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: Prepared by :
(A Govt o! We"t Be#$a% Co&pa#y'
B()a%pa S*a)t( B*ava#+ ,-./.0 EP 1 GP BLOC2+ Se3tor-V+ Sa%t La)e+
2o%)ata 4 500 06.+
Chapters Page No.
1. Chapter 1: Introduction 4
1.1 Background
1.2 Main Objectives and outputs of the study
1.3 Rural Electrification policy !ra"e#ork and $che"es
1.% Methodology
1.& $trategy for Electrification of 'illages in $undarbans
2. Chapter 2: Electrification Infrastructure and Supply in Sundarbans 19
2.1 Electricity (nfrastructure
2.2 )rid Electricity
2.3 Rene#able Energy *o#er *lants
2.% $olar +o"e $yste"s
2.& ,iesel )enerating $ets
2.- $tatus of +ousehold Electrification
2.. /nnual Electricity $upply
3. Chapter 3: Electricity demand esults from !rimary Sur"ey 31
3.1 O#nership of Electrical /ppliances and /verage 0onnected 1oad of Electrified
3.2 Energy 0onsu"ption pattern and Monthly E2penditure on Energy
3.3 3illingness to *ay for Electricity
3.% 0onnected 1oad and Electricity 0onsu"ption in 4on5,o"estic 1oads
3.& /verage /nnual *er 0apita Electricity 0onsu"ption
3.- Overall /ssess"ents
4. Chapter 4: Electricity #emand !ro$ections % 2&1& to 2&2& 3'
%.1 B/6 $cenario
%.2 )ro#th $cenario
%.3 Energy5Efficiency $cenario
%.% 0onclusions
(. Chapter (: Strate)y for electrification of *not to be )rid electrified+ "illa)es 43
&.1 3B)E,01 ,,) proposal
&.2 *otential of additional ,,) sche"es
'. Chapter ': Strate)y for *to be )rid electrified+ "illa)es (3
-.1 $trategy for 7to be grid electrified8 villages
-.2 Reduction in 9:, losses
-.3 6p5gradation of $ubstations
-.% (ntensification of Electrification
-.& $undarbans Electricity $upply 0orporation
-.- /vailability of *o#er $upply to the (slands
-.. )eneration capacity of the $tate
,. #emand Side -ana)ement (.
..1 Objectives
..2 Overvie# of the situations
..3 ,istribution $yste"
..% (nfrastructure of ,$M
..& ,istribution and *re5pay"ent options
..- ,istribution /uto"ation
... Better Manage"ent of ,istribution 9ransfor"ers
..; 0apacitor (nstallation
..< /doption of +igh 'oltage ,istribution syste"s
..1= *reventive and Regular Maintenance
.. /lternate Ener)y 0se includin) Coo1in) '(
9. Conclusion ,1
/nne2ure % 1 Methodology used for sa"pling of ;; villages for data analysis
/nne2ure 2 1ist of ;; villages selected for data analysis
/nne2ure 3 Rene#able Energy Resource /ssess"ent
/nne2ure 4 3B)E,01 ,,) proposals under RE0 consideration
/nne2ure ( $tatus of proposed electrification progra" in $outh 2% *arganas
/nne2ure ' $tatus of proposed electrification progra" in 4orth 2% *arganas
/nne2ure % , $uggestions for i"proving grid electricity infrastructure
Chapter 1: Introdut!on
1"1 Ba#$round
Electricity is an essential re>uire"ent for all facets of our life and it has been recogni?ed as a basic hu"an
need. (t is re>uired for hu"an develop"ent to "eet basic re>uire"ent for lighting and to cater the
re>uire"ents of entertain"ent@ co""unication@ health care@ education etc. Electricity can play an
i"portant role in econo"ic develop"ent through the develop"ent of agriculture@ "icro@ s"all and
"ediu" industries@ cold chains etc@ and can accelerate rural develop"ent.
9he (ndian $undarbans Alater referred as $undarbans in the reportB@ located in the $tate of 3est Bengal
across the districts of 4orth and $outh 2% *arganas@ is part of the largest single "angrove ecosyste" in
the 3orld. (t consists of 1=2 islands@ of #hich &% are inhabited. )eographically the islands are dispersed
and several of the" are >uite re"ote. $undarbans has 1=.- villages and a population of appro2i"ately %.&
9ill no#@ the $tate )overn"ent has used a three5pronged strategy to provide electricity to the population
of $undarbans@ it consists ofC
E2tending grid electricity to the islands adjacent to the "ain land having grid electricity
$etting5up rene#able energy po#er plants A21 in nu"ber co"prising 1- solar photovoltaic A*'B@
2 #ind and 3 bio"ass gasifier po#er plantsB in re"ote islands to provide grid5>uality electricity@
#hich is available for %5- hours in a day.
*roviding "ore than 1==@=== solar ho"e syste"s A3. 3p or .&3p capacityB@ to "ost of the
households in the re"ote islands
(n addition@ $undarbans also has 11% diesel generation sets@ each of 1=52& k3 capacity operated by
private operators to serve "ainly s"all "arkets and co""ercial loads. /lso@ there are appro2i"ately
1@2=@=== solar ho"e syste"s #hich have been provided either by non5govern"ent organisations or have
been purchased directly by the user households fro" the "arket.
3ith these efforts@ about one5thirds of the total population
Aabout 1.& "illion of appro2i"ately %.&
"illionB in the (ndian $undarbans has access to one or the other for" of electricity.
