesuits,
self-contained lifesaving systems and the locking system. After that, Eliseev
checked the working of the systems on board in detail, while Khrunov
began experiments and observations. On the 46th circuit we started prepar-
ing for the descent. We had to pack all the scientific instruments and data,
photographs and films in special containers. After a thorough checkup of
the orbital compartment we moved over to the cabin, and I started the pre-
landing orientation of the spacecraft. At 0911 hours on J anuary 17, 1969
the propulsion system was switched on; the spacecraft obediently left the orbit
and started moving toward the earth. The entry into the earth's atmosphere
was first felt when the acceleration forces started gradually increasing. After-
ward we saw flames through the windows.
At a height of about 10 kilometers, the parachute system was put into
operation. Slightly swinging on the parachute we descended toward the
earth. When we were close to the earth, the soft-landing engines started
functioning and thus we made a smooth landing. While descending, a two-
way contact was maintained with an aeroplane and a helicopter of the search
group observing our landing.
A helicopter approached us and we were received by the search group,
sport commissars, correspondents and friends.
I am glad to have justified the faith of my motherland in me. I heartily
thank all the scientists, engineers, designers, workers and testers, who took
part in the construction of the Soyuz spacecraft and helped make this joint
flight possible.
Thank you.
Speech by B.V. Volynov
Comrades and friends!
Ladies and G entlemen!
As you already know from the press reports, on J anuary 15, 1969, at
1014 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz-5, with three astronauts on board was
109
launched into orbit as an artificial earth satellite.
I was commander of the spacecraft, with Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev,
Kandidat of Technical Sciences, my space engineer, and Lieutenant Colonel
Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov, my research engineer.
The crew had to carry out a wide program of scientific investigations,
the main part of which were :
rendezvous and docking of spacecraft;
establishment of an inhabited experimental space station;
exit of two astronauts into open space, followed by their entry into
another spacecraft, Soyuz-4.
The scheduled program has been fully carried out. After a space flight last-
ing for three days, during which more than 49 circuits of the earth were
made, Soyuz-5 safely landed in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union,
2 00 kilometers northwest of Kustanai.
The flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5ha.s once again shown that the ingenuity of
the Soviet scientists and designers, the experience of the engineers and
technicians, and the skillful hands of the workers are capable of creating
the ideal spacecraft.
We are extremely thankful to them.
We started the full program at the moment of launching. All the members
of the crew endured the active phase well.
After separation from the carrier-rockets, we checked the condition and
functioning of the spacecraft systems and established contact with the earth
and with the commander of Soyuz-4, Vladimir Shatalov. This contact was
maintained throughout the flight.
As envisaged by the flight program, on the fifth circuit after carrying out
manual orientation, I switched on the propulsion system and corrected the
orbit for rendezvous with Soyuz-4
at a
predetermined point.
On J anuary 16, as a result of exact maneuvering, our spacecraft entered
the zone of action for automatic rendezvous. At 103 7 hours the automatic
rendezvous of the spacecraft started.
When the distance between the spacecraft was 100 meters, Vladimir
Shatalov and I changed over to manual control. After " mooring" , a firm
docking took place and the electric circuits were connected.
An experimental space station was thus created in orbit. The spacecraft
as well as the space station was controlled from the astronauts' cabin. All the
instruments for controlling the spacecraft systems, as well as the astronauts'
seats are accommodated in this cabin.
Besides the cabin, there is an orbital compartment in the spacecraft, which
is a well-equipped scientific research laboratory where we conducted scientific
and medico-biological experiments and observations, and took photographs.
Here one could also perform the physical exercises made necessary by being
in a state weightlessness for a long of period.
no
The orbital compartment acts as a locked chamber at the time of exit
into open space and re-entry into the spacecraft.
Because of this locked chamber the astronauts had no need to wear space-
suits all the time.
After docking, the next important task was the exit of Research Engineer
Khrunov and Space Engineer Eliseev into open space and their transfer
to the Soyuz-4-
For the purpose of transfer the astronauts had to wear spacesuits.
In all earlier flights, the spacesuits had been put on before launching.
During this flight, for the first time, the spacesuits were put on in the space-
craft.
I helped the astronauts in putting on the spacesuits and knapsacks, and
checked their readiness for the space walk.
Our thorough training before the flight helped us to carry out all these
operations exactly.
Before their exit, I oriented the orbital station and stabilized it. After
confirming the functioning of the locking system, the good health and mood
of my comrades, I gave the signal for their exit.
We and Vladimir Shatalov observed through the optical sighting device
and the TV camera the actions and condition of the astronauts coming
out of their craft, and were ready to give necessary instructions, if
required.
The astronauts walked and performed work outside the spacecraft in the
spacesuits fitted with a self-contained generative type lifesaving system.
After conducting a number of scientific experiments and observations in
space, Khrunov and Eliseev entered the orbital compartment of Soyuz-^.
After completing the checking of the spacecraft systems, on J anuary 16,
at 1555 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft were undocked and each of
them continued their separate program of scientific investigations.
In Soyuz-5 I carried out the correction of orbit and orientation of the
spacecraft with respect to earth and sun. The spacecraft is obedient to the
instruments of control and is a wonderful mechanism for the further investi-
gation of outer space.
The list of scientific observations included medico-biological experiments,
investigation of the earth and observation of the earth's atmosphere.
In accordance with the flight program, on the 4gth circuit the spacecraft
left orbit.
The descent was normal, and landing was made in a predetermined area.
Immediately after landing I was met by the search group, correspondents
and friends.
I am thankful to the Soviet people, the Communist Party and the Soviet
G overnment for the faith shown in me to accomplish the Soyuz-5 flight.
Thank you.
I l l
Speech by E.V. Khrunov
Dear Comrades!
Ladies and G entlemen!
I shall try to describe briefly my work as Research Engineer of the Soyuz-q.
and Soyuz-5 and give my impressions of the flight.
My duties included carrying out a number of scientific experiments,
observations and investigations.
One of the main experiments in the flight program was the space walk
and transfer from one spacecraft to another, during which we had to carry
out a number of tasks and observations. They included: checking of the
locking system, an appraisal of the potentialities of the spacesuits and the
self-contained lifesaving system, assembly in open space, inspection of the
exterior of the spacecraft, observation of the earth and heavenly bodies,
photography and filming.
While in the spacecraft, I looked after the " mooring" , docking and
mechanical coupling operations to establish the single unit experimental
space station. I worked on astronavigational equipment, and studied the
passage of radio waves in different bands through the ionosphere. We carried
out medico-biological experiments and investigations.
I must say that Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5
are
excellently equipped spacecraft,
with provision for a large number of different scientific observations and
experiments. And in future, the possibilities of using these spacecraft for
solving scientific problems will increase even more. They will carry out
flight in the docked state forming an orbital station which can stay in orbit
as an artificial earth satellite as long as required.
In accordance with the flight program, the first-ever experimental space
station existed only for a few hours. But it was an important experimental
flight which gave the key to many practical problems connected with
communication between compartments and with the testing of instruments,
equipment, power supply and the control and orientation systems. These
problems were completely solved within the period of the flight program.
The program did not envisage a longer flight of the docked spacecraft at
this stage, although it could have been extended.
How did we shift from one spacecraft into another?
On J anuary 16, Soyuz-4
was on
*
ts
3 5
f
h circuit, Eliseev and I came out of
the cabin into the orbital compartment and started putting on our space-
suits. Soon the spacecraft commander joined us and helped us in putting on
the helmet, gloves and knapsack with self-contained lifesaving system.
Exactly at this time the TV broadcast was on and we were told that we were
being seen clearly on the earth.
The orbital compartment in the Soyuz spacecraft serves not only for carrying
out scientific observations and for taking rest but also as a locking chamber.
Thus when Boris Volynov went back to his seat in the cabin and closed
the hermetic hatch, we checked the hermetic nature of the spacesuits and
the working of the lifesaving system, and informed the commander of
Soyuz-5 that we were ready to go. The commander switched on the mecha-
nism for opening the hatch.
I was the first to leave. The hatch opened and the spacecraft was filled with
sunlight. I saw the earth, its horizon and the black sky, and had the same
feeling as before a parachute jump. It was the anxiety that sportsmen have at
" the start," which lasts for a few seconds. Then the normal rhythm of work,
to which I was now accustomed because of the long training on earth, took
over and I could think only of my work.
I went out of the spacecraft easily and had a look around. Soyuz-4 and
Soyuz-5 presented a wonderful scene. Even the smallest parts on their surfaces
were visible. They were shining brightly, reflecting the sunlight. J ust in front
of me was Soyuz-4,
ver
y similar to an aircraft : the large, long, spacecraft
looked like the fuselage and the solar batteries, the wings. The space station,
at this moment, was over South America.
Having enjoyed this wonderful scene-the shining spacecraft with the
earth and black sky in the backgroundI started walking toward the region
of the docking unit, where there was a cinecamera fitted on the outer
surface of Soyuz-5, which filmed the " mooring" and docking of the
spacecraft.
Let me explain exactly how I " walked" . We, living on the earth, normally
conceive walking as a movement by the feet. In the state of weightlessness
it is not possible to " walk" in the ordinary sense of the wordsince on the
surface of the spacecraft, there is no support under the feet, and therefore no
force to hold you on the surface. Even on the earth, while we were under
training, we found that for moving in outer space, for " walking" from one
place to another in the spacecraft, the best way to move i s. . . on your hands,
making use of the fixed handrails.
Thus, holding the handrails, I approached the cinecamera. Holding the
handrail with one hand, I took off the camera from the cantilever and found
out its electric supply joint with the other hand.
Afterward, in the same way, " on hands" , I moved on the surface of the
space station into the compartment ofSqyuz-4- With half of my body remain-
ing outside, I took observations of the earth's horizon, checked the working of
the orientation engines, communicated with the spacecraft commanders
and Aleksei Eliseev, picked up the " Salyut" camera from the orbital compart-
ment and took some photographs of the spacecraft.
When we entered the Soviet radio communication zone I took the cine-
camera which I had removed from the Soyuz-5 cantilever while crossing
over, and hung it on a special cantilever near the hatch of the orbital compart-
ment of Soyuz-4 and switched on the power supply. Now this camera was
recording the exit of Aleksei Eliseev and his transfer from Soyuz-5
to
Soyuz-4
through open space.
I must say that it is not so easy to conduct operations of taking movie
film and mounting the cine camera and also to take photographs by an
ordinary camera in outer space.
During the course of Eliseev's transfer, I watched and maintained contact
with him. Then Eliseev and I, on a signal from the commander, entered the
orbital compartment of Sqyuz-4, closed the hatch, switched on the booster,
made the pressure normal and took off our spacesuits. Shatalov came out to
our compartment and we met warmly, hugged each other and passed on
the letters from his relatives and the morning newspaper of J anuary 15 with
the TASS announcement about his flight on Soyuz-4-
Thus the transfer from one spacecraft to another was over.
This experiment showed that it is possible to carry out in outer space
operations such as the replacement of the crew of space stations, assembly
of equipment and rescue of the crew of spacecraft, victims of some accident
in orbit.
I must remark on the exceptionally fine working of the self-contained
lifesaving systems. We were out in open space for about an hour. We felt
extremely well. Ventilation in the spacesuit is good. We didn't feel any
overheating. Pulse and respiration rates were normal. The window of the
hermetic helmet did not mist over. The lifesaving source was not fully exhaus-
ted. We could have stayed in open space for a much longer period.
The success of the experiment on moving over from one spacecraft to
another was due to our excellent training on earth. Eliseev and I had carried
out dozens of flights in the flying laboratory, which reproduces the state of
weightlessness in actual flight.
We were well prepared for carrying out each and every operation of this
experiment, and did not come across anything unexpected in outer space.
On J anuary 16, 1969, the spacecraft were undocked. The separating of
the spacecraft was an unforgettable sight! We are anxiously waiting for
the cinefilm of that scene.
After completing the transfer, a large number of scientific observations
and medico-biological experiments were conducted in orbit. The results of
these investigations and observations are being worked out and will be
published in due course.
The next day, J anuary 17, we landed. The commander of Soyuz-4 has
already spoken about this. I would just add that the observations of the
functioning of the systems of Soyuz-4 were conducted right up to the moment
of touching the earth. The observations affirm the high accuracy and reliabi-
lity of all the systems, assemblies and instruments of this remarkable machine.
The spacecraft landed in a predetermined area and the search group
helicopter immediately flew over to us.
114
We were given warm clothing and flew to Karaganda and from there to
the cosmodrome. Thus ended our space flight.
Thank you!
Speech by A.S. Eliseev
Comrades! Friends!
Ladies and G entlemen!
The main duties of the space engineer of the Soyuz spacecraft was the
control and analysis of the working of all the systems.
What more can be said about the Soyuz spacecraft?
A Soyuz spacecraft is a comfortable space laboratory suitable for conducting
different scientific experiments as well as for taking rest.
Equipment layout in the spacecraft cabin and in the orbital compartment
provides good conditions for the crew to work during the flight. The working
places of the members of the crew have been worked out in accordance with
the duties assigned to each astronaut.
The spacecraft is easy to handle. The control and orientation systems
function well. The arrangement of the control knobs is convenient. The
experiment on the establishment of an orbital space station has proved the
possibility of orientation and control of the whole station from the pilot's
cabin of Soyuz-4 as well as Soyuz-5.
The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft compartment
pressure, temperature, humidity and gas composition of the atmosphere
corresponded to those calculated and one can firmly say that the lifesaving
systems functioned well throughout the course of the flight.
The communication system provided a steady radio contact with the
earth at all stages of flight. J ust after the launching of Soyuz-5 into orbit,
radio communications were established between Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 also.
During the joint flight there was a telephone connection between the
spacecraft compartments. TV broadcasts were transmitted from the space
station. The quality of broadcast was good.
The equipment layout in the orbital compartment makes it possible to
carry out different scientific and technical experiments. The window of the
orbital compartment enables us to see a large portion of the surrounding space.
The equipment for everyday life creates comfortable conditions for resting.
I would like now to talk in some detail about the problems of docking and
transfer.
Putting on a spacesuit in the state of weightlessness is much simpler than
on the earth, since the spacesuit, because of weightlessness, takes its own
form and is worn without much difficulty. The spacesuit is comfortable.
The flexibility of the joints is good and enables us to carry out different
assembly jobs in outer space. Ventilation in the spacesuit and heat exchange
is such that we did not feel hot while working and moving. The window did
not mist over.
Throughout the process of transfer steady communications were
maintained between Khrunov and myself, and with the commanders of the
spacecraft and the earth.
The plan to transfer through open space and not through a tunnel was
not a matter of chance. This experiment is very important for carrying out
jobs on the assembly of still bigger space stations. Inspection from outside
will be necessary for carrying out different assembly and dismantling jobs.
The locking systems of both spacecraft functioned very well. The hatch
for exit from the orbital compartment into open space, as well as the hatch
connecting the orbital compartment and the spacecraft cabin, are perfectly
hermetic.
Before and after the space walk the members of the crew worked in the
orbital compartments without spacesuits, in ordinary flight dress. During
the period of the space walk the pressure in the orbital compartments was
zero. Both the commanders were working in their seats in the cabins and
were separated from outer space by only the thickness of the hatch. But
the high standard of technology provided complete safety for the astronauts.
This experiment, carried out for the first time in the world, has great
importance for the further development of manned space flights and for
the creation of orbital stations, and will enable us to solve a wide range of
scientific and economic problems of national importance.
The group flight of Soyuz-4 and Scyuz-5 with its scientific and technical
experiments has yielded a large amount of valuable material. With this, our
space technology will be able to take a big step forward in the conquest of
outer space.
Thank you.
At the end of the conference, the astronauts and M.V. Keldysh replied to
a large number of questions.
Izuestiya, J anuary 2 4, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOYUZ-6 IN ORBIT
Today, October 11, at 1410 hours Moscow time, a rocket-carrier with
the spacecraft Soyuz-6 was launched in the Soviet Union. At 1419 hours the
spacecraft Soyuz-6 was introduced with great accuracy into a precalculated
orbit as an earth satellite.
The Soyuz-6 is piloted by Lieutenant-Colonel G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin
116
and Space Engineer Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov, Kandidat of Technical
Sciences.
The spacecraft crew has to carry out an extensive program of scientific
and technical investigations and experiments, which includes:
overall checking and testing of the systems on board, and the improved
design of the Soyuz spacecraft and rocket complex;
further perfecting of the systems for manual control, orientation and
stabilization of the spacecraft during complex flight regimes, and testing of
autonomous navigation devices;
taking a large number of scientific observations, photography of geologi-
cal and geographical features on the earth and investigation of its atmosphere,
for the purposes of national economy;
scientific investi tions of the physical characteristics of near-earth
space;
Commander of Soyuz-6Georgii Stepanovich Shonin
117
conducting medico-biological investigations on the effect of space
flight on the human organism.
During the course of the space flight, experiments will also be conducted
on the methods of welding of metals in high vacuum and in the state of
weightlessness.
Steady radio and TV communications are being maintained with the
crew.
The spacecraft commander Comrade G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin reported
that the members of the crew were feeling well. Normal conditions are being
maintained in the astronaut's cabin and in the orbital compartment. The
pressure, temperature, humidity and gas composition of the atmosphere are
the same as on earth.
Astronauts Shonin and Kubasov have begun tl.J .r work on the flight
program.
At 1656 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, manned by astronauts Shonin and
Kubasov, completed its second circuit of the earth. According to the
trajectory measurements, the spacecraft's orbit has the following parameters:
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) 2 2 3 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 186 km;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg;
orbital period 88.3 6 min.
The spacecraft commander, G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin reported that the
crew is fulfilling the scheduled flight program.
After deployment of the solar panels of the spacecraft, Comrade Shonin
carried out manual orientation with respect to the sun. Then the crew
began scientific experiments.
A TV broadcast was transmitted from the spacecraft during the flight.
The communications with the spacecraft are regular. Broadcasts are held
on five channels on short and ultrashort wave bands. The systems on board
Soyuz-6 are functioning normally. Pressure in the spacecraft cabin is 770
mm Hg and the temperature is 2 2 C.
The astronauts are feeling well.
In a radio communications session the commander Lieutenant-Colonel
Shonin stated that the crew is continuing its work. The astronauts checked
the parameters of the different spacecraft systems. Simultaneously, medical
experiments and observations, and photography of geological and geographi-
cal features on the earth were carried out.
According to the medical telemetric information, the astronauts are feeling
118
Space Engineer of Soyuz-6Valerii Nikolaavich Kubasov.
extremely well and retain their high working capacity. At 1800 hours
Comrades Shonin and Kubasov ate dinner with good appetites.
According to the flight program, Pilot-Astronaut Shonin carried out
orientation of the spacecraft and put the propulsion system into operation
at 2 008 hours. As a result of the impulse, orbit correction was carried out.
During the correction process Comrade Shonin achieved stabilization of
the spacecraft with the help of the manual control system.
The radio communications with the spacecraft are steady. The lifesaving
systems are functioning normally.
From 2 2 00 hours on October n to 0740 hours on October 12 , Soyuz-6
will be orbiting outside the Soviet radio visibility zone. The astronauts
will rest after supper.
pravda, October 12 , 1969
STATEMENT BY THE SOTU^-6 COMMANDER,
G .S. SHONIN BEFORE LAUNCHING
Dear Friends!
Today the crew of our spacecraft Soyuz-6 will continue the investigations
started by Soyuz-3 , Sqyuz-4 and Soyuz-5-
Each flight of the Soviet astronauts into outer space is the result of the
creative labor of the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers and workersthe
builders of the spacecraft. We are happy that we have been given the honor of
carrying out this new Soyuz-6 flight.
We assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union and the Soviet G overnment that we shall fulfill the tasks entrusted
to us by our motherland.
G oodbye!
Till we meet again on earth!
(TASS)
Pravda, October 12 , 1969
Biographical notes
Lieutenant-Colonel G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin was born on August
3 , 193 5, in the town of Roven'ki, Lugansk district. He spent his childhood
in Balta, a town in Odessa district. Here he completed the seven-year school
and became a member of the Leninist Young Communist League of the
Soviet Union.
In 1950, G eorgii joined Odessa Special Aviation School. In 1953 he
became a student of the Order of Lenin Navy Aviation College. After success-
fully completing this college, he served in the aviation wing of the Red
Banner Baltic Fleet from 1957. Afterward he served in the Northern Fleet.
G .S. Shonin became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union in 1957.
After joining the astronauts' detachment G eorgii Shonin successfully
completed his training and mastered the construction of spacecraft. In
1968, while continuing his main job, he completed the Zhukovskii Air Force
Engineering Academy. In J anuary 1969 he was the double for B.V. Volynov,
commander of Soyuz-5.
G eorgii Shonin's father, Stepan Vasil'evich died at the front during the
G reat Patriotic War. He was brought up by his mother, Sof'y
a
Vladimirovna,
who is an accountant by profession.
12 0
G eorgii Stepanovich's family consists of his wife, Lidiya Fedorovna, a
fourteen year old daughter Nina and an eight year old son Andrei.
Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov was born on J anuary 7, 193 5, in Vyaz-
niki, a town of Vladimir district.
After completing his secondary school in 1952 , Valerii joined Moscow
Aviation Institute. After successfully completing the Institute, Valerii
Kubasov started working in a design bureau. He successfully defended his
thesis for the degree of Kandidat of Technical Sciences.
In 1968, V.N. Kubasov became a member of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union.
Valerii Kubasov went through the full training course for astronauts.
He was the double for A.S. Eliseev.
Commander of the Soyuz-7Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko.
121
Valerii Nikolaeviclvs wife, Lyudmila Ivanovna also completed the Aviation
Institute and works as an engineer. Their daughter Katya is three years
old.
The astronaut's father, Nikolai Ivanovich, and mother, Tat'yana
Ivanovna, are pensioners.
Pravda, October 12 , 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SPACECRAFT IN G ROUP FLIG HT
Continuing the program of scientific and technical investigations and
experiments with the Soyuz spacecraft, Soyuz-7,
was
launched on October
12 , 1969, at 13 45 hours Moscow time.
Space Engineer of the Soyuz-7Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov.
12 2
The crew of the spacecraft consists of the commander, Lieutenant-Colonel
Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko, and engineers Vladislav Nikolaevich
Volkov and Lieutenant-Colonel Viktor Vasil'evich G orbatko.
The commander, Comrade Filipchenko, reported that entry into the
orbit was normal. All the astronauts are feeling well. The systems on board
are functioning normally.
The task of Soyuz-7 is to conduct a number of scientific and technical
experiments and investigations in near-earth space, in particular:
maneuvering in orbit;
navigational investigations jointly with Soyuz-6 in group flight;
observation of heavenly bodies and the earth's horizon, determination
of actual brightness of the stars, measurement of illumination by the sun,
and other scientific experiments.
The crew of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 have established a reliable two-way
radio contact.
On October 12 , during its I3 th circuit, Soyuz-6 entered the Soviet radio-
visibility zone.
During the radio communications session Comrade Shonin reported that
the astronauts had slept for 8 hours and felt rested. After getting up, they
did a set of physical exercises. Before and after the physical exercises they
carried out medical checkup of one another.
Afterward, Comrades Shonin and Kubasov had breakfast, checked the
condition of the spacecraft systems and started the program of experiments
and observations for the second day of the flight.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with Soyuz-6.
At 103 9 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6 completed its i4th circuit.
During a radio communications session Shonin said that the program for
the second day of the flight was being successfully carried out. The astronauts
were working out methods of autonomous navigation. Comrade Shonin
orientated the spacecraft in the direction of selected navigational heavenly
bodies with the help of the manual control system.
Space Engineer Kubasov made angular measurements with respect to
typical stars manually as well as with the space-borne navigational devices.
On the basis of these measurements he determined the position of the space-
craft and the parameters of its orbit.
Analysis of the medical telemetric information received during the first
day of flight, showed that the organism of both astronauts quickly adjusted
to the state of weightlessness. The pulse and respiration rates, arterial
pressure, electrocardiogram, and seismogram are within the normal physio-
logical limits. For example, Shonin's pulse rate during the first circuit was
80 per minute and Kubasov's 90 per minute. During the 4th circuit this
12 3
Research Engineer of the Soyuz-7Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko.
frequency was 64 and 69 per minute respectively, while during sleep it
was 50-60 per minute. The general condition of the astronauts is good.
According to the telemetric data, normal conditions are being maintained
in the cabin and the orbital compartment: temperature is 2 iC, pressure is
775 mm Hg and the relative humidity is 48%.
Astronauts Shonin and Kubasov are continuing their work according to
the flight program.
Soyuz-7, launched into an orbit of the earth on October 12 , completed its
second circuit at 163 3 hours Moscow time.
The parameters of its orbit are:
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) 2 2 6 km;
12 4
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) - 2 07 km;
orbital inclination - 51.7 deg;
orbital period - 88.6 min.
By this time the parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-6 were as follows:
maximum distance from
the earth (at apogee) - 2 3 0 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 194 km;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg;
orbital period 88.6 min.
After noting the technical characteristics of the systems the crew carried
out the operations of orientation and manual turning of the spacecraft.
The commanders of both spacecraft reported that all the systems were
functioning normally.
Research Engineer V.V. G orbatko and Space Engineer V.N. Volkov
investigated the surface of the windows to study the micrometeoric erosion of
their surfaces. They also took observations of the earth's surface and, after-
wards, conducted medical investigations.
The crew of Soyuz-6 continues to work according to the group flight
program. Commander Shonin put the initial data into the automatic control
system of the spacecraft and regulated the clock. Space Engineer V.N.
Kubasov took photographs of the earth's surface from the cabin including
the coastal line of the Caspian Sea, the Volga Delta, large tracts of forest
and the cloud cover on the planet.
All the astronauts are feeling well. The lifesaving systems maintain com-
fortable conditions of work in the compartments. Steady radio contact is
being maintained between the spacecraft and earth.
At 2 100 hours Moscow time on October 12 , Soyuz-6 completed 2 1 circuits,
while Soyuz-J completed five.
The two commanders, Shonin and Filipchenko, reported that a large
amount of work had been completed during the day. The crew carried out
manual orientation, turning of the spacecraft, maneuvers in orbit, took
observations of the earth's surface and conducted other experiments.
In the TV broadcasts during the periods when Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-J
passed over Soviet territory, Shonin and Filipchenko introduced the members
of their crew to the TV viewers. Pilot-Astronauts V.N. Kubasov, V.V.
G orbatko and V.N. Volkov spoke about their duties. The quality of the
TV broadcasts was good.
All the systems on board, including the lifesaving system, are functioning
perfectly. All the astronauts are feeling excellent. It should be noted how
12 5
quickly the crew got accustomed to space flight conditions and found their
usual rhythm of activity. This was due to their training on earth.
From 2 3 00 hours on October 12 to 0600 hours on October 13 , when the
spacecraft will be orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone, the
astronauts will rest.
Pravda, October 13 , 1969
STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF SOTU^-7,
COMRADE A.V. FILIPCHENKO BEFORE LAUNCHING
Dear Comrades and Friends :
Yesterday we saw off our comrades Shonin and Kubasov for their
space journey, and today we ourselves are starting for the depths of space
in Soyuz-?.
Our country is carrying out the systematic investigation and conquest of
outer space, and we are proud that we are making our contribution to this
noble cause.
We heartily thank the Central Committee of our Party, and our G overn-
ment for the faith shown in us. We assure them that we shall devote all our
energy and knowledge to carrying out the tasks before us.
Till we meet again!
(TASS)
Pravda, October 13 , 1969
Biographical notes
Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko was born on February 2 6, 192 8, in
Davydovka, a village in the Voronezh district.
In, 1942 , Anatolii completed the seven-year school in. Ostrogozh.sk. In
1943 , he started working in a factory, where he specialized as a turner, and
became a member of the Lenin Komsomol.
Anatolii's interest in aviation brought him to Voronezh Air Force School.
After getting his school-leaving certificate in 1947, he joined Chuguevsk
Aviation College and finished with distinction.
Since 1950, Anatolii Filipchenko has been serving in the aviation wing of
the Soviet Army.
In 1952 A.V. Filipchenko became a member of the Communist Party of
the Soviet Union. In 1961 he completed the Air Force Academy by corres-
pondence.
12 6
In the astronauts' detachment, Anatoli! Filipchenko mastered the Vostok,
Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft and fully completed the flight courses and
medico-biological training. He prepared for flight as a double for Vladimir
Shatalov.
Anatolii Vasil'evich's family consists of his wife, Elizaveta Aleksandrovna,
and two sons, twelve year old Aleksandr and eight year old Igor'. The
astronaut's father, Vasilii Nikolaevich, was a member of the CPSU since
1918. He fought for the Soviets, worked for the Party for many years, and
took part in the G reat Patriotic War. He died in 1955. The astronaut's
mother, Akulina Mikhailovna, is a pensioner.
Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov was born on November 2 3 , 193 5, in Moscow.
He spent his childhood years in a family of aviators.
In 1953 , after finishing secondary school, Vladislav joined Moscow
Aviation Institute. After successfully completing the Institute, he started
working as an engineer in a design bureau.
In 1965 V.N. Volkov was admitted to the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union.
In the team of astronauts, Vladislav Volkov successfully went through the
training for space flight and passed all the technical and medico-biological
tests with distinction.
Vladislav Nikolaevich is married. His wife, Lyudmila Aleksandrovna,
works as an engineer having also completed the Institute. Their son Vladi-
mir is eleven years old. The astronaut's father, Nikolai G rigor'evich is an
aviation design engineer. His mother, Ol'ga Mikhailovna, also worked in
aviation for a number of years.
Viktor VasiPevich G orbatko was born on December 3 , 193 4, in the Ventsy-
Zarya settlement in Krasnodar region. He spent his childhood in Kuban',
where all his family lived.
After completing secondary school, Viktor joined the Air Force School
for primary training in 1952 . Next year he joined Bataisk Military Aviation
College.
Since 1956, after finishing college, he has been serving in the aviation wing
of the Soviet Army. In 1959 he was accepted by the aviation wing party
organization as a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Since he was admitted to the astronauts' detachment, Viktor Vasil'evich
has been preparing for space flight. He received good training as double
for E.V. Khrunov.
In 1968, while continuing his main job, he completed the N.E. Zhukovskii
Air Force Engineering Academy.
12 7
The astronaut's parents are of peasant stock. His mother, Matrena
Aleksandrovna, is a pensioner. His father is dead. G orbatko's wife, Valentina
Pavlovna, is a doctor. They have two daughters, Irina, aged twelve and
Marina, nine.
Pravda, October 13 , 1969
G REETING S FROM THE SPACECRAFT
To the people of Asia
From the Soyuz spacecraft we send our good wishes to the people of Asia
for success in their developing economy and in building independent national
states.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko,
Volkov, G orbatko
To the brotherly people of Vietnam
We send our brotherly greetings and good wishes to the courageous
people of Vietnam for success in your heroic struggle for the freedom and
independence of your country.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko,
Volkov, G orbatko
To the people of Australia
Flying over Australian territory we send our good wishes to the people
of Australia.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko,
Volkov, G orbatko
Pravda, October 13 , 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOTUZ-8 IN ORBIT
On October 13 , 1969, at 13 2 9 hours Moscow time, the third Soviet space-
craft, Soyuz-8, was launched into orbit in accordance with the general
program of manned space flights.
The spacecraft is piloted by a crew consisting of commander, Hero of the
Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel Vladimir Aleksandro-
vich Shatalov, and engineer, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut
12 8
of the USSR, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, Aleksei Stanislavovich
Eliseev. Both of them took part in the Soyuz-4 and Soyuz- j flights in J anuary
earlier this year.
In the course of the group flight, it is planned to carry out a number
of important scientific and technical tasks which include:
- simultaneous complex scientific investigations in near-earth space;
final touches to the complicated system of control for the group flight
of three spacecraft simultaneously;
joint orbital maneuvering to solve a number of problems connected
with manned space flights.
Comrade Shatalov reported that the astronauts were feeling well.
Reliable radio contact is being maintained between the three spacecraft.
This is the first time that a group flight of three spacecraft, carrying seven
astronauts on board is being carried out.
The program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments
will give new information about near-earth space and will help to perfect
space technology and its application for scientific and economic purposes.
Pravda, October 14, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
G ROUP FLIG HT
The new working day for the crew of the spacecraft Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7
started on October 13 , at 0600 hours Moscow time.
According to the data received from the spacecraft, the parameters of
microclimate in the compartments are within the prescribed limits. The
state of health and mood of all the astronauts is good. Arterial pressure
and pulse rates are normal.
After their physical exercises and breakfast, the astronauts checked accord-
ing to schedule the systems.
During the communications session, the clock was regulated and the
astronauts began their work on the program for the second day of group
flight.
At 102 0 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6 had completed 3 0 and Soyuz-7,
14 circuits.
According to the working program planned for the third day of the flight,
Soyuz-6 commander Shonin and engineer Kubasov worked on the method
of visual astro-orientation with the help of stars of the fourth and fifth magni-
tudes. This work will help in determining the exact position of a spacecraft
in outer space without having to use devices on the earth.
The crew of Soyuz-7 took observations and photographs of the earth's
12 9
surface and the daytime and dusk horizons, as well as work on perfecting
the methods of autonomous navigation.
Radio and TV broadcasts were transmitted from the spacecraft.
Medical data received through telemetric channels and the results of
mutual checks by the members of the crew of the two spacecraft show that
all the astronauts are adjusting well to the complex effects of space flight
factors and are maintaining a high working capacity.
The gas composition of the atmosphere, pressure, temperature and
humidity in the living compartments of the spacecraft are being maintained
at a level providing comfortable working conditions.
The group flight of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 continues.
At 163 0 hours Moscow time Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had completed
3 4, 18 and 2 circuits respectively.
The crew of Soyuz-8 on entering the orbit, checked the spacecraft systems
and carried out sun-orientation and turning of the spacecraft. Colonel
Shatalov began his duties as chief commander of the group flight.
The parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-8 are as follows:
maximum height above
the earth (at apogee) 2 2 3 km;
minimum height above
the earth (at perigee) 2 05 km;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg;
orbital period -88.6 min.
In accordance with the flight program, on the 3 2 nd circuit the Soyuz-6
commander inserted the initial data into the systems on board to carry
out maneuvers. The propulsion system was switched on, and the spacecraft
entered a new orbit.
By this time astronauts Filipchenko, Volkov and G orbatko on Soyuz-7
had carried out a large number of scientific, technical and medical investi-
gations and observations. According to the program for geological and
geographical investigation, they photographed particular portions of the
earth's surface, registered the extent of the snow layer, measured the illumi-
nation of the earth by the sun and brightness of the stars, and took a large
number of observations and photographs of the daytime and dusk horizon
of the earth and different cloud formations.
Comrade Filipchenko carried out manual orientation of Soyuz-7 with
the help of optical devices and special instruments.
During the second circuit, the crew of Soyuz-8 had their breakfast. The
astronauts on Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 had dinner. The breakfast for the crew
of Soyuz-8 consisted of steak, Borodino bread, chocolate and black currant
juice. The dinner for Shonin and Kubasov on Soyuz-6 included dried fish,
13 0
pate, chicken, bread and prunes. The dinner for Filipchenko, Volkov and
G orbatko on Soyuz-? consisted of meat puree, veal, bread and fancy pastries.
All seven astronauts are feeling excellent.
The group flight of the three Soviet spacecraft continues.
On October 13 the first day of the group flight of the three spacecraft
Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8the methods and techniques of simultaneous
control of three spacecraft were tested and worked out. Work was done on
the further improvement of the cooperation between the flight control center
and the ground tracking stations, communication centers and spacecraft.
All the information received by the coordination and computation center
is continuously being processed. The data confirms the high efficiency of the
selected system of flight control.
The crew of the spacecraft maintain communications between themselves
and the earth. They are working on the scientific, technical and medico-
biological research program. In particular, the crew of Soyuz-6 conducted
medico-biological investigations; the crew of Soyuz-7 took observations
and photographs of heavenly bodies, and the horizon on the sunlit and
shady sides of the earth in different bands of the visible spectrum; the crew
of Soyuz-8 conducted investigations on the polarization of sunlight reflected
by the atmosphere.
As reported by the commander of the group flight, Colonel Shatalov,
and confirmed by the spacecraft crew commanders, the astronauts are feeling
well. After a strenuous working day, the astronauts rested.
Pravda, October 14, 1969
STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF
SOYUZ-8, COMRADE V.A. SHATALOV,
BEFORE LAUNCHING
Dear Friends!
At this moment there are two Soviet spacecraft with five of our courageous
astronauts already in outer space. Soyuz-8 will be launched after a few
minutes. The group flight of three Soyuz spacecraft will enable us to conduct
a number of important scientific and technical experiments in outer space.
We dedicate this flight to a great jubileethe birth centenary of Vladimir
Il'ich Lenin, the founder of our Party and of the first government of workers
and peasants in the world.
Today our crew is leaving for outer space in a Soyuz spacecraft for the
second time and we have no doubts about the successful outcome of the
flight.
On behalf of the crew of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8, we assure the
Soviet people that we shall accomplish the honorable task entrusted to
us by our motherland.
We heartily thank the Leninist Central Committee and the G overnment
for giving us this great honor.
Till we meet on earth!
G oodbye!
Pravda, October 14, 1969
To
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU,
THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR,
AND THE SOVIET G OVERNMENT
On behalf of the crew of the Soyuz spacecraft, we are reporting to the
Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presi-
dium of the Supreme Soviet USSR and the Soviet G overnment.
At present three manned spacecraft, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8 are
successfully participating in a group flight in near-earth space.
Seven Soviet astronauts are working on an extensive program of scientific
and technical investigations, observations and experiments. Our friendly
space collective is confident that the program of space research will be
fully accomplished.
Our mood is excellent. We are feeling fine.
We heartily thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet, USSR and the Soviet G overnment for the faith
shown in us.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Volkov,
Filipchenko, G orbatko,
Shatalov, Eliseev
Salutory telegram from the Party and G overnment leaders to
the astronautsComrades G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin, Valerii
Nikolaevich Kubasov, Anatoli! Vasil'evich Filipchenko, Vladislav
Nikolaevich Volkov, Viktor Vasil'evich G orbatko, Vladimir Alek-
sandrovich Shatalov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev
Dear Comrades!
On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council
of Ministers, USSR, we heartily congratulate you on the successful group
flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8.
13 2
It is for the first time in the history of the conquest of the outer space,
that there are three manned spacecraft together in a near-earth orbit.
This outstanding achievement in the field of astronautics is another proof
of the high level of development of Soviet science and technology and of
the inexhaustible creative potentialities of the Soviet people.
The whole nation wish you successful completion of the task and safe
landing.
We embrace you and are waiting to meet you on earth.
L.I. Brezhnev, N.V. Podgornyi,
A.N. Kosygin
REPLY TO G REETING S
We heartily thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, for
their warm greetings and concern for us. The task entrusted by our mother-
land will be accomplished.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Volkov,
Filipchenko, G orbatko,
Shatalov, Eliseev
Pravda, October 14, 1969
G REETING S FROM THE SPACECRAFT
To the people of the Soviet Union
From the Soyuz spacecraft we warmly greet the great Soviet people, builders
of a communist society. We wish our people glorious feats of labor and new
achievements on the eve of the great occassionthe birth centenary of
Vladimir Il'ich Lenin.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Volkov,
Filipchenko, G orbatko,
Shatalov, Eliseev
To the people of socialist countries
From the Soyuz spacecraft we send warm greetings to the working people
of socialist countries. Let the friendship and cooperation between our peoples
grow and prosper!
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko,
Volkov, G orbatko,
Shatalov, Eliseev
13 3
To the people of Africa
From the Soyuz spacecraft we send our good wishes to the people of develop-
ing countries for success in their struggle against imperialism and for the
further strengthening of national independence.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko,
Volkov, G orbatko,
Shatalov, Eliseev
To the people of Latin America
We send our good wishes to the people of the Latin American countries
for their success in their struggle for freedom and independence.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko,
Volkov, G orbatko,
Shatalov, Eliseev
Pravda, October 14, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
CONSTELLATION OF SOTU^ SPACECRAFT IN ORBIT
The group flight of three Soviet manned Soyuz spacecraft continues
successfully. At 083 0 hours Moscow time, on October 14, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7
and Soyuz-8 completed 45, 2 9 and 13 circuits respectively.
The working day has started for the seven Soviet astronauts. In the
morning radio communications session, the group commander V.A. Shatalov
reported that all the astronauts were feeling well after their rest.
The spacecraft crew did physical exercises, accompanied by a medical
checkup, and then had breakfast. After checking the systems, the astronauts
began the flight program for the day.
Soyuz-6, Soyuz-?
an
d Soyuz-8 have been together in outer space for about
2 4 hours. The group flight of the three manned spacecraft is continuing
strictly according to flight program.
The crew are successfully carrying out the scheduled program of investi-
gations, observations and experiments. Simultaneous execution of joint
experiments at different points in near-earth space has been started, the
results of which will provide useful data for space travel.
The crew of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-8 took observations and photographs
of cloud formations, cyclones, the moon and stars with the horizon in the
background.
13 4
They also estimated the illumination of our planet on the shady and
sunlit sides.
Soyuz-6 commander Colonel V.A. Shatalov performed a number of
maneuvers using manual control.
The Soyuz-7 crew carried out manual orientation of the spacecraft for
conducting experiments including photography of areas of the Caspian Sea,
and perfecting the elements of space navigation.
Continuing the medico-biological investigations, the astronauts studied
the effect of space flight factors on the human organism. With the help of
different functional probes and psycho-physiological tests, the state of the
astronauts' organism and their working capacity was tested.
Analysis of the medical data, radio conversations and TV observation
during the flight showed the crew to be well and retaining a high working
capacity.
G round tracking stations situated on Soviet territory, and the scientific
research ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Kosmonavt Vladimir Koma-
rov, Morzhovets, Nevel', Bezhitsa, Dolinsk, Ristna, Kegostrov and Borovichi are
continuously receiving data from the spacecraft and maintain an uninter-
rupted contact with the crew.
The group flight of three Soviet spacecraft with seven astronauts on
board has now been continuing for more than 2 4 hours.
On October 14, 1969, at 1600 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and
Soyuz-8 had completed 50, 3 4, and 18 circuits respectively.
At the beginning of the second day of the joint flight, the crew of all
the three spacecraft checked the functioning of the automatic and manual
control systems.
The possibility of carrying out manual orientation with the help of an
optical sighting device at dusk and in the shady area of the earth was deter-
mined. The accuracy of the manual vector velocity orientation was checked
with the help of sensors and a local vertical plotting device.
The pressure in the living compartments is within 790-82 0 mm Hg.
Temperature2 O-2 4C. Relative humidity-54-57%.
The three scientific space laboratories continue to work in close cooperation
according to a unified plan.
A steady two-way radio contact is maintained between each spacecraft
and the earth. The astronauts are feeling well. Colonel Shatalov, commander
of the group, conveyed on behalf of all the astronauts deep gratitude to the
scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who created these
wonderful vehicles.
In accordance with the scheduled program, the group carried out a
'3 5
number of maneuvers to perfect the systems.
As a result of these maneuvers, Soyuz-7 and Scyuz-8 approached each
other, observed, photographed and filmed each other to determine the
visibility of objects at different distances. Simultaneously, the possibility
of exchanging information with the help of light signals and visual optical
devices was also studied. This information is necessary for solving a number
of problems for the perfecting of autonomous operations of long-term orbital
laboratories.
Besides these experiments, the crew of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 conducted
a large number of medical investigations and studied the effect of micro-
meteoric erosion on windows and the optical systems of the spacecraft.
The crew of Soyuz-6 carried out a number of experiments and investi-
gations, including perfecting the methods of visual orientation with the
help of the stars, autonomous navigation, study of the polarization of sun-
rays and different medico-biological investigations.
During the flight, a number of TV broadcasts on the work of the astronauts
while conducting experiments were transmitted. A steady two-way radio
contact is being maintained between space and the ground control. All
the systems are functioning normally. The astronauts are well.
When the spacecraft travels outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone the
astronauts will rest.
Pravda, October 15, 1969
G REETING S FROM THE SPACECRAFT
To the scientists, designers, engineers
and workersbuilders of the Soyuz spacecraft
Dear Friends!
We send our hearty greetings and express our deep gratitude for creating
such wonderful spacecraft. Wish you new successes in your creative work.
Astronauts: Shatalov, Shonin, Kubasov,
Filipchenko, G orbatko,
Volkov, Eliseev
To the people of the United States of America
Soviet astronauts send greetings and best wishes to the American people.
Astronauts: Shatalov, Shonin, Kubasov,
Filipchenko, Volkov,
G orbatko, Eliseev
13 6
To the people of Europe
From the Sqyuz spacecraft we send greetings to the people of the European
countries. We wish further strengthening of peace and mutual understanding
between people.
Astronauts: Shatalov, Shonin, Kubasov,
Filipchenko, Volkov,
G orbatko, Eliseev
Pravda, October 15, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
HEROIC WORKING DAY IN OUTER SPACE
The group flight of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8 continues.
On October 15, the new working day for the group started earlyat
053 0 hours Moscow time. The astronauts woke up fresh and in a good mood.
After doing the physical exercises and medical checkup, they occupied
their working places and began the flight program.
After noting the temperature, pressure and gas composition in the compart-
ments from the control instruments, and after checking the systems, the
commanders of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 reported to the group commander that
they were ready for joint scientific and technical experiments.
At 0650 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft entered the radiovisibility
zone of the Soviet ground tracking stations, and established communications
with the flight control center. G round control sent them instructions for
the systems and the necessary initial data for the next day's flight.
After breakfast, the astronauts began scientific and technical experiments.
According to the flight program, within the next few hours the crew
have to observe different portions of the earth's surface in mountainous
regions, watch the spreading of cloud and vertical formations over the
Pacific and Atlantic, and study the reflective power of large tracts of forest
and desert.
By 0800 hours, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-j and Soyuz-8 had completed 61, 45 and
2 9 circuits respectively.
According to the autonomous navigational measurement data, the
commanders continue their intermaneuvering, using the manual control
systems.
Medical investigations including the study of the functioning of external
breathing, optical analyzer, and vestibular apparatus were also carried
out on Soyuz-6 by conducting standard tests. Moreover, geological and
'37
geographical regions of the earth's surface and the development of cyclones
were observed and photographed. The operational activities were checked
and devices for reflecting information, perception and impellant reactions
were appraised.
The crew of Soyuz-7 checked the systems on board, observed the shining
particles and the dynamics of their motion, plotted curves of the functioning
of the orientation and motion control systems, and took photographs of the
starry sky in the direction opposite to the sun. Astronauts Shatalov and
Eliseev on Soyuz-8 watched the maneuvering and turning of Soyuz-7 toward
the sun, studied the visual capacity of the operator and investigated solar
radiation with the help of a special instrument.
Telemetric data about the state of health of the astronauts testified to
their good health and high working capacity. All the astronauts had a
smooth pulse rate of 60-70 beats per minute.
The parameters of air in the spacecraft cabins were normal.
The group commander, V.A. Shatalov, reported that all the spacecraft
systems were functioning normally.
Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel P.R. Popovich, who was present
at the flight control center, conveyed greetings to the astronauts from re-
latives and told them that everything was fine at their homes, and that
their families wished them successful completion of their task and a safe
return home.
On October 15, at 153 0 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8
had completed 66, 50 and 3 4 circuits respectively.
The seven Soviet astronauts continue the group flight program. The
crew worked on the improvement of piloting technique, necessary for
future space laboratories. The astronauts carried out a wide range of mane-
uvers with the help of manual control and space-borne navigational devices.
Soyuz-7
an(
i Soyuz-8 approached each other to a distance of about 500 meters
which made it possible for their crew to observe each other visually and
communicate with the help of light signals. Through the windows, the
astronauts could clearly distinguish the solar panels and other structural
details.
The rendezvous of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 was observed and recorded by
the crew of Soyuz-6.
In the field of physical investigations, experiments were conducted for
determining the composition of cosmic ray beams. Also the processes
taking place in the upper layers of the terrestrial ionosphere were studied.
In a radio communications session the spacecraft commanders, on behalf
of their crew, thanked their relatives for the warm greetings.
The astronauts are well. The systems are functioning accurately. The
flight is continuing according to schedule.
138
On the afternoon of October 15, the astronauts performed more scien-
tific and technical experiments and observations.
Work was done on the improvement of methods of measuring the para-
meters of the atmosphere, and the processes taking place in it were studied
with the help of scientific apparatus fitted on the spacecraft.
During operational communications with ground control posts, the
crew reported meteorological data on the condition of cloud covers, budding
cyclones and changes in the condition of snow in the mountainous regions
of the Soviet Union.
At a fixed time the astronauts had dinner. The menu included liver pate,
chicken, table bread and fruit candies. After dinner and a short rest, the
astronauts continued their work according to program.
On October 15, 1969, orbital maneuvering was carried out. Soyuz-6 and
Soyuz-8 in turn approached Soyuz-J up to a distance of a few hundred meters.
All the rendezvous maneuvers were carried out with the help of manual
control on the basis of data from the space-borne autonomous navigation
devices. As a result, valuable material required for the working out and
construction of new systems for autonomous control was collected.
Astronauts Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Shatalov and Eliseev have
displayed a high level of operational activity by accurately carrying out
all the maneuvers. This was only possible because of their thorough training
on earth.
The ground tracking stations reported that the group flight was clearly
visible in the sky at night. The parameters of the spacecraft orbits are very
close to each other. On an average, these parameters are: maximum distance
from the earth (at apogee)2 2 5 kilometers; minimum distance from the
earth (at perigee)2 00 kilometers; orbital period88.6 minutes; orbital
inclination51.7 degrees.
All the planned scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments
were accomplished.
The pressure, gas composition, temperature and humidity in the living
compartments of the spacecraft are normal.
All the astronauts are in good health and are feeling well.
At 2 03 0 hours, the spacecraft moved out of the Soviet radiovisibility zone.
After supper, the astronauts will rest.
Pravda, October 16, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
THE FIRST WELDING IN OUTER SPACE
The crew of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 rested from 2 12 0 hours on
'3 9
October 15, to 0500 hours on October 16.
According to the telemetric data, the astronauts slept peacefully. The
parameters of the microclimate in the compartments and the cabin's pres-
sure, temperature, humidity, and the gas composition of the atmosphere
were similar to those on earth.
After waking up, the astronauts performed the set exercises, ate breakfast
with a good appetite and checked the systems.