(n (ndia@ e2tension of grid has been the preferred "ode of rural electrification as apart fro" providing
electricity for lighting@ it provides additional benefits to the co""unity through street lighting@ pu"ping@
i"proved educational and health services@ agro5processing@ etc. +o#ever@ there are "any challenges in
e2tending grid5electricity in $undarbans. (n this inter5tidal delta and cyclone5prone region@ it is difficult to
e2tend and "aintain the electrical trans"ission and distribution A9:,B lines fro" the "ainland to the
islands due to #ide rivers or creeks resulting in technical li"itation and higher costs. !urther@ s"all and
dispersed nature of the electric loads results in long trans"ission lines and hence@ in relatively higher
9:, losses. 1ike "any re"ote regions in the country@ $undarbans has a high percentage of households
belonging to belo# poverty line AB*1B category as per 2==1 0ensus "ore than -=D households in
$undarbans belonged to the B*1 category Atable 1.1B. 1arge nu"ber of B*1 fa"ilies@ dispersed nature of
the settle"ents and non5availability of large co""ercial loads results in lo# revenue for electricity
distributor and hence@ poses a "ajor challenge for securing invest"ents and ensuring the long5ter"
$ourceC 0ensus of (ndia@ 2==1
*ri"ary $urvey
sustainability of electricity infrastructure in the region. . 9hus@ it is a vicious cycle@ in #hich lo# de"and
feeds into lo# revenue@ resulting in lo# invest"ent@ in poor >uality and hence@ in lo# de"and.
3able 1.1 !ercenta)e of 4!5 households
Re$!on %ou&eho'd& (%%)
%ou&eho'd& Be'o*
Perenta$e o, %ou&eho'd&
-e'o* BP+
4orth 2% *arganas 2=%@&3= ;-@;.. %2.&
$outh 2% *arganas %;<@.-- 33-@%;- -<
Sundar-an& (Tota') ./012/. 02313.3 .4"/
Source: Census 2001
,istributed generation using local rene#able energy sources A"ainly solar photovoltaic@ bio"ass and
#indB see"s an attractive option for re"ote islands and has been used >uite e2tensively for supplying
s"all a"ounts of electricity to "ore than 1&=@=== fa"ilies. Rene#able Energy AREB progra""e in
$undarbans@ in the for" of setting5up of s"all@ off5grid rene#able energy po#er plants #as first taken up
by 3est Bengal Rene#able Energy ,evelop"ent /gency A3BRE,/B during 1<<=8s. /t that ti"e@ none
of the villages in $undarbans #ere electrified. 9hese RE po#er plants provided the local population #ith
s"all a"ounts of electricity for a fe# hours in the evening to "eet the electricity re>uire"ent for lighting
and for operating very s"all loads. Over a period of ti"e@ the de"and for electricity for do"estic as #ell
as for econo"ic activities has gro#n significantly. 9he local population has been de"anding increasing
the capacity of the RE po#er plants but since the $tate )overn"ent has no sche"e for increasing the
capacity of the e2isting RE po#er plants@ nothing has been done on this front. 9hus@ as the e2isting RE
po#er plants are unable to "eet the increased de"and of electricity@ this has resulted in an increased
de"and for e2tension of grid. 3ith this background@ the )overn"ent of 3est Bengal chalked out a plan
to e2tend grid electricity to "ost of the areas of the $undarbans. 3est Bengal $tate Electricity
,istribution 0orporation 1i"ited A3B$E,01B through support fro" the $undarbans ,evelop"ent
,epart"ent and Rural Electrification 0orporation ARE0B has decided to e2tend grid electricity to all the
1=.- villages in the islands of $undarbans@ e2cept %% re"ote villages. Majority of the villages are being
taken up under the Rajiv )andhi )ra"een 'iduytikaran Eojana AR))'EB under #hich the 0entral
)overn"ent provides <=D grant to the $tate )overn"ents for village electrification progra""e. ,uring
the course of conducting the study@ the project consultant 5 3est Bengal )reen Energy ,evelop"ent
0orporation 1td A3B)E,01B 5 has also prepared a proposal for setting5up of ne# RE po#er plants and
electricity supply infrastructure in 3< unelectrified villages in $outh 2% *arganas. 9he proposal is under
consideration at RE0
as a part of the ,ecentralised ,istributed )eneration A,,)B sche"e under
R))'E. 9able 1.2 belo# gives a snapshot of the electrification status of the villages as #ell as
households in $undarbans.
3able 1.2: Electrification Status of South and 6orth 24 !ar)anas at 7illa)e and 8ousehold 5e"el
9he proposal has been approved by Rural Electrification 0orporation ARE0B for an a"ount of 11= 0rores.






























(1) (2) (3)
(>) (/)
South 20 Par$ana&
4o. Of 'illages
%% &<1 -3& 3< -.% &% % 1; .&=
++ 0onnections@ no.
2.;; 2&32-% 2&-=&2 3--;2 2<2.3% 1<-<23 1=< = %;<.--
11 k' 1ines@ k"
%%%..& 2&&;.. 3==3.%& 2%%.1 32%..&& 13=&..- 1 = %@&&3
19 1ines@ k"
1==&.;. 2%.;.3< 3%;%.2- &;1.<& %=--.21 1-3%.<2 1 = &@.=1
,ist. $ubstation@ F'/
<2= %.%%< %;3-< 12.22 -1=<1 2%&-3 1% = ;&@-&%
Esti"ated 0ost@ Rs
1-3.%& 11= 2.3.%& 12;.==G =.=. = %=1.&2
North 20 Par$ana&
4o. Of 'illages
13 2%. 2-= = 2-= &= 1 1& 32-
++ 0onnections@ no.
%2-2; &%=1= <--3; = <--3; 1=.;.= 22 = 2=%&3=
11 k' 1ines@ k"
.3..-& <&;.3& 1-<- = 1-<- ;<%.%; =.1; = 2@&<=
19 1ines@ k"
<%&.<% 1-1..; 2&-3..% = 2&-3..% 13&2.13 =.2; = 3@<1-
,ist. $ubstation@ F'/
1-131 2%.%3 %=;.% = %=;.% 21&&. % = -2@%31
Esti"ated 0ost@ Rs
3%.;- = 3%.;- .=.12G =.=1 = 1=%.<<
Cu?u'at!@e ,or North A South 20 Par$ana&
4o. Of 'illages
&. ;3; ;<& 3< <3% 1=% & 33 1=.-
++ 0onnections@ no.
%&%1- 3=.2.% 3&2-<= 3--;2 3;<3.2 3=%.<3 131 = -<%2<-
11 k' 1ines@ k"
11;2.% 3&1..=& %-<<.%& 2%%.1 %<%3.&& 22==.2% =.<1 = .1%3..<
19 1ines@ k"
1<&1.;1 %=<-.1< -=%; &;1.<& --2<.<& 2<;..=& 1.1; = <-1..==
,ist. $ubstation@ F'/
1.=&1 .21<2 ;<2%3 12.22 1=1<-& %-12=.3
= 1%;=;&
Esti"ated 0ost@ Rs
= 1<;.31 11= 3=;.31 1<;.12G =.=< = &=-.&1
*Cost of these projects has been estimated on the basis of average cost of 39 DDGs a!read" approved b" #$C%
9otal esti"ated cost@ at current price level@ for further intensification of electrification in the villages that
are proposed to be grid connected
is Rs 1<;.12 0rore. 9his is in addition to the Rs 3=;.31 0rore
sanctioned under different sche"es of Rural Electrification. /n additional invest"ent of Rs. 1== 0rore is
esti"ated for upgradation and further intensification of already electrified villages@ #here grid e2tension
is not possible and no sche"es have been announced by 3B$E,01. (n case it is decided to set up a
9his is based on the assu"ption that only 1=D of the total households in the proposed villages #ill be connected to the grid@ as
per latest definition of village electrification.
separate 0orporation Acan be called as H$undarbans Electricity $upply 0orporationIB@ an additional
a"ount of Rs. 1= 0rore "ay be re>uired to#ards establish"ent cost of the said corporation.
1"2 Ma!n O-Bet!@e& and Output& o, the StudC
9he )overn"ent of (ndia has re>uested the 3orld Bank to support the )overn"ent of 3est Bengal in
designing and i"ple"enting a $trategic /ction *lan A$/*B for socio5econo"ic develop"ent of the (ndian
$undarbans. 9he 3orld Bank a#arded an activity on preparation of a report on H("proving Energy
(nfrastructure in (ndian $undarbansI to 3est Bengal )reen Energy ,evelop"ent 0orporation 1td
9he objective of the study is to develop a fra"e#ork for sustainable energy delivery "echanis" for
i"prove"ent in electricity supply and hence@ socio5econo"ic develop"ent of the (ndian $undarbans.
9he study has three "ain outputsC
1. 0reating database on electricity for $undarbansC
o Maps sho#ing current village5#ise electrification status@ location of rene#able energy syste"s@
villages planned to be covered under the grid5e2tension and through the ,ecentrali?ed
,istributed )eneration A,,)B sche"e@ e2isting and planned electricity trans"ission and
distribution net#ork.
o /ssess"ent of present and future electricity de"and for residential@ co""ercial@ industrial@ and
other loads.
o /ssess"ent of satisfaction of the people #ho have access to electricity.
2. ,eveloping a strategy for provision of electricity to villages that are not planned to be grid connected
3. /naly?ing the strategy for provision of electricity to villages 7already8J7to be8 grid connected
including i"pact analysis based on data collected fro" electrified villages.
Before the "ethodology and results of the study are presented@ it is i"portant to have a look at the
national rural electrification policy fra"e#ork@ particularly the R))'E #hich is the single5largest
sche"e in the country under #hich rural electrification #orks are being undertaken in the country as #ell
as in the $undarbans.
1"3 Rura' E'etr!,!at!on Po'!C : Fra?e*or# and She?e&
9he 4ational Electricity *olicy 2==& states that the key develop"ent objective of the po#er sector is the
supply of electricity to all areas including rural areas as "andated in $ection - of the Electricity /ct 2==3.
/ccordingly@ the 0entral )overn"ent launched@ in /pril 2==&@ an a"bitious sche"e 7Rajiv )andhi
)ra"een 'idhyutikaran Eojana AR))'EB8 #ith the goal of electrifying all un5electrified villagesJun5
electrified ha"lets and providing access to electricity to all households Arefer Bo2 1 for further detailsB.
/ccording to the policy@ grid connectivity is the nor"al #ay of electrification of villages. !or
villagesJhabitations@ #here grid connectivity #ould not be feasible or not cost effective@ off5grid solutions
based on stand5alone syste"s "ay be taken up for supply of electricity so that every household gets
access to electricity. 3here neither standalone syste"s nor grid connectivity is feasible and if only
alternative is to use isolated lighting technologies like solar photovoltaic@ these "ay be adopted.
,ecentrali?ed ,istributed )eneration A,,)B facilities together #ith local distribution net#ork "ay be
based either on conventional or non5conventional "ethods of electricity generation #hichever is "ore
suitable and econo"ical. 4on5conventional sources of energy could be utili?ed even #here grid
connectivity e2ists@ provided it is found to be cost effective.
9he definition of electrified village has changed over a period of ti"e and has beco"e "ore rigorous
and strict.

!rior to 9ctober 199,:
/ 'illage should be classified as electrified if electricity is being used #ithin its revenue area for any
purpose #hatsoever.
/fter 9ctober 199,:
/ village #ill be dee"ed to be electrified if the electricity is used in the inhabited locality@ #ithin the
revenue boundary of the village for any purpose #hatsoever.

Current definition of "illa)e electrification
came into effect from the year 2&&4%&(
/s per the ne# definition@ a village #ould be declared as electrified@ ifC
1. Basic infrastructure such as ,istribution 9ransfor"er and ,istribution lines are provided in the
inhabited locality as #ell as the ,alit Basti ha"let #here it e2ists.
2. Electricity is provided to public places like $chools@ *anchayat Office@ +ealth@ 0enters@ ,ispensaries@
0o""unity 0enters etc.
3. 9he nu"ber of households electrified should be at least 1=D of the total nu"ber of households in the

/part fro" R))'E #hich is i"ple"ented by Ministry of *o#er@ Ministry of 4e# and Rene#able
Energy AM4REB has t#o sche"esC
'illage Energy $ecurity *rogra""e A'E$*B@ and
Re"ote 'illage 1ighting progra" A#hich earlier #as kno#n as Re"ote 'illage Electrification or
R'E progra""eB for providing electricity in villages.