After entering the zone of Soviet radiovisibility, the spacecraft commanders
regulated the clocks and reported that all the astronauts were well and
ready for the day's program.
On October 16, at 1100 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8
completed 79, 63 and 47 circuits respectively.
The crew members carried out a planned program of scientific, technical
and medico-biological investigations. They also worked on the further
improvement of methods of manual maneuvering in orbit.
The crew of Soyuz-6, consisting of Lieutenant-Colonel G .S. Shonin
and Space Engineer V.N. Kubasov, carried out experiments in welding in
outer space. The main aim of these experiments was to determine the special
features of the welding of different metals. As has been reported earlier,
Soyuz-6 is fitted with unique technological equipment, for the study of
different methods of metal welding under the conditions of high vacuum and
weightlessness. The welding equipment is fixed in the orbital compartment,
while the control panel for the welding process is in the astronaut's cabin.
Before starting to weld, the commander closed the hatch in the cabin,
and during the 77th circuit opened the orbital compartment. After a high
vacuum was established in the compartment, Comrade Kubasov switched
on the welding equipment. Several varieties of automatic welding were
carried out. Then the orbital compartment was sealed and the space engineer
took the samples of welding into the astronaut's cabin.
This is a unique experiment of great importance in science and technology
for working out methods of welding and assembly in outer space.
Pravda, October 17, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOYUZ-6 CREW BACK ON EARTH
On October 16, 1969, at 12 52 hours Moscow time, after successfully
completing the space flight program, Soyuz-6, carrying astronauts Shonin
and Kubasov, landed in a predetermined region in Soviet territory, about
140
180 kilometers northwest of the town of Karaganda.
The astronauts feel well.
For leaving the orbit, the commander performed manual orientation,
and at a precalculated moment switched on the descent program. After the
operation of the motor, the landing vehicle carrying the astronauts was
separated from the spacecraft.
The landing vehicle descended along a guided trajectory, making use of
aerodynamic control. After braking in the atmosphere, the parachute system
came into action, while the engine for soft-landing ensured a smooth touch-
down.
On the earth, the astronauts were met by the search group, friends, sport
commissars and journalists.
The flight of Soyuz-6 has been successfully completed. The results obtained
carry great scientific and technical importance.
Circuit after circuit
At 1700 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had completed 67 and
51 circuits around the earth respectively.
The crew of the spacecraft checked the systems and continued the scientific
and technical experiments and investigations.
In particular, the astronauts took observations of the starry sky and the
earthvisually as well as with the help of optical instruments. They photo-
graphed the cloud and snow covers on the earth as well as the visible earth
horizon.
The astronauts ate dinner according to the daily routine. In the radio
communications session the crew commanders said that all the astronauts
were feeling fine and in excellent mood.
The commanders of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 congratulated G eorgii Stepano-
vich Shonin and Velerii Nikolaevich Kubasov on their safe landing.
After the successful landing of Soyuz-6, the crew of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8
continued to work strictly according to the program of scientific, technical
and medico-biological investigations.
During the 4Qth and 5ist circuits, the commander of Soyuz-8, V.A.
Shatalov, performed two orbit corrections manually, to test the autonomous
control system.
The crew of Soyuz-7 continued investigations of the earth's atmosphere
and cloud covers. While passing over the southern hemisphere, the astronauts
observed thunderstorms a number of times.
The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft compartment are
141
normal: pressure790mm Hg, temperature2 OC, and relative humidity
40%.
The astronauts are in good health and cheerful mood. The pulse rate is
within 60-76 beats per minute and respiration is 18-2 2 per minute.
On October 16 at 2 011 hours, the spacecraft left the Soviet radio-
visibility zone.
After making the necessary notes in the spacecraft logbook, the astronauts
will have supper and go to bed.
Pravda, October 17, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
-? LANDS SAFELY
Today, October 17, 1969, at 12 2 6 hours Moscow time, after completing
the program of experiments, Soyuz-j with its crew, Comrades Filipchenko,
Volkov and G orbatko, landed in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union,
155 kilometers northwest of Karaganda. The astronauts are feeling well
after the landing.
For the descent to earth, the orientation of the spacecraft was performed
and the braking engines were switched on at a precalculated moment.
After the braking engines had finished their work, the compartments of
the spacecraft were separated, and the landing vehicle carrying the crew
started descending along its trajectory towards the earth. After aerodynamic
deceleration and guided re-entry, the parachute system came into action in
the atmosphere. The engines for soft-landing provided a smooth touchdown.
At the landing site, the astronauts were warmly welcomed by the search
group, sport commissars, friends and journalists. The astronauts informed
them that they were feeling well.
The medical checkup at the landing site showed that all the astronauts
had reacted well to the conditions of space flight and that their physiological
functions had re-adjusted on returning to normal conditions.
Thus the flight of Soyuz-7 has been completed successfully, and the crew
consisting of Filipchenko, Volkov and G orbatko, has completed the scheduled
program of scientific, technical and medico-biological research.
Meanwhile Soyuz-8 continued in orbit.
Circuit after circuit
On October 17, at 0607 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 entered
the Soviet radiovisibility zone. By this time Soyuz-7 had completed 76 circuits
and Soyuz-8, 60.
142
Commanders Filipchenko and Shatalov, by turn, established radio
communications with the earth and reported that the astronauts had rested
well. After waking up, the astronauts performed physical exercises and ate
breakfast.
According to the telemetric data and as reported by the spacecraft
commanders, the systems on board are functioning normally. All the astro-
nauts are in good health. The pressure, temperature and relative humidity
in the living compartments are within the prescribed limits.
After checking the systems and regulating the clocks, the crew began the
flight program for the day.
On October 17, at 103 0 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had
completed 79 and 63 circuits respectively.
The crew of Soyuz-7 continued working on the perfecting of methods of
autonomous navigation and manual orientation of spacecraft.
Comrade Shatalov and Eliseev, in Soyuz-8, conducted medical investi-
gations, photography and filming of geological and geographical features on
the earth's surface, and the cloud cover of the earth.
All the spacecraft systems are functioning normally. Telemetric data is
received from the spacecraft, making it possible to appraise the working of
all the instruments and the state of the astronauts' organisms.
During a radio communications session at 1040 hours, the astronauts
transmitted from Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 felicitations to the Ukrainian people on
the occasion of the 2 5th anniversary of the day they freed themselves from
the Nazis.
On October 17, at 1500 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-8 had completed 66
circuits around the earth.
According to the data from the coordination and computations center,
the parameters of the spacecraft orbit are as follows:
maximum distance from the
earth (at apogee) 2 56 km;
minimum distance from
the earth (at perigee) 190 km;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg;
orbital period 88.85 min.
During a TV broadcast at the beginning of the 67th circuit, the astronauts
stated they are working on the perfecting of new methods of autonomous
navigation for independently determining orbital parameters. They observed
a big cyclone in the region of Africa.
The astronauts warmly greeted the crew of Soyuz-7
on
^
ts sa
-f
e
return to
earth.
143
Telemetric information and the reports by Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev
speak of the normal functioning of the instruments and devices on Soyuz-8.
The astronauts' recorded physiological parameters are normal.
On October 17, at 2 100 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-8 had
completed 70 circuits around the earth.
On the basis of the experiments conducted on autonomous navigation,
the astronauts calculated the parameters of the orbit of their spacecraft.
These parameters coincide with the data of the coordination and computa-
tion center.
The astronauts observed big cyclones in the Atlantic, southeast of Cuba
and southwest of England. They also took photographs of a typhoon near
the shores of America.
G round tracking stations are maintaining a steady radio contact with the
spacecraft. During the 68th and 6gth circuits the astronauts transmitted
TV reports from the astronauts' cabin and the orbital compartment.
From 1950 hours on October 17 to 0550 hours on October 18, Soyuz-8
will be orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone.
After supper, Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev will rest.
Pravda, October 18, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
G ROUP FLIG HT SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Today on October 18, 1969, at 12 10 hours Moscow time, after completing
the flight program, Soyuz-8, piloted by the commander of the spacecraft
group, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, and Space Engineer, Hero of the Soviet
Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Kandidat of Technical Sciences,
Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev, landed in a predetermined area in the Soviet
Union, 145 kilometers north of Karaganda.
For leaving orbit, the commander, Shatalov, performed orientation of
the spacecraft with the help of the manual control system, and put into action
the descent program at a precalculated moment. After the braking engine
had finished its work, the landing vehicle carrying the crew was separated
from the spacecraft.
The landing vehicle moved along a guided trajectory with aerodynamic
control. After braking in the atmosphere, the parachute system came into
action. The engines for soft-landing ensured a smooth touchdown of the
vehicle.
On earth, the astronauts were warmly greeted by the search group, sport
144
commissars, friends and journalists.
The astronauts are in good health. They are feeling excellent.
Thus the group flight of three Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and
Soyuz-8 is over.
Pravda, October 19, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
THE LAST CIRCUITS
On October 18, at 0550 hours Moscow time, while accomplishing its
yyth circuit, Soyuz-8 re-entered the Soviet radiovisibility zone.
Thus began a new working day in outer space.
After refreshing sleep, and having performed the set of physical exercises
and eaten breakfast with a good appetite, Pilot-Astronauts Shatalov and
Eliseev checked the condition of the systems, regulated the clock and made
the necessary notes in the spacecraft logbook.
In a radio communications session, the commander reported that the
crew was ready to continue the scientific investigations and experiments.
The astronauts are feeling well.
The systems on board are functioning normally. The parameters of the
microclimate in the spacecraft compartments are within the prescribed
limits.
On October 18, at 1000 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-8 had completed 79
circuits around the earth.
While the spacecraft was orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone, an
experiment was conducted for establishing communications between the
flight control center and the spacecraft through the ship Kosmonavt Vladimir
Komarov, sailing in the Atlantic Ocean, and the communications satellite
Molniya-i. The experiment was successful and the communications were
steady.
Reporting to the earth about the investigations, the astronauts stated
that, near the shores of Kamchatka in Sakhalin region, they watched and
photographed a powerful cyclone.
A 'space press conference' was held during one of the radio communication
sessions. Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev replied to questions put by the
correspondents of TASS and the Ail-Union Radio.
The astronauts are well and the spacecraft systems are functioning
normally.
Pravda, October 19, 1969
H5
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers,
all the collectives and organizations that took part in the prepara-
tion and successful accomplishment of the group flight of the
manned spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8.
To
The Soviet astronauts, Comrades G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin,
Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov, Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko,
Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov, Viktor Vasil'evich G orbatko, Vladi-
mir Aleksandrovich Shatalov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.
Dear Comrades!
The group flight of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7
an(
i Soyuz-8, lasting for several days,
has been successfully completed. Seven Soviet astronauts have carried out an
extensive program solving important practical problems, necessary for the
perfecting of manned spacecraft technology and for the creation of orbital
stations.
The crew of the spacecraft carried out joint scientific observations and
experiments, gained valuable experience in working out the problems of
autonomous navigation and control of several spacecraft in group flight.
At all stages of the flight, from launching till landing, the Soyuz spacecraft's
equipment and systems all showed a high degree of accuracy and coordina-
tion in their working.
The group flight has demonstrated the further progress of Soviet space
science and technology. It has shown the productive power of the creative
labor of the scientists, engineers, and workers of our country.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers,
USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear comrades G .S. Shonin, V.N.
Kubasov, A.V. Filipchenko, V.N. Volkov, V.V. G orbatko, V.A. Shatalov
and A.S. Eliseev, on the successful completion of the flight and accomplish-
ment of this important and responsible task.
We congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and
workers, all collectives and organizations who took part in the preparation,
launching and tracking of the flight of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8.
Dear comrades, we wish you more successes in your work for the creation
of new space technology for the noble cause of the conquest of outer space
for peaceful purposes.
Central Committee of the CPSU
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Council of Ministers, USSR
Pravda, October 19, 1969
146
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
ORBITAL FLIG HT
As has already been reported on October n, 12 and 13 , 1969, for the
first time the Soviet Union launched three spacecraft, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7
and Soyuz-8 into a near-earth orbit. The crew on board consisted of
commander of Soyuz-6, G .S. Shonin, and Space Engineer V.N. Kubasov;
commander of Soyuz-7, A.V. Filipchenko, with Space Engineer V.N. Volkov
and Research Engineer V.V. G orbatko; commander of Soyuz-8, V.A.
Shatalov, and Space Engineer A.S. Eliseev.
All the ground services, including the launching complex, control center,
and ground tracking and communication stations ensured accurate flight.
The whole program in outer space lasted for seven days, while each space-
craft was in outer space for five days.
Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 after fully carrying out the program of
scientific and technical experiments and investigations, landed in a predeter-
mined region of the Soviet Union on October 16, 17 and 18 respectively.
The landing was performed with great accuracy. The spacecraft crews were
taken to the cosmodrome for a post-flight medical checkup and rest.
The following main tasks were carried out during the flight: checking and
flight-testing of the systems for an improved Soyuz design; improvement of
the systems of manual control, orientation and stabilization in orbit and
checking of the autonomous navigation devices; intermaneuvering of the
spacecraft in orbit for solving a number of problems concerning manned
spacecraft; perfecting of the system for the simultaneous control of a group
of three spacecraft; scientific observation and photography of geological
and geographical features on the earth, as well as investigation of its atmos-
phere, for working out methods of applying the data for the national
economy; composite investigations in near-earth space with three space-
craft participating; scientific and technical experiments, including the testing
of different methods of welding in the conditions of space vacuum and weight-
lessness; and medico-biological investigations for a further study of the effect
of space flight factors on the human organism.
During the process of orbital maneuvering, a number of times the para-
meters of the orbits were changed. The spacecraft approached each other,
remained at distances where they could see each other, and departed in
predetermined directions.
One of the important tasks of the flight program was the perfecting of the
coordination between the spacecraft group and the ground control and
measurement stations situated in different regions of the Soviet Union and
aboard the scientific research ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences,
Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov, Morzhovets, Nevel', Bezhitsa, Dolinsk, Ristna,
Kegostrov and Borovichi, sailing in different parts of the world.
The telecommunication satellite Molniya-i was included in the system for
the transmission of command and measurement data. The results of the
joint flight of the Soyuz spacecraft confirmed the high efficiency of the
control system used.
The wide program of scientific investigations included the determination
of methods of using manned space systems for the needs of the national
economy. For this purpose, experiments were conducted on the study of
peculiar geological regions for the possible exposing of beds of raw minerals.
The astronauts determined the extent of the spread of the snow cover and
ice. With the help of special instruments they conducted experiments on the
characteristics of reflection by large tracts of forest, desert and other parts
of the earth's surface.
During the flight the astronauts did a good deal of photography and filming
of land masses, oceans and the cloud cover of the earth.
The crew simultaneously carried out astrophysical observations and
experiments. In particular, the polarization of the sun's rays reflected by the
atmosphere was determined, the illumination of the sun was measured
and experiments were conducted for finding out the actual brightness of stars.
A unique scientific and technical experiment conducted during the flight
was the carrying out of welding jobs in outer space. Welding equipment was
fitted on Soyuz-6 and the welding was done automatically, controlled from
inside the spacecraft.
This experiment is a great achievement of Soviet science and technology,
and opens prospects for welding and assembly jobs in outer space.
According to the program of medico-biological investigations, the
characteristics of the human organism under outer space conditions were
studied. The gas and energy transformation, as well as the functional condi-
tion of external respiration and blood circulation while doing different
types of jobs, were studied.
The lifesaving systems for the astronauts provided comfortable living
conditions in the compartments of the spacecraft. Regular medical checks
were taken throughout the flight.
The training of the astronauts both individually as well as in a group,
led to the faultless performance of duties by each member of the crew.
Throughout the flight, the astronauts retained a high working capacity,
good health and cheerful mood.
A number of times TV broadcasts were made by the astronauts from the
spacecraft. In these broadcasts, the astronauts spoke to the TV viewers
about the progress of the flight, the equipment in the spacecraft and about
the experiments taking place.
All the spacecraft landed along guided descent trajectories, making use of
aerodynamic lift. The acceleration forces during the phase of re-entry were
148
small. The landing vehicle touched the earth with almost zero velocity,
thanks to the use of special engines for soft-landing.
The data received as a result of scientific, technical and medico-biological
investigations i? being processed and will be published in due course.
The group flight of three Soviet spacecraft with seven astronauts on
board is a great new achievement of Soviet science and technology.
An important step has been taken in the development of orbital flights
and the application of manned spacecraft systems for solving national
economic and scientific problems.
Pravda, October 19, 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE,
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT COMRADE G .S. SHONIN
For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed
during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon
the commander of Soyuz-6, Pilot-Astronaut, G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin.
He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgomyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE,
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT COMRADE V.N. KUBASOV
For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed
during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred
H9
upon Pilot-Astronaut Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov. He is awarded the
Order of Lenin and the " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT COMRADE A.V. FILIPCHENKO
For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed
during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon
the commander of the spacecraft Soyuz-7, Pilot-Astronaut Anatolii Vasil'-
evich Filipchenko. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the " Zolotaya
Zvezda" medal.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE,
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT COMRADE V.N. VOLKOV
For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Sqyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed
during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon
150
Pilot-Astronaut Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov. He is awarded the Order
of Lenin and the " Zolotaya Zvedza" medal.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE,
" HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOT-
ASTRONAUT COMRADE V.V. G ORBATKO
For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Sqyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed
during this flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon
Pilot-Astronaut Viktor Vasil'evich G orbatko. He is awarded the Order
of Lenin and the " Zolotaya Zvedza" medal.
M. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE SECOND
" ZOLOTAYA ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO " HERO OF
THE SOVIET UNION," PI LOT-ASTRONAUT
OF THE USSR, V.A. SHATALOV
For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Sqyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed
during this flight, the second " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal is awarded to the
commander of the Soyuz-8 spacecraft, " Hero of the Soviet Union," Pilot-
Astronaut of the USSR, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov.
ff. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadzc
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE SECOND
" ZOLOTAYA ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO " HERO OF
THE SOVIET UNION," PI LOT-ASTRONAUT
OF THE USSR, A.S. ELISEEV
For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6,
Sqyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed
during this flight, the second " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal is awarded to
" Hero of the Soviet Union," Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Aleksei Stanisla-
vovich Eliseev.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE
TITLE, " PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE
USSR," TO COMRADE G .S. SHONIN
For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-6 spacecraft, the title of
" Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade
G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
152
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE,
" PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR/' TO
COMRADE V.N. KUBASOV
For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-6 spacecraft, the title
of " Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade
Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE,
" PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR," TO
COMRADE A.V. FILIPCHENKO
For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-7 spacecraft, the title of
" Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade
Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow .October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET,
USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, " PILOT-
ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR/' TO COMRADE
V.N. VOLKOV
For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-j spacecraft, the title
153
of " Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade
Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE,
" PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR," TO
COMRADE V.V. G ORBATKO
For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-J spacecraft, the title of
" Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade
Viktor Vasil'evich G orbatko.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, October 2 2 , 1969
Pravda, October. 2 3 , 1969
PRESS CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW UNIVERSITY
Yesterday, in the auditorium of the Moscow State University in Lenin
Hills, a press conference was held. It was devoted to the successful accomp-
lishment of the group flight of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft. At
the meeting were the Pilot-Astronauts of the USSR, Heroes of the Soviet
Union, G .S. Shonin, V.N. Kubasov, A.V. Filipchenko, V.N. Volkov, V.V.
G orbatko and Twice Heroes of the Soviet Union, V.A. Shatalov and A.S.
Eliseev.
The press conference was opened by Academician M.V. Keldysh, President
of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
154
Speech by Academician M.V. Keldysh
On October 18, the group flight of three Soviet spacecraft, Soyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 was completed. During the course of the flight an
extensive program of scientific and technical experiments was carried out.
As you already know, Soyuz-6 with Comrades G eorgii Stepanovich Shonin
and Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov on board, was launched into an orbit of
the earth on October n. Next day, Soyuz-7 with Comrades Anatolii Vasil'-
evich Filipchenko, Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov and Viktor Vasil'evich
G orbatko on board, was launched. After another 2 4 hours, the third space-
craft, Soyuz-8 was launched carrying two Heroes of the Soviet Union,
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev,
who were travelling to outer space for the second time.
Thus started the first-ever flight of three spacecraft orbiting the earth.
One of the main tasks of this group flight was the creation of an extensive
system in which the spacecraft pilots coordinated their flight with the help
of a wide range of automatic devices, including different equipment for
control, reception communication, and for processing information. Besides
the Soyuz spacecraft, in this coordination system, were also the ground
command and measuring complex, scientific research ships situated at
different places in the oceans of the world, and the telecommunication
satellite Molniya-i. The astronauts carried out checking and testing of the
spacecraft systems, worked the manual control, orientation and stabilization
of the spacecraft in orbit, and checked the autonomous navigation devices.
A number of times intermaneuvering of spacecraft was carried out, to solve
several problems concerning the perfecting of the complex manned space-
craft system. Experience achieved as a result of this new experiment will
help in the creation of manned orbital systems in the near future.
This group flight was in accordance with the Soviet program for the
systematic study of near-earth space with the help of manned spacecraft
of the Soyuz series.
As you remember, during astronaut Beregovoi's space flight, the design
and systems of the Soyuz spacecraft were tested in the process of maneuvering
while approaching the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 . This year in J anuary,
during the flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, the docking of the first experimental
orbital space station was accomplished. In the group flight of three Soyuz
spacecraft, which lasted a number of days, problems concerning the creation
of manned orbital space systems and the perfecting of coordination between
spacecraft during a wide range of maneuvering in a near-earth orbit were
solved.
The availability of two compartments in the Soyuz spacecraft (the astro-
nauts' cabin and the compartment meant for scientific investigations and
for rest) made it possible to carry out a varied program of scientific research.
155
This program included a number of experiments on the study of geologically
characteristic areas of the earth's surface and work on how to interpret
this data, experiments on the determination of the reflection characteristics
of different regions of the earth's surface when seen from outer space, photo-
graphy and filming of land masses, oceans and cloud covers of the earth,
and their spectro-photometry. An extensive complex of medico-biological
experiments on the astronauts' organism and their working capacity under
different flight conditions was carried out.
The experiments conducted in Soyuz-6 on the study of different methods
of metal welding under conditions of high vacuum and weightlessness,
are of great importance. The welding of thin sheets of building material
stainless steel and titaniumwas accomplished; cutting of stainless steel,
titanium and aluminum was carried out, and the behavior of drops of
liquid metal and the welding tub under the conditions of weightlessness
was studied. The scientific and technological data obtained is at present
being analyzed in detail.
The Soviet Union's program of study for the conquest of outer space
and the heavenly bodies includes a wide range of investigations in the interest
of science and our national economy. This program envisages a combination
of different technical means. For an initial reconnaissance penetration into
still insufficiently explored and almost inaccessible regions of outer space,
we have been using and shall continue to use automated probes, which
enable us to carry out investigations at great distances from the earth under
quite difficult conditions for long periods of time and with comparatively
less expenditure. The effectiveness of such probes was demonstrated, for
example, by flights to Venus, when the space vehicles, after travelling for
four months, penetrated into the atmosphere of this planet and made
important measurements of its characteristicschemical composition,
temperature and pressure.
Heavy automated probes, including those which can be recovered, and
manned spacecraft, will be used for detailed and extensive study of the earth,
heavenly bodies and physical processes in outer space. Examples of such
stations are the satellite of the Kosmos series, the physical laboratories Proton,
recoverable stations / ^onrfand the manned scientific and technical laboratories
Soyuz.
In the Soviet space program, the problems in the construction of prolonged
orbital stations are being overcome. These stations will help solve basic
problems of physics, geophysics and astrophysics. Simultaneously, they
will make use of outer space for the practical benefit of mankind. They
will enable us to make a more rational use of the resources of the earth and
understand better geology, meteorology, agriculture, forestry, sea fishing,
geodesy and oceanography. These stations will play an important role in
the flights to the planets of the solar system and in the conquest of the further
156
regions of outer space as well.
The flights of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft signify an impor-
tant step in the conquest of outer space. I am glad to announce that the
Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences has recorded the outstanding
services of Twice Heroes of Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronauts of the USSR,
Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev, who were earlier awarded K.E. Tsiolkovskii
G old Medals in the field of investigation and conquest of outer space, and
has awarded K.E. Tsiolkovskii G old Medals to Heroes of the Soviet Union,
Pilot-Astronauts of the USSR, Comrades Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko,
Volkov and G orbatko.
Accompanied by thunderous applause, M.V. Keldysh presented the
K.E. Tsiolkovskii G old Medals to the astronauts.
The next person on the rostrum was the commander of Soyuz-8, V.A.
Shatalov.
Speech by V.A. Shatalov
The following main tasks were put before the crew of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7
and Soyuz-8 spacecraft.
complex investigations of near-earth space, as well as observation of
the surface of the earth from three points in outer space simultaneously;
observation and photography in the interests of meteorology and
geophysics, of typhoons, cyclones, cloud formations, geological and geo-
graphical regions and the snow cover.
the improvement of a group flight system of control;
intermaneuvering of spacecraft in orbit by using data from autonomous
navigational measurements and manual control, to improve the manned
space systems.
In addition, we had to do:
overall testing of the improved systems of the latest Soyuz rocket and
space complex;
-a large number of scientific observations and investigations, which
included observation of heavenly bodies and the earth's horizon, determi-
nation of the actual brightness of stars, and measurement of the illumi-
nation of the earth's surface by the sun;
medico-biological investigations for the further study of the influence
of space flight factors on the human organism.
All these tasks were completed by the crews.
For us, the most responsible tasks were intermaneuvering and coordination
between the crews of the three spacecraft and flight control centers as well
'57
as with the communication stations on land and sea.
More than 3 0 maneuvers were carried out in orbit. It should be noted
that we were given much more opportunity of using manual control than
previous crew.
Before carrying out a maneuver, we would determine the parameters
of the orbit, calculate the magnitude of the corrective impulses and their
directions. The maneuver was carried out according to this data. Our
spacecraft would approach each other to a distance from where we could
see one a lother. At this distance the crew would determine the parameters
of relative motion, distance, velocity of approach and angular velocity of
the sightline. The task of the Soyuz-8 crew was to decrease the angular velocity
by making use of the propulsion system for rendezvous and correction, and
then approach Soyuz-J to within a few hundred meters. At this time the
crew of Soyuz-J was carefully observing our spacecraft. We carried out
all the necessary operations and successfully accomplished the rendezvous.
Next, similar maneuvers were carried out by Soyuz-6 which approached
Soyuz-J to within a few hundred meters.
The coordination between the spacecraft consisted of the following:
while approaching within visual limits, the space engineers of Soyuz-J
and Soyuz-8 measured the necessary parameters of relative motion. The
measurement data were compared, and Aleksei Eliseevpassed me the direction
of orientation of the spacecraft and the time of functioning of the propulsion
system. I carried out the necessary turning by switching the motors on and
off. Accurate and well-coordinated work by the two crew and uninterrupted
communication between us, enabled us to accomplish the maneuvers for
the rendezvous with a minimum fuel expenditure.
As a result of manual maneuvering and autonomous navigation devices,
many solutions were reached for improved group flight coordination.
The most significant results of maneuvering were as follows:
new information has been received regarding the optimal maneuvers
for rendezvous with the help of autonomous devices for the determination
of the dynamics of relative motion of the approaching spacecraft, as well
as methods of coordination between crew;
a large amount of statistical data on fuel expenditure for the different
maneuvers with different methods of orientation has been obtained;
extensive material regarding the most rational distribution of control
between man and the automatic machines while carrying out different
obs has been obtained.
As you know, the group flight of three spacecraft was accomplished for
the first time. It was made possible by an exceptionally accurate coordination
between the land and sea stations, flight control center and the spacecraft
crew. Throughout there was a steady two-way communication and we could
always get information from the earth, even when outside the radiovisibility
.58
zone of the communication centers. We received this information from
other spacecraft which happened to be near these centers at that moment,
or through the telecommunication satellite Mainly a-1.
In conclusion, I must add that the potentialities of the Soyuz spacecraft
to carry out maneuvers are far from exhausted. The Soyuz and its systems
have been thoroughly tested and possess high operational and technological
efficiency. It can be used as a space laboratory for all kinds of experiments.
Already a 'ot of interesting work regarding the study of near-earth space
has been carried out in the Soyuz.
Next, V.N. Kubasov, the space engineer of Soyuz-6, spake:
Speech by V.N. Kubasov
I, as space engineer, took part in the welding experiments in outer space.
Today, the development of astronautics has already put before our scientists
and designers problems connected with the construction of big orbital stations
for the fitting of interplanetary spaceships from parts delivered into orbit.
In the future we will have the problem of repairs of space vehicles which have
been in outer space for a long time. This work involves the welding of metals.
Our crew carried out welding experiments in open space conditions.
These experiments were prepared by the E.O. Paton Institute of Electric
Welding under the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R.
While preparing for the experiment a lot of research work was done which
helped find out the main characteristics of welding in outer space conditions,
namely, weightlessness, high vacuum and a big temperature drop.
On the basis of this research, the autonomous welding machine, " Vulkan"
was constructed. It weighs about 50 kilograms and consists of the following
main units: the welding assembly, with the working organs of the welding
equipment, and a rotating table with samples of metals to be welded;
instrument assembly with power supply unit; shielding case, for covering
the welding assembly; panel for remote control.
The " Vulkan" provides for three ways of welding: pinched arc (by low
temperature plasma); electron beam; and melting electrode.
The welding assembly of the " Vulkan" was fitted in the orbital compart-
ment of Soyuz-6 and the panel for remote control was fitted in the space-
craft cabin.
The following is the order in which the experiment was conducted. Before
starting the welding work, spacecraft commander G eorgii Shonin closed the
cabin entry hatch and then opened the seals of the orbital compartment.
Then I operated the welding apparatus using all three methods of welding
'59
in turn. The welding was controlled by a light signal panel, and on the
earth by telemetric data.
On the completion of the experiment, the orbital compartment was
again sealed. The pressure in the landing vehicle and the orbital compartment
was equalled, the entry hatch was re-opened and I entered the orbital
compartment. I carried out the manual operations for welding, while
G eorgii Shonin filmed the proceedings.
Then the " Vulkan" machine was dismantled and, along with the samples,
taken from the orbital compartment into the landing vehicle.
The materials of the experiment are being studied and the results will be
published later. But even now we can draw certain conclusions.
This experiment has shown that in principle it is possible to weld metals
by melting, under the space conditions of weightlessness and vacuum. The
data had confirmed the theory worked out for welding technology in outer
space. This data will be used for the further improvement of the welding
machines.
The success of this welding experiment in outer space opens new horizons
for carrying out construction and assembly work in outer space.
Then the commander ofSoyuz-6, G .S. Shonin spoke.
Speech by G .S. Shonin
I shall speak about some of the crew preparations for launching, the
endurance factors, and descent phases.
The crew occupies its working places in the spacecraft two hours before
the start. This time is devoted to the checking of the spacecraft systems and
the communication system. The systems on board are checked in a particular
order, in accordance with the countdown profile of the rocket and space
complex. The checking of the systems of all three spacecraft went without
fault. Five minutes before firing the crew are fixed to their seats with the
fastening system.
The moment of launching passes with only a few vibrations of the space-
craft being felt. Then gradually the acceleration forces start increasing.
The separation of the stages and ignition of new stages of the carrier-rocket
is felt by the change in the acceleration force. The separation of the stages
of the carrier-rocket is accompanied by a swarm of shining particles, which
can be seen clearly through the windows. Throughout the launching phase
the overloading was small and did not give any trouble.
The changeover to the state of weightlessness did not cause any unpleasant
feelings. At this moment we were busy watching the opening of the antennas
160
and solar batteries. After entry into orbit, we checked the systems and then
started work on the very full flight program. The crew of all the spacecraft
worked according to a very efficiently planned program.
On the Both circuit we finished the evacuation preparations and occupied
our seats in the landing vehicle. We were to land using manual control.
Before switching on the descent program, I oriented the spacecraft first
along the local vertical and then along the track. At a fixed moment
I switched on the descent program and controlled the passage of the
command. The engine was switched on for 146 seconds and then cut. As a
result of the braking impulse, the orbital velocity of the spacecraft decreased
and entered the flight trajectory toward the earth. After a few minutes, the
separation of the orbital and instrument-cum-assembly compartments from
the landing vehicle took place, and the re-entry control system started
functioning.
This system turned the landing vehicle along the tangent, so that it could
enter the earth's atmosphere at a definite angle.
As we went deeper into the atmosphere, the acceleration forces gradually
increased. The guided re-entry considerably decreased these forces and in-
creased the accuracy of landing. If the value of these forces on the Vostok
spacecraft was about 9 units, in the landing vehicle of the Soyuz they did not
exceed 3 -4 units.
At a height of about 10 kilometers we heard the hatch cover of the para-
chute container open, and then followed a little jerkthe deceleration
parachute had opened. After a short stabilized descent, the main parachute
system started functioning. Its opening was also accompanied by a small
jerk stronger than the first. After the opening of the main parachute, we
started swinging quite vigorously, since there was a strong wind in the
landing area. We didn't see the earth approaching as it was covered with
clouds. Once we had passed the clouds we saw the earth and got ready to
land. The engines for soft-landing were switched on and our vehicle landed
smoothly. Throughout the phase of re-entryexcept during the intensive
braking in the atmosphere-we had regular communications with the earth.
After the opening of the main parachute, the air-borne radio beacon was
switched on, and aeroplanes and helicopters of the search and rescue group
started moving toward us. They watched our landing. After landing, we
opened the hatch, and came out one by one, and fell into the arms of those
who had come to receive us.
The commander of Soyuz-j, A.V. Filipchenko was the next to speak.
161
Speech by A.V. Filipchenko
As has already been said, the crew were provided with ample opportunities
for manually controlling all the spacecraft systems.
The instruments for control, indication, and signalling on the instrument
panel, enabled us to determine the position of the spacecraft over the earth
at any moment and appraise the parameters of all the systems, namely,
relative parameters of approach between the spacecraft; parameters of the
lifesaving systems in the living compartments; voltage in the circuit; para-
meters of the pncumohydraulic systems of the rendezvous and corrective
engines, orientation engines, guided descent engine and other systems.
The control was accomplished with the help of two key-type command-
signalling devices placed on both sides of the instrument panel.
The control could be accomplished in two ways, either by inserting a pro-
gram from the panel or manually.
On this flight, basically the second method of control was used. The
following instruments were used for manual orientation of the spacecraft
in a given direction for the sun-orientation of the spacecraft. There were
shade indicators near the windows on the outside. First, detection of the sun
was carried out and then the exact orientation was accomplished. For orien-
tation with respect to the velocity vector, the ionic sensors with corresponding
indicators were used.
The orientation of the spacecraft on the illuminated side of the earth was
carried out with the help of the optical sighting device. This has two fields of
vision, the external for the orientation of the spacecraft with respect to the
local vertical, i.e. with respect to the longitudinal and transversal axe of
the spacecraft and the internal for orientation with respect to the
track.
The sighting device could remain in two positions. For orientation toward
the earth, it was fixed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the space-
craft, while for rendezvous maneuvers within visual distances, it was trans-
ferred parallel to the axis of the spacecraft.
The spacecraft was controlled with the help of four different engines:
(a) The rendezvous-corrective engine was used for maneuvering in orbit.
It also functioned as a braking engine at the time of descent. This engine was
switched on and off manually, simply by pressing a button. It could also
be controlled automatically.
(b) The low-thrust engines were used for turning the spacecraft with
respect to the center of mass, while orientating it in a particular direction.
They were controlled by handles which turned the spacecraft on any
axis.
(c) The engines of third type were also meant for turning the spacecraft
with respect to the center of mass. They were used for small forward
162
motions of the spacecraft, necessary for intermaneuvering and were situated
at a small distance from each other.
(d) The engines of the guided descent system are fitted directly in the
landing vehicle. With their help, the programed turnings of the spacecraft
before entering the thick layers of the atmosphere (as well as the heel control
and stabilization with respect to other axes during the flight) were carried
out.
The spacecraft is highly responsive and reacts to the slightest movement
of the handles.
The experience gained on the flight has enabled us to collect a sufficiently
large amount of material about manual control, including much about the
operative activity of astronauts. This material will be used to create new
manned space systems.
The research engineer of Soyuz-7, V. V. G orbatko, next spoke.
Speech by V.V. G orbatko
The Soyuz has already received the well-earned appreciation of all
astronauts who have tested and flown in her.
It is well known that to work efficiently a man must have enough rest
and sleep. In the Soyuz there is a sofa for the crew's rest and sleep. If you
want to know how we slept in outer space, imagine yourself tied inside a
sleeping bag. We tried to use the sofa. So as not to " float" during sleep, we had
to tie ourselves with special belts. In this position sleep was somewhat similar
to that on earth. Although we were given 8 hours sleep according to the
program, we used to sleep a bit lessabout 6-7 hours. This rest was quite
sufficient. After it we felt fresh and ready for work.
And now about the food during the flight. The daily 'space ration' of
each astronaut was meant for four meals. The average caloric value of the
food for a day was 2 ,600 large calories. There was a good variety of food.
These were the usual natural products: meat (beef tongue in jelly, chicken,
roast-beef), milk products (coffee, cocoa), confectionery (sweetmeats, candied
fruits), bread (table bread, Riga bread, Borodina bread) and different fruit
juices. The conditions in the spacecraft are quite comfortable. During the
period of flight the pressure in the spacecraft compartments was maintained
within the limits, 750-800 mm Hg. The relative humidity was 40-70%.
In other words, the parameters of the artificial atmosphere in the orbital
compartments were close to those on the earth. The temperature was main-
tained at about 2 0 C, but the thermal regulation system could regulate the
temperature according to the crew's wishes.
163
During the flight, we had to carry out a number of medico-biological
experiments for the further study of the adjustment of the human organism
to space flight factors, specially to the state of weightlessness. We checked
the respiration rate and loss of energy while carrying out different operations
in the state of weightlessness, measured the arterial pressure and pulse rate,
studied the effect of measured physical loads on the magnitude of the arterial
pressure. As in earlier flights, the effect of weightlessness on the vestibular
apparatus was studied. Much attention was devoted to the study of those
psycho-physiological functions which affect the quality of work performed.
These investigations were carried out on special instruments, built for
space. They have provided us with valuable experimental data about such
functions as memory, attention, and distraction. Moreover, different impel-
lant reactions, and the permeability of the visual and impellant analyzer
were studied.
Finally, I would like to add that Soyuz is a modern, multipurpose space-
craft designed for solving a wide variety of economic and scientific problems.
Many thanks to the creators of these wonderful spacecraft.
Next, space engineer of Soyuz-?, V.N. Volkov, mounted the rostrum.
Speech by V.N. Volkov
Various methods of space navigation were worked out during the Soyuz-6,
Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 flight. Some were based on the determination of the
position of the stars with respect to the earth's horizon, and others on the
determination of the position of spacecraft with respect to ground reference
points.
For these measurements, the spacecraft were equipped with astro-
orientators, automatic star sensors, sextants, optical instruments for recording
the ground reference points, and other equipment.
The navigation experiments conducted in the group flight can be divided
into two groups: flight-testing of different navigational instruments, and
perfecting the methods of autonomous navigation.
In the first group of experiments, the possibilities of observation and
identification of navigational reference points were studied, the characteris-
tics of accuracy of different measuring instruments were determined, and the
transparency of the windows was estimated.
The evaluation of the accuracy of the navigational instruments was carried
out by measuring the known angular distances between the stars. These
measurements were carried out with the help of the starsSpica, Aldebaran,
Deneb Antares and others, with the help of the sextant and also with the
164
help of automatic astro-orientators.
The specialists are interested in the possibility of observing the stars during
flight over the illuminated side of the earth. Our observations showed that on
the illuminated side of the earth, the stars of first and second magnitude are
clearly visible.
Through the windows of the orbital compartment and the landing vehicle,
we identified stars and constellations.
In the experiments of the second group, a series of navigational measure-
ments were carried out, and all the parameters of the orbit and the elements
necessary for the maneuvering of the spacecraft were determined. Here, the
angular distance between the stars and the earth and moon horizon, the
orbital period, and height of the spacecraft above the earth's surface were
measured, and the coordinates of the spacecraft and the moments of its
passing over the ground reference points, were determined.
The parameters of motion were calculated on the basis of different logari-
thms. The results of these calculations coincided well with the data of the
ground complex for the trajectory measurements. The experiments showed
that the crew had carried out its navigational task with accuracy in a short
period of time.
The performance of the navigational task by two spacecraft simultaneously
enabled us to accomplish with one corrective impulse an approach from a
distance of tens of kilometers to 500 meters. The further approach and
maneuvering were carried out on the basis of the measurements of the para-
meters of relative motion of the spacecraft.
Besides conducting navigational measurements and observations, I had to
carry out the control of the spacecraft with the help of the manual system of
orientation, which was fitted in the orbital compartment. The spacecraft is
exceptionally responsive and very accurately reacts to the smallest movements
of the control handles.
The experiments conducted have shown that the adopted methods of
autonomous navigation assure the accomplishment of the prescribed maneu-
vers in space.
The space engineer of Sqyuz-8, A.S. Eliseev was the last to speak.
Speech by A.S. Eliseev
One of the important sections of the flight program of the three manned
spacecraft consisted of the following scientific investigations: the study of
geological and geographical features on the earth's surface; study of the
spectral intensities and contrasts of the earth's surface in the visible range
165
of the spectrum; meteorological investigations; spectro- and photo-metry
of the earth's horizon.
In the course of the flight, photographs of some selected areas of the Soviet
Union, including those well known in their geological aspects, were taken
by the three spacecraft. Simultaneously, these areas were aerophotographed
by a group of airplanes from different heights. Comparison of these photo-
graphs with the work of the geological, geobotanical and other expeditions
will enable us to work out methods for using the outer space photographs
for solving different geological and geographical problems connected with
the geological mapping and study of the earth's natural resources.
Simultaneously with the photography of the selected areas, the study of
the spectral intensities and contrasts of the earth's surface in the visible range
of the spectrum was carried out. Investigations of different kinds of surfaces
(snow cover, desert, sea, large forest tracts, steppe region, etc.) will enable
us to classify them into types on the basis of the spectral intensity. Results of
these investigations are required for the selection of optimal conditions for
the photography of different geological and geographical features, as well
as for working out methods of identifying different types of surface from
photo materials, TV broadcasts and spectral measurement data.
The crew carried out a series of meteorological investigations, in parti-
cular the emergence of different cloud formations and typhoons. Their
development and movements were observed from the three spacecraft.
The crew of Soyuz-8 photographed the earth's horizon in different ranges of
the visible spectrum. The intensity characteristic of the horizon will enable
us to get information about the aerosol structure of the atmosphere, intensity
characteristics of the cloud cover, and other optical characteristics of the planet.
I would like to mention a scientific and technical experiment, the communi-
cations session between Soyuz-8 and the control center, through the Soviet
telecommunication satellite Molniya-i. It was carried out when the space-
craft was situated outside the Soviet zone of radiovisibility.
The communications from the control center were transmitted to the
" Orbit" system, to the telecommunication satellite Molniya-i, and then
through the ship, Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov, to the crew. On these lines, a
steady two-way radio contact was established. This scheme enables us to
considerably increase the period of centralized communications with space-
craft. This is specially important for the flights of our spacecraft, since a
considerable portion of their flight passes outside the zone of radiovisibility
of the command stations situated in Soviet territory.
After the speeches, the astronauts and scientists replied to journalists'
questions.
(TASS)
Pravda, November 5, 1969
166
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
-3 IN ORBIT
On J une i, at 2 2 00 hours Moscow time, a rocket carrying the Soyuz-9
pacecraft was launched in the Soviet Union.
The spacecraft entered orbit of the earth at 2 2 09 hours. The crew consists
> f the commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot- Astronaut of the USSR,
Colonel Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev, and Space Engineer Vitalii
Fig. 13. Launching of the Soyuz.
167
Ivanovich Sevast'yanov, Kandidat of Technical Sciences.
During this space flight the crew of Soyuz-g has to carry out an extensive
program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments, the most
important among them being:
medico-biological investigations of the effect of space flight factors on
the human organism in a near-earth orbit;
scientific observation and photography of geological and geographical
features, mainland and water surfaces in different regions of the globe, for
purposes of the national economy;
observation, investigation and photography of atmospheric formations,
and of the snow and ice covers of the earth, for meteorological forecasting;
scientific investigations of the physical characteristics, phenomena and
processes in near-earth space;
further perfecting of the manual and automatic systems of control,
orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft and testing of the autonomous
Commander of Soyuz-9. Andriyan Grigorevich Nikolaev.
168
navigation devices in different regimes of flight.
Steady radio and TV communications are being maintained with the crew.
As reported by the commander, Comrade Nikolaev, the phase of entry
into orbit passed normally. The astronauts are feeling well. Normal living
conditions, similar to those on the earth, are being maintained in the space-
craft compartments.
Astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov have started work on the flight
program.
Pravda, J une 2 , 1970
STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF SOTU^-g,
COMRADE A.G . NIKOLAEV, BEFORE LAUNCHING
Dear Comrades and Friends!
Today, the crew of our Soyuz-g spacecraft is starting a space journey
to continue the conquest of outer space in the interests of the nation's
economy, science and technology.
In our country, the conquest of outer space is being carried out systemati-
cally. In the Soyuz-g spacecraft we hope to accomplish the next stage of
scientific and technical investigations and observations.
We shall do everything necessary for the success of the mission assigned to
us.
G oodbye, comrades!
Till we meet on earth!
(TASS)
Pravda, J une 2 , 1970
Biographical notes
Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev's first
space flight was in 1962 , in Vostok-^.
After the flight, Hero of the Soviet Union Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev
took an active part in the training of astronauts. For some years, he was
himself preparing for this space flight.
Let us remind you of some of the main landmarks in the life of Andriyan
Nikolaev. He was born on September 5, 192 9, in Shorshely, a village of
Chuvash, ASSR. After completing technical school and Frunze Air Force
College, Andriyan Nikolaev served in aviation. Since 1957 Nikolaev has
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
In 1968 he finished the N.E. Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy.
Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev is a Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the
169
Space engineer of Soyuz-9, Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov.
RSFSR, and does a lot of social and political work.
The family of the astronauts Valentina Vladimirovna Nikolaeva-Teresh-
kova and Andriyan G rigor'evich consists of a six year old daughter, Elena.
Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov was born on J uly 8, 193 5 in Krasnoural'sk,
a town in Sverdlovsk district. Vitalii's childhood and schooling were in the
town of Sochi.
In 1953 , after completing secondary school, Vitalii Sevast'yanov joined
the Moscow Aviation institute.
In 1959, Vitalii Ivanovich completed the Institute and started working
in a designs bureau. Soon he joined as a research scholar in the Moscow
Aviation Institute, and successfully defended his thesis for the degree of
Kandidat of Technical Sciences.
170
In 1963 , Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov became a member of the Commu-
nist Party of the Soviet Union.
Engineer Sevast'yanov completed the full training program for space
flight in the detachment of astronauts.
Vitalii Ivanovich's wife, Alevtina Ivanovna, completed Leningrad State
University and works in a scientific research institute.
Their daughter, Natasha, is seven years old.
Pravda, J une 2 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 2
At 0512 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g had completed five circuits around
the earth.
In a radio communications session, the commander, Comrade Nikolaev,
reported that the crew has adjusted well to the conditions of weightlessness
and is carrying out the flight program.
During the first circuit, Nikolaev had a pulse rate of 94 beats per minute,
and Sevast'yanov92 . The respiration rate of both astronauts was 18 per
minute.
The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft cabins are:
temperature2 3 C, pressure765 mm Hg.
According to the trajectory measurement data, the parameters of the orbit
during the third circuit were:
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 2 0 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 2 07 km;
orbital period 88.59 rnin;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg.
The working day for the astronauts is over. From 0600 hours to 1400 hours
Moscow time, the astronauts will rest.
During this period Soyuz-g will be outside the Soviet zone of radiovisibility.
At 183 3 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 14 circuits. The
astronauts have completed the flight program for the first day. On the 5th
circuit, the commander, Comrade Nikolaev carried out the maneuver of
manual orientation after which the corrective engine was switched on. As a
result of this, the spacecraft entered a new orbit on the I4th circuit with the
following parameters:
171
maximum distance from the earth
( at apogee) 2 67 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 2 13 km;
orbital period 89.05 min;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg.
While carrying out the flight program for the first day, Comrade Nikolaev
observed and photographed geological and geographical features on the
earth's surface. Comrade Sevast'yanov analyzed the impurities on the
windows caused by the working of the engine. He also determined the size of
particles and different objects near the windows. Moreover, the luminous
effect s caused by the working of the engines were observed.
Comrade Nikolaev has started experiments connected with the place of
man as an element of the control system in different dynamic operations.
The astronauts ate at scheduled times. They eat four times a day: break-
fast, lunch, dinner and supper. After dinner, the astronauts rest for some time.
Before going to bed, the measurements of the arterial pressure were carried
out, and the results of the day's work were recorded in the spacecraft logbook.
From 0600 hours to 1600 hours, the spacecraft was outside the Soviet
radiovisibility zone.
At 1400 hours the second working day for the astronauts began. In one of
the radio communication sessions, greetings from the American astronaut,
Neil Armstrong, were conveyed to the crew of Soyuz-g. Astronauts Nikolaev
and Sevast'yanov thanked him for the good wishes.
Steady two-way radio communications are being maintained with Soyuz-g.
The communications from the spacecraft are being transmitted at frequencies
of 15.008, 18.06 and 2 0.008 megaherz. The quality of TV broadcasts is
good. The information received from the spacecraft is being processed.
Pravda, J une 3 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 3
On J une 3 , at 063 0 Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed its 2 2 nd circuit.
At the end of the second day the crew retains a high working capacity, and
is feeling well.
The temperature, pressure and relative humidity in the spacecraft com-
partments are within the prescribed limits.
During the I7th circuit after manual orientation, orbit correction was
carried out. After correction, the spacecraft entered an orbit with the
following parameters:
172
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 66 km:
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 2 47 km;
orbital period 89.5 min;
orbital inclination 51.7 deg.
After the day's work the crew had a medical checkup and went to the
orbital compartment to rest. Soyuz-Q will remain outside the Soviet radio-
visibility zone till 152 5 hours Moscow time.
On J une 3 , at 182 4 hours Moscow time, Sqyuz-g completed 3 0 circuits.
For the third day, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov are carrying out a
program of scientific and technical experiments and investigations during the
space flight.