'E$* focuses on "eeting energy re>uire"ents in a village using local available bio"ass energy
resources. 'E$* #as started in 2==% and is being run as a test progra""e and is being operated in only a
fe# hundred villages across the country.
6nder Re"ote 'illage 1ighting progra"@ electricity is "ade available in unelectrified villages and
ha"lets using "ainly solar photovoltaic@ "icro5hydro and bio"ass gasifier technologies. But as per the
Rural Electrification *olicy@ these villages are not considered to be electrified. 9hus@ the Re"ote 'illage
1ighting progra""e can be considered as an interi" solution to provide a s"all a"ount of electricity to
re"ote villages for lighting@ before these villages are taken up for electrification under the Ministry of
*o#er8s rural electrification progra""es.
(ssued by MO*@ vide their letter 4o. %2J1J2==15,AREB dated &th !ebruary 2==% and its corrigendu" vide letter no. %2J1J2==15
,AREB dated !ebruary 2==%
6" accessed on May 31@ 2=1=
4o2 1: a$i" :andhi :rameen 7idyuti1aran ;o$ana <::7;=
Ministry of *o#er launched R))'E as one of its flagship progra""e in March 2==& #ith an objective
to electrify over 1==@=== un5electrified villages and to provide free electricity connections to 23.%
"illion rural B*1 households.
6nder R))'E@ electricity distribution infrastructure is envisaged to establish Rural Electricity
,istribution Backbone ARE,BB #ith at least a 33J11F' sub5station@ 'illage Electrification
(nfrastructure A'E(B #ith at least a ,istribution 9ransfor"er in a village or ha"let@ and standalone grids
#ith generation #here grid supply is not feasible.
$ubsidy to#ards capital e2penditure to the tune of <=D #ill be provided@ through Rural Electrification
0orporation 1i"ited ARE0B@ #hich is a nodal agency for i"ple"entation of the sche"e. Electrification
of un5electrified Belo# *overty 1ine AB*1B households #ill be financed #ith 1==D capital subsidy L
Rs 2@2== per connection in all rural habitations.
Rural Electrification 0orporation is the nodal agency for i"ple"entation of the sche"e. 9he services of
0entral *ublic $ector 6ndertakings A0*$6B are available to the $tates for assisting the" in the e2ecution
of Rural Electrification projects. 9he Manage"ent of Rural ,istribution is "andated through
$o far@ Ministry of *o#er has sanctioned &.3 projects for &%- districts to electrify 11;@%<< villages and
to provide free electricity connections to 2%.- "illion B*1 rural households. /s on 3=th $epte"ber
2=1=@ ;%@-1; villages have been electrified and 12..; "illion free electricity connections have been
released to B*1 households. (t is targeted to electrify =.1 "illion villages and to provide free electricity
connections to 1..& "illion B*1 households by March 2=12
Source: http:&&po'ermin%gov%in&bharatnirman&bharatnirman%asp accessed on December 30( 2010
ural Electrification Status in >est 4en)al
3est Bengal has "ade considerable progress in rural electrification and the percentage of electrified
household has steadily risen fro" 3..&D in 2==1 to &1 D in 2==<. /s per )overn"ent data@ in 2==<@
around <<.-D of the villages #ere electrified in 3est Bengal
. +o#ever@ the percentage of electrified
households #as only &1D.
M (ntervie# #ith the *rincipal $ecretary@ ,epart"ent of *o#er : 4on50onventional Energy $ources@
3est Bengal@ 4ove"ber 2==<
1"0 Methodo'o$C
9he "ajor activities for the study consisted ofC
0ollection and analysis of infor"ation and data fro" secondary sources
*ri"ary survey
*reparation of "aps
$upply side scenario
Esti"ation of electricity de"and
Report preparation
1. 4.1 Collection and analysis of information and data from secondary sources
9he "ain sources of infor"ation for $undarbans #ere various govern"ent depart"ents and agencies.
3able 1.3 Sources of Information
Soure In,or?at!on Co''eted
3est Bengal $tate Electricity ,evelop"ent
0orporation 1td A3B$E,01B
5 ,ata on electricity supply and e2isting
electricity infrastructure
5 *lanned #ork for creating electricity back5
bone and intensification of household
electrification under R))'E
3est Bengal )reen Energy ,evelop"ent
0orporation 1td A3B)E,01B
,*Rs sub"itted to RE0 for the electrification
of 3< villages under the ,,) progra""e
Rural Electrification 0orporation 1i"ited@
Eastern Regional Office@ Folkata
,ata on 'illage Electrification *rojects
$undarban ,evelop"ent Board 1ist of villages for #hich the funds for
electrification #ould be given by the Board.
3est Bengal Rene#able Energy ,evelop"ent
/gency A3BRE,/B
1ist of e2isting RE po#er plants and details of
solar ho"e syste" progra""e
0ensus 2==1 *opulation
4ational $a"ple $urvey AEnergy $ources of
(ndian +ouseholds for 0ooking and 1ighting
6se of kerosene for lighting
3est Bengal )overn"ent ,istrict $tatistics on population and electricity
1.4.2 !rimary Sur"ey
/ sa"ple survey of ;; villages selected after detailed classification of all the1=.- villages in $undarbans
#as carried out. 9he sa"ple selected for survey covered households@ co""ercial establish"ents@
industries@ etc. 9he "ain purpose of the survey #as to collect data onC
Electrification status
Electricity de"and
3illingness to pay for electricity
1evel of satisfaction #ith the supply of electricity
9he survey #ork #as carried out by three 4)Os Fultali Milan 9irtha $ociety@ $outhern +ealth
("prove"ent $ociety and 'ivekananda (nstitute of Biotechnology. /ll the three 4)Os have a proven
past record in regard to carrying out socio5econo"ic develop"ent activities in the $undarbans area. 9he
survey #ork #as supervised by fourteen supervisors 55 responsible for the areas falling under the 4orth
2% *arganas district A- blocks 32- villagesB and for the areas falling under the $outh 2% *arganas district
A13 blocks 5.&= villagesB. 9#o consultants ad"inistered the entire survey #ork. 9able 1.% lists all the
blocks and figure 1.1 illustrates the location of all the blocks on the "ap.