The astronauts rested well and, after waking, did a set of physical exercises.
The astronauts' day started at 1400 hours Moscow time, With special
pleasure Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov shaved in the orbital
compartment and then had breakfast. The breakfast consisted of hot coffee,
sandwiches and sublimated food in edible containers.
After breakfast, the astronauts began the program of scientific, technical
and medico-biological investigation and control operations. On the 2 gth
circuit two medical experiments were carried out. In particular, the arterial
pressure before and after physical loading, and while carrying out different
working operations, were measured. The level of arterial pressure was
measured with the help of a tonometer. Simultaneously, the pulse and
respiration rates were measured. The measured physical loading was given
with the help of an expander and was checked visually. For the experiment,
one of the astronauts did the filming while the other stretched the expander
thirty times per minute, with a force of about ten kilograms.
Moreover, the astronauts checked the change in the contrast sensitivity of
the vision apparatus while working at the instruments.
When the spacecraft was in the equatorial region, Space Engineer
Sevast'yanov conducted experiments on radio communications on short
waves with some ground tracking stations.
The spacecraft crew conveyed hearty greetings to the scientists, designers,
engineers and workersall those who had created the Soyuz.
According to the telemetric information, Nikolaev's pulse rate is 69 per
minute, while Sevast'yanov's is 62 . The respiration rate of both astronauts
is 12 per minute.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the crew.
The flight continues.
Pravda, J une 4, 1970
173
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 4
On J une 4, at 062 0 Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 3 8 circuits.
For the flight program of the third day, the astronauts conducted observa-
tions of the heavenly bodies, and experiments on astronavigation with the
help of optical devices on board, and observed the relief of selected portions
of the earth's surface. The astronauts also carried out investigations on the
sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus to the state of weightlessness.
According to the commander's report and confirmed by the telemetric
data, the systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally. Astro-
nauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov are feeling well and their mood is excellent.
The crew retains a high working capacity. Hygienic parameters in the
spacecraft compartments are within the prescribed limits.
After completing the flight program for the day, the crew carried out a
medical checkup and went to the orbital compartment to rest.
Up to 153 0 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft will remain outside the
Soviet radiovisibility zone.
On J une 4, at 1815 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-Q completed its 46th circuit.
At 152 8 hours Moscow time, when the spacecraft entered the Soviet
radiovisibility zone, the first communications session of the fourth working
day started. The commander reported that both astronauts had slept soundly
and peacefully. Their health and mood
;
s good.
Continuing the program of scientific and technical experiments, Comrades
Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov worked on the improvement of the equipment
for carrying out manual orientation with the help of the stars.
When the spacecraft was situated in the shadow of the earth, space engi-
neer Sevast'yanov identified the star Vega, and using the manual system of
orientation, brought the star into the field of view of the sensor with the help
of the optical sighting device. In the star sensor, the command to " capture
the star" was formulated. According to this, the spacecraft commander
accomplished stabilization of the spacecraft on the gyro instruments. During
this time, astronaut Sevast'yanov measured the height of the star above the
horizon with the help of the sextant.
During the flight, the astronauts also carried out a number of medical
experiments and investigation?. According to the telemetric data and their
own reports, the astronauts retain a high working capacity.
Pravda, J une 5, 1970
174
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE
5
The crew of Soyuz-g is continuing its orbital flight for the fourth day.
On J une 5, at 1507 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 60 circuits.
The working day for Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov lasted
16 hours. The technical and medical experiments were alternated with
periods of eating, rest, and physical exercises.
One of the technical experiments conducted during the 48th and 4gth
circuits was checking the accuracy of the single-axis orientation of the space-
craft with the calculation of gravitational and aerodynamic perturbations.
Astronaut Nikolaev manually oriented the spacecraft in such a way that the
transversal axis of the spacecraft, passing through the solar battery panels,
was directed toward the sun. Then he turned the spacecraft in this direction.
Afterward, the attitude of the spacecraft was maintained automatically
with the help of the angular velocity sensors and orientation engines. During
the experiment, the movement of the image of the sun on the screen was
filmed.
During the next circuits, Comrades Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov carried
out experiments for the determination of the orbital parameters.
For maintaining their working capacity and strenuous activity in the state
of weightlessness, the astronauts twice during the day did various physical
exercises lasting for 50 minutes. During this process, they recorded the pulse
and respiration rates.
As reported by the spacecraft commander, the pulse rates were as follows :
before the physical exercises, Nikolaev68 and Sevast'yanov64 beats
per minute, and after the exercises, 88 and 90 per minute, respectively.
In a radio communications session, the astronauts said they were feeling
well, in good mood and maintaining high working capacity.
From 0600 hours Moscow time, after completing the day' s program, the
astronauts rested in the orbital compartment.
In order to test the accuracy of some new radio technical systems for
trajectory measurements, between the 4gth and 52 nd circuits, orbit para-
meters were measured by Soviet tracking stations. According to these
measurements, the orbital parameters of Soyuz-Q during the 5Oth circuit
were as follows :
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 61.064 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) - 2 41.63 8 km;
orbital period 89.3 98 min;
orbital inclination 5!-72 2 deg.
On J une 5, at 13 53 hours Moscow time, the first radio communications
session for the fifth day of flight started. Spacecraft commander Andriyan
Nikolaev reported that the crew had rested well and had started work on the
program for the day.
Pravda, J une 6, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 6
The fifth working day for astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'-
yanov lasted sixteen hours and ended on J une 6 at 0500 hours Moscow time.
During the day, the crew carried out planned scientific, technical
and medico-biological experiments and investigations. In particular, the
humidity in different parts of living compartments was measured with the
help of checking and measuring instruments. During the 65th and 66th
circuits, an experiment for determining the accuracy of single-axis orientation
of the spacecraft in the regime of passive turning was carried out.
In a radio communications session, the astronauts spoke about the observa-
tions and photography of the earth's surface. Space engineer Vitalii
Sevast'yanov reported that he had observed a tropical storm on the illuminat-
ed side of the earth. Here, the waves of the shore surf could be seen very well.
Andriyan Nikolaev narrated about his interesting observations and the
filming of the surface of the earth and its horizon in the region of the termina-
tor-the boundary between day and night. On previous days the astronauts
had photographed the cloud cover of the planet. They also observed cyclone
and thunderstorm phenomena.
The astronauts said that they sleep in the orbital compartment in sleeping
bags. According to the astronauts, these bags are very comfortable. The
conditions in the rest compartment are comfortable with a temperature of
2 4C. The pressure and relative humidity are similar to those on the earth.
The astronauts usually slept well for about eight hours, without dreams.
After waking up, the astronauts felt fresh and active. They are in good
mood and have a high working capacity. Andriyan G rigor'evich and Vitalii
Ivanovich say they have a good appetite and that they are happy with their
food in outer space.
The astronauts' ration includes various natural and tinned products.
The first course consists of cabbage soup, borshch, 'kharcho' etc. The
first course dishes and the coffee are heated just before use. The variety
of second course dishes includes steak, chicken fillet, minced pork with ham
and eggs. The astronauts drink fruit juice with special pleasure.
Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov are showing great interest
in the events on the earth, they are following sports news, particularly the
176
World football championship matches and hear music with great satisfaction.
At the end of the working day, Comrade Nikolaev orientated the spacecraft
so that the plane of the solar batteries made an angle of 70 degrees with
respect to the sun. This position of the spacecraft was selected in view of
the calculated regime of recharging the space-borne sources of current, since
an insignificant amount of electric power is used during the hours of rest.
Afterward, the turning of the spacecraft around this direction with an
angular velocity of three degrees per second was carried out.
On J une 6, at 13 00 hours Moscow time, the sixth working day started for
the crew of the spacecraft. The astronauts are in good health, and feel fine.
Pravda, J une 7, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 7
On J une 7, at i aoo hours Moscow Time, Soyuz-Q completed 90 circuits
around the earth.
The sixth working day for the astronauts lasted from 13 00 hours on J une 6,
to 0500 hours on the morning of J une 7. In accordance with schedule, the
crew carried out observations of the earth's surface and heavenly bodies
and conducted scientific and medical experiments.
In the radio communications sessions, the astronauts spoke about the
results of the visual observations. On the flight path of the spacecraft, almost
80% of the surface of the planet is covered with clouds. Thus, in most cases,
it is difficult to observe selected areas of the earth's surface. While passing
over Africa on J une 6, at about 1800 hours, Comrade Sevast'yanov detected
the hot beds of a forest fire. In the same area, Kilimanjaro, covered with
snow, and with a dark crater in the center, the big lakes, Tanganyika, Nyasa
and Victoria, and the waterfall, could be seen very well.
Vitalii Sevast'yanov spoke about the interesting observations of the
heavenly bodies. While watching the starry sky in a direction opposite to
that of the sun, the astronauts observed simultaneously the illuminated earth,
the Southern Cross constellation, and Alpha-, Beta-, Centaurus, Sirius and
other stars. According to the astronauts, the sunset and sunrise phases are
very interesting.
In the course of the flight, space engineer Sevast'yanov checked the
condition of the surface of the spacecraft windows, photographed them
and reported the results of the observations to the flight control center.
In the medico-biological program, the astronauts carried out experiments
for the study of the fundamental biological processes in the state of weight-
lessness, and investigated the muscle power of the hands. The second experi-
ment was conducted to collect data for the indirect calculation of the tonicity
177
of human skeletal muscles in space flight conditions. The medical data obtain-
ed through telemetry, as well as by the results of each other's medical checkup,
show that the astronauts are enduring well the overall effect of spaceflight
and retain a high working capacity. The pulse rate of the spacecraft com-
mander is within 69-72 beats per minute, while that of the engineer is 64-66
per minute. Both the astronauts have a respiration rate of 12 per minute.
Nikolaev's arterial pressure is 1 2 5 by 75, and Sevast'yanov's, 1 2 0 by 70 mm
of Hg. According to the telemetric data, the parameters of the microclimate
in the spacecraft compartments are as follows : temperature 2 2 C; pressure
-83 0 mm Hg; partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide gas -195
and 8.5 mm Hg respectively.
At 13 40 hours Moscow time, the first radio communication session for
the seventh day of the flight started. The spacecraft commander Nikolaev
stated that the astronauts are feeling normal and have started work on the
flight program for the day.
Pravda, J une 8,
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 8
The crew of the spacecraft Soyuz-g is in orbital flight for the seventh day.
On J une 8, at 143 7 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 108 circuits.
The program for the seventh day of the flight included experiments on
the study of the astronauts' organisms.
One of the scientific experiments conducted was the photography and
spectrometry of the dusk and daytime horizons of the earth, to study the
intensity structure of the atmospheric layer for the exact determination of
the line of horizon which is used as the main reference line for the navigation
of the spacecraft.
During the flight over the dark side of the earth, A.G . Nikolaev orientated
the spacecraft, directing the axis of the optical illuminator toward the dusk
horizon of the earth. Then, V.I. Sevast'yanov carried out a spectro-photo-
metric survey of the horizon, starting from the moment of appearance of
the luminous corona in the earth's atmosphere, to the rise of the sun
from behind the horizon.
Spectro-photometry of the daytime horizon was carried out during the
flight of the spacecraft over the illuminated side of the earth. The experiment
consisted of a series of successive spectrometric measurements carried out
with the rotations of the spacecraft around the local vertical. Simultaneously,
the crew photographed the horizon.
During the day, the astronauts twice did a set of physical exercises, each
lasting for about an hour.
178
Continuing their work on the program of medical investigations, the
astronauts studied the effect of space flight factors on the human organism.
With the help of different functional probes and psycho-physiological tests,
the condition of their organisms and the level of their working capacity
were determined.
The medical data obtained through telemetric channels, and the results
of their own medical checkup and the TV observations of the astronauts
show that for seven days they have well endured the overall effect of space
flight factors, retaining a high level of working capacity. During the seventh
day of the space flight, the pulse rate of Nikolaev was 68 and of Sevast'yanov
64 per minute. The respiration rate of both the astronauts was 12 per minute.
The next working day for A.G . Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov started on
J une 8, at 12 3 0 hours Moscow time. Commander Nikolaev reported that
the crew is feeling well and in working mood.
Pravda, J une 9, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 9
On J une 9, 142 5 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 12 4 circuits.
By now, astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov have been
in outer space for 186 hours.
The 8th working day passed according to schedule. It ended on J une 9,
at 043 0 hours Moscow time. During the day, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'-
yanov carried out scientific and technical experiments, observed the earth's
surface and heavenly bodies, and carried out a set of medical investigations.
In a radio communications session, Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'-
yanov spoke about the experiments and the results of the visual observations.
On this day mostly South America and the African continent were visible
for observation. The western coast of the American continent, the valley of
the Amazon river and Lake Chad in Africa were clearly seen.
During the g6th circuit, while carrying out an experiment on the determi-
nation of orbital parameters with the help of the systems on board, the astro-
nauts selected Lake Viedma situated in South America, as their main
reference point. With the help of the optical illuminator, the commander
Andriyan Nikolaev orientated the spacecraft, after which, space engineer
Sevast'yanov made navigational measurements, added this and other initial
data to the formula, and calculated one of the orbital parameters.
The crew also carried out medical observations for the study of possible
changes in the sense organs and in the working capacity of the astronauts
in the state of weightlessness.
During the 11 ith circuit, astronaut Nikolaev did a set of physical exercises
for an hour and then gave the measurements of the physiological variables
before and after physical exertion. Before doing physical exercises his arterial
pressure was 12 5 by 75 mm Hg, pulse rate-68 per minute, respiration rate
11 per minute. 2 0 seconds after physical exertion, the level of arterial pressure
increased to 13 5 by 70 mm Hg, pulse rate increased to 80 beats per minute
and respiration rate to 15 per minute. After a period of two minutes, the
restoration of astronaut's initial physiological parameters was observed.
The recorded physiological characteristics show adequate reaction of the
cardiovascular and respiratory systems to measured physical loads. According
to the astronaut, after doing physical exercises one feels pleasant and cheerful
as on the earth.
On J une 8, at 2 2 2 0 hours Moscow time, during a TV report from the
spacecraft, Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev had a conversation with the
members of his family, Valentina Vladimirovna and her daughter Alenka,
whose sixth birthday it was. They wished Andriyan G rigor'evich success
and a safe return to the earth.
The next working day started on J une 9, at 12 3 0 hours Moscow time.
In the first radio communications session the commander stated that the
astronauts were feeling well after rest and had started work on the program
for the day.
Soyuz-9 continues in orbit.
Pravda, J une 10, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 10
On J une 10, at 1413 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-9 completed 140 circuits.
The working day for the astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'-
yanov lasted for 16 hours and was over at 043 0 in the morning. During the
day the crew carried out some technical experiments as well as medical
investigations.
During the 12 7th and I2 8th circuits, the astronauts tested the star sensor,
working on a new principle. When the astronauts were flying over the un-
illuminated part of the earth, they carried out a search for the star, Vega, and
with the help of the star sensor orientated the spacecraft toward Vega. This
position of the spacecraft was afterward maintained with the help of the
orientation engines and gyroscopic devices. After completing one full revolu-
tion around the earth, the star sensor again " caught" the star Vega.
In the radio communications sessions, the astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'-
yanov reported they were feeling well and had slept soundly. Andriyan
Nikolaev prefers to sleep in the orbital compartment where the temperature
is about 2 4C, and Sevast'yanov in the cabin where it is slightly cooler.
180
According to the astronauts, their appetites are good. They take the
necessary amount of liquid in the form of drinking water, fruit juice, soup
and coffee. According to the telemetric data and the TV observations, the
astronauts are in good health and their working capacity is high.
The next working day for the crew of Soyuz-g started on J une 10, at 12 00
hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session Andriyan Nikolaev
reported that after resting the astronauts had started the scheduled program.
Pravda,J une n, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE n
On J une 11, at 12 3 1 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 155
circuits. Astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov have
been in orbital flight for some 2 3 0 hours.
The working day for Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov started
at 12 00 hours Moscow time and passed smoothly according to schedule.
After morning toilet, checkup of the spacecraft systems, and breakfast, the
astronauts observed the earth's surface and the heavenly bodies. In the radio
communications sessions, Comrades Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov reported
that they observed the Crimea and Caucasus, and that the towns of Sochi
and Batumi and Lake Sevang could be seen clearly. -During the I43 rd circuit,
the astronauts saw a dust storm in the Dasht-e-Kavir desert in Iran.
On the tenth day of the space flight, A. Nikolaev and V. Sevast'yanov,
according to plan, took more rest than on previous days. After lunch, they
played chess and read books. The astronauts said they had cleaned the living
compartments of the spacecraft using a vacuum cleaner.
The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft are normal, close
to those on the earth : pressure-850 mm Hg, temperature2 OC.
Before supper, Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov did " space gymnastics" in the
orbital compartment. At the end of the working day the astronauts checked
each other medically. In the session of radio communication, commander
Nikolaev reported that they rested well during the day. They are feeling well
and in excellent mood. Before going to bed, Nikolaev's pulse rate was 68 and
Sevast'yanov's 67 beats per minute, while the respiration rate was 12 and
15 per minute respectively.
Their next working day started on J une 11, at 1100 hours Moscow time.
Andriyan Nikolaev reported to the flight control center, that the crew had
begun work.
Pravda, J une 12 , 1970
181
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 12
On J une 12 , at 13 46 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-g com-
pleted 172 circuits.
The program for the eleventh day was full of scientific and technical
experiments. In particular, the crew carried out a series of photographic and
spectrometric surveys to study the surface and atmosphere of the earth from
outer space. The experiments were conducted by several methods, using
various recording and photographic equipment.
Astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov carried out observations and
photography of the cloud and snow cover of the earth. This experiment was
conducted to study the spatial structure of the clouds and to determine the
boundary between the beds of snow and ice. Firstly, the spacecraft was
orientated toward the earth with the help of the optical sighting device,
and then, during stabilized flight over selected areas, space engineer Sevast'-
yanov carried out photography and spectrometry of typical cloud and snow
formations.
In the course of the flight, the crew of Soyuz photographed the daytime and
dusk horizons of the earth. They also photographed the moon with earth in
the background. During circuits 159-161, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'-
yanov photographed some regions of the earth's surface having typical
geological relief.
According to schedule, the astronauts ate and had a good appetite. During
the day they also carried out a number of medical experiments. Among
them they investigated the sensitivity of muscles and joints with the help
of a spring dynamograph. Also the accuracy of endurance of a given muscular
strain by the astronauts was determined.
According to the psycho-physiological data analysis of the actions of the
astronauts, functional probes, radio conversations, and observations of
the astronauts during TV broadcasts, and according to their own reports,
they are in good health, feeling well and are retaining a high working capa-
city.
On J une 12 , at 12 3 0 hours Moscow time, the first radio communications
session of the new day began. The commander Andriyan Nikolaev reported
that he was feeling well and that he had started work.
Pravda, J une 13 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 13
On J une 13 , at 13 3 2 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-Q completed 188 circuits.
182
Astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov are in outer space
for the 12 th day.
The working day for the astronauts lasted for about sixteen hours and
was over on J une 13 , at 043 0 hours. The flight program for the day included
scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments. One of the experi-
ments was the second flight-test of the star sensor, working on a new principle.
This time the astro-orientation sensor was aligned with the star Canopus.
The experiment was successful. At predetermined time, the star Canopus
was detected by the sensor.
When the spacecraft was in the equatorial region, the astronauts conducted
experiments on establishing radio communications with ground tracking
stations on the short wave band.
In the course of the flight the orbital parameters were regularly measured
by ground command. On the iSist circuit the orbital parameters were :
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 46.7km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 2 3 1.2 km;
orbital period 89.1 min.
The crew conducted biological experiments to study the breeding and
development of insects, characteristics of the fission of cells of chlorella,
sporogenesis of flower plants and bacterial cultures in liquid media.
In the radio communications sessions Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii
Sevast'yanov reported that the program was being fulfilled successfully, that
they were feeling well and that their working capacity was high, and appetite
and sleep were normal. According to the telemetric data, and as reported by
the astronauts, Nikolaev has a pulse rate of 68 beats per minute and Sevast'-
yanov 62 . Both the cosmonauts have a respiration rate of 15 per minute
and arterial pressure of 12 0 by 75 mm Hg.
The thirteenth working day for the astronauts began on J une 13 , at 12 00
hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session the astronauts
reported that they were feeling well and had started work.
Pravda, J une 14, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 14
On J une 14, at 13 16 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 2 04 cir-
cuits. By now, the astronauts have been in outer space for 3 03 hours.
The thirteenth working day in outer space passed according to program
and was over on J une 14, at 03 00 hours Moscow time. During the day,
183
technical and medical experiments were carried out.
One of the scientific experiments was the investigation of the dynamic
functions of man considered as an element of the control system. In this
experiment, a special cybernetic device was used, with the help of which
the complicated dynamic system of the flight was modelled. In the course
of the experiment conducted by space engineer Sevast'yanov, the accuracy
of accomplishment of his given program of commands for the control of the
cybernetic device was determined. Similar experiments were conducted
during the training on the ground and at the beginning of the flight. A
comparison of the results obained will enable the astronauts to find out
the effect of space flight factors on the characteristics of the man understudy.
During the day the astronauts took observations and photographs of the
earth's surface. On the i88th circuit, the astronauts photographed cloud
formations in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The scientific research
ship of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Akademik Shirshov also took part in
this experiment, and observations were taken with the help of the meteoro-
logical satellite, Meteor. In the radio communications sessions, Andriyan
Nikolaev spoke about the observations of some small meteorites which
entered the earth's atmosphere and were burnt up. The spacecraft com-
mander spoke in detail also about the condition of the windows in the orbital
compartment.
The astronauts conducted a number of medical experiments. In particular,
they investigated the contrast sensitivity of the eyes while working with
instruments in the condition of prolonged weightlessness. The experiment
was conducted in normal working light twice in the daybefore and after
sleep.
The next flight day for the crew started on J une 14, slightly earlier than
usual, in view of the elections to the Supreme Soviet, USSR. At 0815 hours
Moscow time, the astronauts sent a radio message in the name of the Soviet
people. They concluded: " On this great day, we, along with all the Soviet
people, vote for the further prosperity of our socialist motherland, for the
Communist Party, and for communism." In a radio communications session,
the spacecraft commander reported that the crew is carrying out the pro-
gram for the day and that the astronauts are feeling well.
Pravda,J une 15, 1970
RADIOG RAM FROM SPACECRAFT
On the day of the elections to the Supreme Soviet, USSR, J une 14, at
0815 hours Moscow time the astronauts A.G . Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov
sent the following radiogram from Soyuz-g in the name of the Soviet people :
184
Dear Comrades!
Today, on J une 14, when all the Soviet people are electing Deputies to the
highest seat of government in our land, we, the members of the crew of the
Soyuz-g spacecraft now in outer space, with a feeling of great civic duty,
join the electorate, voting for the best sons and daughters of our motherland
for the candidates of the unbreakable block of communists and non-Party
people. On this great day, we, along with all the Soviet people, vote for the
further prosperity of our socialist motherland, for our Communist Party,
for communism.
A.G . Nikolaev
Commander of the spacecraft Soyuz-g
V.I. Sevast'yanov
Space Engineer of the spacecraft Soyuz-<)
Pravda,J une 15, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 15
On J une 15, at 13 00 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 2 2 0 circuits
of the earth. By this time, astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'-
yanov have been in outer space for 3 2 7 hours.
The 14th working day for the astronauts was over on J une 15, at 03 00
hours in the morning. In accordance with the scheduled program, the
astronauts conducted scientific and technical experiments, carried out
a medical checkup, and accomplished correction of the orbit of the spacecraft.
At the beginning of the day, Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov,
after breakfast and physical exercises, observed and photographed the
surface of our planet. Most of the African continent was visible for observa-
tion. The astronauts saw clearly and photographed the valley of the River
Nile and the Aswan dam.
On the 2 o8th circuit, the crew carried out corrections of the orbit. In
order to check the control system, before putting the propulsion system
into action, the orientation of the spacecraft was carried out manually
as well as automatically.
After correction, the orbital parameters of the spacecraft Soyuz-g are:
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 3 1.4 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 2 15.1 km:
orbital period 88.8 min.
The crew of Soyuz-g has been in orbit already for 14 days. Under the
conditions of prolonged weightlessness, the astronauts carried out a large
185
number of scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments. Each
working day for the astronauts, as a rule, lasts for about 16 hours and is
marked by intensive, strenuous work.
During all this period, medical checkups were carried out regularly.
An analysis of the results of the medical checkups shows that both astronauts
have endured well the conditions of prolonged space flight. The working
capacity of Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov remains at a high
level. They are feeling well, and are in good spirits.
The fifteenth working day started on J une 15, at 103 0 hours Moscow
time. In a radio communications session, Andriyan Nikolaev reported that
the astronauts were feeling well after their rest and had started their day's
work.
Pravda, J une 16, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNEi 6
On J une 16, at 1407 hours Moscow time, 2 3 7 circuits had been completed.
The astronauts have been in orbit for 3 52 hours. This marks the longest-
ever space flight.
The working day of the astronauts passed according to schedule and
was over on J une 16 at 03 00 hours in the morning.
After breakfast and medical checkup, Vitalii Sevast'yanov took photo-
graphs and a film of Andriyan Nikolaev performing physical exercises and
then he himself did exercises for an hour.
On the 2 2 2 nd circuit, the astronauts, with the help of manual control
orientated the spacecraft so that one of the windows of the orbital compart-
ment was directed toward the earth. Between the 2 2 2 nd and 2 2 4th circuit,
the required orientation of the spacecraft was maintained by the commander
Andriyan Nikolaev, with the manual control system. During this period,
Vitalii Sevast'yanov took photographs of the geological and geographical
features in the southern regions of the European part of the USSR,
Kazakhstan and Western Siberia.
Simultaneously with this experiment in outer space, these areas were
photographed from geological survey airplanes.
During the day, the astronauts observed the heavenly bodies. Vitalii
Sevast'yanov observed the stars Arcturus and Deneb in the Bootes and
Cygnus constellations. He measured the angles between them and the
horizon line. The results of navigational measurements were used for the
determination of the orbital parameters of the spacecraft.
J udging from the reports of the crew members, their observations on
186
TV broadcasts, telemetric data and the results of their work for the day,
the astronauts retain their high working capacity. They have adapted well
to their stay in space. Comrades Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov remarked
that they have now got accustomed to weightlessness, and are feeling as good
and as confident as in the simulator on earth.
The sixteenth working day in outer space started on J une 16, at i i oo
hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session, the spacecraft com-
mander announced that the astronauts were feeling well after the rest.
The crew has started work on the program of scientific and technical experi-
ments. The systems on board are functioning normally and are providing
conditions in the living compartments similar to those on the earth.
Pravda, J une 17, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNEi 7
On J une 17, at 13 45 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 2 53
circuits around the earth and has been in outer space for 3 75 hours.
The sixteenth working day in outer space was over on J une 17 at 03 00
hours. The astronauts carried out scientific and medical experiments in
accordance with the program.
During the day, Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov observed
the earth's surface and photographed some cloud formations and regions
with typical geological relief.
In the radio communications sessions the astronauts spoke about the
results of their observations. The islands and shoreline of the Mediterranean
Sea, the Crimea, the shore of the Black Sea in the Caucasus, the delta of
the River Volga and areas of Western Siberia were seen clearly. The astro-
nauts saw also the cities situated in this regionAthens, Istanbul, Yalta,
Sochi, Astrakhan and others.
While flying over Kazakhstan and Western Siberia, Nikolaev and Sevast'-
yanov reported the gradual increase in the thickness of the cloud cover
and about the formation of a cyclone in the region of Novosibirsk. After
crossing the terminator, on the dark side of the earth they clearly saw cloud
formation in the moonlight.
At the beginning and at the end of the working day Andriyan Nikolaev
and Vitalii Sevast'yanov conducted medical experiments. In particular,
with the help of the dynamometer, they measured the muscular power of
the hands, and using the spring dynamograph, they investigated the sensiti-
vity of muscles and joints.
During the day, the astronauts carried out a medical checkup of each
187
other's health, measured arterial pressures, and recorded the pulse and
respiration.
According to the telemetric data, and as reported by the astronauts,
the magnitudes of these parameters were: arterial pressure of Nikolaev
12 5 by 80, and of Sevast'yanov-12 0 by 80 mm Hg, pulse rate 73 and 66,
and respiration rate 14 and 16 per minute respectively.
On J une 17, at 1100 hours Moscow time, yet another working day started
for Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov. In the first radio communi-
cations session, the spacecraft commander declared that the astronauts were
feeling well after their rest and had started work.
Prmida, J une 18, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
J UNE 18
At 1449 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 2 70 circuits of
the earth. By this time Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov had
spent 400 hours in outer space.
The working day for the astronauts lasted for about 16 hours and was
over on J une 18, at 03 00 hours in the morning. According to the program
for the seventeenth day of the flight, the astronauts carried out scientific,
technical and medical experiments.
They checked the systems on board and had breakfast. In the course of
some circuits, they observed and photographed the cloud cover and the
surface of our planet, regions with typical relief, the shoreline of the ocean
and large mountain tracts.
In the radio communications sessions the astronauts reported about
observations of the Pamirs, Baikal Lake, large tracts of forests in Eastern
Siberia and the shores of the Pacific Ocean.
During the day, A. Nikolaev and V. Sevast'yanov also observed and
photographed the moon, with the earth in the background. They investigated
the outer surface of the cabin windows and orbital compartment and reported
their condition in detail to the earth.
At the beginning and at the end of the working day, Andriyan Nikolaev
and Vitalii Sevast'yanov carried out medical experiments as well as conducted
a medical checkup of each other's health, measured arterial pressure, pulse
and respiration rates. According to the telemetric data, and confirmed
by the astronauts, Nikolaev had a pulse rate of 76 and Sevast'yanov
64 beats per minute. Both had a respiration rate of 16 per minute.
An analysis of the medical checkup showed that they had maintained
a high working capacity and were in good health.
188
The next working day started on J une 18, at i too hours Moscow time.
In a radio communications session, Andriyan Nikolaev said that the
astronauts were feeling well after their rest and that they had started their
program for the i8th day.
Pravda, J une 19, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOTUZ-9 SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETES FLIG HT
On J une 19, 1970, at 1459 hours Moscow time, after completing the
program of prolonged flight in a near-earth orbit, the Soyuz-g spacecraft
landed in a predetermined area in Soviet territory, about 75 kilometers
west of Karaganda.
Comrades Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev and Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'-
yanov are feeling well after the landing.
For the descent of the spacecraft to the earth, at a precalculated time,
the spacecraft was orientated and the braking engine was put into operation.
After the braking engines had finished their work, the compartments
of the spacecraft were separated and the landing vehicle entered the trajectory
toward the earth. The landing vehicle descended along the guided descent
trajectory with the use of aerodynamic control. After deceleration in the
atmosphere, the parachute system was put into operation. The engines
for soft-landing ensured a smooth landing for the vehicle.
At the landing site, the astronauts were warmly welcomed by the search
group, sport commissars, friends and journalists.
A medical checkup of the crew at the landing site showed that they had
adjusted well to the prolonged space flight.
Thus Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel
A.G . Nikolaev, and Space Engineer V.I. Sevast'yanov, Kandidat of Tech-
nical Sciences, fully accomplished the scheduled program of scientific,
technical and medico-biological research in Soyuz-g.
Pravda, J une 2 0, 1970
STATEMENT OF THE SOTU^-g CREW
AT THE LANDING SITE
TO
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU,
PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET.USSR,
AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR
We report today, J une 19, 1970, after fully accomplishing the flight
189
program of the Soyuz-Q spacecraft. The crew of Soyuz-Q was in orbital flight
for 18 days.
In the course of the flight, a complicated program of scientific and technical
experiments has been accomplished, a set of medico-biological investigations
carried out, and new instruments and assemblies tested. All the spacecraft
systems functioned normally. .
We heartily thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Soviet G overnment for the faith
shown in us in accomplishing this prolonged flight.
We are feeling well, and are ready to carry out new tasks.
A.G . Mkolaev
Commander of the Soyuz-g spacecraft
Pravda, J une 2 0, 1970 V.I. Scvast'yanov
Kandidat of Technical Sciences
Space Engineer of the Soyuz-g spacecraft
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers,
all the collectives and organizations that took part in the prepara-
tion and successful accomplishment of the prolonged flight of
the Soyuz-g spacecraft.
To
The Soviet astronauts, Comrades Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev
and Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov.
Dear Comrades!
Lenin's jubilee year was marked by a new and important achievement
of Soviet astronautics. The 17-day orbital flight of the Soyuz-g spacecraft
has been successfully completed. The courageous Soviet astronauts, Comrades
A.G . Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov, have accomplished the longest flight
in outer space and have carried out a large number of scientific and
technical experiments and investigations. In the course of the flight, the
instruments and systems of the spacecraft functioned faultlessly.
A new and important step has been taken in astronautics, signifying
the beginning of prolonged manned space flights. The valuable biomedical
data about the effect of prolonged space flight on the human organism
and working capacity, obtained as a result of the investigations during
the flight, the prolonged and multilateral checking of the technical systems
of the spacecraft and ground devices, and the accomplishment of an extensive
program of scientific and economic investigations and observations have
provided us with the necessary practical material, for the foundations of
future space flights and will bring closer the establishment of permanent
working orbital stations.
190
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers,
USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear comrades, Andriyan G rigor'evich
Nikolaev and Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov, for the successful accomplish-
ment of this difficult and responsible task.
We congratulate all the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and
workers, all the collectives and organizations that took part in the preparation
and successful accomplishment of the orbital flight of the manned spacecraft
Soyuz-Q-
We wish you, dear comrades, further success in your wonderful work.
Let these successes bring glory to our socialist motherland and serve the
noble cause of the study and conquest of the universe by mankind.
Central Committee of the CPSU
Presidium of Supreme Soviet, USSR
Council of Ministers, USSR
Pravda, J une 2 0, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
NEW STEP TOWARD ORBITAL STATIONS
On J une i, 1970, the Soyuz-g spacecraft, with a crew consisting of space-
craft commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR,
Colonel Adriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev, and Space Engineer, Kandidat of
Technical Sciences, Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov, was launched by the
Soviet Union into orbit as an artificial earth satellite.
On J une 19, 1970, at 1459 hours Moscow time, after completing the
scheduled program of an 18-day flight, Soyuz-g made a landing in a predeter-
mined area with high accuracy.
The crew of Soyuz-g remained in orbital flight around the earth for a
period of 42 4 hours. This is the first time that such a prolonged flight has
taken place with the crew working actively the whole time.
The large number of scientific and technical investigations, observations
and experiments were intended to study near-earth space and determine
the potentialities of orbital space vehicles in the interests of various aspects
of the national economy.
In the course of the flight, scientific observation and photography of
geologically typical portions of the earth's surface, were carried out. In
particular, portions of the European part of the USSR, Kazakhstan and
Western Siberia were photographed. Simultaneously with the experiment
in outer space, these regions were photographed by geological survey air-
planes.
During the flight, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov observed and
photographed different phases of the rising and setting sun and moon,
cloud formations, snow covers of the earth, and different atmospheric
phenomena for forecasting the weather for long periods. The astronauts
reported about thunderstorm phenomena and cyclones a number of times.
Information about forest fires, dust storms and sea storms was also received
from the spacecraft.
In a prefixed area of the Indian Ocean, a unique experiment on the
photography of cloud formation was carried out. In this experiment, besides
the spacecraft Soyuz-g, the scientific research ship of the USSR Academy
of Sciences, Akademik Shirshov and the meteorological satellite, Meteor also
took part.
During the flight of Soyuz-g, the physical characteristics of near-earth
space were studied further. The astronauts made wide use of the heavenly
bodies as their main reference points for working out methods and new
systems of astronavigation and maneuvering. In the process of multiple
maneuvering, orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft, the processes
of spacecraft control in different regimes of flight were further improved.
The most important part of the space flight was a large number of medico-
biological investigations for studying the effect of prolonged space flight
factors on the human organism. Particular attention was paid to the measures
for maintaining the good functional condition of the organism and a high
level of working capacity.
While carrying out a large medico-biological program, the astronauts
conducted investigations of the cardiovascular system, functions of external
respiration, gas metabolism and energy loss, contrast sensitivity of the eyes,
functions of the vestibular apparatus, sensitivity of the muscles and joints,
and the sense of pain with the help of different functional probes and psycho-
physiological tests.
In order to diagnose in time the possible undesirable changes " in the
physiological functions of the organism, regular medical checkups of the
astronauts' state of health were carried out during the 18-day flight. The
system of control included different methods: watching the astronauts
during TV broadcasts and radio conversations, reports of the astronauts
themselves, analysis of the experiments conducted by them, and in particular,
the telemetric data about the dynamism of physiological experiments.
Every day, at the beginning and end of the working day, the astronauts
carried out each other's medical checkup, in which the arterial pressure
was measured and the pulse and respiration were recorded. Similar measure-
ments were made before and after the preplanned set of physical exercises.
Normal life activities and high working capacity were maintained through
192
a rational regime of work, rest and regular food.
The medical data obtained through telemetric channels, the results of self-
and mutual-medical checkups, and observations of the astronauts during
TV broadcasts, have shown that the astronauts quickly adjusted to the
state of weightlessness and adapted themselves to the complicated effects of
prolonged space flight factors, retaining a high level of working capacity.
The ground command and measurement complex and the scientific
research ships of USSR Academy of Sciences, situated in different waters
of the world, provided a clear and uninterrupted tracking of the flight.
Regular radio and TV contact was maintained with the spacecraft, and the
reception and processing of the telemetric information was carried out
effectively.
The spacecraft systems and scientific equipment, in the course of the
whole flight, functioned faultlessly, and created normal conditions for
work and rest in the living compartments, similar to those on the earth.
After the completion of the space flight, astronauts A.G . Nikolaev and
V.I. Sevast'yanov will undergo checkup for some time ahead.
The experimental investigations carried out by astronauts Nikolaev
and Sevast'yanov have great importance for the development of space
technology and the solution of problems facing the building and functioning
of long-term orbital stations for scientific and economic purposes.
Pravda, J une 2 0, 1970
SOTUZ-9-. PROG RAM COMPLETED
The further study of outer space for enriching our knowledge of near-
earth and interplanetary space and using it in the interests of the national
economy, is connected with the stay and work of man in restricted and
weightless conditions. In the prolonged flights of orbital stations, the investi-
gator will have to remain in the state of weightlessness for weeks and months.
Till recently, the maximum duration of manned space flights varied
from 5 (Vostok, Soyuz) to 14 days (G emini-j). Along with the solution of
definite scientific and technical tasks, the vital functions of the human
organism, the health and working capacity of the astronauts were also
investigated. It became clear that people quickly adapt themselves to the
state of weightlessness. The " illusions of position" and unpleasant feelings
due to motion soon disappear, and the organs of blood circulation and gas
metabolism start functioning normally. However, slackness in movements
and lower reactions may appear, and the irritation of the vestibular apparatus
may go on accumulating, which can sometimes give rise to the symptoms
of sea sickness. Hence it is essential to study in detail the behavior of the
human organism under the conditions of a prolonged stay in the state of
193
weightlessness, and the effects of strains of even very small magnitudes on
the condition of the organism and the feelings of the astronauts.
In a prolonged flight it is important also to check the working capacity
of the control and communication systems and other equipment, gather
experience and statistical data for the further improvement of the design
and sealing of the spacecraft compartments, and its slave organs.
The flight of Soyuz-g was designed specifically to solve these problems.
As is well known, its crew consisted of spacecraft commander, Pilot-Astronaut
Andriyan G rigor'evich Nikolaev, and Space Engineer, Kandidat of Tech-
nical Sciences, Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov. Launched on J une i,
the spacecraft entered an orbit, having a minimum height (at perigee) of
2 07 kilometers, and maximum (at apogee)2 2 1 kilometers. The orbital
inclination was 51.7 degrees. The flight, which lasted for 18 days, was
successfully completed.
The following technical tasks were carried out in the course of the flight:
medico-biological investigations of the effect of prolonged space flight
factors on the human organism;
overall checking and flight-testing of the systems under the conditions
of prolonged space flight;
- further work on the improvement of the manual system of control
and orientation, and investigations with autonomous navigational devices;
- scientific investigations and experiments for the further improvement
of the design and systems of the spacecraft.
Medico-biological investigations
The flight of the Soyuz-9 spacecraft was of great interest from the point
of view of space biology and medicine. In the conditions of orbital flight,
the main factor acting on man is weightlessness. Right from the moment
of taking the decision to send man into outer space great attention has
been paid to this problem. Quite a lot of useful material has been collected
from the scientific investigations. But one cannot yet say that the problem
of weightlessness has been fully studied.
As the flights of Soviet and American spacecraft have shown, the astronauts
can stay and work for several days in the state of weightlessness, without any
visible harm to their health and working capacity. However, with the increase
in the duration of flights, to the action of weightlessness is added such
factors as prolonged isolation, limited movement, psychological strain and
lastly, the possibility of infection from the micro-organisms in the spacecraft.
Reviewing the previous flights of Soviet and American astronauts, one
can say that the results of medical control and biomedical investigations
have demonstrated only insignificant changes in the organism, showing
only the general tendency of perturbations, that can arise as a result of
194
space flight factors. Their effect on the human organism is much less than
what the scientists had supposed in the early stages of space exploration.
Now we have a sufficient basis for changing over to ever-increasing durations
of flight, keeping in view reliable and comprehensive provisions for the
health of man in outer space.
It is mainly for these purposes that the Soyuz-g experiment was carried out.
It envisaged the study of the symptoms of possible perturbations arising
from the prolonged action of weightlessness; obtaining data on the effect
of a long stay in weightlessness on the organism, and on the effectiveness
of safety measures; obtaining information necessary for the further perfecting
of the lifesaving systems.
Keeping in view these aims, Soviet scientists worked out several original
methods, with instruments and devices, for recording the physiological
functions of man in space flight. Special devices and a set of physical exercises
were used directly to maintain the resistance of the organism to the effect
of weightlessness (and the later overloading during the descent from the
orbit), for maintaining the muscular power, and for causing a general
toning effect on the nervous, cardiovascular and digestion systems.
The cardiovascular system was investigated in detail with the help of
sensitive methods of electrocardiography, seismocardiography, pneumo-
graphy and measurement of the pulse rate. The results were transmitted
to the earth with the help of radiotelemetry. Moreover, periodically the
astronauts themselves measure the arterial pressure after rest and after
definite physical strain.
In close connection with the condition of the cardiovascular system,
the variations in the water-salt metabolism were also studied, which will
help in the further study of the water-electrolyte balance of the organism.
Till now, there was no experimental data about the energy loss by man
during space flight. But this data is absolutely essential for constructing
optimal lifesaving systems, as well as for working out scientifically based
rations of food and water.
In this connection, the astronauts' functions of respiration, gas metabolism
and energy loss in the conditions of work and rest were measured carefully.
The vegetative reactions were also studied, the muscular power of the hands,
pain and other senses were gauged, and the changes in the reactions of the
analyzer systems-most of all the functions of the vestibular systemwere
studied. All this is necessary for working out the recommendations for
preventing the different perturbations which can arise as a result of prolonged
space flight.
The telemetric devices were used not only for medical control, but also
for the investigation of the physiological reactions of the organism to the
prolonged action of space flight factors. In this connection, the
psychological steadiness of the man and the dynamic characteristics
195
of an operator included in the control system, were studied.
It must be stressed that in the field of medical investigations the latest
methods were used. These enabled revealing the physiological mechanisms
of adaptation of the human organism to space flight factors. This fact has
importance for the further perfecting of devices for a man's prolonged stay
and work in outer space.
Orbital maneuvering
Experiments were conducted on the orbital maneuvering of Sqyuz-g
spacecraft. These included maneuvers carried out by the astronauts while
solving problems of autonomous navigation, and on improving a number
of prospective elements of the orientation and motion control systems.
The control system allowed any angular orientation of the spacecraft
which may be required for scientific and technical experiments, or for
maneuvering. While working on the autonomous navigational system,
the astronauts orientated the spacecraft toward particular heavenly bodies,
and, while observing and photographing the earthtoward our planet.
The spacecraft was also orientated toward the sun for the generation of
electric power by the solar batteries, and for several scientific and technical
experiments. This orientation was maintained by stabilizing the spacecraft
through rotation. The orbital parameters were sustained with the help
of corrections. Here the corrective impulse could be applied in any direction.
The correction, as well as several other operations for control were carried
out manually as well as automatically. Using the control handle and operat-
ing either group of orientation engines, the astronaut could rotate the space-
craft in the required direction; using the optical instruments, he could
orientate the spacecraft with respect to the earth with the necessary accu-
racy. Special optical instruments enabled the astronaut to carry out high-
point orientation with respect to the stars.
A prolonged flight demands economic fuel expenditure of the jet engines
of the orientation system. It is provided by regimes using minimum single
impulses of the engine for maintaining the orientation.
The flight of the Soyuz-Q spacecraft was unusual since a number of new
orientation instruments were tested in it. Some characteristics of the space-
craft, necessary for the work of the orientation system, have been defined
more accurately.
For practical use
As in previous flights, the observations of our planet from outer space
were continued, using optical instruments, photography and filming of
different phenomena taking place on the surface of the earth. From the
photographs taken from Soyuz-g, scientists will be able to draw more ac-
curately the geological maps of certain areas of the globe and determine
the areas most likely to yield minerals. Similar work on the earth would
need much more effort and cost. Moreover, from the photographs of different
regions of the world ocean, the possibilities of determining ocean currents
and some characteristics which simplify the search for zooplankton and
the places of accumulation of schools offish, will be studied.
The photographs of atmospheric formations, and of the snow and ice
covers of the earth, will provide additional material for working out weather
forecasting for long periods and finding the origin of typhoons.
Investigations of the physical characteristics, phenomena and processes
in outer space were also carried out. The effect of space conditions on the
characteristics of the optical systems was determined, the methods of fixing
reference points on the earth for navigation were investigated, and the
functioning of different mechanisms in the conditions of outer space, were
studied. The study of the intensity of cosmic radiation, more accurate
determination of the solar constant, and investigation of the passage of
radio waves of different frequencies through the atmosphere, were continued.
Structural characteristics of the spacecraft
In its design and component characteristics, the spacecraft Soyuz-g is
basically similar to the previous Soyuz-type spacecraft. However, because
of its task of prolonged flight, certain changes connected with the improve-
ment of the working conditions and rest arrangements were made. Soyuz-g
consists of three main compartments: orbital, landing, and instrument -
cum-assembly. The instruments and equipment required for rendezvous
and docking with other spacecraft were removed from this model.
The orbital compartment in Soyuz-g serves as a laboratory for scientific
experiments and investigations, and at the same time, as a room in which
the astronauts can rest, sleep, and eat. Most of the scientific apparatus and
equipment is accommodated in this compartment. The regeneration and
thermal control system, providing atmospheric conditions similar to those
on the earth, is also fitted here.
For retaining normal physical condition and high working capacity
during prolonged stay in the state of weightlessness, the astronauts used
to carry out a set of physical exercises in special suits on a special gymnastic
ground with two shock-absorbers. The shock-absorbers help in putting
a load on the human body. The muscular groups and the skeleton get loads
similar to the forces of gravity on the earth. In the design of the orbital
compartment, some additional attachments for holding the astronaut in
standing, sitting and lying positions were introduced. This makes it more
comfortable conducting experiments, resting and sleeping.
197
The orbital compartment of the Soyuz-Q spacecraft is a prototype of the
scientific laboratories and living rooms of the future orbital stations. The
astronaut's work in this compartment will help reveal its specific character
and selecting rational methods for conducting investigations in the conditions
of outer space.
The landing vehicle of Soyuz-g has two seats. For a prolonged flight and
a large number of scientific investigations, it was necessary to change its
arrangement slightly. In place of the third chair, some scientific apparatus,
casettes, film-holders, stock of tapes for recording the results of orbital
experiments, have been fixed. These results, as well as several scientific
instruments for biological experiments, are brought back to earth. As in the
previous spacecraft, the instrument panel for indication and signalling,
and keys and handles for controlling the spacecraft and its systems, are
accommodated in the landing vehicle.
The descent of the landing vehicle envisages a small acceleration force,
up to three units. This has great importance after a prolonged stay in the
state of weightlessness. Necessary aerodynamic control and characteristics
make it possible for the landing vehicle to glide steadily through the thick
layers of the atmosphere. Moreover, the landing vehicle is equipped with
shock-absorbing chairs, which decreases the acceleration forces at the moment
of landing after descent by parachute.
The instrument-cum-assembly compartment corresponds exactly to the
compartments of the earlier Soyuz spacecraft. It accommodates equipment
and assemblies necessary for the orbital flight of the spacecraft and its leaving
orbit after completion of the flight program. It includes a corrective propulsion
system, orientation engines, assemblies of the thermal control system, solar
batteries, and antennas of the radio network and telemetry.
Soyuz-Q was introduced into orbit by a multistage carrier-rocket. After
separation from the carrier-rocket, the solar batteries and radio antennas
opened. The spacecraft crew and the ground command-measurement
complex carried out an analysis of the condition of the spacecraft and its
systems on the basis of the telemetric information, and took the necessary
decisions for control of the flight.
Two-way radio communications were maintained between the spacecraft
crew and the ground stations during the flight. In the radiovisibility zone
of the ground control posts, the parameters of the spacecraft orbit were
measured, the telemetric and TV information was received and radio com-
mands for control were sent to the spacecraft.
After completing the flight program, the crew prepared to descend. After
orientation of the spacecraft in the orbital system of coordinates, delivery
of the braking impulse and separation of the compartments, the landing
vehicle carried out a guided descent through the atmosphere and landed
in a predetermined area.
The flight of Soyuz-g is a new step on the path of prolonged space flights.
Professor V. Pavlov
Pravda, J une ai, 1970
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET,
USSR,ON THE AWARD OF THE SECOND " ZOLOTAYA
ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO HERO OF THE SOVIET
UNION, PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR,
COMRADE A.G . NIKOLAEV
For the successful accomplishment of the prolonged orbital flight in the
Soyuz-<) spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this
flight, a second " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal is awarded to Hero of the Soviet
Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Comrade Andriyan G rigor'evich
Nikolaev.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J uly 3 , 1970
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET,
USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, " HERO OF THE
SOVIET UNION" TO PI LOT-ASTRONAUT COMRADE
V.I. SEVAST'YANOV
For the successful accomplishment of a prolonged orbital flight in the
Soyuz-9 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this
flight, the title of " Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon Pilot-Astro-
naut Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin
and the " Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J uly 3 , 1970
DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET,
USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, " PILOT-ASTRONAUT
OF THE USSR," TO COMRADE V.I. SEVAST'YANOV
For accomplishing a space flight in the Soyuz-g spacecraft, the title of
" Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade
Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov.
J V. Podgornyi
Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. G eorgadze
Secretary of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Kremlin, Moscow, J uly 3 , 1970
Pravda, J uly 4, 1970
PRESS CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW UNIVERSITY
The flight of the Soyuz-g spacecraft has aroused great interest throughout
the world. This lively interest was reflected by the large number of Soviet
and foreign journalists who assembled at the press conference in the audi-
torium of the Moscow State University on J uly 9.
The press conference, devoted to the successful accomplishment of the
prolonged orbital Soyuz-9 flight and meeting with the Pilot-Astronauts of
the USSR, Twice Hero of the Soviet Union, A.G . Nikolaev, and Hero of
the Soviet Union, V.I. Sevast'yanov, was organized by the USSR Academy
of Sciences, and the USSR Ministry of External Affairs.
More than two thousand representatives of the press, radio, cinema and
television, scientific and social organizations, welcomed the arrival of the
heroes of the latest flight to the presidium along with distinguished Soviet
scientists with loud cheers.
The President of the USSR Academy of Sciences, M.V. Keldysh, inaugu-
rated the press conference.
Speech by M.V. Keldysh
M.V. Keldysh reported that in the prolonged space flight the crew had
successfully carried out an extensive and complicated program of scientific
and technical experiments and medico-biological investigations. The
President stressed that the results of this flight were of great importance for
the development of astronautics.
He said that the Soviet space research program was characterized by its sys-
tematic approach to technical problems. One trend was the establishing of
2 00
prolonged orbital stations for scientific and economic purposes. These stations
will enable many new problems to be effectively tackled. Manned orbital
stations will form the basis for future progress in astronautics. The scientist no-
ted that the most important stage on this path were the flights of the Soyuz space-
craft, which sought to perfect the principles of control, maneuvering, docking,
and functioning of different systems on board, and at the same time performed
complicated tasks regarding the study of our planet from outer space.
M.V. Keldysh said that the entry of man into outer space had opened
new prospects for the investigation of the earth on a global scale for a fuller
exploitation of its natural resources, and for further penetration into the
universe. For establishing long-term orbital stations and long-distance space
flights, it is necessary to systematically accumulate data about the effect of
weightlessness and other space flight factors on the human organism, and
about the possibility of living and working in outer space. It is important
to have an exact idea what the presence of an astronaut can give to the study
of the earth's surface, and to find out the optimal ratio between the functions
of man and automatic machines. This requires long, exacting work, without
which the further progress of astronautics is impossible.
The scientist added that new and important problems were solved during
the Soyuz-Q flight. The astronauts accomplished an extensive program of
medico-biological investigations on the study of the effect of space flight
factors on the human organism under conditions of prolonged stay in orbit.
Here the problems of adaptation of the human organism, the effect of weight-
lessness and lowered muscular activity on the process of metabolism, cardio-
vascular system, bone-joint apparatus and on the nature of the blood
circulation, were studied. Interesting results were obtained during the investi-
gation of the dynamic functions of a man, as an element of the control system.
This experiment was carried out with the help of a special cybernetic device.
Several medico-biological and psycho-physiological methods were used
for the appraisal of the working capacity of the crew at different stages of
the flight.
The astronauts obtained a large amount of data about the terrestrial
atmosphere and the processes taking place in it, about the mainland and
water surfaces in different regions of the globe, and about typical geological
and geographical features. They continued the observations started by the
crew of earlier Soviet spacecraft. Thus, astronauts Valentina Nikolaeva-
Tereshkova and Konstantin Feoktistov had taken photographs of the dust
halo, while from the spacecraft Soyuz-5 their spectra had been taken for the
first time. M.V. Keldysh noted that similar observations were also carried
out during the group flight of the three Soyuz spacecraft in October, last year.
The processing of these measurements provided interesting facts about the
optical characteristics of the atmosphere and the distribution of aerosol.
The crew of Soyuz-Q carried out photography and spectrometry of the
2 01
dusk and daytime horizons of the earth also. The results of these observations
will enable us to understand better how the brightness and structure of the
atmosphere layers change with the height. The scientist reported that it was
important for the exact determination of the horizon line which is used as the
main reference line for the navigation of spacecraft. The astronauts carried
out a number of other astronavigational experiments also.
Of great interest is the joint meteorological experiment, in which the
satellite Meteor, the crew of Sqyuz-g and the scientific research ship Akademik
Shirshov, all took part. These experiments are of great importance to meteoro-
logists for more exact weather forecasts, since they enable an overall study
of the condition of the atmosphere, surface of the mainland and sea, and
structure of the cloud cover, to be made. The multiple experiment was
carried out over the western part of the Indian Ocean. From the ship, radio-
sondes were sent for the measurement of temperature and wind velocity in
different layers of the atmosphere. The Meteor satellite orbiting over this
area at this moment, sent a series of TV pictures from a height of 63 0 kilo-
meters, while Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov observed this area from a lower
height. A similar meteorological experiment was carried out last year with
the participation of the Soyuz-J crew, airplanes and ground stations. M.V.
Keldysh stressed that these Soyuz experiments contributed greatly to the
perfecting of meteorological forecasting.
Our country has greeted Lenin's jubilee year with new achievements in
the field of science and technical progress, with new successes in the construc-
tion of communism.
M.V. Keldysh declared that the general trend of Soviet space research
was to apply its achievements to the needs of the national economy and for
scientific and technical progress. The flight of the Sqyuz-g spacecraft
was an important step on this path.
The President of the Academy heartily congratulated the courageous
astronauts and wished them further success in the noble cause of the conquest
of outer space.
M.V. Keldysh announced that the Presidium of the Academy of
Sciences had already marked the outstanding contribution of Pilot-
Astronaut of the USSR A.G . Nikolaev, with the award of the K.E.
Tsiolkovskii G old Medal for the development of astronautics. Now the K.E.
Tsiolkovskii G old Medal was to be awarded to Pilot-Astronaut of the
USSR, V.I. Sevast'yanov.
To the accompaniment of the applause of all present, the medal was
handed over to the hero.
The next to speak was O.G . G azenko, a Corresponding Member of the
USSR Academy of Sciences.
202
Speech by O.G . G azenko
The scientist said that the main aim of the medico-biological experi-
ments was to study the effect of the conditions of prolonged space flight
on the functional condition of man and his working capacity. For this,
the functions of the cardiovascular system and analyzers were studied. The
dynamics of the working capacity was investigated on the basis of the accomp-
lishment of suitable working operations and the quality of the special probes
carried out.
In accordance with the program of biological investigations, some experi-
ments were conducted with the active participation of the astronauts. The
general purpose of these experiments was to study the effect of weightlessness
on the growth, development and heredity of different kinds of living organisms.
The scientist remarked that the flight of A.G . Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'ya-
nov had proved beyond doubt that man can not only live for a long time
under the conditions of space flight but also work efficiently.
The astronauts carried out quite an extensive program of scientific research,
including a large number of medico-biological experiments, which, we hope,
will enable us to take a new step forward in the study of the effect of weight-
lessness on the human organism.
O.G . G azenko stated that the scientific data received on the flight, was
being processed. Then he gave certain preliminary results regarding the
condition of the astronauts during flight, as well as some results of the post-
flight medical checkup.
Andriyan G rigor'evich and Vitalii Ivanovich felt well during the flight.
In spite of a full flight program, they retained a high working capacity. After
carrying out complicated experiments and a crowded program, they used to
feel somewhat tired, but this feeling would disappear completely after sleep.
Quite interesting and valuable observations of the astronauts regarding
their own condition during the flight, along with the data of objective investi-
gations, have enabled us to collect important information regarding adapta-
tion of the human organism to weightlessness. At the beginning of the flight,
a definite period was necessary for working out new habits for carrying out
specific actions, especially for movement in the spacecraft. Within 3 -4 days of
the flight, however, the movements of the astronauts inside the spacecraft
were carried out with confidence and did not require constant control. Soon
they were carried out automatically.
The processes were manifested also in the characteristics under study in
the vegetative sphere. For example, the pulse rate achieved preflight magni-
tudes within the first 3 -6 circuits, and then dropped to a lower level. On the
3 rd and 4th day of the flight, the pulse rate, respiration rate and the electrocar-
diogram characteristics became stabilized. Now the pulse rate varied from
68 to 80 per minute for Nikolaev, and from 60 to 70 per minute for V.I.
203
Sevast'yanov. Naturally, this frequency increased while carrying out physical
exercises or some complicated experiments. While sleeping, the pulse rate
decreased slightly.
The scientist said that it was interesting to note that compared to his
first Vostok-g flight, A.G . Nikolaev's pulse rate on the same phases of flight
in Soyuz-Q was somewhat lower. Throughout the flight, there was no consider-
able change in the reaction of the heart to standard physical strains.
Analyzing the preliminary results of medico-biological observations
further, O.G . G azenko said that there were no signs of sickness due to motion.
The astronauts said that in the initial phase of the flight, when they bent
their body or head sharply, they used to get a sensation similar to that under
vestibular loads on the earth. This perhaps indicates a lowering of the thres-
hold for the occurrence of vestibular reactions in the state of weightlessness.
Appetites during the flight were good. Feelings of thirst were somewhat
less. The amount of water taken in 2 4 hours (including the water contained
in the food) was 1.6-1.8 liters.
The lifesaving systems of the Soyuz-Q strictly maintained the prescribed
conditions with respect to gas composition, temperature, humidity and
atmospheric pressure in the spacecraft compartments. The astronauts were
provided with food in the form of natural products and the average calorific
value of the day's ration was about 2 ,600 kilo-calories. The scientist noted
that the rational distribution of work and rest played an important role in
maintaining the high working capacity.
Important information was obtained during the postflight observation
and checkup of the astronauts. On the day of landing, visible changes were
observed in their movements. Their sensations were similar to those due to
acceleration forces in the centrifuge of 2 -2 .5 units magnitude. Head,
extremities and other parts of the body appeared to be unusually heavy and
the astronauts felt their weight. This condition continued for about 2 -3
days. Normalization of statics and movements was achieved in about ten
days after the flight.
The scientist gave data characterizing the effect of a prolonged state of
weightlessness on the tonicity of the muscles, cardiovascular system and blood
composition. He remarked that the changes in the physiological functions
were almost normalized within ten days after the flight.
The scientist concluded that adjustment to the normal conditions of life
on the earth after a long stay in the state of weightlessness takes place with
certain difficulties. It is probably achieved with greater tension of the
physiological systems than the adaptation to the state of weightlessness.
As has been already mentioned, biological investigations were also carried
out during the flight. Fruit flies, potato tubers, seeds of wheat, barley, onion
and arabidopsis and cultures of chlorella and blue-green algae were experi-
mented upon.
204
The next speaker was the commander of Soyuz-g, Pilot-Astronaut of the
USSR, A.G . Nikolaev.
Speech by A.G . Nikolaev
" The main purpose of the Sqyuz-g flight was the study of prolonged space
flight factors on the human organism, primarily to find man's capacity to
work for a long period in the state of weightlessness. No less important was
the study of man's adaptation to earth conditions after a long stay in the
state of weightlessness.
" The solution of these problems involved an extensive program, which
included a complex of scientific, technical and medico-biological investi-
gations and experiments. The flight program envisaged:
work on the improvement of the systems of manual control and orienta-
tion using also autonomous navigational devices;
testing the orbit correction system in different regimes and the descent
control system;
experiments investigating the design elements of the spacecraft (mobile
mechanical units, windows, etc.).
" During the flight we had to:
observe the earth from outer space using optical instruments, and
photograph geological and geographical features for the mapping and deter-
mination of possible regions of mineral deposits;
observe and photograph atmospheric formations and boundaries of
the snow cover;
record the phenomena and processes of near-earth space;
perform special medico-biological investigations and experiments
for an extensive study of the effect of prolonged space flight factors on the
human organism."
A.G . Nikolaev continued: " Before talking about the program and our
life and work, I would first like to give a short description of Soyuz-g.
" Soyuz-g is basically the same as the previous Soyuz spacecraft. Some
changes connected with the improvement of the work and rest conditions
were made in view of the prolonged flight. It is a wonderful spacecraft.
There is still much to be done from this spacecraft in the study of near-earth
space.
" Our flight training was by stages. In the final stage we were trained on
Soyuz-g. We thoroughly studied its special features, its systems of orientation
and motion control, the systems for lifesaving and power supply and systems
of descent control and landing. During the training, great attention was
paid to the methods of conducting scientific experiments.
" Also we rehearsed what to do in an emergency. As it happened this
205
training was not required. Our flight went smoothly.
" Much was done in the medico-biological field also. Our general physical
training was quite extensive. The complex of physical exercises carried out on
board the spacecraft occupied a special place in the program. It enabled us to
retain a high working capacity during the flight and while returning to the
earth.
" We also practised checking our own and each other's health and giving
first-aid to each other. Since the flight program envisaged working in the
reverse rhythm of sleep by day and work by night, a number of adjustments
were made during training to acclimatize the organism to the new cycle."
A.G . Nikolaev said that the crew valued the great amount of experience
accumulated by Soviet and American astronauts.
" The fulfilment of the flight program was characterized by a large number
of dynamic operations connected with the orientation of the spacecraft.
These operations were carried out by us dozens of times. For conducting
many experiments it was necessary to first orient the spacecraft and then
stabilize it in this position with the help of gyroscopes. As a rule, they were
carried out manually, sometimes by changing over to the automatic regime.
Almost every day we performed the so-called turning of the spacecraft for
orientating the panels of the solar batteries toward the sun. The turning
was carried out manually.
" Several times we carried out orientation toward the earth when we were
situated on its dark side. Here, automatic, semi-automatic as well as manual
regimes of control were used. Thus, during the first correction of the
orbit on the fifth circuit, we checked the accuracy of orientation of the
spacecraft while being on the dark side of the earth and switched on the
engine in the region of the terminator."
A.G . Nikolaev said that the crew carried out the flight-test of a number of
new instruments used in the systems of orientation and motion control.
The spacecraft while orientated toward the sun at different predetermined
angles, was tested with the help of a wide-angle optical indicator. This
appeared to be satisfactory. Afterward, the crew worked out the methods of
optimal control of the spacecraft with the help of this indicator, and used
these methods for carrying out the so-called " oblique" turn. Such turns
are carried out while orientating the spacecraft at a certain angle toward
the sun for providing the necessary thermal regime of the spacecraft, and
for maintaining the normal regime of work of the buffer battery during
periods when there is comparatively low consumption of electric power in
the spacecraft.
During the flight, orbit corrections were carried out thrice. Here, manual
as well as automatic regimes were used. The program envisaged more than
fifty different experiments during the flight, and each of them was repeated
several times.
2 06
The astronaut continued, " In accordance with the flight program, each
astronaut was given different experiments to do in a definite order. Most of
the experiments were carried out independently. But there were also some
joint experiments. These usually also involved a particular orientation of
the spacecraft.
" Our work in outer space was carried out in quite comfortable conditions.
Everything necessary for our work and rest was all found.
" Throughout the flight we had good appetites and we ate well according to
prescribed limits. It was very pleasant to take hot food, borshch, kharcho,
soups and coffee. We took an unlimited amount of water, although we did
not feel any special thirst. We used to sleep in sleeping bags. We would fall
asleep soon and would sleep soundly. Once in sleep I swam out of my sleeping
bag and when I woke up, I found myself near the roof of the orbital compart-
ment. After sleep, we always felt active and fresh. Throughout the flight,
twice a day we used to do a set of physical exercises. It gave us great pleasure
to do them.
" After the completion of the flight program, on the i8th day, the space-
craft was orientated for imparting a braking impulse. At a prefixed time, the
descent program was put into action. As a result of the braking engine, the
orbital velocity of the spacecraft decreased and it entered a flight trajectory
toward the earth.
" After the separation of the orbital and instrument-cum-assembly compart-
ments from the landing vehicle, the re-entry system was switched on, which
assured a guided re-entry of the vehicle into the earth's atmosphere with
the use of aerodynamic control. While entering the thick layers of the earth's
atmosphere, one can clearly feel the increase in noise due to air friction.
After entry into the atmosphere, the acceleration started increasing gradually.
However, it did not exceed 3 -4 units. The spacecraft carried out a soft-
landing in a predetermined area.
" We adapted to the flight well, but frankly speaking, did not expect that
there would be so much difficulty in re-adapting to living conditions on
the earth. It was difficult to get up from the chair. After the opening of the
door of the vehicle, our comrades from the search group helped us to come
out of the landing vehicle. After eighteen days of weightlessness, the whole
body (hands, legs, head) suddenly became very heavy. We felt as if we
were sitting in a centrifuge with small acceleration forces. On the first day it
appeared that this overloading was about two units or slightly more. After-
ward, it gradually decreased, and on the 5th-6th day, it disappeared
completely."
A.G . Nikolaev concluded by saying, " After the i8-day flight of Soyuz-g,
one can confidently predict the active participation by man in the establish-
ment of long-term manned orbital stations."
207
The last to speak was the space engineer of Scyuz-g Pilot-Astronaut of the
USSR, V.I. Sevast'yanov.
Speech by V.I. Sevast'yanov
" I would like to talk about the work of the systems on board. Everything
can be summed up in the phrase: 'All the systems of the spacecraft functioned
faultlessly.' Hence I would speak about related matters.
" The purpose of the technical experiments was to test the systems of
Soyuz-g in the conditions of prolonged flight, to improve the new instruments
of the navigation systems and motion control, and to determine the construc-
tional and dynamic characteristics of the spacecraft and external disturbing
factors.
" In the course of the flight, anewautomaticstarorientation sensor, assuring
an accurate orientation of the spacecraft in spite of strong light disturbances in
the background, was tested. The tests enabled improvements to be made in
the instrument. The flight-test of the visual optical-electronic instrument
for the manual orientation of the spacecraft toward the earth, when the
spacecraft is flying over the dark side of the earth, passed successfully.
" The experiments on the improvement of the autonomous orbital navi-
gation devices were continued. In particular, we determined the orbital
period, measured the height of the flight and conducted angular measure-
ments with the help of the ground reference points and stars. On the basis of
these measurements, all the elements of the spacecraft orbit were determined,
and the necessary corrections of the trajectory were calculated. In the course
of the flight, the methods for the operative solution of navigational problems
by using computers were worked out. These methods may be used for the
purposes of duplication and increasing the reliability of flight control.
" A number of experiments were connected with the study of constructional
characteristics of the spacecraft, The deformations of the spacecraft caused
by the conditions of vacuum and one-sided heating by sun, were measured.
The inertial characteristics of the spacecraft were defined more exactly, 'he
moments of inertia and the position of the main axes of inertia were deter-
mined. The functioning of the precision mechanisms and optical units under
the conditions of a space medium, were studied. With the help of optical
devices we determined the accuracy characteristics of the gyroscopic instru-
ments of the orientation and stabilization systems. The investigation of the
nature, dynamics and intensity of the shining particles, and flight-testing of
the new high-precision illuminators, which assure faultless functioning of
sensitive optical elements throughout the flight, were continued.
" In the process of the flight, the effect of aerodynamic and gravitational
perturbation moments on the dynamic characteristics and control of the
2 08
spacecraft, was determined. In the prolonged flight we made a complete
test of different lifesaving systems and have collected valuable information."
The astronaut stressed that the preliminary results of the technical experi-
ments fully conformed to the expected results. " All the systems of the space-
craft functioned perfectly normally and we can confidently declare that
Soyuz-Q is capable of providing for the long-term stay of man in the condi-
tions of outer space," he said.
V.I. Sevast'yanov talked further about the medico-biological investi-
gations. The crew conducted experiments on the investigation of the func-
tions of vestibular apparatus, functions of external respiration, dynamics of
arterial pressure, nature of the pain senses of the skin, contrast sensitivity of
the eyes, maintenance of the characteristics of the vision apparatus, muscular
power of the hands and the sensitivity of muscles and joints.
All these experiments were conducted not just for the control of the
astronauts' health, but mainly for a deeper study of the potentialities of man
and all his organs to function normally in the conditions of prolonged space
flight.
In order to get data for constructing optimal lifesaving systems, as well as
for working out a scientifically based ration of food and water consumption,
the energy loss by the astronauts under flight conditions was calculated.
" At different stages of the flight we carried out experiments on the
transients of the manual control of the spacecraft. These experiments were
conducted on a special analog computer, with the help of which different
dynamic regimes of control were modelled. This enabled us to determine
the 'transmission function' of man as the main component of the control
system," he continued.
" In the process of the flight, biological experiments were also conducted,
which gave interesting information regarding some problems of genetics
and cytology.
" Experiments of economic importance to the nation occupied a prominent
place in the program. During the flight, we carried out observations and
photography for the study of the spatial structure of clouds, for determining
the boundaries of the snow cover and for detecting gales, storms and tropical
cyclones.
" From the earth we received enquiries about the weather in different
regions of the globe. We carried out the necessary observations and sent the
results back to earth. The reports from the spacecraft about meteorological
phenomena were used by the weather service in its operational work."
While talking about the photography of geographical and geological
features, the astronaut remarked: " The main purpose of these experiments
was to make the existing geological maps more exact and create new geologi-
cal maps for the detection of minerals.
" While conducting a complex experiment in the regions of the Northern
2 09
Caucasus, Caspian and Aral Seas, Kazakhstan and Western Siberia, simul-
taneously, these features were being photographed from geological survey
airplanes."
The space engineer narrated briefly about some scientific experiments on
the study of near-earth space.
In particular, the spectral intensities of the sun, and the night and daytime
horizons of the earth were measured. During the flight,the shining particles
were observed through the windows and their size, intensity, distance and
velocities were determined.
" It must be noted that in the course of the flight, the methods of conducting
some experiments changed. We corrected the methods in accordance with
the recommendations from the flight control center. This enabled us to
conduct better-quality experiments, taking into account changing condi-
tions," said the astronaut.
" It is important to stress that the long duration of the experiment enabled
us, on the one hand, to increase the number of experiments as compared to
previous flights, and on the other, to repeat each planned experiment a
number of times. As a result, rich statistical data was obtained."
V.I. Sevast'yanov stated, " Our investigations show that the astronaut
gets accustomed to the state of weightlessness very soon. We did not have
any feeling of illusion. However, during the first two or three days some
symptoms, such as congestion of blood in the head and a feeling of some
discomfort, were noticed, which later disappeared completely. On the
first and second day of the flight, weightlessness affected our movements.
On the third day, when the period of adaptation to weightlessness was
over, an unusual easiness appeared in our actions, and a smoothness, accuracy
and confidence in our movement from one compartment to another.
" It should be noted that my feelings in connection with the changeover
of the organism from weightlessness to the conditions of gravity on the
earth, were similar to those experienced by the spacecraft commander."
V.I. Sevast'yanov said: " Finally, I would like to say that we have obtained
a lot of material during the flight. Its detailed study will enable the scientists
and specialists to move ahead on the path to building long-term orbital
stations, and prepare astronauts for flights longer than 18 days, returning
them to earth in good health and with high working capacity."
Afterward, the scientists and astronauts replied to a large number of
questions from the representatives of the Soviet and foreign press.
(TASS)
Pravda, J uly 10, 1970
2 10
tvv
l
/i -
III
LUNAR EXPLORATIONS
Page Intentionally Left L
SOVIET ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE OF THE MOON
The space era, begun by the labor and talent of the Soviet people about
ten years ago, has made an exceptionally important contribution to the
knowledge of mankind. Appreciating the importance and prospects of
space research for modern science, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
orientated our scientists and engineers toward the solution of these problems.
Everyone now knows the role and practical importance of the artificial
earth satellite, especially after the launching of the Molniya series which
provide long-range communications and television broadcasts and meteoro-
logical satellite for weather forecasting. It is difficult to overestimate also
the importance of the discoveries made with the help of the space vehicles
in the exploration of the upper atmosphere of the earth, its magnetic and
gravitational fields, radiation belt, and in the study of solar radiation and
cosmic rays.
Naturally, Soviet people talk with pride about the prior place given to
space research in the progress of Russian science and technology.
Three and a half centuries after G alileo observed the moon through
his telescope, the science of the universe had entered a new erathe era
of exploration with the help of space vehicles sent to the heavenly bodie*
to have a close look of them and then make a study of the characteristics of
their structure with the help of soft-landing automated probes and artificial
satellite. Obviously, the first object to attract our attention was the perma-
nent natural satellite, the moon.
In many of its characteristics, the moon is similar to the other bodies of
2 13
the solar system. Study of its surface, composition of its crust and lower
layers, and the processes which change the landscape and structure of the
interiorall these problems are important not only for knowing the evolution
of the moon, but also for the cosmology of all the bodies of our solar system.
One can name the processes common to all the planets and their satellite,
especially in the early period of their development: collisions with planetoids,
meteorites, comets, volcanic activity, etc.
The moon is especially interesting from another point of view, namely,
that on its surface the original formations have been preserved. They have
not undergone disaggregation as on the earth (e.g. erosion), although
recently the possibility of the effect of not only volcanic eruptions but also
of water on the visible parts of the lunar surface is being discussed.
The study of the internal structure of the moon, distribution of mass in
its interior, thermal regime and characteristics of its magnetic field, is neces-
sary for understanding the history of both earth and moon.
It is obvious that many of the problems of the bodies of solar systems
can be solved by comparing geophysical and geochemical parameters of
the earth with analogical parameters of the moon.
One of the main tasks of the exploration of the lunar atmosphere is the
study of the parameters of near-moon space. The first steps in this direction
were taken in the course of the nights of the automated probes Luna-i and
Luna-2 (1959), which became the first artificial bodies to exceed earth-
escape velocity and fly beyond near-earth space.
The automated interplanetary probe Luna-i passed at a distance of 5-6
thousand kilometers from the surface of the moon and then became the
first artificial satellite of the solar system. During the first historical inter-
planetary flight from the earth to the vicinity of the moon, information
was obtained which enabled us to make two main scientific conclusions:
For the first time, the absence of strong magnetic field near the moon was
detected and again, for the first time, flux of ionized plasma" solar wind"
was observed in interplanetary space. These results substantially changed
the conceptions about the characteristics of the interplanetary medium.
The launching of the automated interplanetary probe Luna-2 enabled
us to deliver scientific and measuring equipment directly to the lunar surface.
Before the probe reached the lunar surface, its instruments transmitted to
the earth a set of the first experimental data about the physical characteristics
of the moon, including that about the absence of a radiation belt near the
moon.
The Soviet automated probe Luna-^ started, and the probe ^ond-3 practi-
cally completed, the photographic study of the hidden side of the moon.
On the basis of their material, a global survey of the whole lunar surface was
carried out, the basic principles of distribution of sea and mainland regions
were worked out, and the first complete map andglobeof themoon were made.
2 14
Although the automated probes passing near the lunar surface and reaching
up to it, gave extremely valuable data, the further development of moon
science demanded the presence of scientific instruments near the moon for
a longer period.
A qualitatively new stage started with the launching of the automated
lunar probe Luna-g, which carried out the first-ever soft-landing on the
surface of the moon on February 3 , 1966. The automated laboratory actively
functioned for several days, out of which 8 hours and 5 minutes were devoted
to radio communication sessions. The panorama of the surrounding area
and information about the lunar environment were transmitted over the
earth-moon radio link. Dosimetric measurements showed the presence of
a radiation background, which was about 2 5 per cent of the radiation back-
ground of interplanetary space. This experiment for the first time, gave
information about the presence of radioactive processes in the lunar rocks
and enabled us to determine the coefficient of reflection (albedo) of the
lunar surface for cosmic rays. Prospects of exploration in this direction lead
to the collection of data about the chemical composition of the lunar rocks.
At the same time, the comparative study of the nature of the upper layers
of the moon on the scale of the surface of the whole lunar globe, seemed to
be important in principle. Even this particular problem in the overall
complex of lunar explorations required a much longer stay of the measuring
instruments near the moon and the covering of substantial areas by the
measurements.
A number of other problems of the science of the moon demanded similar
conditions.
The solution of these problems only became possible after the building
of the moon's artificial satellite.
On March 3 1, 1966, the automated probe Luna-io started toward the
moon. The aim was to create the first-ever artificial satellite of the moon.
The last stage imparted a velocity of 10.87 kilometers per second, which
meant that it needed approximately 3 .5 days to travel to the nearest vicinity
of the moon. The motion of the automated probe was under constant control.
The trajectory data formed the basis of the calculation of the correction
which was carried out on April i on a signal from the earth. When the
station approached the boundary of the sphere of lunar gravity, it had
a velocity of one kilometer per second. Then, as the probe approached nearer
the moon and when the gravitational force of the earth became less than
that of the moon, the velocity started increasing and attained 2 .1 kilometers
per second at a precalculated point. At a height of i ,000 kilometers from the
surface of the moon, this velocity is too high for a body to be captured by
lunar gravity. But beforehand, at a distance of 8000 kilometers from the
moon, on the basis of the data of the astro-orientation system instruments,
the probe was placed in a definite position in space by operating the probe's
2 15
controlling engine. The braking engine was switched on in this position.
When the braking engine stopped, the velocity of the probe was already
1.2 5 kilometers per second, which is less than the planet-escape velocity
tor a distance of 1,000 kilometers from the surface of the moon, viz. 1.9
kilometers per second. The lunar gravity captured the probe and put it
into an elliptical orbit around the moon.
The natural earth satellite now had its own " artificial moon." 2 0 seconds
after the scientific equipment was switched off, a container carrying the
scientific equipment and weighing 2 45 kilograms, was separated from the
lunar rocket, which weighed, together with the probe, 1600 kilograms at
the beginning of the flight. (It should be remembered that the first artificial
earth satellite launched on October 4, 1957, weighed 83 .6 kilograms.)
The automated probe Luna-io accomplished its first circuits around the
moon in an orbit with the following parameters: maximum distance from
the moon (at apolune)1,017 kilometers; minimum distance from the
moon (at perilune)3 50 kilometers; orbital perioda hours, 58 minutes,
15 seconds; angle between the orbit and the plane of lunar equator71
degrees 54 minutes.
On April 4, when the 2 3 rd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union was in session, the melody of the Party anthem " Internationale"
was relayed from Luna-io.
The active existence of the first artificial satellite of the moon lasted for
about two months (56 days).
During this period, Luna-io made 460 circuits around the moon. A large
amount of information, having great scientific importance, was transmitted
to the earth during the 2 19 sessions of radio communication.
The following apparatus worked on board the probe: gamma-spectrometer
for investigating the intensity and spectral composition of the gamma-
radiation from the lunar surface, characterizing the types of lunar rocks;
instrument for the study of radiational conditions near the moon; apparatus
for the study of the solar plasma in near-moon space; instruments for record-
ing the infrared emission of the lunar surface; system for recording meteor
particles in near-moon space.
Moreover, the study of the evolution of the orbit of Luna- \ o formed the
basis of the determination of the orbit of the dynamic figure of the moon,
i.e. the nature of its gravitational field. On May 3 0, 1966, at the moment
Luna-1o ceased to exist actively, the parameters of its orbit changed consider-
ably. The maximum distance from the surface of the moon was now 985.3
kilometers, minimum distance 3 78.7 kilometers (ellipticity substantially
decreased), and the inclination 72 degrees 02 minutes.
The nature of the dynamic figure of the moon turned out to be distinctly
far from spherical. According to the precision measurements of the spatial
positions of a number of points of the lunar surface, the geometrical figure
2 16
of the moon is close to that of a sphere with a radius of 1,73 8 kilometers.
Moreover, some of the investigations contemplate an insignificant stretching
of the lunar body toward the earth.
According to analysis of the data of the orbital measurements of Luna-10,
the surfaces of constant gravitational force have the form of a pear, stretching
out on the hidden side of the moon, i.e. in the direction opposite the earth.
As is well known, the form of the surface of constant gravitation of a heavenly
body depends not only on its geometrical form, but also on the internal
distribution of mass. Taking this fact into account, the above-mentioned
data can be appraised not only from the point of view of the practical interest
in the structure of the gravitational field of the moon, but also as a step
toward the study of the structure of the interior of the natural earth satellite.
In this connection it is interesting to note that the main conclusion about
the global structure of the moon, made at one time on the basis of the photo-
graphs of the hidden side of the moon (Luna-g, 1959, and ond-3 , 1965),
was the morphological asymmetry of the visible and hidden hemispheres.
As it turned out, the hidden hemisphere is completely covered with a
shield of " continents."
But according to the measurements of the visible hemisphere, the " conti-
nents" are generally situated at a height of 1-2 kilometers above the seas.
It is not ruled out that these two results are compatible. Future investiga-
tions of the structure of the lunar globe will show the validity of such an
assertion.
The density of the meteoric matter near the moon was also investigated.
An essentially new thing was the first-ever determination of the chemical
composition of lunar rocks on the basis of the nature of gamma-radiation
by the surface layers of the moon.
In spite of the fact that these measurements were carried out in morpho-
logically different areas, the nature of gamma-radiation turned out to be
the same. The concentration of radioactive elementspotassium, thorium
and uraniumdetermined on the basis of the gamma-radiation, corresponds
to the content of these elements in such rocks as basalt on earth. It is interest-
ing that the optical characteristics of the lunar cover, which have been
studied from the surface of the earth for a long time, have also led to the
same analogy, taking into account, naturally, the specific character of
lunar conditions.
Extensive investigations were devoted to the magnetometric measurements
started by the first Soviet space probes of the Luna series. The strength of the
magnetic field varied from 2 4 to 3 8 gammas, while on the earth it varied
from 3 0,000 to 74,000 gammas.
During the period of magnetometric measurements, the moon occupied
different positions in its orbit with respect to the earth and the sun. Thus,
during the phase of full moon (as seen from the earth) the moon and the
2 17
automated probe Luna-io in a near-moon orbit, happened to be in the
region of the magnetic loop of the earth. However no effects were observed
in this course. No change was observed in the intensity of the magnetic
field with distance either. One can presume that there are no magnetic
poles on the moon, and the lunar magnetic field can be considered as an
interplanetary field, distorted by the moon.
On August 2 4, 1966, the next Luna probe was launched toward the moon,
and on August 2 7, a new artificial satellite Luna-n entered a near-moon
orbit. Parameters of its orbit were somewhat different from those of the
first artificial satellite of the moon. At perilune the satellite approached
the lunar surface at a distance of 163 .5 kilometers, while the maximum
distance from the surface was 1,193 .6 kilometers. The plane of the orbit
also had a different inclination. While Luna-io orbited near the poles, the
new satellite was introduced into an orbit closer to the equator.
Luna-11 completed 2 77 circuits in a near-earth orbit during the period
of its active existence. Instruments installed on it continued the investigations
of the moon and near-moon space started by Luna-io. But the previous
program was supplemented by the study of long-wave space radio waves,
data about which was received through special radio-astronomical equipment.
During 13 7 sessions of radio communication conducted from the probe,
information was received which confirmed and elaborated the main con-
clusions made on the basis of the investigations of Luna-io.
The third Soviet artificial satellite of the moon Luna-12 , which entered
a near-moon orbit on October 2 5, 1966, had not only to continue the work
started by the two earlier satellite of the moon, but also to photograph
portions of the lunar surface. The photographs, obtained from a height of
100 to 3 40 kilometers, included pictures of the region near Aristarchus
Crater. Most interesting were the pictures of the region of bright rays
emerging from this crater. They showed a high concentration of small craters
in those regions, which are characterized by higher brightness when observed
from the earth. The smallest of these craters which could be studied were
15-2 0 meters in diameter. Morphological characteristics of these craters
enable us to attribute them to the so-called secondary craters, which are
presumed to be formed due to the burst of rocks caused by volcanic activity,
or due to meteoric bodies falling on the lunar surface.
One cannot exclude the possibility of the Aristarchus Crater itself being
the source of such ejections in this area.
Photographs from low heights, obtained by the satellite of the moon,
open still more startling characteristics of the structure of the lunar surface.
It has become possible to visualize the successive stages of the lava eruptions
and volcanic activity. The closer we observe the moon, the more difficult
the problems of its history become. But the range of prospective tasks of
the artificial satellite of the moon includes not only problems connected
2 18
directly with the moon, but also problems of the earth-moon system.
The research program of the new Soviet artificial satellite of the moon,
Luna-i4, put into a lunar orbit, tackles these problems. In particular, the
ratio of the masses of the earth and moon will be determined more accurately.
This ratio is of fundamental value for astronomy, and ground observatories
devoted many years of work to determine it. Equally important are the
envisaged systematic observations of the orbit of the artificial lunar satellite
for finding out the characteristics of the moon's gravitational field.
The circumstances of the passage of radio signals between earth and the
probe, when the latter occupies different positions with respect to the lunar
surface, will provide valuable astrophysical information. For example,
quite interesting results may be expected on analyzing the radio signals
during the process of the turning of the probe behind the disc of the moon.
Moreover, the analysis of all these materials will enable us to define more
accurately the theory of motion of the moon. The investigations of the
flux of charged particles coming from the sun, cosmic rays and other investi-
gations, started by the first satellite of the moon, will be continued.
Further exploration of the lunar surface and outer space will help reveal
many secrets of nature, including those about our own planet.
Academician A. Vinogradov
Vice President, Academy of Sciences USSR
Tu. Lipskii
Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Sciences
Pravda, April 12 , 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ZOND-4 IN FLIG HT
In accordance with the space research program, an automated probe
d-4 was launched in the Soviet Union on March 2 , 1968.
The automated probe was introduced into the predetermined trajectory
from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. According to
the measurement data, the automated probe ^ond-ij. is flying along a trajectory
close to that calculated.
The aim of the flight is to explore the further regions of near-earth space,
as well as perfecting the new systems and assemblies on board.
The coordination and computation center is processing the information
received.
Pravda, March 3 , 1968
2 19
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNA-14 IN OUTER SPACE
In accordance with the space research program, a space rocket with the
automated probe Luna-14 on board was launched by the Soviet Union
for the moon on April 7, 1968, at 13 09 hours Moscow time.
The purpose of the flight is to continue the scientific investigations of
near-moon space. Preliminary results of the measurements show that the
probe is moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one.
On April 7, 1968, at 1700 hours Moscow time, the probe Luna-14 was
situated at a distance of 40 thousand kilometers from the earth over a point
on the earth's surface with the coordinates, 3 4 degrees 48 minutes northern
latitude and 99 degrees 3 8 minutes eastern longitude.
Communications with the probe are steady. According to the telemetric
data, all the systems on board the probe are functioning normally.
The ground measurement system is tracking the flight of the probe.
The coordination and computation center is processing the information
received.
Pravda, April 8, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ZOND-5 IN FLIG HT
In accordance with the space research program, the automated probe
Zpnd-5 was 'launched in the Soviet Union on September 15, 1968.
The automated probe has been introduced into the predetermined
trajectory from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. According
to the telemetric data, the automated probe %pnd-5h moving along a traje-
ctory close to the calculated one.
The purpose of the flight is to conduct scientific investigations in outer
space and to work on the further improvement of the systems and assemblies
on board the probe.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe ^ond-5.
According to the telemetric data, all the systems and assemblies on board
and the scientific equipment are functioning normally.
The coordination and computation center is processing the information
received.
Pravda, September 16, 1968
220
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
-s FLIES AROUND MOON
The automated space probe 2 jond-5, launched by the Soviet Union on
September 15, 1968, continues its flight. In accordance with the program,
a correction in the flight trajectory of the probe was carried out on September
17, 1968 at 06 1 1 hours Moscow time. After orientation in space and the
programmed turning of the probe, the propulsion system was put into
operation, which gave the probe the necessary corrective impulse. As a
result of this maneuver, the probe entered a new flight trajectory for conduct-
ing investigations of the physical characteristics of near-moon space.
On September 18, 1968, the automated probe J ^ond-5 flew around the
moon. In this process, the minimum distance from its surface was 1,950
kilometers.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe and
scientific information is being received from the data-storage device on board.
The equipment on board is functioning normally. Pressure and tem-
perature inside the probe are within the prescribed limits.
The program of scientific investigations of outer space by the automated
probe Zpnd-5 has been completed.
The coordination and computation center continues to process the in-
formation received.
Pravda, September 2 1, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED PROBE CWD-5 SUCCESSFULLY RETURNS TO
EARTH AT PLANET-ESCAPE VELOCITY, AFTER G OING
AROUND MOON
As has already been reported, the automated space probe Zpnd-> j was
launched in the Soviet Union on September 15, 1968. After a seven-day
flight on the track earth-moon-earth, the probe has returned to the earth.
For the first time in the world, the Soviet space vehicle, after going
around the moon, has successfully returned to the earth at a planet-
escape velocity and has brought a large amount of scientific data.
At 1854 hours Moscow time on September 2 1, 1968, the automated
probe entered the earth's atmosphere at a planet-escape velocity of about
11 thousand meters per second and at 1908 hours splashed down in a pre-
determined area in the waters of the Indian Ocean, with the following
coordinates: 3 2 degrees 3 8 minutes southern latitude and 65 degrees 3 3
minutes eastern longitude. The motion of the probe in the atmosphere
2 2 1
during the phase of aerodynamic deceleration took place along a ballistic
trajectory.
After aerodynamic deceleration, the descent of the probe was carried
out by using the parachute system. The automated probe, along with the
scientific equipment, was picked up by a Soviet search and rescue ship on
September 2 2 .
The following tasks have been carried out during the course of the flight
of Zjond-5:
flight around the moon;
scientific investigations of near-moon space;
return to the earth with planet-escape velocity and soft-landing in
a predetermined area.
In the course of the flight, work was done on the improvement of the
systems and assemblies of the probe for maneuvering in the trajectory,
and returning to the earth. The flight control system of the probe and the
radio technical devices for the measurement of its trajectory enabled the
accomplishment of the envisaged tasks.
The program of scientific investigations of outer space, and the overall
testing of the systems and assemblies on board the probe ond-5, has been
fully accomplished.
The successful flight of the automated probe %ond-5 along the track,
earth-moon-earth, and its recovery in the predetermined area, is an out-
standing achievement of Soviet science and technology. Another scientific
and technical problem has been solved and wide prospects have been opened
for the further study of outer space and the planets of the solar system with
the help of automated space probes which return to the earth with research
material.
Pravda, September 2 3 , 1968
AUTOMATED PROBE ZOND-5 FLIES AROUND MOON
AND RETURNS TO EARTH
Automatic vehicles of different kinds, launched by the Soviet Union,
are carrying out various scientific investigations in near-earth space as well as
in the farther regions of outer space, near the heavenly bodies and on their
surfaces. They are also being used for carrying out the flight-tests of new
systems and instruments on board.
Satellite of the Kosmos series are carrying out extensive investigations
of the upper layers of the atmosphere and near-earth space, in accordance
with the program announced by TASS on March 16, 1962 .
Investigations of interplanetary space, the moon and the planets, are
2 2 2
being carried out by automated probes of the ^ond, Luna, Mars and Venera
type. Thus in 1959, the Soviet automated probe, Luna-g for the first time
in the world, flew around the moon and photographed its hidden side and
transmitted the photographs to the earth. In 1965, another Soviet probe
Zpnd-g, took photographs of a portion of the hidden side of the moon, not
covered by the photographs taken by Luna-g. Photographs of the lunar
surface taken by the probe. %ond-3 , were transmitted to the earth from
a distance of over 3 0 million kilometers.
These photographs enabled the Soviet scientists to reveal secrets hidden
behind the dark side of the moon.
Outstanding results in the exploration of the moon and near-moon space
have been obtained in subsequent years also.
On February 3 , 1966, for the first time in the world, a soft-landing on the
moon was accomplished by the automated probe, Luna-g, and on April
3 , of the same year, the first artificial satellite of the moon, Luna-io, was
introduced into orbit. Afterward, the automated probes, Luna-n, Luna-12 ,
and Luna-i4, were introduced into near-moon orbits, while Luna-i$ made
a soft-landing on the surface of the moon.
The probes, Luna-g and Luna-13 , transmitted to the earth a TV panorama
of the lunar surface and valuable information about the surface and soil.
Scientific investigations of near-moon space, and the gravitational field
of the moon, and photography of its surface, were carried out with the help
of the lunar satellite.
A large amount of scientific information about the physical processes
going on in interplanetary space was transmitted by the Soviet automated
probes, Venera-1, Mars-i, Venera-2 , and Ventra-^.
None of the above-mentioned automatic vehicles returned to the earth,
since such a task could not be tackled in the early stages of space technology.
The scientific information obtained was transmitted by the probe through
radiotelemetric channels. However, no matter how perfect the radiotele-
metric and television devices for transmitting information, their potentialities
are limited to some extent.
Moreover, not all information received by the scientific equipment can
be analyzed on board the space vehicle. For example, the results of the study
of the action of high energy beams on scientific instruments can only be
effectively analyzed by scientists after the probe has returned to earth.
The development of space technology places before scientists more and
more complicated tasks in the exploration of interplanetary space, and
the planets of the solar system. Today, such problems as the study of the
surface and crust of planets, composition of the chemical elements and
minerals forming them and search for living organisms, have become urgent.
The problem of receiving telemetric transmission of direct pictures of
the surface and radiation spectra of heavenly bodies, without noise and
2 2 3
distortion, is also of great scientific interest.
Hence, for the further development of astronautics, the real problem
is how to receive outer space information directly in the scientist's laboratory.
This task, requiring perfect devices and recovery methods, was successfully
accomplished by the Soviet probe ^ond-5.
Design of the automated probe, Zond-5, and its
main scientific and technical investigations
The automated probe, ^ond-5, consists of two parts: the landing vehicle
with scientific apparatus, and the instrument compartment with the systems
which ensure the successful flight of the probe.
The body of the landing vehicle is covered with a layer of thermal-insula-
tion material for protection from the thermal flux, arising in the process
of braking at the time of re-entry into the earth's atmosphere, at a velocity
close to planet-escape velocity.
The landing vehicle (LV) contains instruments for conducting scientific
measurements, as well as equipment for radio communication, thermal
control system and power supply system.
The instrument compartment contains the radiotelemetric system,
equipment for controlling the systems on board, orientation and stabilization
systems, rocket propulsion system for imparting the necessary corrective
impulse to the probe, and thermal control and power supply systems. Optical
sensors of the orientation system, panels of solar batteries and antennas
are fixed on the outer side of the compartment.
The Zpnd-5 program of scientific measurements included further investi-
gation of the physical conditions in near-moon space. During the flight,
a large number of scientific and technical experiments were conducted for
the perfecting of devices on board and testing their workability on the
earth-moon-earth route. The orientation and motion control systems of
the probe were tested in the conditions of space flight. The corrective propul-
sion system and the low-thrust controlling engines were also tested. At the
final stage of the flight, work was done on the further improvement of the
systems which ensured the re-entry of the landing vehicle into the atmos-
phere at planet-escape velocity, the design of the landing vehicle, and the
soft-landing system. The radio technological devices for the measurement of
trajectory elements were tested over the course of the whole flight. Simul-
taneously, it was necessary to ensure high accuracy in the control of the
flight of the vehicle so that it could enter the narrow corridor of the earth's
atmosphere. As the results of the %ond-5 flight have shown, all these tasks
were successfully accomplished.
224
Flight of the automated probe Zond-f,
along the earth-moon-earth route
Zpnd-5 was launched on September 15, at 0042 hours Moscow time.
The probe, along with the last stage of the carrier rocket, was introduced
into orbit as an artificial earth satellite with the following parameters:
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 19 km;
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 187 km;
orbital inclination 5i-5deg.
After 67 minutes, on a command from the programmer, the propulsion
system of the last stage of the carrier-rocket was put into operation, which
increased the velocity of the probe close to the planet-escape velocity (11.2
kilometers per second) necessary for putting the probe on its way to the
moon (Fig. 14). Before putting the propulsion system into operation, the
probe and the last stage of the carrier-rocket were orientated in space with
great accuracy. After the propulsion system had finished its work, the last
stage of the carrier-rocket was separated from the probe. After the probe
had entered its path toward the moon, the necessary trajectorial measure-
ments were carried out. An analysis of these measurements showed that the
flight path of the probe was close to the calculated one. The telemetric infor-
mation confirmed the normal functioning of all the systems and scientific
equipment on board.
1st trajectory
correction
Flying by
the moon
-1^
n \
1950km
Satellite orbit and
-the flight path
without correction
2nd trajectory correction
\Separation of LV
Ballistic re-entry into atmosphere
Fig. 14. Schematic diagram of the flight of the automated probe Zond-5
on the earth-moon-earth route.
2 2 5
The flight around the moon at a particular distance from it, and return
to a prefixed area on the earth, requires trajectory correction. The necessary
data for carrying out the correction was prepared by the command and
measurement complex on the basis of the trajectory measurements, and
transmitted to the probe.
Before correction, the probe was orientated in space. First, particular
angular velocity was imparted to the probe for the optical sensor to detect
the sun, and then it was turned for the detection of the earth and orientation
of the corresponding sensor toward it.
After these operations, the programmed turning of the probe into its
original position was carried out with the help of the autonomous control
system. On September 17, 1968, at 0611 hours Moscow time, the corrective
propulsion system was put into operation, which imparted the necessary
corrective impulse to the space probe. As a result of this maneuver, the
probe entered a new trajectory for exploring the physical characteristics
of near-moon space. At the time of correction, the probe was at a distance
of 3 2 5 thousand kilometers from the earth.
In accordance with the flight program of September 18, the automa-
ted probe flew by the moon at a minimum distance of 1950 kilometers
from its surface.
After flying by the moon, the probe started approaching the earth. In
this phase of its flight, the trajectory measurement, checkup of the systems
on board, and scientific investigations, were carried out. When the probe
was approaching the earth, the second correction of its flight trajectory
was carried out, which ensured its accurate re-entry into the earth's atmos-
phere at a definite entry angle. Here the flight velocity was changed only
by 0.005%
an(
i
tne
magnitude of the overall, total impulse was about 0.3 5
meters per second.
One of the main tasks of the flight program was the accomplishment of
the accurate re-entry into the earth's atmosphere at planet-escape velocity
and soft-landing in a predetermined area.
Entry and descent of the landing vehicle
in the earth's atmosphere
The recovery of a space vehicle on the earth after a flight on an inter-
planetary trajectory around the moon, or any planet of the solar system, is
an extremely complicated technical problem, many times more difficult
than the recovery of the artificial earth satellite. The problem has a number
of specific characteristics.