3able 1.4 5ist of 4loc1s in Sundarbans
North 20 Par$ana& South 20 Par$ana&
1. +aroa 1. Basanti
2. +asnabad 2. 0anning (
3. +ingalganj 3. 0anning ((
%. Minakhan %. )osaba
&. $andeshkhali5( &. Noynagar (
-. $andeshkhali5(( -. Noynagar ((
.. Fakd#ip
;. Fulatali
<. Mathurapur5(
1=. Mathurapur5((
11. 4a"khana
12. *atharprati"a
13. $agar
?i)ure 1.1 4loc1 5e"el -ap of 6orth and South 24 !ar)anas in Sundarbans
$ourceC ###.futurehealthsyste"
1.4.3 !reparation of -aps
Based on the infor"ation collected fro" pri"ary survey and secondary sources@ follo#ing "aps #ere
*resent electrification status Aby "arking electrification status of the village based on household
electrification data collected through the pri"ary survey and using the latest definition of electrified
Rene#able energy status Aby "arking all e2isting rene#able energy AREB po#er plants and villages
covered under solar ho"e syste" progra""eB
*roposed electrification "ap A"arking the villages #hich are planned to be electrified through grid
e2tension and ,,) sche"eB
Block "aps sho#ing electrification status of the villages
1.4.4 Supply side scenario
,ata on e2isting electricity infrastructure sub5stations@ distribution lines@ RE po#er plants and
electricity supply #as collected fro" 3B$E,01 and 3BRE,/.
1.4.( Estimation of electricity demand
/ sa"ple of ;; villages #as selected for detailed analysis. !or sa"ple selection@ all the 1=-% villages
#ere classified as per their si?e and electrification status and villages #ere selected fro" each category
based on proportionate #eight age. Refer AnneDure 1 for "ethodology used for sa"pling and AnneDure
2 for the list of ;; villages selected. 9he household data fro" the ;; selected villages #as analysed forC
Electricity de"and
+ousehold appliance o#nership
Monthly e2penditure on energy
3illingness to pay for electricity
9he data on co""ercial and other loads #as also analysed to calculate average electricity de"and for all
non5household loads. 9he present electricity de"and #as calculated using the average connected load for
household and non5household loads.
1.4.' eport !reparation
9he above "entioned analysis coupled #ith the analysis of the $tate )overn"ent plans for electrification
#as used for preparation of the report.
1"< Strate$C ,or E'etr!,!at!on o, V!''a$e& !n Sundar-an&
/n i"portant point to consider #hile developing a strategy for the islands is the distance of various
villages fro" the buffer ?one that coincides #ith the 9iger Reserve /rea. 9he $undarbans *roject 9iger
#as i"ple"ented in 1<.3 and later the $undarban 9iger Reserve #as de"arcated over 2@&;&5s>. k". 9he
core area of 1@33= s> k" has been declared a 4ational *ark and is a #orld heritage site. 9he core area is a
no5entry ?one and people are not allo#ed to settle in the reserve area also. 9hus@ all the villages are
located outside the !orest /rea that are separated fro" each other by #ide creeks and rivers. 9able 1.&
gives details of the distance bet#een the block head>uarters and the reserve forest area. /s per 6niversal
$ervice Obligation under Electricity /ct 2==3@ po#er utilities are responsible for facilitating access to
electricity in all inhabited places. 9hus@ there is no specific strategy for the villages closer to the buffer
3able 1.(: #istance bet@een 4loc1 headAuarters and eser"e ?orest <in 1ms.=
S" No" Na?e o, B'o# Na?e o, B'o# %eadEuarter D!&tane ,ro? Re&er@e Fore&t"
South 20 Par$ana& D!&tr!t
1. Basanti $onakhali 12.&
3. 0anning 5 ( 0anning 1;
3. 0anning 5 (( ,euli 3=
%. )osaba /ra"pur -
&. Naynagar ( Naynagar5Majilpur 22
-. Naynagar 5 (( 4i"pith 1<.3
.. Fakd#ip Fakd#ip 1<.&
;. Fultali ,akshin )arankati .
<. Mathurapur 5 ( Mathurapur 22
1=. Mathurapur 5 (( Baribhanga /bad 12
11. 4a"khana 4a"khana 1-.&
12. *atharprati"a Ra"ganga 1=.3
13. $agar Rudranagar 1<.&
North 20 Par$ana& D!&tr!t
1%. +aroa +aroa %.
1&. +asnabad +asnabad 3.
1-. +ingalganj +ingalganj 2&
1.. Minakhan Minakhan 3.
1;. $andeshkhali 5 ( ,akshin /khratal 3=.&
1<. $andeshkhali 5 (( $andshkhali AFu"arjolaB 1..&
/nother aspect to consider is the distance of the villages fro" the "ainland. /s table 1.- illustrates@ "ost
of the villages are not very far fro" "ainland.
3able 1.': #istance bet@een 4loc1 8eadAuarters and Bol1ata <1ms.=
S"No" Na?e o, B'o# Na?e o, B'o# %eadEuarter D!&tane ,ro? Fo'#ata
South 20 Par$ana& D!&tr!t
1. Basanti $onakhali ;2
3. 0anning 5 ( 0anning %3
3. 0anning 5 (( ,euli %3
%. )osaba /ra"pur <%
&. Naynagar ( Naynagar5Majilpur %&
-. Naynagar 5 (( 4i"pith %;
.. Fakd#ip Fakd#ip <2
;. Fultali ,akshin )arankati .=
<. Mathurapur 5 ( Mathurapur 3%
1=. Mathurapur 5 (( Baribhanga /bad -.
11. 4a"khana 4a"khana 1=&
12. *atharprati"a Ra"ganga <1
13. $agar Rudranagar 1=.