In order for an interplanetary space vehicle to return to the earth with
the correct acceleration forces and, also to allow it to land in a predetermined
area, the following conditions for entry into the atmosphere have to be
226
fulfilled extremely accurately, viz. entry at a calculated place with the
necessary entry angle.
For obtaining the necessary regime of aerodynamic deceleration of the
probe, it must approach the earth's surface at a small angle, almost along
the tangent line, in such a way that its trajectory crosses only the upper
layers, while its maximum height over the surface at the apparent perigee
*
s
3 5~45 kilometers.
The great velocity of the probe (of the order of 11 kilometers per second)
is sharply retarded by the atmosphere, and in a comparatively short tune
the probe loses practically all its velocity. At a height of about 7 kilometers,
when the flight velocity of the landing vehicle is about 2 00 meters per second,
the parachute system starts functioning; ensuring a soft-landing.
In order to carry out landing in a predetermined area, it is essential to
sustain accurately the height of the apparent perigee (Fig. 15). If the probe
has the apparent perigee somewhat higher than the calculated one, then it
will start crossing more rarefied atmospheric layers and will be retarded
less intensively. Ultimately, it will fly beyond the predetermined place.
On the other hand, if the probe enters the atmosphere with less height
than the apparent perigee, then it will be retarded more intensively and
will land before the predetermined place.
Zone of
"escape" from
atmosphere
. . V... V\ .' ./ apparent
v V : . : . ' - V : . ' . ' - : . -
:
: - . 7 perigee.
Zone of
inadmissible .
accelerations/'''.
Fig. 15. Entry of the Zond5 probe into the atmosphere and its descent to the earth.
Ipoint of entry into the atmosphere with landing at the
further boundary of the landing area;
IIprecalculated point of entry into the atmosphere;
IIIpoint of entry into the atmosphere, with landing at the
nearer boundary of the landing area.
1entry corridor;
3upper boundary of the corridor;
5arbitrary boundary of the atmosphere:
6trajectory without taking into account
the effect of atmosphere.
2lower boundary of the corridor;
4trajectory of ballistic descent;
227
How strongly the accuracy of sustaining the height of the apparent perigee
(i.e. the accuracy of the probe falling in a given atmospheric corridor)
affects the landing of the vehicle, can be judged from the following example:
A deviation of plus-minus i kilometer in the height of the apparent perigee
gives rise to a deviation of plus-minus 50 kilometers in the landing site,
when the height of the apparent perigee is 3 5 kilometers. An increase of
2 5 kilometers or a decrease of 10 kilometers in the height of the apparent
perigee leads to the escape of the space probe beyond the earth in the
first case, and to such acceleration in the second case, which exceeds the
maximum admissible limit and leads to intensive kinetic heating. For the space
vehicles entering the earth's atmosphere from an interplanetary track, themost
suitable trajectory is one which has an entry angle of the order of 5-6 degrees
with the plane of the local horizon, for aheightof 3 5 kilometers of the apparent
perigee. In this case, for a ballistic descent, the acceleration forces at the
time of deceleration of the space vehicle do not exceed 10-16 units. If the
entry angle is increased by one degree, the magnitude of the acceleration
forces can increase up to 3 0-40 units and may exceed the limit for the design
and the apparatus. On the other hand, decrease of the entry angle by one
degree is dangerous because of the possibility of the space vehicle's " escape"
from the earth's atmosphere, i.e. it will fly past the earth and go into outer
space. Only the earth's gravitational forces can stop it. After travelling in
an ellipse, because of gravitational forces, the vehicle will again return to
the atmosphere. Only after passing through its upper layers a number of
times will it be able to lose its velocity and land. But it considerably increases
the period of its stay in near-earth space and this makes its landing in a
predetermined area very difficult.
Thus the landing of the space vehicle in a prefixed area demands very
accurate entry of the vehicle into the atmosphere. For example, for the
automated %pnd-5 probe, the calculated breadth of the " entry corridor"
was only 10-13 kilometers.
By comparing this figure with the size of the flight trajectory to the moon,
-3 85 thousand kilometers away, one can judge the perfection and high
precision in the work of the orientation and control system of ^ond-5.
The space vehicle returning to the earth after flying by the moon, enters
into the earth's atmosphere at a velocity of about 11 kilometers per second,
while the artificial earth satellite return with a velocity of about 8 kilometers
per second.
Motion through the thick layers of the atmosphere at planet-escape
velocity gives rise to much greater thermal loads. Strong shock-waves arise
in front of the space vehicle moving with a hypersonic velocity through
the atmosphere. Between the shock-wave and the vehicle, the temperature
reaches 13 thousand degrees as compared to 7-8 thousand degrees when the
vehicle enters the orbiting velocity. This factor substantially affects the
228
magnitude of the radiational thermal flux, which, in many parts of the
trajectory, exceeds the magnitude of convectional flux, affecting the thermal
regime of the body of the landing vehicle and nature of its circumvention
by the flux. This factor substantially affects the steadiness of motion and
accuracy of landing of the vehicle in a predetermined area.
Thus, there is a real problem of an optimal organization of thermal protec-
tion for the vehicle. This problem is solved by choosing a suitable form
of vehicle and covering it with thermal insulation material. The vehicle
can have various, forms. The distribution of thermal loads on the landing
vehicle will also be diverse, which calls for suitable design of the thermal
insulation cover. The selection of the form of the landing vehicle is a compli-
cated scientific and technical problem, which has been solved theoretically
as well as experimentally.
The thermal insulation cover of the landing vehicle has a complicated
design and includes various heat-resisting and heat-insulating materials.
The successful return to the earth of the landing vehicle of ^ond-5 shows
the correctness of the selected form and the reliability of its design, tested
in actual re-entry conditions.
After aerodynamic deceleration in the trajectory, the parachute system
was put into operation, which ensured further deceleration and a soft-landing.
It is vital to detect the LV splashdown in time and recover the scientific
equipment and films with the records of scientific measurements. This task
was done by a special search and rescue complex, equipped with sophisticated
radio detection devices. It included ships, search planes and helicopters.
After the splashdown of %pnd-5 the ships of the search and rescue service
approached the probe and picked it up.
The flight of the probe continued for about 7 days. During that period
it conducted 3 6 sessions of radio communication. Telemetric information
received from the probe during the flight showed the faultless working
of all the systems on board the probe, which confirmed the correctness
of its design.
The program of scientific investigations of outer space and the overall
tests of the systems and assemblies on board %pnd-5 had been fully
accomplished.
The successful flight of %pnd-5 on the earth-moon-earth route, and the
return and splashdown of the landing vehicle in a predetermined area,
is a new and outstanding achievement of Soviet science and technology.
This experiment shows that the recovery of space vehicles from near-
moon space to the earth is not only possible but has already been ensured
by the creation of the necessary technical devices. The latest success of
Soviet space explorers has once again demonstrated the high level of Russian
2 2 9
science and technology and the progress of our country in the systematic
conquest of near-earth space. The prospects for further exploration of outer
space, the moon and the planets of the solar system by automated space
vehicles, with the recovery of the research materials to the earth, are most
promising.
Professor A. Dmitriev
Pravda, September 2 5,1968
ZOND-5 PHOTOG RAPHS
One of the tasks of the exploration program of the ^ond-5 probe was
the photography of the earth from outer space, at the last phase of the
trajectory. As a result, a series of pictures has been obtained.
In the photograph published (Fig. 16), the image of the earth taken on
September 2 1, 1968, at 12 08 hours Moscow time, from a distance of about
90 thousand kilometers, has been depicted. The illuminated part of the
terrestrial surface is limited by the meridians, 50 degrees western longitude
and 60 degrees eastern longitude. The terminator approximately passes
through the meridian of 50 degrees of western longitude. The contours
of the continents and water surface not covered by the clouds, can be seen
wellregions of the Mediterranean, Black, Caspian and Aral seas, Arabian
sub-continent, Iranian Uplands and a large portion of Africa. On African
territory, one can easily recognize the valleys of the rivers Nile, Limpopo,
and Zambezi, as well as the lakes Nyasa and Chad. In the basin of the
Mediterranean Sea one can see the Straits of G ibraltar, the Suez Canal and
the islands.
A substantial part of the earth's surface is covered with clouds. Over
the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and over Northern Europe there
are two cyclonic cloud formations. Over Central Europe and the neighbor-
ing portions of the Atlantic Ocean and the Soviet Union there are dense
stratocumulus clouds. Over Central Africa and the central portion of the
Atlantic Ocean there are fractional and partly densecumulus, highly
cumulus and cirrocumulusclouds.
Over the Atlantic Ocean in the region adjoining South-West Africa,
there are stratocumulus clouds. Over the region between Central Europe
and Central Africa there are small clouds of different kinds.
In the southern part of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, adjoining the
Antarctic, there are dense stratus clouds.
The direct photography of the earth from great heights enables us to
get a lot of important scientific information. In particular, by measuring
the photographs of the earth's surface, the relative spatial position of large
meteorological structures (cyclones, anticyclones, cloud formations, etc.)
2 3 0
at the moment of taking the photograph, can be established. In the whole
complex of meteorological investigations this will help in making important
scientific generalizations.
Fig. 16. A photograph taken by Zond-5.
Photographs of the earth from outer space make it possible to study the
reflection power of the earth's surface. It is well known that the reflection
of rays from the surface of different solid bodies takes place in different
2 3 1
ways, and the nature of this reflection can tell a good deal about the nature
of the object under study. Determination of coefficients of reflection
of mainlands, oceans, seas, lakes, large tracts of forests etc. gives rich
material for deciphering not only the earth, but other planets also.
Pravda, October 2 6, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ZOND-6 IN FLIG HT
In accordance with the space research program, on November 10, 1968,
the automated probe %ond-6 was launched by the Soviet Union in the
direction of the moon.
The automated probe has been launched into the flight trajectory from
an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. According to the measure-
ment data, the automated probe %pnd-6 is moving along a trajectory close
to the calculated one.
The purpose of the flight is to conduct scientific investigations on the
flight path and in near-moon space and to work on the perfecting of the
systems and assemblies on board the probe.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the ^ond-6
probe. According to the telemetric information, the systems, assemblies
and the scientific equipment on board are functioning normally.
The center for coordination and computations is processing the data
received.
Pravda, November 12 , 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ZOND-6 FLIES AROUND MOON
The automated space probe, ^ond-6, launched by the Soviet Union on
November 10, 1968, is continuing its flight.
In accordance with the program, a correction of the flight trajectory
of the probe was carried out on November 12 , 1968, at 0841 hours Moscow
time. After carrying out orientation in space for the programmed turning
of the probe, the propulsion system was put into operation, which imparted
the necessary corrective impulse. As a result of this maneuver, the probe
entered a new trajectory, ensuring the flight around the moon at a predeter-
mined distance.
On November 14, 1968, the automated probe %pnd-6 flew around the
2 3 2
moon, its minimum distance from the lunar surface being 2 ,42 0 kilometers.
In the process of the probe flight, in the near-moon area, scientific investi-
gations of the physical characteristics of near-moon space were carried out.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe,
and scientific information is being received from the data-storage devices
on board.
The equipment on board is functioning normally. The pressure and
temperature inside the probe are within the prescribed limits.
The center for coordination and computation is continuing the processing
of the information received.
Pravda, November 15, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
PROBE ZOND-6 LANDS
After a seven-day flight on the earth-moon-earth route, on November
17, 1968, the ond-6 probe returned to earth in a predetermined area in the
Soviet Union. In this experiment with the automated probe ond-6, for
the first time, another more complicated and prospective method of recovery
from the interplanetary lift (aerodynamic control) of the landing vehicle
was tested. In the case of guided descent with the use of aerodynamic control,
the flight trajectory of the space vehicle during deceleration has substantially
different form than the trajectory of ballistic descent. This enables the
carrying out of landing at a given place on the earth's surface with less
acceleration and more accuracy.
The braking of the landing vehicle in the earth's atmosphere took place
along a trajectory with two plunges into the atmosphere. In the first plunge
of the landing vehicle, the planet-escape velocity (over 11 kilometers per
second) was decreased to 7.6 kilometers per second because of aerodynamic
braking. Here, the landing vehicle of the probe was orientated with the help
of the control system on board in such a way that, while passing through
the thick atmospheric layers it came out and continued its flight along a
ballistic trajectory, then plunged into the atmosphere for a second time. In the
second phase of plunging, the further descent of the landing vehicle took
place along a guided descent trajectory with use of aerodynamic control,
which enabled the return of the vehicle to the earth in a predetermined area.
During the flight of the automated probe ^ond-6, the following tasks
were carried out:
flight around the moon at a fixed distance (2 ,42 0 kilometers);
scientific explorations on the flight path and in near-moon space;
testing and work on the improvement of systems, assemblies and
233
scientific equipment of the space probe in actual space flight conditions;
work on the perfecting of the system of guided descent while returning
to the earth at planet-escape velocity, using the aerodynamic lift of the
landing vehicle.
The scheduled program of tests and perfecting of the systems, assemblies,
units and equipment on board, and the scientific investigations on outer
space by the automated probe ^ond-6, have been accomplished.
Pravda, November 19, 1968
FROM MOON TO EARTH
An interview with Academician G .I. Petrov
After the completion of the flight of the Soviet automated probe ^ond-6, the
Izvestiya correspondent B. Konovalov met Academician G .I. Petrovthe most out-
standing Soviet specialist in the field of aerodynamics and space explorationand
requested him to answer a few questions.
QUESTION: G eorgii Ivanovich, please speak about the specific characteristics
of the entry of the automated probe into the earth's atmosphere
at planet-escape velocity.
ANSWER : The recovery of vehicles flying at planet-escape velocity to the
earth is a qualitatively new stage in the development of astronautics. The
solution of this problem seems to belong to the technology of the second
decade of the space era. This shows the complexity of the task.
From a practical standpoint, it is very difficult to retard the velocity of
the probe with the help of rocket engines. In order to decrease the velocity
up to the circular velocity in the case of such a big vehicle as ond-6, a great
amount of fuel would have to be taken around the moon. But each kilogram
of weight introduced into the lunar orbit means hundreds of kilogiams
added to the firing weight.
Thus we have to depend on the retardation due to atmospheric resistance.
This means that the demands on the thermal protection system greatly
increase.
The circular velocity near the earth is 7.8 kilometers per second, while
the planet-escape velocity is 11.2 kilometers per second. The increase, as
you see, is not muchabout 40%. But the thermal loads increase by about
three times. Before the space vehicle a strong shock wave is formed. The
temperature of the gas behind it reaches 13 thousand degrees. For compari-
son : the temperature on the surface of the sun is 6 thousand degrees, and
the gas burner gives 4 thousand degrees during the autogenous cutting
of metals. But here it is 13 thousand degrees. The gas molecules behind
234
the shock wave are not only split into atoms, but even electrons are torn
away from the atoms. The gas partially becomes plasma and starts shining
intensely. This greatly complicates the calculation of the thermal flows
near the vehicle surface and demands special measures for protection. At
the same time, because of strict conditions regarding the weight, the material
must be sufficiently light.
Another characteristic of the return to earth at planet-escape velocity
is the necessity of high accuracy in the work of the orientation and control
systems of the probe. In order that the probe may land on the earth without
large acceleration forces, it must approach the atmosphere, as they say in
aerodynamics, at a small angle of incidencealmost along the tangent.
But if the entry angle is too small, the probe will escape the earth. For
example, the calculated width of the " entry corridor" for the automated
probe ^ond-5 was only 10-13 kilometers.
QUESTION: Could you please describe in detail, the meaning of guided
descent with the use of aerodynamic control?
ANSWER: During the descent along a ballistic trajectory, as in the case
of %ond-5 for example, the motion is determined by the air drag and the
the vehicle flies in the atmosphere as a missile, fired with space velocity.
The landing site is determined only by the atmospheric entry angle and
velocity. During the descent with aerodynamic control, because of the
peculiar position of the center of gravity and the form, the air current flows
over the vehicle asymmetrically. Here, not only the air drag, directed
along the trajectory, acts on the vehicle, but also the lift, perpendicular
to the flight direction. The flight as it gets longer, the deceleration takes
place for a longer period and the acceleration forces decrease. It becomes
possible to control the range of the flight and maneuver in the atmosphere,
and thus return to the determined area with greater accuracy. Such a
descent is somewhat similar to that of an ordinary airplane, although the
great difference between them is that the aerodynamic controlthe ratio
of the lift and the dragis much less here than for airplanes. If necessary,
the space vehicles, having aerodynamic control, can descend along ballistic
trajectories.
The Sqyuz-type spacecraft and such automated probes as %pnd-5 and
ond-6form a special and independent class of controlled hypersonic vehicles,
with interesting possibilities.
During the ballistic descent of the ^ond-5 probe, the acceleration forces
approached 10-16 units, but the descent of ^ond-6 with aerodynamic control
enabled us to decrease them considerably, ^ond-6plunged into the atmosphere
once, thus decreasing its velocity approximately to the orbital velocity.
Then it again entered the highly rarefied space and again plunged into
the atmosphere. Only such a flight scheme ensured the landing of ^ond-6
in Soviet territory.
235
The recovery of space vehicles by using aerodynamic control marks a
new epoch in astronautics. And it is pleasant to note that we have achieved
great success in it. But we had to overcome great difficulties. It is so happening
in astronautics that for each new step, we have to pay back in the form of
more complicated investigations, working out of new materials and new
designs. Descent with aerodynamic control, as we have already said, makes
the flight a guided one. But in this case the period of flight in the atmosphere
is extended, and consequently, the period of action of strong thermal flux
also increases.
Moreover, the vehicle gets two thermal shocks: when it strikes against
it and when it finally enters into it. And, as you know, sharp jumps in the
thermal load are much more harmful for the protection layer of the shell
than gradual heating.
QUESTION: How was the problem of entry into the atmosphere at planet-
escape velocity solved in the laboratories?
ANSWER: A large number of investigations, theoretical as well as experi-
mental, were carried out in the ground laboratories for finding the best
possible form of the vehicle and the thermal protection system. A serious
problem was the passing over from the results of the experiments on small
models to the actual space vehicles, since it is impossible to create on the
earth the whole complex of circumstances, of entry of space vehicles into
the atmosphere at planet-escape velocity, on a full-scale test. The vehicles
enter the atmosphere with a velocity which is 3 0-40 times more than the
velocity of sound.
In a space tunnel meant for such velocities, we would have to create
a pressure drop of many hundred thousand atmospheres, and for heating
the gas we would need the energy of several big electric power stations.
Thus it is not possible to solve the aerodynamic problems directly. Not
only the investigations have to be conducted on small models, but the com-
plex of conditions of entry into the atmosphere has to be divided into parts
and the thermal regime and the regime of flow of hypersonic gas flux over
the vehicle have to be studied separately. It is quite difficult to unite all
the results thus obtained, relate them with the theoretical calculations and
satisfy the requirements of the designers. But the success of the Venera-4
probe, which, for the first time in the history of astronautics, entered the
atmosphere of a distant planet with planet-escape velocity, and the recovery
of ^ond-5 and Zpnd-6, show that the Soviet scientists and engineers can
handle this most difficult of problems.
QUESTION : What is the importance of the accomplishment of the recovery
of space vehicles, moving at planet-escape velocity on the earth
and descent with aerodynamic control for the further conquest
of the outer space?
ANSWER: Firstly, the solution of this problem has great scientific value.
2 3 6
Howsoever perfect the devices for space radio communications may be,
while transmitting information obtained during flight through radio channels,
there is bound to be some interference. The photographs of the Martian
surface taken by the camera on board and printed on the earth are one
thing, but those transmitted by radio are absolutely another thing; you
can't compare their quality. On board the %ond-5 probe there were tortoises,
fruit flies, chlorella, seeds of wheat, barley and pine. For the investigators
it was important to find out how they reacted to the conditions of the lunar
path, and to find out remote genetic aftereffects of the action of cosmic
radiation. It is clear that if the probe had not returned to the earth, we
would not have received answers to these questions.
If we talk about the future, then the successful flight of the ^ond-5 and
Zpnd-6 probes is an important step on the path of building space vehicles
that can visit the moon. Mars, Venus and other planets, and return to earth.
Descent with aerodynamic control has great importance for manned
flights in the future. Space technologyif it continues to develop at the
present rate-will soon enable us to build long-period orbital stations and
lunar laboratories with scientific personnel. The spacecraft using aerody-
namic control, will enable us to return to the earth, if necessary, practically
any healthy scientist, since the acceleration forces will not be very high.
Astronaut G .T. Beregovoi endured the landing of the spacecraft Soyuz-g
very well: he could turn his head, made notes in his diary. Acceleration
forces were present, but they were such that any ordinary person could
bear them.
The first flights of vehicles using aerodynamic control is another important
step, leading to the creation of rocket transport. Of course, the passenger
rockets will be different from the modern spacecraft, but the principles
of their construction are before our eyes. At present, the passenger rockets,
which can take passengers to the other side of the earth in just one hour,
are still a dream. It is quite possible that the perfection of supersonic avi-
ation may make passenger rockets uneconomic and the rocket will be used
on the earth-moon-earth route only for mail and goods. But for trips to
orbital and interplanetary stations, rocket transport is indispensable and
it must be developed.
luiestiya, November 19, 1968
NEXT STAG E OF THE SOVIET SPACE PROG RAM:
G UIDED DESCENT OF THE ZOND-6 PROBE
FROM EARTH-MOON-EARTH TRACK
The Soviet people have written another glorious page in the short but
237
exciting history of scientific achievements in space conquest.
The automated probe ^ond-6 flew by the moon, returned to the earth
and carried out a guided descent on its surface.
The successful accomplishment of this experiment clearly shows that
with each new flight, the space vehicles are becoming more and more
sophisticated, and the volume and complexity of the scientific and technical
tasks carried out is increasing. Moreover, each new step into outer space
Fig. 17. A schematic diagram of the flight of the automated probe Zond-6
on the earth-moon-earth route.
1injection into the intermediate orbit; 2start for the moon;
3first correction of trajectory; 4satellite orbit and flight trajectory
5flight around the moon; without correction;
7third correction of trajectory; 6second correction of trajectory;
9descent into the atmosphere; entry corridors; 8separation of landing vehicle;
10portion of (ballistic) flight outside atmosphere.
2
3
8
is becoming a qualitatively new and necessary link in the Soviet space
research program.
Not very long ago, the automated probe ^ond-5 flew by the moon and
returned to the earth along a ballistic trajectory. In this unparalleled space
experiment, the most complicated scientific and technical task of the recovery
of a vehicle, moving at planet-escape velocity, from the moon-earth space
route, was solved for the first time in the world.
During the flight of the automated probe %pnd-6, we were able to solve
another, more complicated scientific and technical problem of guided
descent of a space vehicle, which has flown by the moon, and back to
the earth.
The flight path of the automated probe ond-6 can be divided into three
main phases (Fig. 17). In the first phase, a rocket-space complex, consisting
of the last stage of the carrier-rocket and the probe itself, is launched into
the intermediate orbit as an earth satellite with the help of a multistage
rocket.
In the second phase of the flight, the automated probe starts from the
intermediate orbit with the help of the last stage of the carrier rocket,
and enters the flight path for the moon. After flying by the moon, it start?
moving toward the earth.
In the third phase of the flight, the landing vehicle is separated from the
probe while approaching the earth. The vehicle enters the earth's atmosphere
and after carrying out guided descent, lands in the predetermined area
of Soviet territory.
Flight of Zond-6 probe along the
earth-moon-earth route
The automated probe ^ond-6 was launched by a multistage carrier-
rocket on November 10, 1968, at 2 2 11 hours Moscow time. The probe,
along with the last stage of the carrier-rocket, was introduced into orbit
as an artificial earth satellite having the following parameters:
minimum distance from the earth
(at perigee) 185 km;
maximum distance from the earth
(at apogee) 2 1 0 km;
inclination of the orbit to the
equatorial plane 51.4 deg.
After introduction into orbit, the rocket-space complex carried out
necessary angular turning and stabilization of its position in space.
At 2 3 18 hours 3 0 seconds on a signal from the space control system, the
last stage of the carrier-rocket was put into operation to increase the velocity of
2 3 9
the probe, close to the planet-escape velocity (11.2 kilometers per second),
which was necessary for the flight of the probe toward the moon. When
the necessary velocity had been attained, the entire engine was switched
on automatically and the space probe was separated from the last stage
of the carrier.
The rest of the flight of the automated probe was carried out with the
permanent orientation of its solar battery panelswhich ensure the power
supply to the probe-toward the sun.
The process of orientation of the solar batteries took place as follows.
Immediately after the separation of the space probe from the last stage
of the carrier-rocket, the autonomous control system, by using the low-
thrust engines, extinguished all the perturbations caused by the separation.
Then the sun was detected and the probe was turned in such a way that
the plane of the solar batteries was perpendicular to the sun-space vehicle
line. Afterward the probe was given a rotation around this axis so that
throughout the flight the solar batteries are directed toward the sun. Here
the gyroscopic effect (torsion) was used.
As a result of the measurements of the actual motion of the probe, it was
established that the flight trajectory of the probe was close to the calculated
one. But for ensuring the passage of the probe at a precalculated distance,
it was essential to carry out trajectory correction.
The time of correction was to be selected after taking into consideration
many factors. A correction at small distances from the earth leads to a big
variation in the near-moon region, while a correction near the moon may
turn out to be ineffective or may require substantially large expenditure
of power for ensuring optimal trajectory of flight by the moon. Hence the
correction of the flight trajectory of the probe was carried out at a distance
of about 2 50 thousand kilometers from the earth.
The center for coordination and computation on the earth, calculated
the necessary initial data for the correction, magnitude and direction of
the corrective impulse and moment of switching on the propulsion system.
At a precalculated moment this data was transmitted to the probe and
was stored in the computer.
Before carrying out the correction, ^jond-6 was orientated in space with
respect to the sun and the star, Sirius.
Then the space probe, in accordance with the stored data, automatically
carried out the necessary angular turns with the help of the low-thrust
engines. As a result of these turns, the axis of the corrective engine was
orientated in space in the precalculated position.
On November 12 , at 0841 hours, the corrective propulsion engine was
put into operation. When the necessary amount of additional velocity had
been imparted, the control system switched off the propulsion system.
As a result of the correction, ^ond-6, continuing its flight along the trajec-
2 40
tory, flew by the moon at a prefixed distance of 2 ,42 0 kilometers from its
surface.
During the flight of the probe in near-moon space, a set of scientific investi-
gations and measurement of the physical characteristics of near-moon
space were carried out.
After the probe had flown by the moon, a second trajectory correction
was carried out on November i6,.at 0940 hours, at a distance of 2 3 6 thousand
kilometers from the earth, to eliminate the perturbations caused by the
gravitational field of the moon.
For a more accurate entry of the landing vehicle into the earth's atmos-
phere, another trajectory correction was carried out on November 17, at
083 6 hours.
These corrections ensured the falling of the landing vehicle into the
predett rmined entry corridor of the earth's atmosphere, the calculated
width of which is plus-minus i o kilometers, when the desired value of the
apparent perigee is 45 kilometers.
It must be noted that for ensuring the landing of the space vehicle in a
predetermined area in Soviet territory on its return from flying by the moon,
it is essential to sustain accurately not only the height of the apparent perigee,
but also the time of approach of the probe to the earth.
A deviation of plus-minus 5-10 minutes from the calculated time of
entry of the space probe into the earth's atmosphere, leads to an error of
about 3 00 kilometers, because of the rotation of the earth.
This fact was taken into consideration while carrying out the corrections.
When the probe approached the earth, initial data for carrying out the
descent was transmitted to it. On a signal from the programmer on board,
astro-orientation and turning of the probe were carried out so that it occupied
its starting position for entry into the earth's atmosphere.
After carrying out these operations, the separation of the landing vehicle
from the instrumental compartment was carried out on a signal from the
programmer. The stabilization system of the landing vehicle extinguished
the angular perturbations caused by the separation and, at the moment
of its entry into the atmosphere, turned it in such a way that it makes the
required angle of incidence (angle between the fore-and-aft axis and the
velocity vector), which ensures the creation of the necessary magnitude
of the lift during the descent.
G uided descent and landing of vehicle on the earth
Since the probe approaches the earth from the southern hemisphere,
the landing vehicle has to cover about 9 thousand kilometers after its entry
into the dense atmospheric layers, for landing in a predetermined region
of the Soviet Union.
2 41
In general, the landing vehicle can enter the atmosphere from any side:
either from the nor.th (" northern entry alternative" ) or from the south
(" southern entry alternative" ). This can be done by giving proper direction
of motion to the automated probe. But for landing in Soviet territory, only
the " southern alternative" is relevant. This is explained by the fact that
while entering from the north, the point of entry of the landing vehicle
into the atmosphere, in practically all the cases, lies on the fouthern border
of Soviet territory. Only in exceptional cases, the landing can be carried
out with the " northern alternative" , but then the flight will be accompanied
by large acceleration forces. In case of the " southern alternative" there
is the other extremity: the point of entry is away from the southern borders
of the USSR by several thousand kilometers. The vehicle can cover such
distances only by guided descent.
The control of the space vehicle is accomplished most rationally by using
aerodynamic forces, the forces of drag and lift. This type of descent, known
as guided descent, was first accomplished by the vehicle %pnd-6 after its
successful flight around the moon. Such a descent is more complicated than
the ballistic descent, since in this case the flight trajectory requires two
plunges of the landing vehicle into the atmosphere.
For this purpose, it is essential to have a specially accurate system of
control for the descent. In the case of the %ond-6 probe, a law governing
the descent was selected, where the control of the magnitude of lifts is ac-
complished by changing the direction of its action (by rotating it through
rolling), which ensures the required magnitudes of velocity, height and
distance. The ratio of the lift and the drag is known as the aerodynamic
quality. The higher the aerodynamic quality, the more slanting can be the
descent trajectory, the longer the distance of the flight, and the greater
the maneuvering potentialities of the landing vehicle.
In order to understand the working principle of the descent control
system, let us assume that the space vehicle is flying slightly higher than
the calculated trajectory. In order to return it to the calculated trajectory,
the lift has to be directed in the other direction, i.e. downward. Thus the
descent control system, with the help of the low-thrust engines, will turn
the vehicle around the fore-and-aft axis through the rolling. Then the lift
will not " push" the vehicle from the atmosphere and the vehicle will descend
faster, thus entering the calculated flight trajectory.
Fig. 18 shows the descent trajectory, consisting of the following phases:
first plunging, intermediate flight outside the atmosphere and second plung-
ing, which ends by landing in the predetermined area.
The main task of the control system during the phase of first plunging
is to ensure with high accuracy such magnitudes of the flight velocity and
the trajectory inclination, which would ensure the calculated distance of
flight before the beginning of the phase of second plunging. In this phase
2 42
Fig. 18. A schematic diagram of the maneuvering of the landing vehicle of the
Zond-6 probe in the earth's atmosphere.
1separation of landing vehicle from the probe:
2stabilization of the landing vehicle;
3border of the entry corridor;
4phase of first plunging of landing vehicle into the earth's atmosphere:
5apparent flight trajectory without taking into account atmospheric effects;
6apparent border of the atmosphere;
7phase of (ballistic) flight outside the atmosphere;
8phase of second plunging into atmosphere:
9predetermined landing area.
of the flight, the velocity of the vehicle decreases from about 11 kilometers
per second to about 7.6 kilometers per second, because of the force of aero-
dynamic resistance, while the acceleration forces and thermal behavior
observe certain restrictions.
The maximum value of the axial load factor during the phase of first
plunging mainly depends upon the height of the apparent perigee and is
about 4-7 units.
The controlling effect of the lift during the phase of first plunging prevents
the bending of the trajectory in the direction of the earth because of the
aerodynamic braking in the atmosphere, and the vehicle does not descend
beyond a calculated height.
243
Then the vehicle comes out of the dense atmospheric layers and carries
out an unguided flight along a ballistic trajectory.
During this phase of the flight, the descent control system again carries
out turns of the vehicle and its stabilization, in a position necessary for
the control during the phase of second plunging.
During the second plunging into the atmosphere, the automated control
system selects the descent program for this phase, ensuring a highly accurate
landing in a predetermined area in Soviet territory. The thermal flux in
this phase is much less than in the first plunging and does not exceed that
of the descent of an artificial earth satellite from its orbit. But the thermal
protection cover, which undergoes this heating, has already undergone
an intensive thermal heating during the first plunging. This makes the
problem of providing a reliable thermal protection to the vehicle quite
complicated. Thus, the thermal protection cover of the landing vehicle is
of complicated construction, and includes a number of heat-resisting and
heat-insulating materials, which save the elements of design and the equip-
ment from excessive heating.
The landing vehicle of the ^ond-6 probe entered the dense atmosphere
layers on November 17, 1968, at 1658 hours Moscow time.
At the time of entry into the atmosphere, the computers on board selected
the necessary flight program for the phase of first plunging, and the descent
control system carried it out exactly. While coming out of the atmosphere,
the landing vehicle had a velocity and angle of inclination of trajectory
very close to the calculated one. In the phase of flight outside the atmosphere,
all the preparations for the second entry into the atmosphere were carried
out automatically and the vehicle carried it out in a predetermined order.
At the end of the phase of second plunging, the control system guided the
vehicle into the landing area.
At a height of 7.5 kilometers, when the velocity was about 2 00 meters
per second, the parachute system was put into operation and the vehicle
landed.
Scientific and technical tasks of the flight
One of the important scientific tasks of the automated space probe %pnd-6
was the exploration of radiational conditions on the flight path earth-moon-
earth. As is well known, nowadays higher solar activity is being closely
observed. At the end of October this year, big bursts were recorded on the
sun, which led to a considerable increase in the intensity of the cosmic
rays.
Radiational zones, and especially the emissions due to the chromospheric
bursts on the sun, can create certain dangers for man in outer space. Thus,
the data about the effect of different kinds of radiations in outer space on
244
biological objects is of great scientific interest.
The radiational experiments on biological objects started by ^ond-5
were continued by ^ond-6.
Together with this, another experiment was carried out by using the
photo-emulsion camera, which will enable collection at distances of hundreds
of thousands of kilometers, of data for the study of the multiple-charge,
which forms the primary cosmic rays (in the range of high charges).
A device for recording meteoric particles was fitted on the ^ond-6 probe,
for determining their space density and energy characteristics on the flight
path and in near-moon space. In this connection, the possible passage of the
probe Zpnd-6on its way back to the earththrough the meteor shower,
Leonids, which as compared to other known meteor showers, is distinguished
by the highest velocity of encounter with the earth (about 72 kilometers
per second), is of great interest. This shower is one of Nature's most wonder-
ful phenomena. People have observed it a number of times in the form of
a bright and impressive shower of " shooting stars." At present, it has some-
what shifted in space, probably because of the gravitational force of J upiter.
On its way back, the time of flight of the probe coincided with the time
of passage of the earth through the outer layer of the Leonids shower. And
although the probability of collision with meteors is not much, this
information increases the chances of such an encounter. Careful processing
of the information received will help in answering this question.
The study of the photographic film delivered on the earth, depicting
the lunar surface from a distance of 10 thousand to 3 .5 thousand kilometers,
is of special interest. This film, having high resolving power, has enabled
us to get photographs of better quality than those of the probes Luna-j
and Zpnd-g.
The good quality of the photographs is explained by the absence of those
disturbances which arise during transmissions through radio channels.
The photographs were taken by a camera which had an objective with a
focal length of 400 millimeters. The size of the frame is 13 X 18 centimeters.
The detailed study of the scientific material obtained will take some
time. But even now, one can say that a large amount of valuable new infor-
mation has been delivered to the scientists' laboratories.
The main technical tasks carried out during the flight of %ond-6 are:
1. Work on the improvement of the flights of the space probes on the
route earth-moon-earth, with recovery on the earth.
2 . Improvement of the descent control system, with the entry into the
atmosphere at planet-escape velocity. The control of the probe is based
on the change of acceleration forces while entering the atmosphere.
In the estimated trajectory, the acceleration forces change in a definite
manner in the flight and one can know the program of change of these forces,
say, from the time of the descent. In actual flight, one can get an idea about
2 45
the nature of the flight by measuring the actual forces and comparing them
with the programmed ones. Thus, if the acceleration forces exceed the esti-
mated value, it means that the flight trajectory of the vehicle is lower than
the designed one.
It must be stressed that the functioning of the descent control system
is not controlled from the earth, since the landing vehicle is surrounded
by an ionized layer of the air and there is no communication with the earth
under these conditions. This makes special demands on the reliability of
the descent control system and makes an automated flight extremely compli-
cated from the technical point of view.
3 . Work on the improvement of the aerodynamic form and characteristics
of the landing vehicle under flight conditions.
Use of axisymmetric segmento-conical forms, without any part projecting
outside, is the most expedient for the landing vehicle. For creating aero-
dynamic lift, a vehicle of this shape has to be composed in such a way that
the center of gravity is displaced with respect to the axis of symmetry. Then
the vehicle, while moving in the atmosphere will have such an angle of
incidence which is known as the angle of balance, and the incoming flux
of air will approach at an angle to the axis of symmetry of the landing vehicle.
Asymmetrical flow over a symmetrical body gives rise to aerodynamic lift.
The aim of launching the ^ond-6 probe, as well as the ^ond-4 and ^ond-5
probes, was to perfect the flight and construction of an automated variant
of the manned spacecraft for flying to the moon, as well as to check the
functioning of systems on board under actual conditions of flight on the
earth-moon-earth route.
The successful flight of the probe %ond-6 shows a high level of technical
perfection.
The automated probe has accomplished all the envisaged tasks.
Importance of the flight of the automated probe Zond-6
The successful flight of the automated probe %ond-6 has clearly shown
that the Soviet scientists and engineers have taken another important step
on the path of conquest of the space routes and recovery of spacecraft and
vehicles on the earth.
The flight program of the automated probes ^ond-^, ^ond-5 and ^ond-6
envisaged the solution of new problems of astronautics. The launching of
the %ond probes had enabled us to obtain a lot of important experimental
data regarding the functioning of the design, systems on board and equipment
of the manned spacecraft for the flight of man to the moon. It has also enabled
us to check the working capacity of the devices of the command and measure-
ment complex.
The Soviet Union is systematically accomplishing the scientifically
246
geared lunar exploration program, considering the moon as an important
object of study.
The world knows well the success of the Soviet Union in this direction.
Starting from 1959, the flights of Soviet automated space vehicles have yielded
a lot of information to contemporary sciences, enriched the knowledge about
the form and surface of the moon, about its physical characteristics and
chemical composition, and about the parameters of near-moon space.
The first photograph of the hidden side of the moon, the soft-landing on
the moon and transmission of the panorama of the lunar surface to the earth,
the artificial satellite of the moon, and the successful flights of the probes in
the %pnd seriesthese are the successive stages of our lunar exploration
program.
Explorations of Mars and Venus by the Soviet automated probes have also
made a great contribution to world science and have enabled us to accumu-
late a lot of very important data about interplanetary space and the planets.
Now we can construct more perfect space vehicles and confidently put new,
more complicated, tasks before the astronauts.
The artificial earth satellite have found a wide use in solving important
economic and scientific problems. Satellite of the Kosmos, Molniya, Elektron,
Proton, and other series, have started serving the people and are successfully
helping in accomplishing the grand task of building communism.
The launching of the space probes of the %ond series has practical import-
ance, since they open new prospects for the flight of man to the moon and
recovery of the results of the scientific investigations obtained in the course of
the space flight.
The flight of the ^ond-6 probe has shown that the characteristics of the
vehicle fulfil the requirements of guided descent with planet-escape velocity.
It has great importance for the future flights with maneuvering in the atmos-
pheres of the earth and planets.
The next important step has been taken in the Soviet Union for the
accomplishment of the program of conquest and study of outer space and the
moon.
Pravda, November 2 4, 1968
HOW THE MOON'S PORTRAIT WAS TAKEN
The space probe ^ond-6 photographed the moon from a close distance and
delivered the exposed film to the earth. What new things does it give to
science? And how was the photography carried out?
Before replying to these questions, let us make a small excursion into the
recent past. The moon was earlier photographed by the automated probes
247
Luna-3 and ^ond-^. As a result of these pictures almost the whole of the hidden
part of our natural satellite was photographed, and that was an important
landmark in space research. On the Luna-3 and %ond-3 probes, photo-
television systems operated, which are combinations of photographic camera,
developing device, TV camera and radio-transmitter. The image of the moon
was exposed on the photo film, developed on board the probe, and then
scanned by the TV camera and transmitted to the earth in the form of
electric signals. Here it was received with the help of photographic apparatus
and was again transformed into the photographic image.
At the level of development of space technology then existing, the use of
the photo-television system was the most advanced method. Following the
Soviet scientists, this system was used by the Americans in their space vehicles
Mariner-4 and Lunar-arbiter.
The photo-television systems have the advantage that they enable the
photographing of the lunar surface quickly and with good quality on the
photographic film, and include a large amount of information about its
nature. For such a volume of information to be transmitted directly at the
time of flight of the space vehicle, large reserves of power, a powerful trans-
mitter, and complicated antenna system exactly directed towards the earth,
are required. It is understandable that such facilities are difficult to arrange
on space flights. Hence it is much more convenient to first store the data and
transmit it-as the radio technicians sayin a narrow frequency band,
i.e. in small quantities for a longer time, after the photography is over. In
this case the photographic film, developed on board the space vehicle, goes
through " intermediate storage" .
But, along with these advantages the photo-television systems possess a big
defect also. The information contained in the original photographic film
undergoes a number of distortions before reaching the specialists on the
earth. Moreover, some losses are inevitable and consequently the photographs
reproduced on the earth are worse in quality than the original ones. They
have fewer details and are distorted geometrically. Secondly, the field of vision
of the TV device, which scans the photographic image, is not great. Thus,
either the photography has to be done on a narrow film, or the picture has
to be scanned in parts. In both cases, it limits the total information power in
one way or the other. But if a photographic film, exposed during the flight
in outer space, is delivered to the earth and processed here, then we shall
have original photographs, which have retained all the original information.
This is precisely the advantage of the photographs taken by ^ond-6.
A special automatic photographic camera was fitted on the Zjond-6 probe
for taking photographs of the moon when the probe approaches it the closest.
The photocamera has an objective with a focal length of 400 millimeters
and aperture ratio of i: 6.3 . The photographs were taken on an isopanchro-
matic film of 19 centimeters width and 2 8.5 meters length. The size of a
2 48
single photograph is 13 x18 centimeters. With the best exposure time,
the photo camera gives an average resolving power of 50 lines per millimeter
of the ground of the photograph. It is equipped with additional devices,
with the help of which the working regime of the camera shutter and the
exact moments of exposure in the central timing scale, were recorded. In
order that the different parts of the lunar surface possessing different inten-
sities are photographed better, the objective is provided with a mechanism
for changing the aperture. This mechanism establishes, one after another,
three apertures, as a result of which, after definite intervals, three different
exposures are obtained. The photocamera is controlled by the signals from a
command instrument which puts it into operation at required moments.
Before the flight, the photocamera underwent thorough checking, i.e. its
photometric and photogrammetric characteristics were determined.
In order to appreciate the qualitative jump made by the photography of
the moon and delivery of the film to the earth, let us compare the information
of a photograph taken by Zpnd-g with that of ^ond-6.
The information on a phototelevision picture is determined by the number
of lines and the number of elements in each line of the TV device for scanning
(without taking into consideration the intensity gradations). For the system
used on %ond-3 it was 11 oo X 11 oo, i.e. in one picture it could give 1,2 10,000
small black and white elements, which form a microscopic " chessboard" ,
which fills the whole field of the picture. But on the photographs taken by
the photocamera of ond-6, the number of such small elements depicted is
13 4 millions. Moreover, if we take into consideration the fact that 2 j)nd-3
transmitted only 2 5 pictures, while ond-6 has brought many more and
they reproduce the intensity scale four times greater than the phototele-
vision picture, then it means that the information value is almost a thousand
times more.
The foregoing only concerns the depictive characteristics of the photo-
graphs,i.e. how small parts of the lunar surface can be located and recognized.
The photographs developed on the earth, have incomparably better
measuring characteristics also. They enable us to make stereoscopic measure-
ments of the lunar surface with an accuracy much higher than before.
What are the scientific tasks of the experiment on photography of the moon
from the probe ond-6? First of all, it is the observation of the moon from a
close distance and from directions which are not possible from the earth.
It is well known that the forms and the surfaces of the planets are being
carefully studied by the scientists, since they definitely reflect their characte-
ristics, origin and physical nature.
Till recently, the form of the moon was studied on the basis of the data of
observations from the earth, which could cover only its visible side. Thus
the concepts about the moon were literally " one-sided" .
The photographs taken by Luna-j and ond-3 did not give much in this
2 49
respect because of insufficient geometrical accuracy and information. Only
the artificial satellite of the moon, the first of which was the Soviet probe
Luna-1o, made a new contribution to the study of the moon's form. The
gravitational field of the moon, which is connected with its dynamic form,
is studied on the basis of the motion of the satellite. The dynamic form gives
only indirect ideas about the form of the physical surface. But for a detailed
study of the gravitational field, and its tying with the reference points on
the lunar surface, and for the study of its physical nature, geological structures
etc., it is essential to know the form of the physical surface precisely.
The photography from a probe like ^j> nd-6 enables us to get the profile of
the moon from angles different from what we usually see from the earth.
Accurate stereophotogrammetric measurements enable us to construct a
three-dimensional model of the moon and thus " measure" its form.
Another scientific task is the detailed study of the lunar surface and natural
formations at those places which are either not visible or inconvenient to
observe from the earth. In particular, it is interesting to reveal the peculiari-
ties and topography of the hidden side of the moon. No less important is the
study of the physico-optical properties of the lunar rocks and geological
structures, with the help of accurate photometry of the pictures.
The applied-scientific tasks of the experiment include the more accurate
determination of the coordinate system on the visible side of the moon and
its extension to the hidden side; the plotting of more accurate maps required
for scientific investigations; orientation at the time of the near-moon flights
and for the 'trying' of the orbits of space vehicle with the physical surface of
the moon.
This being the first experiment of its kind, with the delivery of the film
to the earth, it makes a contribution to the perfecting of the photographic
method of exploring planets.
In particular, the correctness of the selected exposures, and the effect of
cosmic radiation on the photomaterial in the process of a long stay in outer
space are being studied, regimes of photo processing are being worked out,
the depictive and measurement characteristics of the photographs are being
determined, and the methods of photogrammetric and photometric process-
ing of the pictures and methods of their deciphering etc. are being worked
out.
The process of photography took place as follows. When %ond-6 was
passing over the northern hemLphere of the moon, the probe was orientated
in such a way that the optical axis of the camera lay in the orbital plane,
perpendicular to the earth-moon line. If there had been an astronaut on
board ^ond-6, he would have observed that with the approach of the moon,
its size increased. For switching on the camera, a moment was selected when
the moon was slightly smaller than the field of view of the objective, and the
camera was directed toward the center of the lunar disc. Here the whole
250
frame was covered by the image of the lunar disc. After that, the camera
carried out photography automatically.
The probe continued to move along the flight trajectory, gradually
approaching the moon and passed, by it at a distance of 2 ,42 0 kilometers.
At this distance, the visible angular size of the moon substantially exceeds
the viewing angle of the camera. Hence, only a strip of the lunar surface
parallel to the flight pathfrom the edge of the disc observed from ^ond-6,
up to the terminatorcould be photographed.
The photographs obtained from ^ond-6, covered a considerable part of
the visible as well as hidden side of the moon. This ensured a reliable 'fast-
ening' of the photographs of the hidden side of the moon with the frame of
the coordinates and the maps of thi visible hemisphere.
The photographs of the moon, taken and delivered by the %pnd-6 probe to
the earth, are of unique importance. At present they arc being studied from
all aspects. These results will be published in due course.
Academician G . Petrov
Professor B. Rodionov
Pravda, November 2 5, 1968
ZOND-6 PHOTOG RAPHS
As was reported by TASS in the article " Next Stage of Soviet Space
Program" , the program of scientific investigations by the Soviet automated
probe ^ond-6 envisaged photography of the moon.
In the course of the flight, two sessions of photography were conducted
with an aero-photocamera, with a focal length of 400 millimeters and frame
size 13 X 18 centimeters.
During the first session, while approaching the moon, the aim was to
photograph the whole illuminated surface of the moon for the measurement
of photometric characteristics and to determine its size and form.
After orientation with respect to the sun and a star, the %ond-6 probe was
turned in such a way that the optical axis of the aero-photocamera was
directed toward the center of the moon, approximately toward the boundary
between its visible and hidden parts from the earth.
The position of the vehicle is shown in a diagram of the flight near the
moon.
The second session of photography was to take pictures of the largest
possible scale for the purpose of photogrammetric measurements and carto-
graphy of the hidden side of the moon. Here, the optical axis of the aero-
photocamera was oriented in such a way that the earth also fell into the
field of view (Fig. 19).
2 5
1
Fig. 19. A schematic diagram of the flight to the moon and the photography sessions
of the moon and the earth by the equipment of the Zond-6 probe.
1 beginning of the first session of photography;
2beginning of the second session of photography;
3pericenter.
The first photograph was taken on November 14, at 0400 hours Moscow
time, from a distance of about 11 thousand kilometers. In this photograph,
the whole lunar disc " visible" from the probe, bounded by the 10 degree and
170 degree meridians of western longitude, i.e. the eastern sector of the hidden
side and a part of the western sector of the visible side, have been depicted.
The northeastern part of the photograph is occupied by the Ocean of Storms,
on the surface of which there are bright spots, the Aristarchus and Kepler
craters. On the eastern border of the lunar disc, Copernicus Crater can be
seen well. In the southwestern part of the Ocean of Storms, there is a round
dark spotone of the largest cirques, G rimaldi. On the north west of it there
is a spot of lesser dimensions, viz. Cirque Riccioli. The dark area near the
southeastern edge of the moon is the Sea of Humidity, on the west of which
there is a bright spot with scattering rays, the Byurgi Crater. In the south-
ern part of the photograph, one can see clearly the typical form of the Orien-
252
tal Sea and the Sea of Spring and Sea of Autumn bordering it in the northeast
and east, as well as the ranges of the Ruk and Cordeliers mountains. Near
the center of the photograph a brightly shining point, Buffon Crater, can be
seen well. To the northwest of it, there is Sternberg Crater with rays scattering
from it toward the northeast and northwest. On the western border of the
lunar disc can be seen Kondratiyuk Crater, to the southeast of which is
situated Kibalchich Crater, with chains of small craters, G IRD and RNEE,
so named in honor of the first organizations to work on the development of
rocket technology in the USSR, lying to the east. Between the Sternberg
and Kibalchich craters one can see Langevin Crater. A number of other
craters are also seen in the photograph.