North 20 Par$ana& D!&tr!t
1%. +aroa +aroa %<
Based on data collected during the pri"ary survey
Based on data collected during the pri"ary survey and yahoo "aps
S"No" Na?e o, B'o# Na?e o, B'o# %eadEuarter D!&tane ,ro? Fo'#ata
1&. +asnabad +asnabad .3
1-. +ingalganj +ingalganj ;&
1.. Minakhan Minakhan %2
1;. $andeshkhali 5 ( ,akshin /khratal -%
1<. $andeshkhali 5 (( $andshkhali AFu"arjolaB %<
6ote: )he distances sho'n are a!ong the road& foot trac* but number of b!oc* +,s are not direct!"
approachab!e b" car and invo!ves crossing of rivers b" ferries%
But@ the "ain hurdles for rural electrification areC
9he proposed project area has a net#ork of estuaries@ tidal rivers@ and creeks intersected by nu"erous
channelsO it encloses flat@ "arshy islands.
9he "ain proble" is construction of E2tra +igh 'oltage AE+'B trans"ission lines across #ide rivers
and creeks. 9his is not only very costly but also not econo"ically viable due to lo# >uantu" of
energy de"and in the area Aas there are no "ajor industries that e2ist in the islands or are likely to be
Many villages are thinly populated and located in isolated islands separated fro" the "ainland by
#ide rivers and creeks.
Chapter 2: E'etr!!tC In,ra&truture and Supp'C !n Sundar-an&
2"1 E'etr!!tC In,ra&truture
/s "entioned in section 1.1@ the electricity infrastructure in $undarbans consists ofC
(nfrastructure to supply grid electricity.
(nfrastructure to generate and supply grid >uality electricity through rene#able energy po#er plants.
$"all po#er generation syste" #hich consists of solar ho"e syste"s@ solar lanterns and diesel
2"2 Gr!d E'etr!!tC
2.2.1 :rid Infrastructure in 6orth 24 !ar)anas
9he electricity supply to 4orth 2% *arganas is through % sub5stations Arefer table 2.1B. 9he total peak load
for 4orth 2% *arganas is 1..32- M3 and the average electricity supply is -.& "illion units per "onth.
9he peak load figure is on the basis of assu"ption that only 1=D of the households are grid connected.
9he projected de"and is likely to increase fro" around 1. M3 to .= M3 if all the households are
connected to the grid. 9o cater to de"and for electricity by all the households@ there #ill be a re>uire"ent
to establish ne# substations and aug"ent the capacity of the e2isting substations considering the gro#th
in rural areas only since urban areas are al"ost 1==D electrified. 9he table also sho#s that@ as of no#
#ith around 1=D household electrification@ #hile the sub5stations at +aroa@ +asnabad and +ingalganj
have available e2cess capacity and can acco""odate so"e gro#th in de"and@ the sub5station at
Minakhan #ould have to be e2panded to acco""odate any gro#th in de"and. But even though if at
present these substations have so"e e2cess capacity@ these #ill re>uire aug"entation to "eet future
de"and after e2ecution of ongoing and proposed RE projects.
3able 2.1: Salient Information on )rid%electricity in 6orth 24 !ar)anas #istrict
Su- &tat!on Conneted B'o#&
Nu?-er and apa!tC
o, 33911 FV
&u-&tat!on& (MVA)
Pea# +oad
+aroa +aroa@ Minakhan A12 -.3 P 12 3.1&B %.<-;
+asnabad +asnabad@ Minakhan@ $andeshkhali ( A12 &.=P2 2 3.1&B %.2
+ingalganj +ingalganj@ +asnabad@ $andeshkhali (( A22 3.1&B 2..;&
Minakhan@ $andeshkhali5(@ $andeshkhali5
((@ +aroa
A22 3B &.3.3
Tota' Pea# +oad (M5) 33"4< M5 1="32. M5
A@era$e e'etr!!tC &upp'C (M!''!on Un!t&9 ?onth)
."< M!''!on
Source: -.S$DC/
One of the features of grid electricity infrastructure in $undarbans is the length of 11 k' lines #hich
results in high line resistances and higher losses. )rid po#er is supplied through the above "entioned
33J11 F' substations fro" #here 11 F' feeders are dra#n to the various villages through looping. 9he
data for the 4orth 2% *arganas sho#s that so"e feeders are over .= k" in length Arefer figure 2.1B.
?i)ure 2.1 6orth 24 !ar)anas: 5en)th of 11 17 #istribution 5ines <4loc1%@ise=
North 24 Parganas :Length of Feeder (KM)

Harora Ha#na$ad Hi ngal ganj !i nkhana
Sub Station
%&ngth o(
)&&d&r *!+
Source: -.S$DC/
2.2.2 :rid Infrastructure in South 24 !ar)anas
9he electricity supply to $outh 2% *arganas is through % sub5stations Arefer table 2.2B. 9he total peak load
for $outh 2% *arganas is 3;.3= M3 and the average electricity supply is 1%.& "illion units per "onth.
9he peak load calculated belo# is on the assu"ption that only 1=D of the households are grid connected.
(f #e consider 1==D household electrification then the re>uire"ent of electricity is likely to increase fro"
3; M3 to 1%= M3. 9o cater to de"and for electricity by all the households@ there #ill be a re>uire"ent
to establish ne# substations and aug"ent the capacity of all the 33J11 k' e2isting substations.
3able 2.2: Salient Information on )rid%electricity in South 24 !ar)anas #istrict
Su- &tat!on Conneted B'o#&
Nu?-er and apa!tC o, 33911
FV &u-&tat!on& (MVA)
Pea# +oad
Noynagar Noynagar 51@ Noynagar 52 A12 -.3 P 2 2 &.=B 1..=
Miyagheri 0anning (@ 0anning (( A12 3.1&B %.=
Fakd#ip Fakd#ip : 4a"khana A22 -.3B 11.=
,euli Mathurapur ( : Mathurapur (( A22 3.1&B -.3
*eak 1oad AM3B 3>"3< M5 3>"34 M5
/verage electricity supply AMillion 6nitsJ "onthB 10"< M!''!on
Source: -.S$DC/
9he length of 11 k' feeders for the blocks of $outh 2% *arganas is sho#n in figure 2.2. (t is observed that
several blocks have lengths of feeders e2ceeding &= k". /s "entioned earlier@ the length of feeders
results in higher losses and lo# voltage at the tail5end of the distribution net#ork.
?i)ure 2.2 South 24 !ar)anas: 5en)th of 11 17 distribution lines <bloc1%@ise=
South 24 Parganas :Existing 11 KV (!)
39 39


45i #ti ng 11 k6
i n k2
Source: -.S$DC/
On co"paring 4orth 2% *arganas and $outh 2% *arganas@ it can be observed that the length of feeder lines
is "uch higher for for"er than for latter. 9his i"plies that the grid infrastructure "anage"ent is really
poor in 4orth 2% *arganas as co"pared to $outh 2% *arganas. 9he long length of lines increases
i"pedance resulting in poor voltage regulation at the consu"er8s end. 9he lo# voltage affects the
perfor"ance of electrical appliances and heating.
/nother proble" faced by the people of $undarbans is that the electricity is available to the" at a tail end
voltage level of 1%=51&= volts A'B that is al"ost 3&D belo# the declared supply voltage of 23= ' #ith a
per"issible variation level of -D as per (ndian Electricity Rules 1<&- Aas a"ended up to dateB. 9hus@
even though the grid electricity is available@ load shedding and burn5outs result in dissatisfaction a"ong
9he 33 k'@ 11 k' and the 19 distribution should be designed in a proper "anner after conducting
necessary syste" studies to overco"e this proble". +apha?ard e2tension of 11 k' lines under influence
fro" different groups or po#erful people should be avoided and "ore e"phasis should be given on
e2tension of distribution syste" based on proper techno5econo"ical viability.
2.2.3 Cuality of supply in :rid%Electrified 7illa)es
,uring the village survey@ infor"ation on average nu"ber of hours for #hich electricity is available #as
collected. Based on the village survey result data #hich is presented in table 2.3@ it is observed that ;&D
of the grid connected villages are facing po#er5cuts of %5< hoursJday@ #hile 1%D villages are facing
po#er5cuts of <51% hoursJday. 9he consu"ers infor"ed that the po#er supply is cut generally during the
peak evening hoursO several areas also reported lo#5voltage. 9he survey results sho# that even in
intensively electrified villages i.e. villages in #hich &=D or "ore households have access to grid
electricity@ the average "onthly kerosene consu"ption #as around % litresJ "onthJ household@ "ost of
#hich #as being used for lighting during po#er5cuts.
3able 2.3: 6o. of hours for @hich )rid supply is usually a"ailable
A@era$e a@a!'a-!'!tC o, e'etr!!tC (hour&9daC) Perenta$e o, e'etr!,!ed &ur@eCed @!''a$e&
2=52% hoursJ day 1.=
1&52= hoursJ day ;&.2
1=51& hoursJ day 13.;
Tota' 144"4
9he tariff for do"estic consu"ers ranges fro" Rs 2.3-J k3h for life line A/n un5"etered
consu"er shall be treated as a 1ife 1ine ,o"estic 0onsu"er@ as per 3B$E,01B
having >uarterly electricity consu"ption bet#een = to .& k3h. 9he highest do"estic AruralB tariff is Rs
-.;&J k3h Aplease refer table 2.%B
3able 2.4: /pplicable 3ariff for #omestic Consumers
TCpe o,
App'!a-'e Tar!,, She?e
Na?e o,
the Tar!,,
!n F5%
F!Ded Char$e9
Char$e !n
1. 1ife 1ine
4or"al = to .& 23- 2.&
2. ,o"estic
4or"al !irst .& 3== &
4e2t 1=& 3%&
4e2t 12= %-=
4e2t 3== &=&
4e2t 3== &1&
/bove <== -;&
3 ,o"estic

!irst .& 3=& &
4e2t .& 3%<
4e2t 1&= %-2
4e2t 1&= &12
4e2t %&= &32
/bove <== -;&
Source: -est .enga! $!ectricit" #egu!ator" Commission: )ariff order of -.S$DC/ for the "ear 201002011
2"3 Rene*a-'e Ener$C Po*er P'ant&
Based on available data on grid electrified villages and on pri"ary survey.
6nder this sche"e of Ministry of 4e# and Rene#able Energy AM4REB@ free connection including internal #iring for one
connection point for a B*1 fa"ily is provided. 9his sche"e has a "atching fund fro" the $tate )overn"ent.
3est Bengal Rene#able Energy ,evelop"ent /gency A3BRE,/B has setup 21 Rene#able Energy AREB
based po#er plants. RE progra""e in $undarbans@ in the for" of setting5up of s"all@ off5grid rene#able
energy po#er plants #as first taken up during 1<<=8s. 9hese po#er plants supply electricity at %==J23= '@
three phase@ &= +ert? po#er through local distribution syste".
3able 2.4: ene@able Ener)y !o@er !lants in Sundarbans
Tehno'o$C +oat!on Capa!tC (#5) Par$ana&
$olar *' *o#er *lant
Fa"alpur A$agarB 2- $outh 2% *arganas
Mritunjoynagar 2- $outh 2% *arganas
Fhas"ahal 2& $outh 2% *arganas
)ayenba?ar 2& $outh 2% *arganas
Mahendranagar 2& $outh 2% *arganas
4atendrapur 2;.& $outh 2% *arganas
6ttar +aradhanpur 32.& $outh 2% *arganas
Mandirtala 2;.& $outh 2% *arganas
Foylapara 12= $outh 2% *arganas
Rudranagar 2= $outh 2% *arganas
Bagdanga AMousu"iB && $outh 2% *arganas
Baliara AMousu"iB 11= $outh 2% *arganas
Rakhalpaur A*athar
*rati"aB 11=
$outh 2% *arganas
(ndrapur A) *lotB 1== $outh 2% *arganas
*athankhali -= G $outh 2% *arganas
,audpur A$andeshkhali
5 ((B <&
4orth 2% *arganas
3ind *o#er
!raserganj ; Q 2&= $outh 2% *arganas
$agar A3ind5dieselB
3ind A% Q &&BP
,iesel 1&=
$outh 2% *arganas
Bio"ass )asifier *o#er
)osaba & Q 1== $outh 2% *arganas
0hoto"ollakhali % Q 12& $outh 2% *arganas
+era"bagopalpur 2 Q 1== $outh 2% *arganas
Tota' Capa!tC (#5) o,
RE po*er p'ant& 034."<
Tota' Capa!tC (M5) 0"34.<
G 4ot operating 5 da"aged during cyclone
Source: -.#$D1
9he locations of the RE po#er plants Adenoted by yello#@ green and blueB are sho#n in figure 2.3. /s can
be observed that all the RE po#er plants have been established at locations #hich are farthest fro" the
"ain land and all of the" fall under $outh 2% *arganas.