The second picture (Fig. 2 0) shows the edge of the moon (i) from a
distance of about 3 .3 thousand kilometers and of the planet earth (2 ) from a
distance of about 3 88 thousand kilometers, taken at 0548 hours Moscow time.
In this picture one can see clearly the eastern sector of the hidden side of the
moon, bounded by the 90 degree and 13 0 degree meridians of western longi-
tude. In the upper part of the image of the lunar surface in this photograph
one can see well Sternberg Crater (3 ) on the west of which is situated Lorentz
Crater (4) and on the southwest-Langevin Crater (5). In the lower part of
the picture Rynin Crater (6) is seen. In the equatorial region, on the edge of
the disc and eastward from Rynin Crater, one can see Buffon Crater (7). From
the side of the eastern edge of the moon, our planet earth is seen. At the
moment of taking the photograph, the terminator of the earth (boundary
between the day and the night) passed through the 45 degree meridian of
eastern longitude. Most of the surface of our planet is covered with clouds.
Only in the southeast can one see the western shores of Australia up to 12 0
degrees eastern longitude.
The third photograph (Fig. 2 1) shows a portion of the lunar surface near
the double crater, the Vavilov Brothers (i ). The width of the crater is about
100 kilometers. One can clearly see the steep precipices of the crater and the
wavy surface of its bottom. The upper part of the photograph shows Lovell
Crater (2 ), in the west there is Eotvos (3 ), and in the south westVan G u
(4). A number of other craters and unevennesses up to 2 00 meters in width,
can also be seen clearly.
With the successful accomplishment by Soviet science and technology of
the task of recovery of automated probes from interplanetary routes, it has
become possible to use one of the best methods of storing and preserving
information, namely, photography. The importance of this fact is obvious.
It is well known that the photographic image gives much more detail than
the phototelevision image.
In the interval between the white and the black tones, the best television
systems transmit at the most 12 tones of different intensity (gradations). On
a photograph, one can use all the potentialities of the human eye and get up
253
Fig. 20. A photograph of the edge of the moon and the earth taken by the probe Zond-6.
1edge of the moon; 5Langevin;
2earth; 6Rynin;
3Sternberg; 7Buffon.
4Lorentz;
to 60 gradations, and if one uses instrumentsup to 100 or more. The photo-
television system transmits 3 -5 pairs of black and white lines in a thickness of
i millimeter (resolving power3 -5 lines per millimeter). The photographic
system can give 10-2 0 times more. Moreover, the geometrical distortions
decrease considerably.
In principle, there is no difference between photography by automated
probes of the %ond series and aerophotography from airplanes. In both cases,
the orbital system is " focused" at infinity and the photographs are taken
automatically. The correlation between the velocity, size of photograph and
exposure enables us to neglect in most cases the shift in the image because of
the motion. In the instrumental compartment of the probe, fixed temperature
and pressure are maintained, and there are no vibrations. In this sense, the
254
Fig. 21. Depiction of a portion of the lunar surface around the double crater,
the Vavilov Brothers.
conditions for photography are better here than in the airplane. The only
new factor is that the photographic equipment works in the state of weight-
lessness.
Modern cartography makes use of the photographic film as the fundamen-
tal material. Thus, while taking photographs from a probe recoverable from
255
outer space, we can make use of the whole arsenal of methods and devices
of aerophotography, photogrammetry and cartography, which have already
been worked out well.
The photographs of the moon, obtained during the flight of the %ond-6
probe, give valuable material for different scientific investigations.
(TASS)
Prai'da, December i, 1968
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-15 IN SPACE
In accordance with the space research program, a carrier-rocket with
the automated probe Luna-15 was launched in the Soviet Union on J uly 13 ,
1969, at 0555 hours Moscow time. The probe was launched toward the moon
from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. The purpose of the
flight is to perfect the systems on board the automated probe and to continue
the scientific exploration of the moon and near-moon space.
The probe is moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one. On
J uly 13 , 1969, at 12 00 hours Moscow time the Luna-i^ probe will be situated
at a distance of 65 thousand kilometers from the earth, over a point on the
earth's surface, with the following coordinates: 62 degrees 12 minutes eastern
longitude and 3 6 degrees 2 7 minutes northern latitude.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe.
According to the telemetric data, the systems on board and the scientific
equipment of the probe are functioning normally.
The devices of the ground command-measurement complex are carrying
out the control of the flight of the probe Luna- 75, determination of its
trajectory parameters and the reception of the information.
The center for coordination and computation is processing the information
received.
Pra/a,J uly 14, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOVIET AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-is
IN A NEAR-MOON ORBIT
On J uly 17, 1969, the Soviet automated probe Luna-75 was introduced
into a near-moon orbit and thus became another artificial satellite of the
moon.
256
As has already been reported, the automated probe Luna- /j was launched
on J uly 13 , this year. During 102 hours of flight on the earth-moon space
route, 2 8 sessions of radio communications were conducted from the probe,
during which the flight trajectory was measured, the functioning of the
systems on board was checked and scientific investigations were conducted.
In order that the probe approaches the moon at a predetermined distance, a
correction of its flight trajectory was carried out on J uly 14. When the autom-
ated probe approached the moon, it was orientated in space, and at 13 00 hours
Moscow time, its propulsion system was put into operation. At this moment
the probe was situated over the hidden side of the moon. After braking, the
Luna-15 probe entered orbit as an artificial lunar satellite. The parameters
of the near-moon orbit are close to the calculated ones. The radio communi-
cations with the probe are steady. According to the telemetric data, the
equipment on board is functioning normally. The center for coordination
and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, J uly 18, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNA-15 CONTINUES FLIG HT IN LUNAR ORBIT
In accordance with the program, the automated probe Luna-15 continues
its flight in a near-moon orbit.
All the systems on board and the scientific equipment of the probe are
functioning normally. Scientific investigations are being conducted in
near-moon space.
A correction of the orbit of the Luna- 75 probe was carried out on J uly
19, at 1608 hours. According to the preliminary data, the parameters of the
orbit after the correction are:
maximum distance from the lunar surface
(at apolune) 2 2 1 km;
minimum distance from the lunar surface
(at perilune) 95 km;
inclination to the plane of lunar equator 12 6 deg;
orbital period 2 hr 03 .5 min.
Pravda, J uly 2 0, 1969
257
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-is IN NEW NEAR-MOON ORBIT
The Soviet automated probe Luna-15, introduced into a near-moon
orbit on J uly 17, continues its flight. A second correction of the lunar orbit
of the automated probe was carried out on J uly 2 0, at 1716 hours Moscow
time. As a result, the probe entered a new orbit with the following para-
meters :
maximum distance from the lunar surface
(at apolune) i i o k m;
minimum distance from the lunar surface
(at perilune) 16 km;
inclination of the orbit to the plane of
lunar equator 12 7 deg;
orbital period i hr 54 min.
According to the telemetric data, the systems on board and scientific
equipment are functioning normally.
The automated probe Luna-15 continues scientific investigations in near-
moon space.
Pravda, J uly 2 1, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-is COMPLETES FLIG HT
The program of investigations in near-moon space and the perfecting of
new systems of the automated probe Luna- /j, was completed on J uly 2 1,
I9
6
9-
As has already been reported, the automated probe Luna-15 was intro-
duced into a trajectory toward the moon on J uly 13 . In the course of the
flight, 86 sessions of radio communications were transmitted from the probe,
during which the functioning of the new systems of the probe was tested;
the trajectory parameters were measured and scientific investigations were
held.
During its flight in a near-moon orbit, the automated probe Luna-15
completed 52 circuits around the moon.
The Luna-15 probe differs from the earlier probes Luna-g and Luna-13 in
that it can land on different areas of the lunar surface by changing its lunar
orbit. Two such changes were made on J uly 18 and 19 this year. The new
automatic navigational systems were tested on this course.
On J uly 2 1, at 1847 hours, the braking engine was put into operation. The
probe left the orbit and reached the lunar surface at a predetermined place.
2 58
The work of the probe was over at 1851 hours.
In the course of the flight of the probe in lunar satellite orbit, a number of
scientific investigations were conducted in near-moon space and important
experimental data was received about the functioning of the systems on
board. The results of the measurements are being processed.
Pravda, J uly 2 2 , 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED PROBE
In accordance with the space research program, the automated probe
d-j was launched with the help of a powerful carrier-rocket on August
8, 1969, in the Soviet Union.
The purpose of the flight is for further study of the moon and near-moon
space, to photograph the lunar surface and to perfect the systems, assemblies
and design of the rocket-space complex.
After the introduction of the probe into orbit as an artificial earth satellite,
it was oriented in space and at a precalculated point the booster unit was
switched on, which imparted to the probe an impulse of the necessary
magnitude. As a result of this maneuver, the probe ^ond-j entered the flight
trajectory toward the moon. After the separation of the booster unit from
the probe, the solar batteries were orientated toward the sun and the radio
antennas were orientated toward the earth.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe.
The devices of the ground command-measurement complex are conducting
control, measurement of the trajectorial parameters and reception of the
telemetric information from the probe.
The parameters of the flight trajectory of the probe ^ond-j are close to
the calculated ones. According to the telemetric data, all the systems and
equipment on board are functioning normally.
The center for coordination and computation has started processing the
information received.
Pravda, August 9, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ZOND-7 FLIES PAST MOON
The Soviet automated probe %pnd-j continues its flight.
In accordance with the program, on August 9, 1969, after astro-orientation
2 59
and programed turnings, the propulsion system, to give a calculated magnitude
of corrective impulse was put into operation when the probe was situated
at a distance of about 2 60 thousand kilometers from the earth. As a result
of this maneuver, the automated probe entered an improved flight trajectory
toward the moon. In the course of the flight scientific measurements were
conducted, the earth was photographed and work was done on perfecting
the systems on board.
On August 11, the probe flew by the moon. On this course, the physical
characteristics of near-moon space were measured and the lunar surface
was photographed.
After flying by the moon, Zpnd-j entered the flight trajectory toward the
earth.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe.
According to the telemetric information received, all the systems on board
are functioning normally. The trajectorial parameters are close to the cal-
culated ones.
The devices of the ground command-measurement complex continue
to receive telemetric information, transmitted by the Zpnd-j probe.
The center for coordination and computation is processing the information
received.
Pravda, August 12 , 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
PROBE ZOND-7 RETURNS TO EARTH
On August 14, 1969, a new space experiment was accomplished in the
Soviet lunar exploration program.
The automated probe %ond-j, launched on August 8, flew by the moon
and, after completing a large number of scientific investigations and ex-
periments, carried out a guided descent in the earth's atmosphere and
soft-landed in a prefixed area in Soviet territory, south of the town Kustanai.
As has already been reported, the automated probe ^ond-" j was introduced
into orbit as an artificial earth satellite, and after the booster unit was put
into operation, it entered a flight trajectory toward the moon. On August
11, after a correction of the trajectory, the probe flew by the moon.
Scientific measurements of the physical characteristics of outer space,
moon and near-moon space, and photography of the earth and the moon,
were conducted in the course of the flight. The flight program included a
large number of technical experiments for the perfecting of the following
improved systems and assemblies on board the probe:
system of motion control by using the space-borne computer, ensuring
2 60
the optimal control expression at all stages of the flight;
precision astro-orientation system;
equipment on board the probe for long-distance radio communications,
meant for receiving and transmitting information from the probe and for
recording the parameters of its motion;
telemetric system for checking the functioning of the systems on board
the probe;
devices for the protection of the spacecraft from radiation and for
the control of the radiation dose in the landing vehicle.
The descent of the %pnd-j probe in the atmosphere took place along a
trajectory with the use of aerodynamic lift. Before entering the atmosphere,
the landing vehicle was separated from the probe on a signal from the
programer. After plunging twice into the atmosphere, the flight velocity
of the landing vehicle was reduced from the planet-escape velocity (over
11 kilometers per second) to 2 00 meters per second because of aerodynamic
deceleration. At a height of 7.5 kilometers, the parachute system was put
into operation. J ust before landing, the engines for soft-landing were switched
on automatically.
The flight program of the Soviet automated probe Zpnd-j has been com-
pleted. A new step has been taken in perfecting space-borne devices for
the extensive study of the moon and near-moon space. New experimental
data about the working capacity of the improved systems of the probe and
the scientific results on the exploration of outer space have been received.
Pravda, August 15,1969
AUTOMATED PROBE ZOXD-j PHOTOG RAPHS
MOON AND EARTH
As has been already reported, one of the scientific experiments conducted
during the flight of the automated probe ^ond-j was the colored photo-
graphy of the earth and the moon. The photographs have been delivered
by the probe to the earth.
The first session of photography of the earth was conducted on August
8, 1969, from 0852 to 092 6 hours. At this time the probe was situated at a
distance of about 70 thousand kilometers from our planet (Fig. 2 2 ).
Before the start of the session, the probe was orientated in such a way
that the optical axis of the photographic camera fixed in it was directed
toward the center of the earth. At the moment of photography, the probe
was situated over the Caspian Sea. In the photograph, the axis of the earth
is slightly tilted toward the left. One can see there are no clouds over the
sea and to the east of it. The contours of the Central Asian Republics, the
2 61
Fig. 22. A photograph of-the earth, taken by the Zond-7 probe from
a distance of about 70 thousand kilometers.
Aral Sea and Balkhash Lake can be seen clearly. The Pamir and Tien Shan
mountain ranges can be distinguished clearly. Toward the east, through the
2 62
! -
openings between the clouds, one can see the wooded mountains of Altai
and still furtherthe outlines of Baikal Lake.
Behind the dense clouds covering the whole of the Caucasus, one can
see the Black and Azov seas and the Crimean Peninsula. Northward, behind
the banks of clouds, the outlines of the G ulf of Bothnia, Karelia and the
White Sea are seen. The area over the Arctic Ocean is covered with clouds.
In the south of the Soviet Union, the territories of Iran, Afghanistan,
Fig. 23. A photograph of the moon, taken by the automated probe
Zond-7 on August 11. 1969.
The following cirques and craters have been denoted by numbers:
1Russell; 8Riccioli;
2Struve; 9Schluter;
3Eddington; 10Hartwig:
4Briggs; 11Vasco da Gama;
5Cardan; 12Einstein;
6Cavalieri; 13Moseley;
7Hevelius; 14Balboa.
2 63
Iraq, Asia Minor and the Arabian peninsula are seen. In this part, the
outlines of Mesopotamia, with the rivers Tigris and Euphrates passing
through it, attract attention.
Behind the Red Sea, one can see the areas of northern Africa, the Nile
Valley through Egypt and the Sudan, to the African desert.
Over the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Balkan Peninsula
there are light clouds. The clouds, moving from the Atlantic Ocean, have
densely covered the Pyrenee Peninsula. At the moment of photography,
the terminator (boundary between day and night) passed through the
Atlantic Ocean.
The second session of photography started on August 11, at 052 8 hours
Moscow time, and continued for ten minutes. At the beginning of the session,
the probe was situated at a distance of 10 thousand kilometers from the
moon. The left part of the lunar surface is brightly illuminated by the sun.
The right portion is darkened. The terminator can be seen in the photo-
graph (Fig. 2 3 ).
On the dark side is the western part of the Ocean of Storms. In the colored
photograph it looks grayish-brown with green (the other parts are grayish-
yellow) .
One can clearly distinguish the largest formations of the Ocean of Storms,
the cirques Russell and Struve. Westward from them the Hercynia Moun-
tains curve round. To the east of Cirque Eddington, on the terminator,
one can see the swell of Seleucus Crater illuminated by the rays of the setting
sun. To the north of Cirque Eddington, close to ihe terminator, is Briggs
Crater and toward the south are two clearly seen craters, Kraft and Cardan.
In the southern part of the photograph, the swells of the cirques Cavalieri
and Hevelius are hardly seen in the light of the setting sun. In the lower
corner on the right, the wide bottom of Cirque G rimaldi can be seen, and
northwest from it are situated the cirques Hedin and Riccioli.
The boundary between the visible and hidden sides of the moonwhen
seen from the earthpasses from north to south approximately in the middle
of the photograph. Here, the visible part is on the left. In the lowest part
of the photograph is seen Schluter Crater. On its right is Cirque Hartwig,
which is not seen very clearly. The whole western part of the photograph
is filled with a big group of craters and cirques, brightly illuminated by the
sun. In the middle portion one can see the darkened Cirque Vasco da G ama,
in the west of which is situated the double Cirque Einstein and in the north
cirques Moseley and Balboa. The photograph covers about 3 0 degrees in
longitude and about 40 degrees in latitude.
The third session of photography started about an hour after the second
session was overjust a few minutes before the ^ond-" j probe entered the
zone of radiovisibility of the moon. The orientation systems and the automatic
programing and controlling devices ensured high accuracy and faultless
264
working of all the units of the space photographic system. The optical axis
during the third session, as also in the first session, was directed toward
the center of the earth. The photography of the hidden side of the moon was
carried out from a distance of 2 ,000 kilometers from the lunar surface and
was continued till the moment ^ond-j passed the pericenter of the orbit
(minimum distance between the probe and the lunar surface).
At the very beginning of the third session, the colored photographs of
the earth (Fig. 2 4) gradually moving behind the lunar horizon, were
obtained.
Fig. 24. A photograph of the earth before it moved behind the edge of the moon, taken on
August 11. 1969, by the automated probe Zond-1. In the photograph. Central Asia,
the Arabian Peninsula and Australia are clearly seen.
2 65
Here the earth is seen foreshortened in a slightly different way. In the
center of the picture, one can see the southern part of the Indian subcontinent
and the northern shores of the Indian Ocean. South-West Asia and North
East Africa are almost free of cloud. One can clearly see the Caspian and
Aral seas, Central Asia and a narrow strip of Africa. In the lower part of
the picture on the right, are the outlines of Australia almost free of cloud.
The Pacific Ocean occupies a part of the photograph. The photograph
was taken at 0708 Moscow time, thus the western part of Europe and Africa
are in darknessit is still night there. The boundary between day and
night in the photograph is represented by a slightly diffused line facing
the moon.
The result of the photographic experiments conducted during the flight
of the ^ond-j probe are being worked out. The colored photographs will
be published in journals.
fravda, August 2 2 , 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNA-i6 IN FLIG HT
In accordance with the space research program, an automated probe
Luna-i6 was launched in the Soviet Union on September 12 , 1970, at 162 6
hours Moscow time.
The purpose of the flight is to conduct scientific investigations of the moon
and near-moon space.
The automated probe Luna-i6 started for the moon from an orbit as an
artificial earth satellite and has entered a trajectory close to the calculated
one.
According to the telemetric information, the systems and assemblies
on board the probe are functioning normally. The devices of the ground
command-measurement complex are maintaining steady radio communi-
cations with the probe. The center for coordination and computation is
processing the information received.
Pravda, September 13 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNA-i6 IN NEAR-MOON ORBIT
The automated probe Luna-i6, launched into flight trajectory towards
the moon on September 12 , 1970, continues its flight.
2 66
In the course of the flight on the earth-moon route, 2 6 communication
sessions were conducted by the probe, during which the parameters of the
flight trajectory were measured and the functioning of the systems on board
was tested. On September 13 . a correction of the flight trajectory of the
probe was carried out, to enable it to pass through a precalculated point
in near-moon space.
On September 17, while approaching the moon, the automated probe
Luna-16 was orientated in space with respect to the moon and earth. Then,
at a prefixed point of the trajectory, the propulsion system was put into
operation which imparted to the probe the necessary braking impulse,
as a result of which, the probe Luna-i6 entered a circular orbit as an
artificial lunar satellite with the following parameters:
height over the lunar surface - n o km;
inclination of the orbit to the lunar'
equatorial probe - yodeg;
orbital period i hr 59 min.
The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio
communications with the automated probe Luna-i6.
According to the telemetric information, the equipment on board is
functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is
processing the information received.
Pravda, September 18, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOFT-LANDING ON MOON
In accordance with the flight program, on September 2 0, 1970, at 0818
Moscow time, the automated probe Luna-i6 made a soft-landing on the
surface of the moon in the region of the Sea of Plenty. The selenographic
coordinates of the landing site of the probe are: o degree 41 minutes southern
latitude and 56 degrees 18 minutes eastern longitude.
As has already been reported, on September 17, 1970 the probe passed
through a precalculated point in near-moon space, and after the propulsion
system was put into operation, it entered a circular orbit as an artificial
lunar satellite with a height of no kilometers above the lunar surface.
On September 18 and 19, maneuvers were conducted in the near-moon
orbit, as a result of which the probe entered an elliptical orbit with the
following parameters:
maximum distance from the lunar
surface (at apolune) 106 km;
2 67
minimum distance from the lunar
surface (at perilune) 15 km;
inclination of the orbit to the lunar
equatorial plane 71 deg;
orbital period i hr 54. min.
The descent of the probe from this orbit and its landing on the moon
took place in two phases. In the first phase, after trajectorial measurements,
orientation and delivery of the signal for leaving the orbit, the propulsion
system was put into operation at a precalculatcd moment. In the second
phase, at a height of 600 meters the stage of controlled precision deceleration
started. The propulsion system was switched on again and the regime of
thrust of the main engine changed in conformity with the selected control
program and the incoming information about the velocity and height of
descent.
The main engine finished its work at a height of 2 0 meters from the lunar
surface. The further deceleration of the probe took place with the help of
low-thrust engines. They were switched off at a height of about 2 meters
and the automated probe Luna-i6 softly dropped on to the surface of the
moon.
During the nine days of the space flight, 68 communication sessions were
conducted from the probe. According to the information received from
the center for remote space communications, all the systems on board the
probe are functioning normally.
Continuing to fulfil the program of scientific investigations of the moon
and near-moon space, the automated probe Luna-i6 has started investi-
gations of the lunar surface.
Pravda, September 2 1, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
START FROM MOON
The Soviet automated probe Luna-i6, which made a soft-landing in the
region of the Sea of Plenty, has completed its program of work on the lunar
surface, and on September 2 1, 1970, at 1043 hours Moscow time, an outer
space rocket took off from it toward the earth. The outer space rocket is
carrying samples of lunar soil.
The main task in the flight program of the Luna-i6 probe was the
accomplishment of an absolutely new job: the automated delivery of lunar
soil to the earth. After the landing of the probe Luna-i6, a set of technological
operations including the measurement of angular position of the probe
2 68
with respect to the local vertical and the checking of the functioning of dif-
ferent assemblies and systems on board was carried out.
After the preliminary operations were over, the signal was given to the
soil-intake mechanism. The electric drill of the Luna-i6 probe controlled
by signals from the earth and capable of moving in both horizontal and
vertical planes, was put at the required position, where it drilled the lunar
soil and collected samples of lunar rocks down to a depth of 3 50 millimeters.
After the drilling was over, the lunar rocks were put into the container
of the outer space rocket with the help of a manipulator and sealed.
Using the landing stage of the probe as the launching platform, the outer
space rocket with a recovery vehicle containing the lunar rocks, started
from the moon. The landing stage remains on the lunar surface and continues
to conduct temperature and radiation measurements.
The outer space rocket entered a ballistic flight trajectory towards the
earth, close to the calculated one. Two sessions of radio communication
were conducted with it at a frequency of 183 .6 megahertz.
Trajectorial and telemetric measurements are being made for an accurate
determination of the landing site on the earth. The landing will take place
on September 2 4, 1970.
When the rocket approaches the earth, the recovery vehicle will separate
from the rocket and enter the dense layers of the atmosphere. After aero-
dynamic deceleration, it will descend on a parachute.
Since the area of possible landing is quite big, the search and detecting
of the recovery vehicle will be a complicated job.
Search group expeditions have been alerted.
Pravda, September 2 2 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
OUTER SPACE ROCKET OF AUTOMATED
PROBE LUNA-i6 ON ITS WAY TO EARTH
As has already been reported, the outer space rocket of the automated
probe Luna-i6 containing the samples of lunar rocks on board, started from
the moon on September 2 1, 1970.
On September 2 2 , at 1000 hours Moscow time, the outer space rocket
was approaching at a distance of 3 06 thousand kilometers from the
earth.
The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio
communication with the rocket. Trajectorial and telemetric measurements
were conducted during the sessions.
2 69
The pressure and temperature in the compartments of the rocket are
within the prescribed limits.
Pravda, September 2 3 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
APPROACHING EARTH
The flight of the outer space rocket of the automated probe Luna-16
is nearing completion.
On September 2 3 , at 1140 hours Moscow time, the outer space rocket
was situated at a distance of 185 thousand kilometers from the earth.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the rocket.
All the systems on board are functioning normally. Pressure in the instrument
compartment of the rocket and in the recovery vehicle is 760 millimeters
and the temperature is +iC.
The processing of the trajectorial measurements has enabled the exact
determination of the coordinates of the point of entry of the recovery vehicle
into the earth's atmosphere and the area of its landing.
The recovery vehicle will land in the territory of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist
Republic on September 2 4, at 082 0 hours Moscow time.
Pravda, September 2 4, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOFT-LANDING IN A PREDETERMINED AREA
OF THE SOVIET UNION
On September 2 4, 1970, at 082 6 hours Moscow time, the recovery vehicle
of the automated probe Luna-16, carried out a soft-landing in a predeter-
mined area of the Soviet Union, 80 kilometers southeast of the town Dzhez-
kazgan in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
The recovery vehicle which carried the sealed container with lunar rocks,
was observed by a search group expedition while it was descending by
parachute. After landing, the vehicle was lifted into a helicopter and brought
to Moscow.
The container with the lunar rocks will be handed over to the USSR
Academy of Science for analysis and study. The results of these investigations
will be published.
For the first time in the history of the conquest of outer space, lunar
2 70
soil has been brought to the earth by an automated vehicle.
Pravda, September 3 5, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
RESULTS OF AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i6
A new scientific and technical problem has been brilliantly solved by
Soviet space science and technology.
For the first time in the history of astronautics, an automated vehicle
has flown on the earth-moon-earth route and brought back samples of
lunar rocks to the earth. The program of scientific and technical investi-
gations of the moon and near-moon space by the Soviet automated probe
Luna-i6 has been fully accomplished.
The accomplishment of this task was technically very complicated and
required great creativity from the collectives of scientists, designers, engineers,
technicians and workers for ensuring reliable and troublefree functioning
of all the components, systems on board and ground devices for observation
and control and accurate performance at all stages of the flight.
The unique space experiment took place in several stages.
Launched toward the moon on September 12 , 1970, the probe was injected
into a selenocentric circular orbit on September 17. As a result of maneuver-
ing in near-moon space, the probe entered an elliptical orbit from which
on September 2 0, at 0818 hours Moscow timeit carried out soft-landing
on the lunar surface in the region of the Sea of Plenty.
After landing, a specially designed device for collecting lunar soil, on a
signal from the earth, drilled the soil and took samples of lunar rocks which
were automatically put into an air-tight container of the recovery vehicle.
The probe remained on the moon for 2 6 hours 2 5 minutes. Besides the
collection of the lunar soil, during this period the temperature and the
radiation were measured, the coordinates of the landing site were determined
more accurately, the functioning of the systems and assemblies on board
was tested and the position of the fore-and-aft axis of the probe was determined
with respect to the local vertical. In the next communication session, the
program for the return from the moon was transmitted to the probe.
On September 2 1, 1970, at 1043 hours Moscow time, using the last stage
of the probe as a launching platform, the outer space rocket with the recovery
vehicle started from the moon.
The accomplishment of automatic launching of the outer space rocket
of the Luna-16 probe from the lunar surface necessitated the accomplishment
of several absolutely new tasks.
For the launching of the probe and its introduction into the designed
2 71
ballistic trajectory for landing in a predetermined area of the earth, it was
necessary to determine accurately the coordinates of the point of lunar
landing and the time of start from the moon and to ensure the attainment
of the necessary velocity at the end of the active phase. All these tasks were
carried out successfully.
In the process of the flight on the moon-earth route, the devices of the
ground command-measurement complex carried out measurements of
the flight trajectory of the outer space rocket and as it approached the
earth, the coordinates of the landing site of the recovery vehicle were deter-
mined more accurately.
On September 2 4, the outer space rocket of the probe Luna-i6 approached
the earth at planet-escape velocity. Before entering the atmosphere, the
recovery vehicle got separated from the outer space rocket, entered the
dense atmospheric layers and continued to descend along the ballistic trajec-
tory. After aerodynamic deceleration, the parachute system was put into
operation and the recovery vehicle containing the lunar soil descended
smoothly and landed in a predetermined region of the Soviet Unionnot
far from the cosmodrome whence the carrier-rocket had been launched
on September 12 .
All the stages of the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6flight to the
moon and in the near-moon orbit, start from the moon and the return to
the earthpassed in conformity with the program and the calculated data.
The search group, equipped with radar stations and aircraft, ensured
quick detection and collection of the recovery vehicle with lunar soil.
At 0810 hours, the vehicle entered the dense atmospheric layers of the earth.
At 0814 hours, the signal from the transmitter of the recovery vehicle
was discovered and the descent of vehicle by parachute was observed visually
from the helicopters and airplanes of the search group.
At 082 6 hours, the vehicle landed on the earth.
When brought to Moscow, the capsule with the lunar soil was taken out
of the container of the recovery vehicle under special conditions to maintain
the necessary steriliry. The lunar soil has undergone quarantine. It will be
handed over to the USSR Academy of Science for scientific investigations
in accordance widi a specially worked out program.
Another experiment in outer space has been completed. For the first time
in the exploration of outer space, samples of lunar soil have been brought
to earth by an automated vehicle.
The flight of the Luna-16 probe is an outstanding achievement of our
science and technology which opens new and wide prospects for conducting
systematic investigation of the heavenly bodies with the help of automated
vehicles.
Pravda, September 2 6, 1970
272
To
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF
THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION,
PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR
AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR
We, the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who
took part in the preparation, launching and accomplishment of the flight
of the automated probe Luna-i6 hereby report to the Central Committee of
the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of
Ministers, USSR, that for the first time in the world, an absolutely new
task has been successfully accomplished in astronautics. This was the flight
of an automated vehicle to another heavenly body, collection of its soil and
return to the earth. It opens wide prospects for the further exploration of
the moon and the planets of the solar system by automated vehicles.
The method of landing on the moon an automated probe with a recover-
able outer space rocket (for the first time), enables the carrying out of system-
atic study of the different areas of space by reliable and more economic
methods.
In the course of the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6 unique experi-
mental data has been obtained about the working capacity of the new system,
its high performance and superb design. This opens new prospects in the
design and construction of perfected models for space technology of the future.
We heartily thank the Communist Party, the Soviet G overnment and the
whole nation for the firm support given to us in our work and for the faith
shown in us in the accomplishment of this difficult and responsible task.
We, the builders of the automated probe Luna-i6, dedicate this achievement
of Soviet science and technology to the auspicious occasion of the forth-
coming 2 4th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. We
are proud that the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6 has coincided
with the birth centenary of V.I. Lenin, the organizer of the Communist
Party and founder of the first workers' and peasants' government in the world.
We assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, the Soviet government
and all the Soviet people, that we shall make every effort to accomplish
new tasks for the further conquest of outer space for the benefit of our great
motherland and in the interests of mankind.
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians, workers, all the
collectives and organizations that took part in the creation of
the automated probe Luna-i6 and in the accomplishment of
its flight program.
273
Dear Comrades!
Soviet science and technology have achieved another outstanding success
in the exploration and conquest of outer space.
Launched on September 12 , 1970, the automated probe Luna-i6 accom-
plished several complicated maneuvers in the course of its flight and soft-
landed in a predetermined area on the moon. It took samples of lunar soil
and then an outer space rocket launched from the probe brought them
to the earth, landing in a predetermined area in Soviet territory.
In the history of the conquest of outer space, an absolutely new task has
been accomplishedfor the first time the flight of an automated vehicle
to another heavenly body, collection of its soil and return to the earth has
taken place.
The problems of the study and conquest of outer space are becoming
more and more complicated and thus technical and economically rational
means have to be found for the development of space technology. The accom-
plishment of the flight program of the Z,na-/6probehas once again confirmed
the great potentialities and wide prospects for the application of automated
vehicles in the exploration of outer space and for collecting information
from the surface of the moon and planets of the solar system.
The new achievements of Soviet science and technology in the creation
of automated probes have been made possible by the inspired labor of our
working class and the scientific and technical leadership of our intelligentsia.
This achievement is particularly pleasant since it has come in Lenin's jubilee
year, when the preparations are going on for the 2 4th Congress of the Com-
munist Party of the Soviet Union.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR and the Council of Ministers,
USSR, warmly congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians
and workers, all the collectives and organizations that took part in the
creation and the accomplishment of the flight of the automated probe
Luna-i6.
G lory to the Soviet peoplethe builders of a heroic nation!
Long live the Communist Party of the Soviet Unionthe inspirer and
the organizer of all our achievements for the benefit of our great motherland
under the banner of communism!
Central Committee of the CPSU
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Council of Ministers, USSR
Pravda, September 2 5, 1970
274
OUTSTANDING SOVIET ACHIEVEMENT IN ASTRONAUTICS
Lenin's jubilee year was marked by outstanding achievements in the
history of Soviet astronautics. The flight of the Soyuz-g spacecraft, unmatched
in duration and range of experiments, the new flight of the interplanetary
probe Venera-j to Venus, the successful flight of the satellite Interkosmos-3
and the continued regular exploration of near-earth space by the Kosmos
satellite have enriched science and technology with important data, ensur-
ing further progress in the conquest of outer space.
A new chapter was opened by the launching and successful completion
of the complicated flight program of the Luna-i6 probe. On September
2 4, the envoy of science returned with samples of lunar soil. The Soviet
space research program is characterized by its systematic approach to
the solution of new scientific and technical problems.
One of the important trends of our space program is the study of the
moon and the planets of the solar system with the help of automated
vehicles.
Every year more and more problems are being solved by automated
vehicles. This mode of space travel is much more economical than manned
spacecraft; it is reliable, and sends or brings to the earth the most valuable
scientific information from those regions where it is either impossible, difficult,
or risky for man to reach. Obviously, this does not exclude the direct parti-
cipation by man in the scientific exploration of outer space. But the manned
flights are undertaken only when they are justified and necessary. The
way for the manned flights is also paved by the automated vehiclesreliable
assistants in unravelling the unknown.
Scientists have obtained very rich scientific material about the moon
and near-moon space, about Mars and Venus and about various regions
of interplanetary space. All this information is considerably enriching our
knowledge about the earth and the universe and sometimes even changing
strongly-held earlier conceptions.
The moon has been an object of study with the help of automated vehicles
for more than ten years.
The first Soviet automated probe Luna-i was launched in the direction
of the moon at the beginning of 1959. The probe passed the lunar surface
at a distance of a few thousand kilometers and entered a lunar orbit, and
thus became the first artificial satellite of the moon.
In the fall of the same year, the automated probe Luna-2 brought the
Soviet pennant to the lunar surface. For the first time in the history of
civilization, a space vehicle flew from the earth to another heavenly
body.
After a month, the third Soviet automated probe Luna-g photographed
the hidden side of the moon for the first time and transmitted the photographs
2 75
to the earth. In J uly 1965, the automated probe ^ond-^ once again photo-
graphed the hidden side of the moon while passing near it. The first complete
map and globe of the moon were prepared with the help of the photographs
sent by these two probes.
The flight of the automated probe Luna-g demonstrated new prospects
in the study of the lunar surface. This probe accomplished the first soft-
landing on another heavenly body. Mankind could now, for the first
time, have a close look at the structure of the surface layer of the
moon.
Simultaneously, this achievement may be considered as a big step on
the path to perfecting automated devices for space exploration.
Next, the automated artificial lunar satellite were created, which conti-
nued the explorations of the moon and near-moon space. As a result of the
flights of the probes Luna-io and Luna-12 , we were able to determine for
the first time the nature of the lunar rocks which, in composition, turned
out to be close to the basalt of the earth. After accomplishing soft-landing,
the Luna-13 probe conducted a set of investigations on the lunar surface.
In particular, it transmitted important information about the mechanical
characteristics of the surface layer of the lunar soil.
These flights demonstrated the high efficiency of automatic devices in
the exploration of heavenly bodies.
The era of manned flights to the moon started with the expedition of
the American spacecraft Apollo-n. The landing on the moon of astronauts
Armstrong and Aldrin followed by the crew of the Apollo-12 spacecraft,
further increased the prospects of lunar exploration. For the first time, samples
of lunar soil, taken from two different places, were brought to the earth.
Study of these samples in laboratories on the earth made it possible to
determine more accurately some basic characteristics of these rocks: structure,
chemical composition, physical characteristics.
However, the results obtained so far do not permit us to make final
conclusions about many fundamental problems of lunar exploration, such
as the origin of the moon, or its age and structure.
The successful flights of the Luna probes as well as the successful recovery
of the scientific laboratories to the earth (the flights of the probes ^ond-^,
Zpnd-6 and Zpnd-j) have confirmed the value of these vehicles in the ex-
ploration of the moon.
The Soviet scientists, designers, engineers and workers had before them
the task of perfecting the automated space vehicles and developing new,
complicated elements and units of automatic systems. The record of achieve-
ments of our science in the field of automated control and our experienced
personnel in the industry enabled us to accomplish this task brilliantly.
A proof of it is the wonderful success of the probe Luna-i6, the flight of which
has made it possible to solve the most important scientific and technical
276
problem of astronauticsthe collection of samples of soil from the heavenly
bodies of the solar system and their delivery on earth.
Design of the probe Luna-i6
The automated probe Luna-i6 (Fig. 2 5) consists of the landing stage with
the device for collecting soil (Fig. 2 6) and the outer space Moon-Earth rocket
with recovery vehicle (Fig. 2 7). The weight of the probe at the moment
of landing on the moon is 1,880 kilograms.
Fig. 25. Automated probe Luna-16.
1engine of the moon-earth rocket;
2instrument compartment of the
landing stage:
3controlling nozzles;
4fuel tank of the rocket;
5antenna;
6recovery vehicle;
7instrument compartment of the rocket;
8drilling mechanism;
9bar of the drilling mechanism;
10telephotometer;
11fuel tank;
12engine of the landing stage.
2 77
Fig. 26. Landing stage of the automated probe Luna-16
with device for collecting soil.
The landing stage is a self-contained, multipurpose rocket unit, which
has a liquid propellant rocket engine, a system of tanks with components
of fuel, instrument section and shockproof gearings for landing on the moon.
The antennas of the space-borne radio complex are also fixed on the landing
stage.
The propulsion system of the landing stage has a main engine with ad-
justable thrust for braking, and two low-thrust engines, which work at the
final stage of the landing phase. The main engine of the landing stage can
start up a number of times.
The instrument compartments of the landing stage contain the calculating,
decision-making gyroscopic instruments of the systems of control and stabili-
zation, electronic instruments of the orientation system, radio transmitters
and receivers of the space-borne radio-measurement complex which works
in several radio wave bands, the programer, which automatically controls
the work of all the systems and assemblies, chemical storage batteries and
current transformers, elements of the thermal control system, autonomous
radio devices for the measurement of height, horizontal and vertical com-
ponents of the velocity at the time of landing on the surface of the moon,
telephotometers for transmitting the auxiliary information about the area
278
Fig. 27. The layout of the recovery vehicle of the automated probe Luna-16.
1storage battery; 6antennas;
2cover of the container; 7antenna switch;
3container for the lunar soil; 8transmitters;
4cover of the parachute compartment; 9body of the recovery vehicle;
5parachute compartment; 10thermal protection.
of drilling, and scientific instruments for the determination of temperature
and radiational conditions during the phase of flight as well as on the lunar
surface.
The landing stage served as a launching device for the Moon-Earth rocket
from the moon.
Outside the instrument compartments, on the outer surfaces of the landing
stage, there are microjet engines of the orientation and stabilization systems,
tanks with the reserve propellant for them and optical sensors of the orien-
tation system.
2 79
In the upper part of the landing stage is the outer space Moon-Earth
rocket (Fig. 2 8).
Fig. 28. The Moon-Earth rocket.
The Moon-Earth rocket is a self-contained rocket unit with liquid-propellant
jet engine and a system of spherical tanks with the fuel components.
On the central tank is fixed a cylindrical instrument compartment which
2 80
contains the electronic, computing and gyroscopic instruments of the rocket
control system, transmitting, receiving, deciphering and programing instru-
ments of the space-borne radio complex of the rocket, chemical storage
batteries, current transformers and electrical instruments of the space-borne
radio complex.
On the outer surface of the instrument compartment of the rocket there
are four pin-type receiving and transmitting antennas of the radio complex
on board.
In the upper part of the instrument compartment, the spherical recovery
vehicle is attached with the help of metallic tie tapes. The tapes fastening
the recovery vehicle are joined by a special, pyrotechnical lock which opens
on a radio command from the flight control center at the time of the approach
of the rocket to the earth.
The recovery vehicle is a metallic sphere, on the outer surface of which
a special heat protection layer has been added. This layer saves the vehicle
and the equipment fitted inside it from the effect of high temperatures at
the time of its entry into the earth's atmosphere.
The internal volume of the recovery vehicle is divided into three isolated
compartments. In the biggest of these compartments there are radio direction-
finding transmitters, which ensure the detection of the recovery vehicle
at the time of its descent by parachute and its reaching the earth, chemical
storage batteries, elements of automatic machines, and the space-borne
programer, which control the operation of the parachute system.
In the second compartment, there is the packed parachute, four flexible
antennas of the direction-finding transmitters, and two elastic gas tanks,
which ensure the required position of the recovery vehicle after its landing
on earth.
The third compartment is a cylindrical container for the soil samples
from the surface of the moon. On one side of the cylinder there is an intake
hole which is closed hermetically by a special cover after the lunar rocks
have been put into it.
The device for collecting soil is fitted on the landing stage and consists
of three parts:
drilling machine, with a system of electric driving mechanisms and
drilling instruments;
bars, on which the drilling machine is fixed;
driving mechanisms, which move the bar in vertical and horizontal
directions.
While designing the mechanism for collecting soil, special attention was
paid to the construction of such a drilling machine which could drill and
collect samples of lunar soil of different hardness, from the most friable
(dust-like) to the hardest, such as basalt and granite on the earth. Moreover,
the necessity of creating a soil-collecting mechanism with minimum weight
281
and power consumption was also taken into consideration.
The soil-collecting mechanism of the automated probe Luna-16 fully
ensured the fulfilment of the tasks of drilling, transportation of the soil samples
from the lunar surface to the container of the recovery vehicle, and their
insertion into the container.
On the automated probe Luna-i6 were fixed the pennant and the national
emblem of the Soviet Union.
The pennant, made in the form of a thin rectangular metallic plate, was
fixed on the landing stage. On the front was the inscription: " Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics" and also the Soviet emblem; on the other
side in the right hand side margin was an inscription: " Luna-i6, September
1970" , while on the rest of the area was depicted the start of the rocket from
the moon, its moon-earth route, and the earth with the outlines of the Soviet
territory where the landing site of the recovery vehicle was marked.
The State symbol, in the form of a pentagon, was fixed on the recovery
vehicle. On the front was the inscription " USSR" and the emblem, of the
Soviet Union. In the center of the pentagon, the probe Luna-i6 was depicted
collecting the lunar soil according to program. There was an inscription
" Luna-i6, September 1970, EARTH-MOON-EARTH" in a frame.
Course of fulfilment of flight program. The flight of the Luna-i6 probe can be
subdivided into the following m?.in phases: start and flight to moon, work on
its surface, return to earth (Fig. 2 9).
Start from
lunar surface
Path of Moon-Earth flight
Flight into
AES orbit
\i
X
Boos
Maneuvering in
near-moon
orbit
Braking and
entry into
ALS orbit
Introduction
into AES
orbit
I
Separation of
recovery vehicle
from rocket
Path of Earth-Moon flight
Fig. 29. A schematic diagram of the flight of the automated probe Luna-16.
282
Start and flight to moon. The automated probe Luna-16 was launched on
September 12 , 1970. It was introduced into orbit as an artificial earth sate-
llite with the help of a carrier-rocket which was more powerful than the one
used for the launching of the automated probes Luna-g and Luna-13 .
According to the trajectorial measurements, the parameters of the inter-
mediate near-orbit, from which the probe Luna-16 started for the moon,
were as follows: maximum distance from the earth2 12 .2 kilometers;
inclination to the equatorial plane51 degrees 3 6 minutes.
The engine of the last stage of the carrier-rocket was put into operation on a
signal from the space-borne programer 70 minutes after the start. It imparted
to the probe additional velocity and thus the probe could enter the flight
trajectory toward the moon.
One of the planned corrections of the flight trajectory of the probe-for
ensuring its accurate entry into the precalculated region of the near-moon
spacewas carried out on the way to the moon. Theinitial data for the trajec-
tory correction-the magnitude and direction of the corrective impulse and
the time of switching on the enginewas calculated by the coordination and
computation center on the basis of the results of the trajectorial measure-
ments. This data was transmitted by radio to the probe in the form of special
codograms in one of the sessions of communication and was " put" in the
data storage block of the programer.
In the beginning of the process of correction, the probewith the help of
the control system and the optical sensors of the orientation systemwas
accurately orientated in space with respect to the earth and sun in such a way
that it occupied the position necessary for the correction.
After the completion of all the preparatory operations, on September 13 ,
1970, the engine was put into operation on a signal from the control system,
which functioned for a predetermined 6.4 seconds and imparted the necessary
corrective impulse to the probe. The trajectorial measurements taken after
the operation showed that the probe would reach the calculated point in
near-moon space very accurately. Hence there was no need to carry out the
second correction.
This correction was meant for the elimination of the slight deviation of the
flight path of the probe from the designed trajectory.
To get an idea about the exceptionally high accuracy required in the work
of the systems on board, it is sufficient to realize that a deviation of i meter
per second from the calculated velocity at the moment the engine of the last
stage is switched on (which is only about o.oi % of this velocity) would lead
to a deviation of about 3 00 kilometers near the moon.
When the probe reached the predetermined area in near-moon space,
the preliminary work was carried out, and the engine of the landing stage
was put into operation for the second time, to decrease the velocity of
approach to the moon and to transfer the probe into an orbit of a lunar
2 83
I
satellite. Here, high accuracy was necessary in the orientation of the probe
and the magnitude of the braking impulse. For accomplishing this task, the
engine was put into operation on September 17, at 02 3 8 hours. The probe
entered a selenocentric circular orbit at a distance of no kilometers from
the lunar surface.
Afterward, the complicated task of formation of the prelanding orbit with
a low perilune (minimum distance from the lunar surface) was tackled
successfully. This orbit was necessary for the creation of optimal conditions
for the functioning of the autonomous control systems during the phases of
descent and landing of the probe on the lunar surface.
For this purpose, two maneuvers were carried out in the course of three
days, during which the probe was in a selenocentric orbit. With the help of
the first maneuver the form of the orbit was changed. The orbit became
elliptical, the height at the perilune being 15 kilometers and at the apolune
(the maximum distance from the lunar surface)-i 10 kilometers. As a result
of the second maneuver, the plane of the orbit in space was turned to the
necessary position. Now the height at the apolune was 106 kilometers.
On September 2 0, at 0606 hours, started one of the most responsible
phases of the flight of the probepreparations for accomplishing soft-landing
on the lunar surface. In the course of the preparatory operations, from
0641 hours to 073 1 hours, the probe was situated behind the lunar disc and
radio communications could not be maintained with it.
After a number of operations for the orientation of the probe and pro-
gramed turnings, at 0812 hours, the engine of the landing stage was put
into operation, as a result of which the velocity of the probe was decreased to
a value at which the descent started. In this process the probe was maintained
in the required position by the stabilizing organs of the control system.
After attaining a definite height and vertical descent velocity, which were
continuously being measured by the space-borne Dopplar velocity sensor
and the altimeter, the engine of the landing stage was once again put into
operation. At a height of 2 0 meters, the velocity of the probe decreased to
about 2 .5 meters per second.
At this height above the lunar surface, the main engine of the probe was
switched off and the two low-thrust engines were put into operation. These
two engines were switched off on a signal from the gamma altimeter when
the probe was very close to the lunar surface.
The soft-landing of the probe was accomplished at 0818 hours on September
2 0, 1970, in the region of the Sea of Plenty, at a point with the following
coordinates: o degree 41 minutes, southern latitude and 56 degrees 18
minutes, eastern longitude (Fig. 3 0). Here, the actual deviation from the
center of the selected area was insignificant.
The work of the ground command-measurement complex was very
important for the successful accomplishment of the flight program of the
284
Fig. 30. The site of lunar landing of the Luna-16 probe.
Luna-i6 probe. The data of the trajectorial measurements, systematically
being made by the devices of the center for remote space communications,
were uninterruptedly processed by electronic computers. This enabled the
accurate determination of the parameters of the flight trajectory of the
Luna-i6 probe at all stages of its flight, and helped to calculate and control
2 85
the maneuvers in near-moon orbit and to predict and determine more
accurately the coordinates of the points of landing on the moon and on the
earth. The reliable functioning of the automatic systems on board the Luna-i6
probe, the well-coordinated work of the measuring devices, and the accurate
control of the flight ensured the landing of the probe within the predeter-
mined limits of the area on the surface of the moon, and afterward, the safe
return of the vehicle containing samples of lunar soil to a predetermined
area in Soviet territory.
Work on the lunar surface. After landing on the lunar surface, the space-
borne radio complex was put into action on a signal from the earth. An
analysis of the information received showed that the probe as a whole,
including its different systems, behaved normally. The position of the probe
on the lunar surface was also determined.
Then a signal was given to the probe for operating the soil-collecting
mechanism. The lock holding the soil-collecting mechanism in the course of
the flight of the probe was opened, and the bar with the drilling machine
-under the action of one of the driving mechanismstook a vertical position.
On a signal from the earth, the cameras of the telephotometers were put into
operation, transmitting to the earth a telecast of the drilling site. Then,
under the action of another driving mechanism, the bar rotated around the
vertical axis by 180 degrees, so that when the bar became horizontal, the
active part of the drilling machine faced the lunar surface. At this very
moment, a signal from the earth fired the mechanism for opening the cover of
the drilling machine. The bar was lowered till the drilling machine touched
the lunar surface. On another signal from the earth the machine started
drilling.
The drilling and the extraction of the soil was carried out by a special
drill. It had a hollow tube with cutters at the end. Simultaneously with the
drilling, the impenetrability of the rocks was also determined. The velocity
of deepening of the drill into the lunar rocks was controlled from the earth.
When the drilling was over, the drill with the lunar rocks was put into the
body of the drilling machine. The driving mechanism of the bar of the soil-
collecting device was again switched on. The bar became vertical and turned
by 180 degrees around its axis. The drill was brought close to the intake hole
of the hermetic container of the recovery vehicle. On the next signal from
the earth, the drill with lunar rocks was put into the container. Automatically
the intake hole of the container of the recovery vehicle was sealed hermeti-
cally.
Besides accomplishing the main task of collection of lunar soil, the tempera-
ture of the components of the probe and the level of radiation on the lunar
surface were also measured and the results were transmitted to the earth.
The next stage of the work envisaged the preparation for the start of the
Moon-Earth rocket. Here the required magnitude of velocity which the
286
rocket must attain while flying from the moon, was " put" into the
data-storage device of the control system of the rocket.
The Moon-Earth rocket took off at 1043 hours on September 2 1, 1970, on
receiving a signal from the earth.
Return to the earth. When the rocket attained the required velocity of 2 ,708
meters per second, the engine was switched off and the rocket with the recove-
ry vehicle started moving fast toward the earth. Its flight took place along a
ballistic trajectory. The correction of the trajectory while returning was not
envisaged. In the course of the flight of the rocket toward the earth, the
center for remote space communications regularly conducted trajectorial
measurements. On the basis of the results of these measurements, the landing
site of the recovery vehicle in Kazakhstan territory was determined more
accurately.
When the rocket approached the earth on September 2 4, at 0450 hours,
at a signal from the earth, the recovery vehicle was separated from the instru-
ment compartment of the outer space rocket, and at 081 o hours it entered
the dense atmospheric layers of the earth.
The velocity at the time of entry was slightly more than 11 kilometers per
second. The vehicle turned head-on toward the incoming flux of air. The
damping device kept the vehicle in this position, thus ensuring the most
suitable regime for the deceleration of the recovery vehicle in the atmosphere.
The maximum acceleration forces acting on the recovery vehicle at the time of
aerodynamic deceleration reached up to 3 50 units. The temperature of the
boundary layer in this process exceeded 10 thousand degrees centigrade.
In the process of increase of the acceleration forces, the programer and
command sensors of the acceleration forces and pressure are switched on.
When the maximum temperature and acceleration forces passed, the accele-
ration forces' sensor gave a signal for the removal of the cover of the para-
chute compartment. The deceleration parachute was opened when the
descent velocity was 3 00 meters per second and the height was 14.5 kilo-
meters. Afterward, on a signal from the barometric sensor, at a height of
about 11 kilometers, the deceleration parachute separated, and the main
parachute opened. Simultaneously, the direction-finding radio transmitters
were switched on.
At 0814 hours, the airplanes and helicopters of the search group,
concentrated in the predetermined area, received radio signals and observed
the descent of the vehicle. A helicopter accompanied it to the landing. At
082 6 hours the recovery vehicle landed on the earth, 80 kilometers southeast
of the town Dzhezkazgan.
A preliminary checkup showed that the vehicle endured well the condi-
tions of space flight. The recovery vehicle (Fig. 3 1) with the samples of lunar
rocks was brought to Moscow, and the container with the soil was handed
over to the USSR Academy of Sciences.
2 87
The flight of the Luna-16 probe was covered by a well-spread network of
ground measurement posts over Soviet territory and also by the ships of the
USSR Academy of Sciences. The flight of the Luna-i6 probe was controlled
from the center for remote space communications. The personnel of the
launching, ground command-measurement and search complexes ensured the
accurate working and coordination throughout the course of the flight of the
probe.
Lunar soil on the earth. The hermetic container with lunar soil, having been
taken out of the recovery vehicle, was brought lo the special laboratory of
the USSR Academy of Sciences and placed in the suction chamber. Before
putting it into the chamber, dosimetric measurements were conducted and
the whole container was carefully sterilized.
The suction chamber was equipped with devices for opening the container.
All these operations were carried out in a controllable gaseous atmosphere,
observing conditions of sterility.
After the samples were set, a high vacuum was created in the chamber
with the help of non-oily methods of evacuation. Then the chamber was
filled with a pure inert gas (helium) till the pressure inside was equal to the
atmospheric pressure. Thus the possibility of reaction of the lunar matter with
such elements of our atmosphere as oxygen, water and products of sterili-
zation was excluded. Their presence could have irreversibly changed the
characteristics of the lunar soil. The container was opened and the drill was
removed from it by an operator, standing outside the suction chamber.
The operator used sterilized instruments, kept in the chamber beforehand.
The drill, on being taken out of the container, was found to be covered with a
thin layer of lunar dust. The matter taken out of the drill was put in a survey-
ing tray, retaining the distribution of the sample according to depth. Then
the lunar soil was observed and photographed through the optical glass
windows of the chamber.
Photographs were taken a number of times, at various angles, with various
exposures and magnifications.
The samples mainly consist of fine-grained mineral particles. The color of
the soil in bulk is gray.
The external form of the lunar soil brought from the region of the Sea of
Plenty indicates its friable structure and appreciable cohesion between
particles.
Dosimetric measurements did not indicate any considerable excess of the
intensity of gamma-radiation of lunar soil over the intensity of gamma-
radiation of rocks on the earth with small contents of natural radioactive
elements.
For further detailed study, the lunar soil will be packed in special containers
and handed over to specialized institutes and laboratories. The containers
will be taken out of the chamber through a locking device, ensuring main-
288
Fig. 31. Container with samples of lunar rocks.
tenance of the inert atmosphere surrounding the lunar samples.
Till the results of the toxicological and biological analyses are obtained,
the lunar soil will undergo a period of quarantine in the suction chamber.
Afterward, the radiational, chemical, physicomechanical, thermophysical
and other characteristics of the lunar soil will be studied.
Results of these investigations will be published in scientific journals.
An important experiment in the Soviet space program has been completed,
opening new prospects in the study of the planets of the solar system. For
the first time in the history of space conquest, an absolutely new flight mission
of an automated space vehicle collecting soil from a heavenly body and
returning it to the earth, has been accomplished.
Besides the success of the flight, the delivery of the lunar soil to the earth
is of great importance. For the study of the origin and evolution of the solar
2 89
system it is very important to determine the composition of the matter which
forms the different heavenly bodies.
Scientists have studied sufficiently well the composition of the surface
layer of the earth and the composition of small bodies, meteorites, which
fall on the earth by chance. Today's burning problem is the study of the
composition of other objects in the solar system. The successful flight of the
Luna-16 probe prepares the ground for the wider use of automated probes
for the systematic study of the heavenly bodies by reliable and economical
means.
In the course of the flight, valuable data has been obtained about the work-
ing capacity of the new design and its high quality. This will help in the
creation of new types of space vehicles in the near future.
The Soviet scientists, engineers and workerscreators of the automated
probe Luna-16have dedicated this new outstanding achievement of our
country to an important event in the life of our people-the forthcoming
2 4th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
(TASS)
Pravda, October 4, 1970
PRESS CONFERENCE DEVOTED TO THE SUCCESSFUL
FLIG HT OF THE AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i6 AND
ITS DELIVERY OF LUNAR SOIL TO EARTH
The unique space experiment, conducted during the flight of the
automated probe Luna-16 roused great interest throughout the world.
A press conference, devoted to this outstanding event was held on October
2 8 in the Moscow House of Scientists.
Over the stage of the conference hall there was a several-meter-long photo-
graph of the trophy won by Soviet sciencethe photograph of the lunar soil.
On sides there were big placards with a diagram of the construction of the
celebrated probe Luna-i6 and the phases of its flight on the earth-moon-earth
route.
Hundreds of Soviet and foreign journalists, representatives of the people,
engineers and scientists came to hear the story of the flight of an automated
space vehicle which took samples of the lunar soil and brought them back
to the earth, and to hear about the results of the preliminary investigations of
these samples.
The press conference was opened by M.V. Keldysh, President of the USSR
Academy of Science.
2 90
Speech by M.V. Keldysh:
Most important phase in exploration of
the moon and planets
The Soviet automated probe Luna-i6 was launched on September 12 ,
1970. The probe made a soft-landing in the region of the Sea of Plenty,
drilled and collected lunar soil and with the help of an outer space rocket,
which started from the moon, ensured the delivery of the recovery vehicle
containing the lunar soil to the earth. The flight of the Luna-i6 probe has
made it possible to solve the most complicated scientific and technical
problem of astronautics, namely, the collection of samples of hard rocks from
a heavenly body of the solar system by an automated device and the delivery
of these samples on the earth.
The moon occupies a special place in the general program of space
research. Firstly because of its nearness to the earth. Explorations of physical
conditions on the moon, its relief, composition and characteristics of its
soil for scientific purposes, especially for solving astronautical problems,
have put the moon among the most important objects for intense study by
means of rocket-space technology.
A number of important stages in the exploration of the moon and near-
moon space were covered during the last twelve years. The automated probes
of the Luna and %pnd series carried out an extensive program of scientific
investigations of our natural satellite. They have given important information
about the absence of any substantial magnetic field or radiational belt near
the moon, and photographed the hidden side of the moon. This has enabled
the scientists to draw a map of both hemispheres of the moon and make the
first lunar globe.
A new stage in the study of the nature of the moon was started in February
1966, when the automated probe Luna-g successfully accomplished a soft-
landing on the eastern part of the Ocean of Storms. The probe transmitted
to the earth a panorama of the lunar landscape, which made it possible for
the first time to see closely the finest details of the lunar surface, appraise the
nature of the macrostructure and the strength of the lunar soil. Investigations
of the density and mechanical properties of the lunar soil, conducted
by the probe Luna-13 , were of great importance for the designing of the
future lunar space vehicles.
Extensive investigations of the moon and near-moon space were conducted
in the course of the flights of artificial lunar satellite. Results of the measure-
ments made by the probes Luna-io and Luna-12 made it possible for the
first time to establish that there are rocks on the moon which are close in
composition to the widely spread igneous basalt-type rocks in the crust of
the earth. Important information about the moon was transmitted by the
American automated probes also.
2 91
In the course of the flights of the automated probes to the moon, work
was done on the further improvement of various elements of design, the
systems on board and the devices of the ground command-measurement
complex. The task of recovery of space vehicles, which enter the atmosphere
at planet-escape velocity, was accomplished for the first time with the help of
the automated probe ^ond.
Yesterday another space experiment was completed successfully: the
Zond-8 probe launched on October 2 0 has returned to the earth. In the
process of this experiment, physical investigations were conducted on the
flight path and good quality photographs of the moon and the earth were
taken from different distances. A new variant of the ballistic entry of the
space vehicle into the atmosphere from the northern hemisphere was tested.
Here, the object in the final phase of the trajectory, can be controlled by
means of the ground-measurement complex, spread over the Soviet territory.
This ensures a much more accurate landing. %pnd-8 splashed down in a
predetermined area in the Indian Ocean, very close to the calculated point.
The American astronauts accomplished two moon visits in the Apollo
spacecraft. They helped solve the problems connected with the landing of
man on the moon. The first samples of the lunar rocks were also brought to
the earth. This was a new stage in the field of lunar exploration.
The successful flights of the Luna and %ond probes, as well as that of the
Venera probes, have shown that at this stage many scientific problems concern-
ing the study of the moon and planets can be solved with the help of automa-
ted devices, which have proved their worth several times.
The Soviet scientists and designers had before them the task of perfecting
automated space vehicles and solving new problems with their help. The
progressive attitude of Soviet science toward automated control and the high
level of our socialist industry enabled the construction of an automated probe
of a new type, which can carry out a number of important tasks and return
to the earth.
The flight of the automated probe Luna-16 demonstrated at all stages the
reliability in the functioning of the assemblies and systems of the vehicle and
the efficiency of the new, most accurate methods of remote control of space
vehicles. The probe started for the moon from an intermediate orbit as an
artificial earth satellite. High accuracy in its introduction into the flight
trajectory toward the moon made it possible for the probe to pass through
the predetermined point in the near-moon space with one correction. After-
ward, by carrying out complicated maneuvers, the task of forming a pre-
landing orbit was accomplished successfully. The soft-landing of the probe
Luna-16 was carried out in the predetermined region of the Sea of the Plenty
with a deviation of only 1.5 kilometers from the calculated point.
On the surface of the moon, the soil-collecting mechanisma unique
mechanism which, through a number of manipulations, ensured the contact
2 92
of the electric drill with the lunar surface, drilling to a depth of 3 5 cm, collec-
tion of soil and its insertion into the container of the recovery vehiclewas put
into operation on a signal from the earth. Besides this main task, on the
lunar surface radiational measurements were made and all the parameters
of the probe and the functioning of the systems on board were checked.
After completing the planned operations as per program, the outer-space
rocket with the recovery vehicle took off from the moon. An automatic
launching of a rocket from another heavenly body of the solar system and the
injection of the automated vehicle into the trajectory back to the earth were
accomplished for the first time. Accurate launching ensured the flight of
the recovery vehicle to the earth, without any correction, along a ballistic
trajectory, the entry of the vehicle into the atmosphere through a calculated
entry corridor and its highly accurate landing in the prefixed area of the
Soviet territory. Thus the lunar soil was delivered to the earth safely.
The collected soil sample consists of fine-grained matter with small pieces
of rocks and minerals. The number of large grains increases with the depth.
As it is, the lunar soil looks like a dark-gray powder, resembling dark cement,
but its color changes considerably with the light. The matter easily sticks
together and forms small clumps. The grains effused rocks contained in
the sample possess a strong glance and shine brightly in the background
of the powder. Under a microscope, minerals of greenish and brown color
with marks of fracture are easily distinguished among crystalline grains.
Mostly, the pieces of rocks belong to different varieties of basalt.
The structural characteristics of the lunar matter cause certain differences
in its physical properties as compared to the earthly rocks. For example,
the density of the matter depends greatly upon the nature of compaction
and varies approximately from one to two grams per cubic centimeter.
An interesting peculiarity is that in spite of a relatively high density, the
lunar matter has very low thermal conductivity in vacuum, approximately
10 times less than that of air. Obviously, these are some of the most pre-
liminary results. Academician A.P. Vinogradov will tell you about these
results in more detail. At present, multiple investigations of the lunar soil
are being conducted, which include the study of its chemical, physico-
mechanical, mineralogical, optical, electromagnetic and other characteristics.
The results of these investigations will be published in scientific journals.
So far as the moon is concerned, taking samples of soil from its different
regions is of substantial interest for science. Here, the problem of the origin
of the moon is very closely connected with the problem of the origin of the
solar system. Thus, the study of the physical characteristics and chemical
composition of the rocks from different regions of the moon and the determi-
nation of the age of the moon will be important for the solution of fundamental
problems of natural science.
Already several years ago, the Soviet Union took the general decision
293
to study outer space with the help of orbital stations and automated vehicles
for the investigation of the moon and the planets of the solar system. The
successful flight of the Lunar-16 probe creates the basis for a more extensive
use of the automated vehicles in the study of outer space. The automatic
machines are capable of making a wide range of investigations-right from
the first, 'probing' information to the systematic and deep study of heavenly
bodies and physical processes in outer space and at less cost. The Soviet
space program is characterized by a rational combination of automated
as well as manned devices for the study of the universe.
Astronautics has complicated tasks before it. The sphere of space research
is constantly widening, covering regions of the solar system further and
further away from the earth. Hence the need for purposeful direction and
economy in collecting scientific information is very important. In the future
we shall widely use automatic machines as efficient and economical
instruments.
The flight of the automated probe Luna-16 marks a new and important
stage in the study of not only the moon, but of the planets of the solar system
also. Determination of the composition of matter is very important for
science. Scientists have studied sufficiently well the composition of the
surface layer of the earth, as well as the composition of small bodies, like
meteorites, which fall on the earth by chance. Today's burning problem is
the study of the composition of other objects in the solar system.
Speech by V.E. Ishevskii:
Earth-moon-earth flight
The flight of the automated probe Luna-i6 has laid the foundation for
the solution of an absolutely new scientific and technical problem: the
taking of samples of soil from other heavenly bodies of the solar system
and the conducting of other investigations, whose results can be delivered
to the earth without the direct participation of man.
On the lunar surface, a set of scientific experiments was to be conducted
and the main task-the taking of samples of lunar soil from different depths
with the help of a special drilling devicewas to be accomplished.
No less important was the preparation for the launching of the Moon-
Earth rocket. Here, the position of the probe with respect to the local lunar
vertical was to be determined, the required magnitude of the velocity boost
of the Moon-Earth rocket was to be put into the data-storage device of the
control system and the whole logical schemeensuring the proper order
of operations, magnitudes of parameters and their characteristics for the
start of the rocket from the moon-was to be made ready.
The flight to the earth took place along a ballistic trajectory. In
this process, the systems on board the rocket were constantly checked,
2 94
trajectory measurements were conducted and the distance was measured.
The data received was processed in the center for remote space communi-
cations. When the vehicle approached the earth, the recovery vehicle was
to be separated from the rocket with the help of radio channels. And, the
final stage was the entry into the dense atmospheric layers of the earth
and smooth landing.
The design of the automated probe Luna-i6, its systems and devices
ensured the accomplishment of these tasks.
The automated probe Luna-16 consists of the landing stage with the soil-
collecting mechanism and the outer space Moon-Earth rocket with the recovery
vehicle.
The landing stage, which is an autonomous rocket unit, is meant for
carrying out a number of dynamic operations. The following operations
were carried out with the help of the main engine of the landing stage:
corrections of the trajectory of the probe while approaching the moon,
deceleration for its entry into orbit as an artificial lunar satellite, maneuvers
in this orbit, second deceleration for leaving the orbit and soft-landing
on the surface of the moon. The landing stage had two independent low-
thrust rocket engines, which worked during the final phase of the landing.
The landing stage has shock-proof bearings for landing on lunar surface.
The landing stage serves also as the launching device for the Moon-Earth
rocket.
The soil-collecting mechanism fixed on the landing stage, consists of three
main parts: drilling machine; bar, on which the drilling machine is fixed;
electric driving mechanisms, which ensure the movement of the soil-collecting
mechanism along the three axes. The drilling machine is meant for the
drilling and collection of soil of different degrees of impenetrability.
In the upper part of the landing stage the independent Moon-Earth rocket
unit is fixed. The rocket consists of a liquid propellant rocket engine, fuel
tanks and the instrument compartment, which contains electronic, com-
puting and gyroscopic instruments of the rocket control system, space-
borne radio equipment, power supplies and electrical instruments of the
space-borne automatic machines.
Over the instrument compartment of the Moon-Earth rocket is fitted the
spherical recovery vehicle. The vehicle is divided into three compartments:
instrument, parachute and 'lunar soil' compartments. The instrument
compartment contains radio direction-finding transmitters, which ensure
the detection of the recovery vehicle during its descent by parachute and
on reaching the earth, elements of automatic machines and the space-borne
programer, which controls the operation of the parachute system.
In the parachute compartment there are the deceleration parachute
and the main parachute, as well as the two gas-filled tanks which ensure
the required position of the recovery vehicle after landing on the earth.
2 95
It also accommodates the antennas of the direction-finding transmitters
which open at the time of jettisoning the cover of the parachute compartment.
The third compartment is a cylindrical container for the samples of lunar
soil. The container has a charging hatch, which is hermetically closed by
a special cover.
The Luna-i6 probe was introduced into an intermediate orbit as an
artificial earth satellite with the help of a carrier-rocket, more powerful
than the one used for the launching of the automated probes Luna-g and
Luna-i^. Within 70 minutes of launching, the engine of the last stage of
the carrier-rocket was switched on, as a result of which additional velocity
was imparted to the probe and it entered the flight trajectory toward the
moon.
Because of the accurate launching of the probe into the designated trajec-
tory, one of the two planned corrections on the earth-moon flight path
was dropped. Four days after launching, the probe reached the predetermined
point in near-moon space, and after orientation, the engine of the launching
stage was switched on. The braking impulse received by the probe, trans-
ferred it to a circular selenocentric orbit at a distance of 11 o kilometers
from the lunar surface:
When the probe was in the selenocentric orbit, the pre-landing orbit
was entered with a height of 15 kilometers at perilune and 110 kilometers
at apolune. For this purpose maneuvering was done so as to change the
form and inclination of the orbit.
After preliminary operations, including the orientation and the programed
turning, at 0812 hours on September 2 0 the engine of the landing stage
was switched on and the probe started descending. In this process the probe
was held in the strictly fixed position by the stabilizing organs of the control
systems. The height and velocity of descent were continuously measured
in this process by the radar altimeter and Doppler velocity sensor.
When a certain height was attained, the engine of the landing stage was
again switched on. At a height of 2 0 meters above the lunar surface, the
main engine was switched off and further deceleration was achieved with
the help of low-thrust engines. When the pedestal of the landing stage
touched the lunar surface, the velocity of the probe was almost zero.
After the information received had shown that the systems on board
were in normal condition and after the position of the probe on the lunar
surface was determined, the operators of the flight control post started
their work with the soil-collecting mechanism. The lock holding the soil-
collecting device was rotated by 180 degrees, so that when the bar was
brought to the horizontal position the working part of the body of the drilling
machine was directed toward the lunar surface. Then the bar was dropped
till contact with the lunar surface was established. All these operations
were controlled through telemetry.
2 96
The drilling and soil collection was done by a special drill, which was
a hollow cylinder with blades at the end. The rate of drilling into the
rocks was also controlled from the earth, which enabled the strength of
soil at the drilling site to be determined. After the drilling was over, the
drill with the lunar soil was taken into the container and separated from
the drilling machine. The container with the lunar soil was hermetically
closed and the bar with the drilling machine was removed from the recovery
vehicle. Now began the preparations for the start of the Moon-Earth rocket.
The magnitude of the velocity to be attained by the rocket while taking
off from the moon and other parameters were transmitted to the rocket.
The flight of the Moon-Earth rocket with the recovery vehicle toward the
earth took place along a ballistic trajectory without correction. The trajectory
measurements, made by the center for remote space communications as
the vehicle approached the earth, enabled more correctly the determination
of the landing site. Near the earth, the recovery vehicle was separated from
the instrument compartment of the outer-space rocket and about 3 hours
after separation it entered the dense atmospheric layers of the earth. In
the course of its movement in the earth's atmosphere, the vehicle was orien-
tated in such a way that the incoming air flux ran across its front which
was most effectively protected against the action of high temperatures.
In spite of high acceleration forces, which attained 3 50 units, all the instru-
ments of the recovery vehicle worked faultlessly. The deceleration parachute
opened at 14.5 kilometers, followed by the main parachute. Simultaneously,
the direction-finding transmitters were switched on. The vehicle was detected
by a search and rescue group, while still descending. The recovery vehicle
landed on the earth on September 2 4, at 082 6 hours, in a predetermined
area, about 80 kilometers southeast of the town Dzhezkazgan.
The successful accomplishment of the mission of bringing lunar soil to
the earth with the help of an automated probe and the superb performance
of all the systems and devices, which had no breakdown throughout the
course of the flight, was prepared for on earth by the enormous amount
of work on the perfecting of the units and systems on board, under conditions
close to those of actual space flight, namely: vacuum, weightlessness, tem-
perature drops, vibrations, large acceleration forces, lunar gravitation, etc.
In addition to the versatility of the automated probe's exploratory potential
and its economic advantages over manned spacecraft, it has the ability to
work under conditions not yet accessible to man.
Speech by A.P. Vinogradov:
Preliminary results of study of lunar soil
I shall report some preliminary data about the lunar soil brought by
the automated probe Luna-i6. The soil sample was taken from the north-
2 97
eastern part of the Sea of Plenty at a point having the following coordinates:
o degree 41 minutes southern latitude and 56 degrees 18 minutes eastern
longitude. It was situated about 100 kilometers west of Webb Crater.
The Sea of Plenty has traces of relatively slow sinking, the shores do not
have a mountainous ring and have a jagged outline. It is like a plain with
low (100-3 00 meters) ramified-type swells. There are no radial systems
of large craters, in this region.
The samples characterize a new sea area of the lunar surface, situated
about 900 kilometers east of the landing site of Apollo-n.
In the process of work, the drill went relatively easily into the friable
layer of the moon soil or the regolith. The latter term, coined at the end
of the last century, denotes the friable surface material, independent of
the circumstances of its formation. After going in a certain depth, the drill
struck against some hard rock or against a large fragment of rock. Further
deepening of the drill did not exceed 5 millimeters which is confirmed by
a checkup of the drilling column.
The sample brought to the reception laboratory, went through dosimetric,
biological and toxicological tests, which, taking into consideration the
earlier data, was unnecessary.
The column of friable lunar soil (regolith) completely filled the drill.
When taken to the reception tray, it did not have visible stratification and
looked homogeneous. Only a small part of the soil near the blades, at a
depth of 3 5 centimeters, consisted of more thick-grained material. The
total weight of the soil column of Luna-i 6 was slightly more than 100 grams.
The soil (regolith) on the whole is a dark gray (blackish) multigranular
powder, which is easily molded and sticks together into isolated friable
lumps. This characteristic substantially distinguishes it from the terrestrial
formless soil, despite the predominance of fine-grained fractions, the average
size of the grain being 0.08-0. i millimeters. In this aspect, the lunar soil
is more similar to the wet sand or the clotted structure of our soil.
All kinds of marks are easily printed on the lunar soil. In the panorama
one can see the imprints of semicircular form. The soil can easily stand
as a vertical wall. For example, when poured through a funnel as a small
heap of 2 centimeter height near a vertically placed glass wall, it retained
its imprint without scattering and formed a natural 45 degree slope. In
spite of its good adherence, it is easily sifted through sieves. It is interesting
to note the high electrifying capacity of the lunar soil, which is revealed,
for example, by the sticking of its particles to the surfaces of organic glass
and polyfluoroethylene resin etc.
The size of soil grains increases with the depth. On the basis of this
criterion we can form zones, gradually replacing each other. Let us call
them zones A, B, C, D and E.
Zones A and B are made of fine-grained material with low content of
2 98
larger fractionsfrom o to 15 centimeters of the column length.
Zones C and D are made of mixed-grain material which includes pieces
of rocks and other particles of size more than three millimetersfrom 15 to
3 3 centimeters of column length.
Zone E is made of large-grained materialfrom 3 3 to 3 5 centimeters of
column length.
To zone A belongs the most friable surface layer (0-5 centimeters). Its
characteristics determine the main optical characteristics of the lunar surface
and correspond to high porosity of the surface structure. Probably, the
thickness of the most friable layer varies from place to place, but the average
volumetric weight for the 5 centimeter layer has been determined, according
to the Luna-is data, as 0.8 grams per cubic centimeter and this can be
presumed to be true for the landing site of Luna-16 also.
On the moon there was hard rock or its fragments below the column
(layer F).
The average size of the particles of less than i millimeter size varies in the
column from 70 microns in its upper part to 12 0 microns in the lower part.
The average volumetric weight of the soil in its natural occurrence for
the depth of insertion of the drill has been calculated to be 1.2 grams per
cubic centimeter. When the soil was freely poured into the graduated cylinder,
the bulk density was of the same order, while after shaking, it was 1.8 grams
per cubic centimeter. In this way the average porosity of the lunar soil
for a depth of 3 5 centimeters was found out to be 50-60%.
As has already been said, the lunar soil has dark gray or blackish color.
A visual appraisal of its luminosity turned out to be quite difficult because
its luminosity strongly changes with the relative position of the light source
and the observer's eye. This typical characteristic of the lunar soil is exhibited
in a peculiar form of the indices of scattering for different wave lengths
and the angles of light falling on it. The deciding factor here is the structure
of the surface and the reflecting properties of the glazed particles forming it.
The normal albedo, determined with the help of instruments, varies
from 8.6% for the ultraviolet range of the spectrum to 12 .6% for the near
infrared, while for the visible light it is 10.7%. This value corresponds to
a soil slightly more luminescent than that typical for the lunar seas in general,
but is close to the terrestrial albedo measurements of the Sea of Plenty.
The color of the soil called forth several contradictory appraisals of the
observers, who sometimes called it greenish and sometimes brownish. This
is explained by the fact that because of the peculiarity detected in its pro-
perties of reflection and scattering at angles close to the normal, a greenish
tinge appears. Increase in the viewing angle leads to the emergence of a
reddish-brown tinge. The difference in the perception of color increases
with the increase in angle of the light falling on the surface of the soil. It is
possible that the visual impression of different tinges arises because of the
2
99
presence of greenish as well as brownish grains of glass and minerals in
the soil.
When a microscopic study is made, a number of varieties can be distingui-
shed among the particles of the lunar soil, some of which substantially differ
from the formations on the earth. One can distinguish two main groups:
particles of primary magnitude rocks (basalt type) and particles which
have undergone considerable transformations on the lunar surface. The
first of these are characterized by an astonishingly fresh look, which is
observed on the earth only in freshly granulated stationary rocks. They
have almost no signs of toughness and have angular forms.
On the other hand, there is a large number of splintered particles of
complicated, unusual form, often vitrified on the surface, and a considerable
number of spherical, fused formationcooled dropletswhich look like
glass or minerals and are similar to the " space beads" met with on the earth.
The following groups of particles among the larger fractions have been
distinguished and are being studied.
Basalt rocks. Among these one can distinguish two types, characterizing
the conditions of cooling of the basalt melt: fine-grained basalts and large
crystalline gabbroid basalts. Approximately a quarter of all the large grain
fractions are of this type. Mainly these rocks consist of plagioclase, pyroxene,
ilmenite and olivine. In different particles their relative contents change
substantially.
Feldspar rocks (anorthosites). These are white, polycrystalline grains, in
insignificant number. They are interesting, because some of the investigators
consider them to be representatives of the mainland rocks of the moon,
which are scattered over considerable distances.
G rains of isolated minerals. Among the monomineral grains, plagioclase,
olivine, pyroxene and ilmenite (i.e. the main minerals of the basalt rocks)
have been identified. Their number among the large fractions is not large,
but it increases with the decrease of the size of the particles.
Cooled droplets-beads and similar formations. In the soil one comes across
glass beads, pear-shaped and dumbbell-shaped cooled droplets of different
colors: transparent, turbid-white, greenish, yellow-brown and opaque;
and often hollow. Their shine varies from glass-like to metal-like. The
number of these formations increased in small fractions. They are formed
in the process of their spraying in the melted form at temperatures substan-
tially higher than the temperatures of melting of rocks and meteorites.
Breccia. These are cemented and lithified rocks formed as a result of
molding of finely granulated material of regolith and contain all its compo-
nents, including the primary magmatic rocks, in different proportions.
In some breccia rocks, a round form of the particles as well as a weak molding
which leads to easy destruction of such particles with mechanical action-
is observed. A characteristic feature of many breccia is their magnetizability.
300
Breccia forms about 40% of the total number of particles.
Sintered mass. These are fine sintered particles which form assemblies
of very complicated, irregular, dendritic form. As in the case of breccia,
they are also composed of all kinds of particles. The number of sintered
particles is about 15-2 0% of the total number of particles. These are observed
normally in large fractions only.
The breccia and sintered particles are interesting, since they show that
on the lunar surface, simultaneously with the processes of breaking
and granulation of the rocks, the process of consolidation of particles is
also taking place.
It must be stressed that some tenacity of the lunar soil was known earlier
also. However, among the reasons for such characteristics, probably the
complex form of the soil particles was not fully appreciated. Obviously,
purely mechanical adhesion of particles, which enables the formation of
separate clotted assemblies, is explained by the peculiarities of the form
of the particles and the specific character of their surface.
G lasses, vitrified and scorified particles. Among all types of particles of lunar
rocks, more than half are fused or scorified from one or more sides. The
color of the glass formed depends upon the composition of the fused particles.
The particles of tones from brown to black dominate. One comes across
blistered, dull fire-polishing, as well as smooth, glazed vitrification.
This typically lunar glazing can take place only during instantaneous
heating of an altogether cold particle, which distinguishes such vitrification
from, say, the volocanic glasses.
The glass of volcanic origin (volcanic ash) is a type of brownish, largely
blistered, completely fused grains with typical conchoidal fractures, which
could be formed by the breaking of comparatively large masses of melted
rocks. The total number of glasses of this type is not large.
It must be noted that the contents of different morphological types of
particles change with the depth of the column. As we go deeper, the relative
contents of the sintered mass and the scorified particles decrease while
the number of gabbroid-type basalt particles increases. This may indicate
the composition of the primary rocks in the landing area.
Particles of metallic iron are occasionally found in the form of isolated
splinters of, probably, iron meteorites, as in theformof components of breccia
and sintered mass. They determine the main magnetic properties of the
lunar regolith.
The mechanical, electromagnetic and thermophysical properties of the
soil are being studied. For example, the transmission of heat through a
layer of lunar matter under the conditions of outer space vacuum takes
place through radiation and contact heat transfer. Measurements have
shown that the specific heat of the soil does not depend on the density of
covering, and on an average, corresponds to the rocks on the earth, but
3 01
the thermal conductivity is characterized by extremely low magnitudes,
much less than those of the best heat insulating materials on the earth.
At present, the chemical composition of different fractions of the soil
is being determined. According to the chemical composition, the soil matter
represents granulated basalt-type rocks. As early as 1966, on the basis
of the Luna-ro data, we had indicated the basaltic nature of the surface
layers of the moon.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LUNAR ROCKS
Si0
2
TiO
2
A1
2
0
3
FeO
MgO
CaO
Na
2
0
K
2
0
MnO
Cr
2
0
3
ZrO
2
Basalt rocks
of Luna- 1 6
43 .8
4-9
13 -65
19-3 5
7-05
10.4
o-3 3
0.15
0.2
0.2 8
0.04
Fine fractions Basalt rocks
of Luna- 16 of Apollo- 12
41.7
3 -3 9
I5-3 2
16.8
8.73
12 .2
0-3 7
0.10
O.2 I
0.3 1
0.015
4
0
3 -7
I 1.2
2 1-3
I I . 7
10.7
0-45
0.065
O.2 6
-55
0.02 3
Fine fractions
of Apollo- 1 2
42
3 -i
H
' 7
13
10
0.40
0.18
0.2 5
0.41
0.09
The table shows some data about the composition of the fine fraction
and the pieces of compact rocks brought by Luna-i6 as compared to the
data of Apollo-12 samples. One observes a tendency of decrease of several
elements in the fine fraction as compared to the compact rocks, as in the
case of FeO, TiO
2
, etc. For others, there is an increase in the fine fraction,
especially for A1
2
O3 , Th, U, etc. The contents of Th and U are of the same
order as for Apollo-i i and Apollo-is; Th of the order of io~
4
and U, io~
5
%.
Although the site of the Luna-i6 samples is situated at a distance of 900
kilometers from the Apollo-11 site-the Sea of Tranquility-there is consider-
able difference in the contents of TiO
2
, ZrO
2
, rare-earth elements and others,
which are less as compared to the Apollo-u site and in FeO which is more.
It is interesting that the samples of Luna-16 and Apollo- n have equally
high contents of cosmogenic inert gases He, Ar, Xe and Kr, which cannot
be compared with the Apollo-12 samples. But at the same time, as one
can see from the table, in general composition the Luna-16 samples are
closer to the Apollo-is samples, which were taken from the Ocean of Storms
at a distance of 2 ,500 kilometers from the landing site of Luna-i6. But probably
the strength of regolith in the region of the Ocean of Storms is insignificant.
302
At present we have analyses of 70 chemical elements for the samples
of Luna-16, and isotopic analyses. The short-lived radio nuclides in the
lunar matter, formed under the action of solar wind, are being analyzed.
Thus, the crystalline rocks of the surfaces of the lunar seas are of the same
basaltic type, but differ in the content of certain chemical elements. Their
composition is close to the composition of primitive basalts on the earth.
Lunar seas are plains which were earlier filled with volcanic lava. Basalt-
type rocks are formed as the easiest fusible part during the zonal fusion of
the internal matter of the planet. We can presume that the general process
of differentiation of the matter of the earth and the moon, and probably
of other planets also, took place in similar ways, although they have attained
different stages of development.
Matter of these lava seas underwent lunar breaking, and maybe, as it
were, " lunar turning inside out." The turning inside out and destruction
of rocks on the earth is taking place mainly under the effect of oxygen,
water and organisms. There is nothing of this kind on the moon. Absolutely
different factors of destruction of rocks are acting on the moon: solar wind,
corpuscular cosmic radiation, meteorite blows, substantial vibration of
temperature on the surface and outer space vacuum. The task now is to
find out which factors are the most important in the process of disintegration
of the lunar surface rocks.
The collisions of meteorites and micrometeorites, which can strike the
moon at high velocity, can destroy the surface rocks of the moon in large
quantity, thus intermixing the whole friable material. But it is necessary to
find sufficient traces of these meteorites in the lunar soil. The corpuscular
radiation undoubtedly acts on lunar rocks and the induced radioactivity
etc. emerges. But it does not penetrate deep into the rocks. Finally, maybe,
volcanic outbursts on the moon in the outer space vacuum, cause granulation
and formation of the ash-like matter. But this is only an assumption so far
and needs confirmation.
Study of lunar rocks is particularly important for understanding the
processes on the earth in the earlier period of its existence.
Much work lies ahead.
At the end of the press conference M.V. Keldysh and other scientists
replied to a number of questions from journalists.
Izvestiya, October 2 8, 1970
AWARDS FOR SUCCESS IN OUTER SPACE
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, has conferred the title
3 03
of 'Hero of Socialist Labor' upon a group of designers and workers, and
awarded USSR Orders and Medals to a large number of workers, who
distinguished themselves in the creation and launching of the automated
space probe Luna-16.
In a decision taken by the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council
of Ministers, USSR, a Lenin Prize and two USSR State Awards in the
field of science and technology have been awarded to the scientists, designers,
engineers and workers who created the automated probe Luna-16 which
delivered lunar soil to the earth.
Pravda, November 14, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ZOND-8 IN FLIG HT
In accordance with the Soviet space research program, an automated
probe Zpnd-8 was launched in the direction of the moon on October 2 0,
1970.
The automated probe was introduced into a precalculated trajectory
from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. The purpose of
the flight is to conduct physical investigations along the flight path, to
photograph the moon and earth from various distances and to work on the
further improvement of the systems, assemblies, and design of the space
vehicle.
According to the program, on October 2 4, ^pnd-8 will fly by the moon
and enter the flight trajectory toward the earth, returning to the earth on
October 2 7.
The automated probe %pnd-8 is moving along a trajectory close to that
calculated. On October 2 1, at 1000 hours Moscow time, the probe was
situated at a distance of 118 thousand kilometers from the earth, over a
point on the terrestrial surface with the following coordinates: 2 7 degrees
5 minutes northern latitude and 8 degrees 54 minutes western longitude.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe.
According to the telemetric information, the systems on board, scientific
equipment and the assemblies of the probe are functioning normally. The
center for coordination and computation is processing the information
received.
Pravda, October 2 2 , 1970
34
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
ZOND-8 RETURNS TO EARTH
As has already been reported, an automated probe Zpnd-8 was launched
in the Soviet Union on October 2 0, 1970. After a seven-day flight, during
which it flew by the moon on October 2 4, ^ond-8 returned to the earth
on October 2 7.
The probe splashed down at 1655 hours Moscow time, in a predetermined
area in the Indian Ocean, about 73 0 kilometers southeast of the Chagos
Archipelago. The vehicle was picked up by a ship of the search-rescue
service.
In order to test one of the possible return variants for space vehicles
approaching the earth, ^ond-8 entered the earth's atmosphere from the
northern hemisphere. In this process, the ground measurement posts
situated in the Soviet territory controlled the approach of the probe to
the earth and most of its flight trajectory.
Another experiment in outer space has been successfully completed.
The envisaged program of scientific and technical investigations and experi-
ments has been fully accomplished.
Pravda, October 2 8, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i? IN FLIG HT
In accordance with the space research program, an automated probe
Luna-ly was launched in the Soviet Union on November 10, 1970, at 1744
hours Moscow time.
The purpose of the flight is the perfecting of new systems on board and
the continuation of the scientific investigations of the moon and near-moon
space.
The automated probe Luna-ij took off for the moon from the orbit of
an artificial earth satellite and entered a trajectory close to the calculated
one.
On November 11, at 0900 hours Moscow time, the probe was situated
at a distance of 13 9 thousand kilometers from the surface of the earth.
According to telemetric information, the systems and assemblies on board
the probe are functioning normally.
The observation of the probe and the measurement of its coordinates
is being carried out by the radio measurement and optical devices of the
ground command-measurement complex and astronomical observatories
of the Soviet Union.
305
The center for coordination and computation is processing the information
received.
Praoda, November 12 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i-j IN NEAR-MOON ORBIT
As has already been reported, an automated probe Luna-iy was introduced
into a flight trajectory toward the moon on November 10, 1970.
In the course of the flight on the earth-moon route, 3 6 radio communi-
cations sessions were conducted from the probe, during which the parameters
of flight trajectory were measured and the functioning of the systems on
board was checked. For the probe to enter the predetermined region of
near-moon space, corrections of its flight trajectory were carried out on
November 12 and 14.
When the probe approached the moon, it decelerated, and entered a
selenocentric orbit with the following parameters:
height over the surface of the moon 85 km;
orbital inclination to the lunar
equatorial plane 141 deg;
lunar orbital period i hr 56min.
The flight program envisages multiple maneuvering by the probe in the
near-moon orbit.
The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio
communications with the automated probe Luna- ij.
According to the telemetric information, the equipment on board is
functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is
processing the information received.
Pravda, November 16, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY
Lunar self-moving vehicle conducts experiment.
Automated investigator is controlled from the earth
On November 17, 1970, at 0647 hours Moscow time, the automated
probe Luna-17 accomplished a soft-landing (Fig. 3 2 ) on the lunar surface
in the region of Sea of Rains.
306
Fig. 32. Landing of the automated probe Luna-17 on the surface of the moon.
Fig. 33. Landing stage with Lunokhod-1 on the surface of the moon.
307
On the leading stage of the probe is mounted a lunar self-moving vehicle
Lunokhod-1 (Fig. 3 3 ).
For the first time in the history of astronautics an automated self-moving
lunar vehicle has been transported to the moon, and has started scientific
investigations.
For ensuring the landing of the probe in the predetermined area of the
lunar surface on November 16, maneuvering was carried out in near-moon
space. The probe entered an elliptical orbit with a minimum distance of
19 kilometers from the lunar surface.
The operations of descent from the orbit of an artificial lunar satellite
and soft-landing on the lunar surface were accomplished with the help
of the unified landing stage.
After landing, checking of the systems on board and survey of the lunar
surface, on a signal from the earth at 092 8 hours Moscow time, the automated
vehicle Lunokhod-1 emerged from Luna- ij along a special gangway. The
self-moving vehicle moves on the lunar surface with the help of an 8-wheel
chassis (Fig. 3 4).
Fixed on Lunokhod-1 and the landing stage are flags and plaques depicting
the State emblem of the Soviet Union and a bas-relief of Lenin.
For conducting scientific investigations on the lunar surface at various
Fig. 34. Testing of Lunokhod-1 on earth, imitating the lunar soil.
308
distances from the landing site, and for testing the performance of the vehicle,
Lunokhod is equipped with scientific apparatus, instruments and systems
for control, radio communications and TV observation (Fig. 3 5).
Fig. 35. Antenna of Lunokhod-1.
In accordance with the Soviet-French agreement for cooperation in the
study and conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes, a French reflector
for laser location of the moon has been fitted on board Lunokhod.
Lunokhod-1 has moved away from the landing stage to a distance of 2 O
meters and has started a program of experiments.
The movements of Lunokhod-1 are being controlled by the center for
remote space communications on the basis of the TV information about
the position of the vehicle and the nature of the surrounding lunar surface.
According to the telemetric information, the systems on board Lunokhod-1
are functioning normally.
Soviet science has obtained a new efficient device for the exploration
of the moon with the help of automated vehicles.
Pravda, November 18, 1970
3 09
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNOKHOD CONTINUES ITS WORK
The automated vehicle Lunokhod-1, after its initial movement on the lunar
surface, is continuing the program of scientific and technical investigations
near the landing site of the Luna-17 probe.
In a radio and TV communications session on November 17, 1970, the
systems on board Lunokhod were checked. According to the telemetric infor-
mation, all the systems of the vehicle are functioning normally. The tempera-
ture and pressure in the hermetic container are: temperatureplus i8C;
pressure780 mm Hg.
The telecast of the lunar surface was transmitted to the earth with the
help of telephotometers. The quality of the telecast was good.
In the panorama of the lunar surface one could clearly see the traces
left by Lunokhod. Some parts of Lunokhod could also be seen well.
According to the program of scientific investigations, the extragalactic
X-ray background was measured with the help of the X-ray telescope.
The working program of the Soviet automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 is
being carried out successfully.
Pranda, November 19, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNOKHOD-1 CONTINUES TO CARRY OUT A PROG RAM
OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INVESTIG ATIONS
On November 18, at 2 3 00 hours Moscow time, the normal radio and TV
communications session with the Soviet automated vehicle Lunokhod-1
began. The following main tasks were accomplished: improvement of con-
trolling the self-moving automated vehicle, panoramic survey of the site
and its characteristic portions, and carrying out of planned scientific
experiments. The session continued for 4 hours 40 minutes.
After checking the systems on board and setting the solar battery in the
necessary position, the automated vehicle moved away from its parking
site and turned so that the Luna- 77 landing stage could be seen by the tele-
photocamera.
Afterward Lunokhod was turned in a southeasterly direction for its next
move.
Its route passed over a relatively smooth surface, with depressions and
elevations of angles of inclination up to 10 degrees. The self-moving vehicle
met with stones and craters of comparatively small size on its path and
crossed a low lunar ridge. The systems of TV observation and radiotele-
metry enabled the operators controlling Lunokhod from the center for remote
3 10
space communications, to guide the self-moving vehicle on its route and
avoid obstructions on its path.
At various phases on the route, the mechanical properties of the soil
and the parameters of performance of the carriage were measured.
In the process of its work the self-moving vehicle covered a distance of
96 meters.
According to the telemetric information, all the systems of Lunokhod
functioned well. The temperature in the instrument compartment was i6G
and the pressure 750 mm Hg.
The program of scientific investigations and testing of the self-moving
vehicle in lunar conditions is being carried out successfully.
On November 2 0, at oooo Moscow time another communications session
with Lunokhod started. At this time the self-moving vehicle was situated in
the zone of radio-visibility of the space center for remote communications.
For 4 hours 2 5 minutes scientific and technical experiments were conducted
as Lunokhod was driven.
With the help of an X-ray spectrometer, the chemical composition of
the surface layer of the lunar rocks was determined. The experiments on
the study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil and the passability
of Lunokhod were continued. An instrument having a die for penetrating
the soil and a system of sensors for the measurement of the forces acting
on the chassis were used.
With the help of the X-ray telescope the measurements of the extra-
galactic X-rays, inaccessible to the instruments on the earth, were further
continued.
New panoramic views of the lunar landscape were received from Lunokhod.
In the pictures one can clearly see the traces left by the self-moving vehicle,
details of the lunar surface and parts of Lunokhod. Television cameras, for
the survey and appraisal of the route, gave the necessary information for
movement in the conditions of rough ground. At some places the inclination
of the surface reached 14 degrees. On its route the self-moving vehicle met
a deep crater, which was skillfully avoided by the operators. In the course
of the session, a large amount of telemetric information was received.
During this period, the self-moving vehicle covered about 82 meters. As
a result of the maneuvers accomplished by Lunokhod, it is now situated 12 5
meters from the landing stage.
The Soviet Lunokhod-1 continues to accomplish the program of investiga-
tions and experiments in the Sea of Rains.
Izvestya, November ao, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNOKHOD-r CONTINUES ITS WORK
On the morning of November 2 1, 1970, the Soviet automated self-moving
vehicle Lunokhod-1 completed 100 hours on the moon.
In a radio and TV communications session for i hour 55 minutes, the
scientific and technical investigations and experiments envisaged by the
program were carried out. In particular, the physico-mechanical charac-
teristics of the lunar soil were determined.
To select the parking site for the lunar night, which will set in on November
2 4 and continue for 14 and a half days, the movement and maneuvering of
Lunokhod continued along with transmission of the lunar panorama.
In the radio communications sessions on November 2 0 and 2 1, the systems
on board were checked and Lunokhod was surveyed.
According to the data received, all the systems of Lunokhod are functioning
normally. The temperature in the hermetic container is plus i8C and the
pressure is 73 0 mm Hg.
The automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 is continuing its work.
Izvestiya, November ai, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
PROG RAM FOR LUNAR DAY COMPLETED
197 meters covered on the moon; self-moving laboratory
transmits valuable scientific data to the earth
The first stage of the unique space experiment on the construction and use
of lunar transport has been successfully completed.
On November 17, 1970, the Soviet automated probe Luna-17 accomplish-
ed a soft-landing on the lunar surface illuminated by the sun, in the region
of the Sea of Rains. On the same day at 092 8 hours Moscow time, the automa-
ted self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-1 came down from the landing stage and
started carrying out an extensive program of scientific and technical investi-
gations and experiments.
Five days of active work by Lunokhod made it possible to carry out a set
of tests for the self-moving vehicle performing lunar exploration. In the
course of the motion over broken terrain, including craters, lunar ridges and
stones, an extensive program of checks and tests of its mobility was carried
out. Moreover, work was done from the earth on perfecting control by
telephotometric and television images of the lunar surface. Simultaneously,
multiple scientific investigations were conducted for the study of the physics
of the moon and outer space.
3 12
In the process of its work, the self-moving vehicle covered a distance of
197 meters. The checking of the assemblies and control of the self-moving
vehicle and TV observation showed good reliability and maneuverability.
The experiments confirmed the correctness of the basic design.
During the experiment, good quality telephotometric and TV pictures of
different regions of the lunar surface were obtained. On their basis one can
judge the peculiarities of the lunar landscape, surface structure and inter-
action of the vehicle's chassis with the soil.
In conformity with the scientific investigation program, the radiation
penetration on the earth-moon route was measured with the help of a
radiometer, and the radiational conditions on the lunar surface were checked.
In the experiment, streams of protons, electrons and alphaparticles of cosmic
radiation of galactic origin, as well as the angular distribution of low-energy
protons, were recorded. An X-ray telescope, fitted on Lunokhod, measured
the intensity and distribution of the X-ray radiation of extragalactic back-
ground and separate sources.
On the path of the self-moving vehicle, experiments were conducted on
the study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil, and the chemical
composition of the surface layer of the lunar rocks was determined.
The physico-mechanical properties of the soil were investigated by inject-
ing and rotating a conical blade die and by recording the parameters of
passability of the vehicle.
The contents of the main rock-forming chemical elements in the unpertur-
bed layer of the lunar surface were determined by X-ray spectral methods.
The scientific information obtained has been handed over to the institutes of
the USSR Academy of Sciences for futher study.
In the experiment with Lunokhod-i, from November 17 to 2 2 , 10 sessions of
radio and TV communications were conducted and a large amount of
information received. In a radio communications session the final prepara-
tions for the lunar night were made. Lunokhod-i was put in a predetermined
position and the solar battery panel was closed.
On November 2 4 the lunar night will set in over the Sea of Rains and
will last till December 8, 1970. In this period, the vehicle will remain in a
stationary position on the dark side of the moon.
The program for the lunar day has been completely accomplished.
Izvestiya, November 2 3 , 1970
LUNOKHOD-i MAINTAINS CONTACT WITH EARTH
As has already been reported, the lunar night has started from
November 2 4, 1970 where Lunokhod-1 is situated, and will last till December 8.
3 13
At present the self-moving vehicle is in a stationary, orientated position.
In accordance with the working program of Lunokhod, for the period of
lunar night, radio communications sessions are being conducted with the
automated vehicle for telemetric information.
In a communications session held on November 2 7, data was received
about the parameters and the conditions of the systems of Lunokhod. The
pressure of gas in the instrument compartment is 755 mm Hg, the tempera-
ture is plus I5C. The temperature of external parts of Lunokhodwheels,
antennas etc.-varies from minus 90 to minus i2 5C.
Lunokhod is orientated on the lunar surface in a definite position, to ensure
the functioning of the reflector for the laser location of the moon. The cover of
the reflector is open, which is confirmed by the telemetric information data.
The self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-1 is situated in the Sea of Rains, to the
south of Bay of Rainbows, at a point having the following lunar coordinates:
3 8 degrees 17 minutes northern latitude and 3 5 degrees western longitude.
(TASS)
Pravda, November 2 8, 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LUNOKHOD-1 STARTS PROG RAM FOR SECOND
LUNAR DAY
On December 8, 1970, the lunar day started. In the region of the Sea
of Rains the automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 began a new phase of work.
During the lunar night which lasted from November 2 4 to December 8,
the self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-i remained stationary, but the instruments
and systems situated in its instrument compartment continued to function.
During this period, two radio communications sessions were conducted with
Lunokhod-1, in the process of which telemetric information showed normal
functioning of all its systems.
When the temperature on the lunar surface was below minus I3 OG , a
temperature of plus i5C with insignificant variations was maintained inside
the instrument compartment of Lunokhod. The predetermined temperature
regime was maintained with the help of a special isotopic source of heat,
which heats the gas circulating in the body of Lunokhod. In this way, the
Soviet automated vehicle successfully accomplished the lunar night program
under the conditions of vacuum and low temperature.
On December 5 and 6, in the Crimean Astrophysical Laboratory of the
USSR Academy of Sciences, experiments were conducted on the laser
location on the lunar surface near Lunokhod. The ground equipment sent
signals in the direction of the moon and recorded clear signals reflected by
the laser reflector prepared by the French specialists and fitted on Lunokhod.
On December 9, 1970, a radio communications session lasting an hour,
was conducted with Lunokhod-1 during which the next phase of work was
carried out. The solar battery was opened and set toward the sun, to provide
the maximum charging current for filling the reserves of electric power in
the storage battery.
Panoramas of the lunar surface at the parking site of the self-moving vehicle
as well as the image of the sun rising over the lunar horizon, were transmitted
to the earth with the help of the telephotometers.
In the next session on December 10, 1970, the movement of Lunokhod
was started on a signal from the center for remote space communications.
In the course of its movement on the lunar surface, the vehicle made some
turns also. The TV systems transmitted clear pictures of the lunar landscape.
The program also included the determination of the mechanical properties
of the lunar soil.
During the session the necessary telemetric data showing the normal
functioning of the systems on board Lunokhod was received.
The center for remote space communications continues to control Lunokhod.
The scheduled program of scientific investigations and experiments is being
carried out successfully.
Pravda, December 11, 1970
9 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WORK BY LUNOKHOD
On December 11, the TASS correspondent reported from the center for
remote space communications:
Yesterday evening, at 1600 hours Moscow time, the next radio control
session of the automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 started. In the 9-hour session,
Lunokhod was driven for the first time after the lunar night. It moved over the
broken terrain firstly in a southeasterly direction and then southwesterly.
The route of the automated vehicle passed through isolated stones and
depressions. Controlled by the crew, Lunokhod carried out maneuvers to
avoid the natural lunar obstacles.
Lunokhod on its path met with a crater of 16 meters diameter and about
2 meters depth. The vehicle entered the crater, crossed and then climbed up
and came out into a level area. While it was passing through the crater,
its heel attained 2 7 degrees and the trim difference was 17 degrees. During
this first drive, 2 44 meters were covered.
During short-period halts of Lunokhod, investigations of the mechanical
properties of the soil were conducted. ^
According to the technical supervisors, the severe conditions of prolonged
3'5
lunar night did not affect the maneuvering characteristics and working
capacity of the vehicle.
(TASS)
Pravda, December 12 , 1970
LUNOKHOD-1 MANEUVERS
Center for remote space communications 12 (TASS). Yesterday at 1700
hours Moscow time started the third session of radio and TV communica-
tions with Lunokhod-1, which continues its work on the lunar surface.
On signals from the center for remote space communications, the tele-
photometers, which transmitted new high quality panoramas of the lunar
surface, were again switched on. At this moment, the sun had risen to an
angle of 2 7 degrees above the lunar horizon, which provided a contrast
illumination of the landscape.
In the course of the movement of Lunokhod-1, maneuvering was carried
out to perfect control in avoiding obstacles at different velocities. The
Lunokhod is moving south in the plain of the Sea of Rains, which is a mode-
rately broken terrain with craters of different sizes. The operations at the
center for remote space communications ensured the confident movement
of the Lunokhod along the selected route.
During the communications session on December n, Lunokhod-1 covered
a distance of 98 meters. During the short halts, the strength of the soil was
measured and a number of other experiments were conducted.
Variegated telemetric information received in the space center fiom the
lunar vehicle confirms that all its systems are functioning normally. The
temperature in the instrument compartment is plus I5C, while the maxi-
mum external temperature of Lunokhod reaches plus 108 C. The pressure in
the instrument compartment is 750 mm Hg.
Preliminary analysis of the scientific data received from the moment of
start of the second lunar day shows that the planned program of investigations
and experiments on board Lunokhod is being carried out successfully.
(TASS)
Pravda, December 13 , 1970
2 53 METERS SOUTHWARD

On December 13 , the TASS correspondent sent from the center for remote
3 16
space communications the following report about the work of Lunokhod-1
in the region of the Sea of Rains: In a radio and TV communications session
held on December 12 , from 1800 to 2 2 2 7 hours Moscow time, the self-moving
vehicle was driven further. Lunokhod moved south over broken ground. At
different points, higher speeds were tested. In the course of the session,
Lunokhod covered 2 53 meters.
When the vehicle halted, telephotometric panoramas of the lunar surface
were transmitted to the earth.
Lunokhod-1 has been orientated in such a way that the solar battery L> direc-
ted toward the sun for recharging the chemical power supply on board.
According to the telemetric information, all the systems, assemblies and
instruments of Lunokhod are functioning normally. The lunar journey of
the Soviet moon vehicle is continuing successfully.
Pravda, December 14, 1970
82 5 METERS COVERED
On December 14, the TASS correspondent reported from the center
for remote space communications: The usual session of radio and TV
communications with Lunokhod-1 started on December 13 , at 1900 hours
Moscow time. Lunokhod continued its motion southward, transmitting to
the earth telecasts of the lunar surface, scientific information and telemetric
data about the systems on board.
For all-around panoramas of the lunar landscape, Lunokhod-1 carried
out a number of turns and, at times, moved in reverse. The vehicle approached
one of the craters, which provoked great interest among the specialists
and selenologists.
An analysis of the telephotometric panoramic images and the stereoscopic
photographs made it possible to establish that the crater is relatively " young"
with clearly expressed relief.
During the communications sessions conducted on December 12 and
13 , the radiometer recorded an increase in the intensity of the corpuscular
stream of cosmic radiationalpha-particles and protons. In the period
between sessions, the radiation increased by dozens of times. The increase
in the intensity of the corpuscular stream was also recorded by the equip-
ment of the automated interplanetary probe Venera-J . This phenomenon
was caused by a powerful chromospheric outburst on the sun, recorded
by the astronomical observatories on the earth on December 10.
By the end of the session of December 13 , the sun had risen above the
lunar horizon to over 40 degrees. The thermal flux on the lunar surface
and on the body of Lunokhod has substantially increased, but a temperature
3 17
of plus I5C is being maintained in the instrument compartment of the
automated vehicle. Pressure in the compartment is 750 mm Hg.
In the course of its work on the moon, Lunokhod-1 has covered 82 5 meters
and is situated at present at a distance of 600 meters from the landing stage.
In accordance with the program, Lunokhod will remain stationary from
December 14 to 16. Scientific investigations will be conducted during this
period.
Pracda, December 15, 1970
1,02 2 METERS COVERED
Center for remote space communications, 18 (TASS). The Soviet automated
vehicle Lunokhod-i has been conducting scientific and technical investiga-
tions and experiments on the lunar surface for a month.
On the night of December 18, the 93 rd session of radio communications
with Lunokhod was held. The session continued for 3 hours 41 minutes. After
a short halt from December 14 to 17, when the automated vehicle conducted
scientific measurements in a stationary position, the driving of Lunokhod
continued.
The automated vehicle moved southeasterly. On its way, Lunokhod crossed
shallow depressions and avoided isolated stones. After the drive was over
the panoramas of the lunar surface in the new area were transmitted to the
earth.
In the course of the session, Lunokhod covered 197 meters. During the
whole period from November 17, the automated vehicle has covered a
distance of 1,02 2 meters.
According to the telemetric information, all the systems and assemblies
of Lunokhod-i are functioning normally. The temperature in the instrument
compartment is plus 2 iC, and the pressure780 mm Hg.
The lunar exploration with the help of the self-moving vehicle continues
successfully.
Pravda, December 19, 1970
MOVING SOUTHEAST
Center for remote space communications, ig (TASS). The next radio com-
munications session with the automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 started on
19 December at oooo Moscow time, and continued for more than 4 hours.
3 18
During this period, Lunokhod was driven further in a southeasterly direction,
scientific measurements were conducted and the telephotometric panoramas
of the lunar surface were transmitted to the earth.
At the beginning of its drive, the self-moving vehicle climbed out of
the crater in which it was parked since the previous session. Afterward
Lunokhod moved over ground covered with small craters. The vehicle bypassed
the deep craters with steep sides, but passed through the craters having
a slope up to 2 0 degrees. Lunokhod was negotiating slopes with a lateral
inclination of the vehicle up to 18 degrees. On its path, periodically the
physico-mechanical properties of the soil were determined.
During this session, Lunokhod covered a total distance of 2 63 meters. Now
it is more than i ,000 meters away from the landing stage.
After the automated vehicle was parked, an analysis of the chemical
composition of the soil was carried out and the panorama of the surface at the
parking site was transmitted to the earth. In one of the panoramas the earth
is also seen, on the basis of whichtaking into consideration the position
of the sunthe selenographic coordinates of Lunokhod can be determined
more accurately.
The telemetric information shows that the systems and assemblies of
the vehicle are functioning normally. The temperature and pressure of
gas in the instrument compartment are within the prescribed limits.
The journey of the automated vehicle Lunokhod- r in the Sea of Rains
continues successfully.
Pravda, December 2 0, 1970
ANOTHER 337 METERS COVERED
Center for remote space communications, 2 0 (TASS). Another session of radio
and TV communications with the Soviet automated vehicle Lunokhod-1
was conducted on December 2 0, from oioo to 042 6 hours Moscow
time.
At the beginning of the communications session, Lunokhod was standing
inside a shallow ditch of about 50 meter diameter. It climbed out and
started moving south. The route of Lunokhod passed through a plain having a
substantial number of small craters. At times, scatterings of stones of 10-15
centimeter size came into the field of vision of the Lunokhod TV cameras.
At the end of the session, Lunokhod entered a crater of about 100 meters
diameter with a steepness of about 10 degrees. After parking in the center
of the crater, panoramic views of the surrounding area were obtained, in
which one could see small craters and sharp-angled stones of a size up
to 2 0-3 0 centimeters.
3 19
3 3 7 meters were covered during the session. In this process, the physico-
mechanical characteristics of the lunar soil were determined several times.
In particular, the nature of the soil was determined at the inner slopes and
at the bottom of the crater where Lunokhod was parked.
In the course of the session, other scientific experiments were also continued.
Data was obtained from the data-storage device of the X-ray telescope,
which is at present recording the streams of radiation in the galactic
plane.
According to the radiometric measurement data, no substantial increase
in the intensity of the corpuscular cosmic radiation was observed during
the last two days. The radiation background conformed to the radiational
conditions characteristic for the quiet period of the sun.
The Soviet lunar vehicle is continuing its work on the lunar surface.
Pravda, December 2 1, 1970
LUNOKHOD-1 SELECTS PARKING SITE
Center for remote space communications, 2 1 (TASS). The program of scien-
tific investigations by Lunokhod-1, planned for the second lunar day, is
approaching completion.
In another radio communications session with Lunokhod heldon December
2 1, from 0500 to 083 0 hours Moscow time, an all-around survey of the
parking site of the vehicle for the forthcoming lunar night was carried out.
With this purpose in mind, Lunokhod was moved southeast down the
inside slope of a big crater, to the center where it had been on an earlier
visit.
The conditions for movement were complicated, since the inclination
of Lunokhod at times attained 2 3 degrees. On its path, Lunokhod came across
small craters of up to 5 meters diameter and scatterings of sharp-angled
stones. Some stones were up to half a meter in size.
The automated vehicle had to turn and reverse several times. The distance
covered by Lunokhod during the period of the radio communications session
was 78 meters.
In the course of the session, the surrounding surface was surveyed for
a stereoscopic image. An analysis of the panoramas and stereoscopic pictures
of the surface showed that the study of stones on the way is of considerable
scientific interest. It is assumed that Lunokhod is situated in a zone of ejections
from a relatively " young" crater in the neighborhood.
According to the telemetric data, all the systems and assemblies of the
self-moving vehicle are functioning normally. The temperatures in the
instrument compartment is plus i8C and pressure770 mm Hg.
320
The automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 continues to conduct scientific investi-
gations in the Sea of Rains.
Pravda, December 2 2 , 1970
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
SOVIET LUNOKHOD-i COMPLETES PROG RAM
FOR SECOND DAY
Lunokhod-1 has successfully completed the extensive program of scientific
and technical experiments planned for the second lunar day.
In the final session of radio communications, held on December 2 2 from
0700 to 083 6 hours Moscow time, operations were carried out to prepare
the automated vehicle for the lunar night. In the region selected for parking,
Lunokhod made a number of maneuvers to find the predetermined orientated
position. Afterward, the panorama of the lunar surface and scientific infor-
mation from the measuring instruments of the automated vehicle were
transmitted to the earth. At the end of the communications session the
solar battery panel was closed and the systems on board were put in a
stationary regime. During the lunar night, which will last from December
2 3 , 1970 to J anuary 7, 1971, the automated vehicle Lunokhod-i will remain
stationary.
The laser reflector of Lunokhod has been set in a position for experiments
on laser locations to be conducted by centers in interested countries. Thus
the second phase of work by Lunokhod has been successfully completed.
As is well known, the Soviet Lunokhod-1 started conducting scientific
and technical investigations on the moon in the region of the Sea of Rains
on November 17, 1970. In 3 5 days of functioningwhich include two
periods of work in the condition of lunar day, and one in the lunar night
a large amount of experimental data has been obtained.
The most important part of the program was an all-around test of the
characteristics of motion of automated vehicle for lunar exploration. In
14 sessions of radio communications, during which driving and maneuvering
of the vehicle was carried out, a distance of 1,719 meters was covered. In
this process Lunokhod-1 moved away from the landing stage to a distance
of about 1,3 70 meters.
The driving of the automated vehicle on broken ground, craters, stones,
elevations and depressions, was a good test of the performance of Lunokhod.
In the process of maneuvering and detouring and passing over obstacles
at substantial inclination of Lunokhod, work was done on the improvement
of the control from the earth with the help of television and telephoto-
metric images and telemetric information.
3 2 1
The experiments show the vehicle's high reliability, maneuverability
and controllability.
In the process of work, dozens of telephotometric panoramas of different
regions of the lunar surface and surrounding space and a large number
of TV images of the ground have been obtained. The TV information
received was used to select the direction of movement and orientation of
Lunokhod, as well as for topogeodesical and geomorphological investigations
of the surface.
On the path of the vehicle, the physico-mechanical properties of the
surface layer of the soilincluding the plane surface, crater slopes and iso-
lated stoneswere investigated regularly. In some regions the contents
of the main chemical elements forming the rocks were determined with
the help of an X-ray spectrometer.
In the course of the prolonged work of the vehicle, extensive information
has been obtained about the streams of space corpuscular radiation. The
data about the dynamics of the increase of corpuscular radiation intensity,
caused by the chromospheric outburst of the sun, is of great scientific interest.
The intensity and angular distribution of the extragalactic X-ray back-
ground and X-ray radiation from isolated sources were regularly measured
with the help of the X-ray telescope.
The scientific information received is being processed in the institutes
of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
According to the telemetric data, at present the parameters of the
equipment on board Lunokhod before the lunar night sets in, are within the
prescribed limits. The temperature in the instrument compartment is plus
i5G and the pressure is 765 mm Hg.
The unique space experiment in the region of the Sea of Rains on the
moon continues.
Pravda, December 2 3 , 1970
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SOVIET ASTRONAUTICS
Another brilliant page has been written in the glorious history of Soviet
astronautics. The automated space probe Luna-17 which took off from a
Soviet space base on November i o, made a soft-landing in a predetermined
area of the moon after an accurate flight with complicated maneuvers in
near-moon space. It delivered Lunokhod-i, the first-ever self-moving space
investigator, in the region of the Sea of Rains. This vehicle, equipped with
instruments for the ideal study of lunar soil properties, cosmic ray charac-
teristics, and radiational conditions, with the help of complicated TV,
telemetric and other experimental devices, has successfully completed the
322
first phase of its scientific work. Responding to every touch of the Soviet
specialists who control the work of Lunokhod from a distance of about 400
thousand kilometers, it left the first lunar tracks and transmitted the results
of its observations to the earth, thus enriching our knowledge of the universe.
The tracks made on the lunar surface by the wheels of this historic
vehicle, symbolize a new and outstanding achievement of Soviet scientists,
designers, engineers, technicians and workers, and its originality is a great
victory for the Soviet nation.
In the course of preparation and execution of this truly fantastic experiment
many complicated tasks which had never arisen before in science and
technology had to be accomplished. This clearly reflects the great creative
power of Soviet science, the industrial strength of our socialist country
and demonstrates the inexhaustible potential of the Soviet people, the
pioneers of communism.
World science, especially astronautics, owes much to the genius and
daring of the Soviet people. The country of the October Revolution supported
K.E. Tsiolkovskii, the founder of space travel. Ours was the first country
in the world to launch an artificial earth satellite. A Soviet citizencom-
munist Yurii G agarin-was the first earthman who dared to set out for
outer space. Our country has priority in many important astronautic achieve-
ments such as the first walk by man in open space, creation of the first
experimental orbital station, smooth descent of the automated research
probes into the atmosphere of Venus, and many others. In the field of world
selenology our country has made such memorable contributions as the
first probes to reach the moon, the first lunar satellite, the first soft-landing
of an automated probe on the moon, photography of the hidden side of
the moon, flights of the ond-type probes on the earth-moon-earth route.
The recent flight of the Luna-i6 probe which brought lunar soil to the scien-
tists'laboratories, was judged throughout the world as an outstanding feat.
Now Soviet science and technology again adds to its impressive list of
inventions for conquest of near and outer space. The self-moving research
laboratory opens new horizons for the study of the universe, since it is a
prototype of the " wise" machines of the future, which will help man in the
study of the moon and planets, assemble observatories and laboratories
far away from the earth, and replace them wherever it i possible and neces-
sary.
The accurate work of the self-moving scientific apparatus on the moon
is a real triumph for automation. It once again shows the breadth and
diversity of the Soviet space program, which creatively combines various
devices supplementing each other, for the conquest of outer space. From
our space bases, the manned spacecraft take off along with automated
probes. Experiments in near-earth orbits are being replaced by journeys
to far-off regions of outer space. Study of the earth from our outer space
3 2 3
neighbors will yield secrets of the moon and planets. Originality and
regular and purposeful application to a wide range of investigations geared
to the most important scientific and economic problems of the nation
are some of the specific characteristics of the Soviet space program.
This is precisely the approach demanded by the Communist Party toward
the technological revolution. Social advancement based on the rapid progress
of science and technology is considered by tha Party to be the present trend
in its politics for building communism. Rapid application of the achievements
of science and technology in the national economy and the strengthening
of the relationship between science and production are the most vital needs
of the day. The real success of the collectives of scientists and workers who
accomplish our space program is in their sincerity to satisfy the demands
of the Party. The Party organizations must see that this approach is also
affirmed in the research and production collectives also.
The latest triumph of our motherland in outer space is truly impressive.
At the loth Congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, while
talking about the successes of the Soviet people reviewed at the 2 4th Congress
of the CPSU, Comrade L.I. Brezhnev mentioned the progress of our science
and technology. He said: " One of the proofs for this is the remarkable
success of the first-ever experiment on the landing of an automated
investigator, Lunokhod-i created by the Soviet people." Our success is
being praised in brotherly socialist countries and has met with a high
opinion in other countries also. The word Lunokhod has entered the inter-
national lexicon along with the word sputnik.
The scientific trip of Lunokhod-1 for peaceful purposes arouses patriotic
pride among the Soviet people. Following the other Soviet conquerors
of outer space, they are full of the desire to serve their motherland with new
achievements in labor to honor rhe 2 4th Congress of the CPSU. The Soviet
people unanimously salute tht creators of this great triumph in outer space
with the motto: " Keep it up."
Praada, November 2 6, 1970
324
*-. ; . . ; . . . . -. -, lj [3fft^ :
IV
EXPLORATION OF DISTANT PLANETS
Page Intentionally Left L,
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
AUTOMATED INTERPLANETARY PROBE
VENERA-5 IN FLIG HT
In accordance with the space research program, an automated interplane-
tary probe Venera-5 was launched in the Soviet Union on J anuary 5, 1969,
at 092 8 hours Moscow time.
The main purpose of the probe is to continue the exploration of Venus
started by Venera-4. In Venera-5 the structure of the scientific and measuring
instruments has been enlarged. This will increase the accuracy of the
measurements and obtain additional information about the atmosphere of
the planet.
In the course of the flight of the probe along with track earth-Venus,
extensive scientific investigations will be conducted in outer space.
The automated interplanetary probe Venera-5 has on board a pennant of
the Soviet Union with a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and the State
emblem of the USSR.
The weight of the automated probe Venera-5, excluding the weight of the
last stage of the carrier-rocket, is 1,13 0 kilograms.
Venera-5 was introduced into the flight trajectory toward Venus from the
intermediate orbit of an artificial earth satellite. The launching from the
earth satellite orbit was carried out at 1047 Moscow time. At this moment
the probe was situated over Africa. The engine of the last stage of the carrier-
rocket worked for 2 2 8 seconds and imparted to the probe a velocity slightly
more than planet-escape velocity.
3 2 7
The automated probe Venera-5 was introduced into the precalculated
trajectory. The flight of the probe to the planet will continue for more than
4 months. The probe will reach Venus in the middle of May 1969, after
covering a distance of some 2 50 million kilometers, and will carry out a
smooth descent in its atmosphere. The study of the atmosphere of Venus is
scheduled to be carried out throughout the period of the descent of the probe.
Regular radio communications will be maintained with the probe during
its flight and the scientific information will be received at a frequency of
92 2 .763 megahertz. Corrections of the flight trajectory of the probe are
envisaged to obtain the necessary accuracy of its flight to Venus.
On J anuary 5, 1969, at 13 00 hours Moscow time, the probe was situated
at a distance of 2 5 thousand kilometers over a point on earth having the
following coordinates: 116 degrees 50 minutes eastern longitude and 2 6
degrees 3 0 minutes northern latitude.
The equipment mounted on board the automated interplanetary probe
Venera-5 is functioning normally. Steady radio communications are being
maintained with the probe. The center for remote space communications is
controlling the flight of the probe.
The center for coordination and computation is processing the infor-
mation received.
Pravda, J anuary 6, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
VENERA-6 WILL CONDUCT SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIG ATIONS ALONG WITH VENERA-5
In order to make a more complete study of the planet Venus and to collect
more scientific information about it, a second automated interplanetary
probe, Venera-6 was launched in the Soviet Union on J anuary 10, 1969, at
0852 hours Moscow time.
The Venera-6 probe will conduct scientific investigations along with
Venera-5 which was launched on J anuary 5. Venera-6, like Venera-5, will
carry out a smooth descent in the atmosphere of Venus on its dark side. The
joint flight of the two interplanetary probes will make it possible to determine
the parameters of the atmosphere in different regions of the planet.
The probe Venera-6 will reach Venus in the middle of May, 1969.
The weight of the automated interplanetary probe-excluding the
weight of the last stage of the carrier-rocketis 1,13 0 kilograms. The
automated interplanetary probe Venera-6 has on board a pennant of the
Soviet Union with a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and the State
emblem of the USSR.
3 2 8
The scheme of introduction of Venera-6 into a heliocentric flight trajectory
was similar to that of Venera-5.
The interplanetary probe Venera-6 has entered the calculated flight
trajectory. Radio communications with th? probe and reception of the
scientific information will be carried out on a frequency of 92 2 .763 megahertz.
Corrections of the flight trajectory of the probe are envisaged to attain the
necessary accuracy in the flight to Venus.
On J anuary 10, 1969, at 1400 hours Moscow time the probe Venera-6
was situated at a distance of 65.6 thousand kilometers from the earth, over a
point on the terrestrial surface having the following coordinates: 98 degrees
47 minutes eastern longitude and 17 degrees 41 minutes northern latitude.
At this moment the probe Venera-5 was situated at a distance of i million
3 91 thousand kilometers from the earth.
According to the telemetric data, the equipment on board both probes
are functioning normally.
The flights of the automated interplanetary probes are being controlled
by the center for remote space communications.
The center for coordination and computation is processing the infor-
mation received.
Pravda, J anuary n, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
FLIG HT TO VENUS CONTINUES
The automated interplanetary probes Venera-5 and. Venera-6, launched in
the Soviet Union on J anuary 5 and 10, 1969 respectively, continue their
joint flight along the heliocentric orbit to the planet Venus.
Both probes are moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one.
Radio-technical systems of the probes, along with the ground devices,
ensure the measurement of the parameters of flight and the transmission of
scientific data and information about the regimes of work of the systems and
assemblies on board.
The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio
communications with the interplanetary probes.
In accordance with the flight program, 13 sessions of radio communi-
cations were conducted with Venera-5 and 9 sessions with Venera-6.
On February 6, 1969, at 1800 hours Moscow time, Venera-5 was situated
at a distance of 7 million 695 thousand kilometers and Venera-6 6 million
53 0 thousand kilometers from the earth.
Scientific investigations of the physical processes taking place in outer
3 2 9
space are being conducted in the course of the flight of the automated
probes along the earth-Venus track.
According to the telemetric data, the equipment fixed on board the probes
is functioning normally. Temperature and pressure inside the probe are
within the prescribed limits. Chemical sources of power supply ensure the
functioning of all the equipment. The stores of energy are being filled with
the help of the solar batteries.
The center for coordination and computation continues to process the
information received.
Pravda, February 7, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
FLIG HT TO VENUS CONTINUES
The automated interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 are continuing
their joint flight toward the planet Venus.
To ensure that the probes reach a predetermined region of the planet
Venus, their flight trajectories were corrected in accordance with the flight
program on March 14 and 16, 1969.
First, the special programs for the flight trajectory corrections were sent
to the space-borne control systems of the probes through radio signals.
The sessions of flight trajectory corrections of the probes were started on
signals from the earth. Further processesthe orientation of the probes with
respect to the sun and the star Sirius, their programed turnings and the
switching on and off of the corrective propulsion systemswere carried out
automatically, on commands from the electronic programer on board.
As the analysis of the telemetric information and the trajectory measure-
ments has shown, the maneuvers for the corrections were accomplished
successfully and the probes have entered flight trajectories which ensure
their reaching the planet Venus.
Venera-5 is expected to reach the planet on May 16, and Venera-6 on
May 17, 1969.
When the corrections were carried out, the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6
were situated at distances of 15.7 million kilometers and 15.5 million kilo-
meters from the earth respectively.
Steady radio communications are being maintained with the automated
probes. 3 4 sessions of radio communications have been conducted with
Venera-5 and 2 9 sessions with Venera-6.
According to the telemetric information, the scientific equipment and
systems on board the probes are functioning normally. The pressure and
33
temperature in the hermetic compartments of the probes are within the
prescribed limits.
The flight program continues successfully.
Pravda, March 18, 1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
LENIN'S BAS-RELIEF ON VENUS
Venera-5 descends smoothly in the atmosphere of
Venus. Probe Venera-6 approaching the planet
On May 16, 1969, the interplanetary probe Venera-5, after covering a
distance of about 3 50 million kilometers in 13 0 days, successfully completed
the interplanetary space flight and carried out a smooth descent into the
atmosphere of the planet Venus.
The probe delivered to Venus a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin,
pennants and the State emblem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Regular and steady radio communications were maintained with the
probe in the course of its flight along a heliocentric orbit. The probe Venera-5
carried out maneuvers in outer space on radio signals from the earth. Ex-
tensive scientific investigations of the physical processes taking place in outer
space along the flight path of the automated probe were carried out with
the help of the instruments on board.
The scientific information and data of the functioning of the systems and
equipment was uninterruptedly transmitted to the center for remote space
communications through radiotelemetric channels. On May 16, at 0708
hours Moscow time, Venera-5 approached the planet Venus to a distance of
50 thousand kilometers. At this moment a command was given from the
earth to start the final session of interplanetary radio communications.
Before Venera-5 entered the atmosphere of Venus, the landing vehicle
carrying the scientific measurement equipment on board was automatically
separated from the probe. At 0901 hours, the aerodynamic deceleration of the
vehicle started in the atmosphere of the planet, which was accompanied by a
sharp increase in the acceleration forces and a substantial increase in the
temperature of the outer surface of the vehicle.
As a result of the aerodynamic deceleration, the velocity of the landing
vehicle decreased from 11.17 kilometers per second to 2 1 o meters per second.
Then the parachute system was put into operation.
In the course of the descent by parachute, lasting for 53 minutes, the
parameters of the atmosphere of Venustemperature, pressure and chemical
compositionwere measured with the help of the scientific instruments
3 3 i
fitted on the vehicle. The radioaltimeter determined the height of the vehicle
over the surface of the planet.
The radio network on board ensured the uninterrupted transmission of
these measurements to the earth.
Important scientific data about the atmosphere of Venus is being pro-
cessed in the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
While the probe Venera-5 has successfully completed the flight, the auto-
mated interplanetary probe Venera-6, launched on J anuary 10 this year,
is approaching Venus and will enter its atmosphere on May 17, 1969, at
0903 hours.
Thus another glorious page in the history of the conquest of outer space
has been written by Soviet science and technology.
Pravda, May 17,1969
TASS ANNOUNCEMENT
OUTSTANDING EXPERIMENT COMPLETED
Soviet science has achieved another success. On May 17, 1969, automated
interplanetary probe Venera-6 completed its flightjust a day after the
descent of Venera-5along the earth-Venus track, which had lasted for
several months.
The probe entered the atmosphere of the planet at a distance of about
3 00 kilometers from the point of entry of Venera-5. The landing vehicle
descended smoothly in the atmosphere for 51 minutes. In the course of the
descent, the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus were determined and
transmitted to the center for remote space communications.
Like the probe Venera-5, Venera-6 also delivered a bas-relief of Vladimir
Il'ich Lenin and a pennant and the State emblem of the Soviet Union.
The program of study of the planet Venus with the help of automated
space vehicles is being accomplished from the Soviet Union systemati-
cally and successfully.
For the first time in the world, in the Soviet Union in 1961, the study of
the planet Venus with the help of automated space vehicles was started when
the probe Venera-i was launched. On February 2 7, 1966, the Soviet auto-
mated probe Venera-2 passed near the planet Venus, and on March i in the
same year, Venera-j reached the planet for the first time, delivering the
the Soviet pennant to its surface. On October 18, 1967, Soviet science
and technology achieved another outstanding triumph. For the first time in
the history of the conquest of outer space, the landing vehicle of the
automated probe Venera-4 carried out a smooth descent into the atmosphere
of Venus and measured its parameters. Unique scientific information was
3 3 2
received about the physical characteristics of the Venusian atmosphere.
The automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 continued the exploration
of this planet, enriching science with important data and widening our know-
ledge about Venus, thus making a new, remarkable contribution to our
understanding of the universe. In the course of the flight which lasted for
more than four months, the automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 carried
out important investigations of the physical processes taking place in inter-
planetary space. This has been achieved, thanks to the constant and success-
ful communications with the probes. 73 sessions of radio communications
were held with the probe Venera-5 and 63 with Venera-6.
In the course of the whole flight, the systems and the scientific equipment
on board the probes functioned perfectly. The necessary thermal regime in
the compartments of the probe
;
constant orientation of their solar batteries
with respect to the sun, and orientation of the parabolic antennas pointed
toward the earth, were all arranged. All this proves the high scientific and
technical level of the automated probes.
Perfect functioning of all the systems on board the probes ensured the
accomplishment of their predetermined program of flight to Venus and
smooth descent of the vehicles in the planet's atmosphere.
As envisaged, the landing vehicles of both probes carried out descent into
the atmosphere of the planet on its night side. In the process of the descent,
the scientific equipment on board the vehicles measured the chemical com-
position, pressure, density and temperature of the Venusian atmosphere.
For the first time in the world, scientific investigations of the Venusian
atmosphere were conducted in two of its regions almost simultaneously.
The design and flight of the automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6
clearly demonstrates the highly advanced state of Soviet space science and
technology, the talent of its scientists and designers, and skill of its
engineers, technicians and workeis. The latest outstanding success of
Soviet astronautics, achieved on the eve of the birth centenary of Lenin, is
a remarkable proof of the scientific and technical progress of the Soviet
Union and the enthusiasm of its people, and is another victory in the
conquest of outer space.
Pravda, May 18, 1969
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians, workers, all
the collectives and organizations, who took part in the building
and accomplishment of the flight of the automated probes
Venera-5 and Venera-6
Dear Comrades!
Our Soviet motherland has achieved another outstanding triumph in the
333
conquest of outer space. On May 16 and 17, 1969, a new experiment in
outer space has been successfully completed: the Soviet interplanetary
probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 have reached the planet Venus.
The landing vehicles of the probes carried out smooth descent in the
atmosphere, conducted a large number of scientific measurements and
transmitted valuable information about the planet, thus enriching man-
kind with new data about one of the little-explored heavenly bodies of the
solar system.
The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 delivered a bas-relief of Vladimir
Il'ich Lenin, pennants and the State emblem of the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics.
The triumphal flight of the Soviet probes Venera-5and Venera-6 is another
important step in the study of the solar system with the help of automated
space vehicles.
The new success of Soviet science and technology in the exploration of
outer space has been made possible by the heroic, inspired labor of all the
Soviet people. This scientific achievement has been accomplished at an
auspicious time as our country prepares to celebrate Lenin's centenary
the creator of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and founder of
the first workers'and peasants'government in the world.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet^ USSR, and the Council of Ministers,
USSR, heartily congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, techni-
cians and workers, collectives and organizations that took part in the
creation, launching and accomplishment of the flight of the automated
probes Venera-5 and Venera~6.
G lory to the heroic and creative Soviet people!
Long live the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the inspirer and
organizer of all our successes for the benefit of our great motherland in the
name of glorious communism!
Central Committee of the CPSU
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
Council of Ministers, USSR
To
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU,
THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR,
AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR
We, the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who took
part in the construction, launching and accomplishment of the flight of the
334
interplanetary automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6, and also in obtain-
ing and processing the scientific information, are reporting to the Central
Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the
Council of Ministers, USSR, that the flight programs of the interplanetary
probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 have been successfully accomplished.
With the help of the scientific equipment fitted on the probes, valuable
new data has been obtained about the physical processes taking place in
outer space and in the Venusian atmosphere.
Pennants, a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and the State emblem of
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics have been delivered to the planet
Venus.
The latest achievement of our motherland in the conquest of outer space
became possible only due to the heroic labor of our people and the great
achievements of socialism, attained under the guidance of our Communist
Party and the Soviet G overnment.
We dedicate this achievement of Soviet science to the centenary cele-
brations of Il'ich Lenin, organizer of the Communist Party, founder of the
Soviet G overnment and leader of the working people of the world.
We assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Soviet G overn-
ment, that we are always ready to perform any task for the further conquest
of outer space for the benefit of the Soviet people and the whole of mankind.
Pravda, May 19, 1969
IMPORTANT STEP IN UNDERSTANDING THE UNIVERSE
Soviet interplanetary probes
Venera-5 and Venera-6
Astronautics is steadily entering into the life of man. Each year the fields of
application of artificial earth satellite and space vehicles are widening. We
have seen with our own eyes how the satellite, spacecraft and automated
interplanetary probes, built by the labor and ingenuity of man, are enriching
mankind with new information about space and are helping to uncover Ihe
mysteries of the universe.
A big new victory has been achieved in outer space. The flight program of
the Soviet automated probes Venera-5 (Fig. 3 6) and Venera-6 (Fig. 3 7), to
explore the depths of the Venusian atmosphere has been successfully comple-
ted. New important scientific data has been obtained about the properties
and characteristics of the atmosphere of this planet, which has remained
till now mysterious in many respects.
335
Fig. 36. Automated interplanetary probe Venera-5.
1parabolic directional antenna;
2spherical balloons of the corrective
propulsion system;
3corrective propulsion system;
4orbital compartment;
5non-directional antenna;
6technological stand;
7short-range shield;
8astro-orientation instrument;
9solar orientation sensor;
10pressure system nozzles;
11 cosmic ray particle counter;
1 2ion traps;
13temperature sensor of the landing
vehicle compartment;
14solar battery panel;
1 5landing vehicle.
Main stages in the study of Venus
Venus has always attracted man's attention. In 1610 the first, still
imperfect, telescope of G alileo enabled him to discover the phases of Venus.
The vitally important discovery of the Venusian atmosphere was made by
M.V. Lomonosov in 1761. The next two centuries of observation of this
mysterious planet even with the help of optical devices yielded hardly any
additional information for an understanding of its peculiar properties.
The results of infrared spectrometry obtained during the last decade made
it possible to determine the temperature and chemical composition of the
atmosphere above the cloud layer and, in particular, about the presence of
carbon dioxide gas in the Venusian atmosphere. However, some opinions
were that its concentration did not exceed 5-10% and that the main com-
ponent, as in the case of earth, was nitrogen. So far as the temperature above
the cloud layer is concerned, the spectroscopic measurements showed that it
was approximately equal to minus 3 OC and depending upon the gas which
dominates in the Venusian atmosphere, it can be below minus 8oC also.
336
,.J
B
Fig. 37. Automated interplanetary probe Venera-6.
A study of the radio waves emitted by Venus, started in the middle fifties
and carried out with the help of radio telescopes, indicated a high tempera-
ture on the Venusian surface, of the order, 2 5O-450C. But there was no
firm conviction about the high temperature of the atmosphere. At the same
time the question about the pressure remained unsolved: values ranging
from one to a hundred atmospheres were cited. For explaining the results of
radioastronomical measurements, different models of the atmosphere were
proposed, including those which presumed the presence of a strong iono-
sphere near the planet, with comparatively small magnitudes of temperature
and pressure near the surface.
A sharp, qualitative jump in the knowledge about this planet took place
in the last few years, when the exploration of this planet with automated
inter-planetary probes was started.
The first automated interplanetary probe to be sent in the direction of
Venus on February 12 , 1961, was the Soviet probe Venera-i. Afterward, on
November 12 , 1965, the probe Venera-2 was launched and on November 16,
1965, the automated probe Venera-g. The probe Venera-g reached Venus
on March i, 1966, and delivered a pennant depicting the State emblem of
the Soviet Union.
337
The flights of these probes prepared the ground for the outstanding scienti-
fic experiment on the exploration of the Venusian atmosphere, carried out by
the automated probe Venera-4. On October 18, 1967, after travelling for
more than four months, it reached the planet and entered its atmosphere.
The landing vehicle of the probe made the first-ever direct measurements of
the temperature, pressure, density and chemical composition of the atmos-
phere. This session of interplanetary communicationsthe first one in the
history of mankindlasted for 93 minutes. These 93 minutes gave the first
real measurements of the parameters of the Venusian atmosphere, thereby
unequivocally establishing the existence of high pressures and temperatures
on this planet. The most important results were obtained on the chemical
composition of the Venusian atmosphere. Earlier, some scientists considered
that the carbon dioxide formed less than 10% of the total composition of the
atmosphere. But the probe Venera-4 showed that its contents are about
90%. The temperature near the surface was presumed to be from a few
degrees to several hundred degrees centigrade, and the pressurefrom one
to a hundred atmospheres. After the flight of Venera-4 it became clear that
the temperature near the surface is not less than 2 yoC, and the pressure
not lower than 18 atmospheres.
Explorations of the Venusian atmosphere were carried out with the help
of the American vehicle Mariner-5, which, a day after the completion of the
experiment by the automated probe Venera-4, passed by the planet at a
distance of about 4,000 kilometers. For the exploration of the Venusian
atmosphere, the American scientists used the radioscopy method, which
by taking into consideration the data about the gas composition determined
by Venera-4, enabled them to get information about the higher layers of
the planet atmosphere.
In the preliminary processing of the results of measurements taken by
Venera-4, the length of the phase of measurements was calculated on the
basis of the recorded pressure and temperature in two ways: starting from the
condition of hydrostatic stability of the atmosphere and starting from the
equations of motion. The reading of the altimeter at the beginning of the
functioning of the probe, 2 8 kilometers, coincided well with the length
of the phase of measurements. Thus it was assumed that the parameters
of the atmosphere were measured to the surface of the planet.
When a further, deeper, combined analysis of the results of measurements
taken by Venera-4, the radioastronomical and radar investigations of Venus
and the measurements taken by the vehicle Mariner-5 was made, another
assumption emerged, namely, the temperature and pressure near the surface
of Venus may be still higher. This is connected wjth the fact that the
reading of the radioaltimeter could correspond to two values of height,
differing by about 3 0-40 kilometers. Such an ambiguity is typical for the
altimeters with periodically modulated frequency. Thus emerged the as-
338
sumption that the landing vehicle of the probe could have stopped measuring
above the planet surface. In such a case, the external pressure of the
atmosphere, after attaining the limit value for the safety of the vehicle,
could have crushed the cover of the instrument compartment, thus des-
troying the integrity of the radio complex. Hence, during the remaining
portion of descent Venera-4 did not conduct measurements.
Naturally, the first flight of Venera-4 could not answer all the questions
interesting the scientists. New problems of clarification also arose. To meet
this demand, the exploration of the Venusian atmosphere was continued
by the same type of automated probes, Venera-5 and Venera-6. The purpose
of launching two similar automated probes was to get practically simul-
taneous measurements of the parameters of the Venusian atmosphere in
different regions. It imparted a new quality to the results of investigations
of the Venusian atmosphere.
Design of the automated interplanetary probes
Venera-5 and Venera-6
Both the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 are similar in construction and
range of instruments. They consist of two main parts: orbital compartment
and landing vehicle (Fig. 3 8), and weigh 1,13 0 kilograms.
The orbital compartment is a hermetic body of cylindrical form. Inside
it contains instruments of the radio network, astro-orientation system,
control system, thermal control system, chemical sources of the current and
scientific equipment. In the compartment, there are: the corrective propul-
sion system, optical sensors, slave organs of the astro-orientation system,
folding solar battery panels, antennas of the radio network and sensors of
the scientific instruments. The landing vehicle is attached to the orbital
compartment.
The landing vehicle has a form close to spherical. The diameter of the
vehicle is about i meter and its weight is 405 kilograms. The landing vehicle
has two hermetic compartments: instrument and parachute compartment.
The instrument compartment contains radio transmitters, the telemetric
system, storage battery, programer, automatic machine unit, thermal control
system, scientific equipment and radioaltimeter. In the lower part of the
landing vehicle, there is an attenuator for damping the oscillations of the
vehicle during its motion in the planet atmosphere.
In the parachute compartment there are two-deceleration and main
parachutes, sensors of scientific equipment, transmitting antenna of the
radio transmitter for communications with the earth, and antennas of the
radioaltimeter.
On the basis of the results of the flight of Venera-4, some changes have been
made in the design and instrumentation of the landing vehicle.
3 3 9
to
Fig. 38. Landing vehicle of the probe Venera~5.
1external thermal insulation; 6transmitting antenna;
2frame for holding equipment; 7radioaltimeter antenna;
3body; 8control unit;
Amechanism for opening 9storage battery;
radioaltimeter antennas; 10thermal insulation;
5heat exchanger; 11attenuator.
The main aim of the improvements made in the landing vehicle of the
probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 was to increase the accuracy in determining
the chemical composition., parameters of the atmosphere and their corres-
ponding heights, as well as to increase the depth of exploration of the
atmosphere.
The landing vehicles of Venera-5 and Venera-6 were made stronger within
the permissible weight limits, which made it possible to conduct measure-
ments of the parameters of the Venusian atmosphere within limits external
pressure from 0.5 to 2 5-2 7 atmospheres. The capacity of the landing
vehicles to endure high acceleration forces and temperaturesarising at
the time of aerodynamic decelerationwas increased.
The attachment components pf Ahe instrumentation inside the landing
vehicle were substantially changed. This was necessary to create a design
340
which can endure acceleration forces up to 450 units at the time of entry
into the atmosphere which is one and a half times the acceleration forces
acting on the probe Venera-4- The increase in the acceleration forces is ex-
plained by the fact that the velocities of entry of the probes into the Venusian
atmosphere in 1969 were much higher than those in 1967 because of the
different relative positions of the planets earth and Venus. The action of
450 units of acceleration forces can be explained as follows: an instrument
weighing i kilogram on the earth in a few seconds after entry into the
Venusian atmosphere will weigh 450 kilograms. Attachment components
must be strong to hold it in its place.
Moreover, in order to decrease the time taken for the descent in the
Venusian atmosphere the area of the main parachute was decreased by
several times, since earlier it had been designed for a less dense atmosphere.
The canopy of the parachute was prepared from a special heat-resisting
material, which can work at a surrounding atmosphere of temperatures
above 50OC. The composition of the scientific instruments was also changed
and the range of measurements by the instruments was determined more
accurately.
As the calculations have shown, the temperature near the surface of the
heat protection cover of the landing vehicles may attain 10-11 thousand
degrees at the moment of maximum thermal action of the atmosphere. Thus
much is demanded of the thermal protection material covering the external
surface of the landing vehicles.
High thermal isolation of the internal portion of the landing vehicle for
prolonged action in the high temperatures of the Venusian atmosphere is
also a complicated problem.
The equipment, instruments and assemblies of Verier a-5 and Venera-6
were tested extensively.
The large number of tests conducted in the simulator stands, imitating
flight conditions, had made it possible to ensure the faultless functioning
of all the systems of both probes in the course of flight and during the descent
of the landing vehicles in the planet's atmosphere.
Flight trajectory of automated probes
A number of factors have to be taken into consideration while selecting
the flight trajectories of the automated interplanetary probes toward
Venus.
Firstly, the selected trajectory must ensure the introduction of the probe
into an interplanetary track with minimum energy loss, to achieve maximum
pay-load.
Secondly, the selected trajectory must ensure the minimum possible
velocity while approaching Venus, to decrease the acceleration forces on the
landing vehicle at the time of entry into the Venusian atmosphere and to
lower the high demands regarding its strength and thermal protection.
Thirdly, it is better to have a trajectory which ensures the minimum
possible distance between Venus and the earth at the moment the probe
approaches the planet. In this case the conditions for radio communications
are the most suitable.
Fourthly, the trajectory must ensure the minimum possible energy loss
while carrying out correction.
The main requirement is normally considered to be the guarantee of
minimum velocity for boosting the automated probe while introducing
it into the flight trajectory.
As is well known, the earth and Venus are rotating around the sun
in close to circular orbits at distances of 149.6 and 108 million kilometers
respectively. Moreover, the earth is moving along its orbit at a velocity
of 2 9.76 kilometers per second, and Venus 3 5 kilometers per second.
For flying to another planet, the flight regime has to allow the probe
to meet Venusafter overcoming terrestrial gravity and moving along its
own orbit under the action of the gravity of the sun. The relative position
of the earth and Venus constantly changes due to difference in their periods
of orbiting around the sun. The flight to Venus with minimum boost velocity
is possible only in certain periods of the relative positions of the planets.
Calculations show that the launch has to be effected when the earth
'leads' Venus in angular motion around the sun by about 45 degrees (Fig. 3 9).
This relative position of the earth and Venus is repeated after 584 days.
This is exactly the factor which determines the periodicity of launching
of space probes to Venus.
The possible range of dates for the start of the probes Venera-5a.nd Venera-6
according to the calculations, was about a month. During this period J anuary
5 and 10, 1969, were selected for launching.
The duration of the flights for these dates was 13 1 and 12 7 days respectively.
Thus while there was an interval of 5 days between their launches, they
reached Venus with a difference of only i day.
The automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 were introduced into an
interplanetary trajectory from an intermediate orbit as artificial earth
satellite.
The magnitude of the boost velocity from the intermediate orbit was
about 3 .6 kilometers per second. The total velocity of the probe at the end
of the boost phase with respect to the earth was more than 11 kilometers
per second. To ensure the probe reaching the planet, the introduction
into the trajectory had to be carried out very accurately. If there is an error
of