?i)ure 2.3: 5ocations of ene@able Ener)y !o@er !lants
9he RE po#er plants in $undarbans #ere set5up under a joint initiative of the 0entral and the $tate
)overn"ent. (n so"e cases contribution of $tate )overn"ent varies fro" 2&D to &=D. $o"e Me"ber of
*arlia"ent 1ocal /rea ,evelop"ent AM*1/,B funds #ere also used for setting up of RE plants #ith
cooperation fro" a fe# Me"bers of *arlia"ents AM*B.
9hese po#er plants supply electricity for %5- hours in the evening. On an average a household is supplied
1& k3h of electricity per "onth and the average tariff for electricity varies fro" Rs -J k3h for bio"ass
gasifier po#er plants to Rs ;J k3h for the $olar *' po#er plants. 3BRE,/ is responsible for the
"aintenance of the syste"s and capital invest"ents for replace"ent of batteries including "ajor repairs.
1ast 1. years of e2perience has given rise to several lessons regarding rene#able energy technologies.
$o"e of these areC
E2pectations and de"and of consu"ers have increased. 9he general e2pectation is to have 2% hours
electricity supply to "eet re>uire"ents for lighting@ fans@ entertain"ent@ and livelihood activities@
#hich the e2isting RE po#er plants are unable to "eet.
Feeping opti"u" spare capacity to take into account increase in de"and fro" e2isting and ne#
consu"ers needs to be considered during the planning stage.
+ybridi?ation of solar photo5voltaic #ith bio"ass or #ind is a desirable option to "eet the electricity
de"and in a cost5effective "anner.
9he available bio"ass gasifier technology #orks on solid bio"ass Afire#ood or bri>uetted bio"ass
fuelB. 9his poses a severe li"itation on the technology as $undarbans has a shortage of fire#ood and
large5scale energy plantation does not see" feasible due to pressure on land for agriculture and other
uses. 9he e2perience #ith bri>uetting of agriculture bio"ass is li"ited.
(n the prevailing institutional arrange"ent@ the state govern"ent@ local co""unity and the local operatorJ
energy service provider AE$*B are the "ain stakeholders. Responsibility of each stakeholder involved in
such RE po#er plants in the islands is "entioned in table 2.& belo#.
3able 2.( Institutional /rran)ement for E !o@er !lants
Sta#eho'der FeC ro'e&
1ocal co""unity represented by
*anchayat or 1ocal Manage"ent
0o""ittee A1M0B
/ssistance in planning e.g. identification of landO
Mobili?ation of villagersO Manage"ent of the syste"
through 1M0O $upervision of #ork of the operator
$tate )overn"ent represented by
(dentification of the projectO
*roject planning@ tendering@ supervision of installation and
co""issioningO 0ontracts for /nnual Maintenance
0ontractO Organi?ing funds for battery replace"ent and
"ajor "aintenance
1ocal operatorJ Energy $ervice
*rovider AE$*B
Most of the plants have a local operator #hose task is to
take care of day5to5day operation and "aintenance of the
po#er plant and the electricity distribution net#ork.
(n so"e cases@ local operator has been given "ore
responsibilities Aas E$*sB under #hich apart fro" rendering
routine operation and "aintenance@ they are also
responsible for billing@ "etering@ and revenue collection
services on incentive basis.
9he e2isting arrange"ent has been #orking successfully during the planning@ installation and
co""issioning phase@ ho#ever@ it needs to be i"proved for the sustainable operation of the po#er plant.
9he "ain proble"s being faced areC
9he 1M0s are not able to enforce discipline a"ongst all the users. Most of the off5grid po#er plants
suffer #ith the proble" of over5dra#ing of electricity by households Ahouseholds having "ore
nu"ber of light points or appliances as #ell as electricity being used for charging of batteriesB. 9his
has severe i"plications on the life of the syste" Aparticularly that of batteriesB.
9he tariffs #hich range fro" Rs 12= 51&= per "onth per household
have not been revised since the
installation of the po#er plants. 9his thus "akes the e2isting RE po#er plants unviable to operate.
9he projects are operating "ore as social co""it"ents and the $tate )overn"ent provides the
"aintenance cost.
9he e2perience #ith the service provided under /nnual Maintenance 0ontract A/M0B has been
"i2ed. (n several instances the >uality of the service is not up to the "ark.
9he battery replace"ent and up gradationJreplace"ent of electronics are capital intensive tasks@
#hich "ost of the ti"e gets delayed due to lack of budget or procedural issues. 9o so"e e2tent@ non5
$ourceC *ri"ary $urvey
revision of tariff has also resulted in resource constraints for the operators for ti"ely replace"ent of
9he concept of E$* has not been tried e2tensively.
4o "easured data is available for the a"ount of electricity generated by the RE po#er plants@ ho#ever@
taking a plant load factor of 1=D @ the annual generation of the electricity fro" the RE po#er plants is
esti"ated at 3.; Million 6nitsJ year.
2"0 So'ar %o?e SC&te?&
3BRE,/ has been providing solar ho"e syste"s A$+$B at a subsidised rate to households in
unelectrified re"ote villages. (n all@ "ore than 1==@=== solar ho"e syste"s have been provided through
the 3BRE,/ progra""e
. 9he $+$ are either of 3. 3p or .& 3p. 9he gro#th of $+$ in $undarbans
is sho#n in table 2.&. 9he highest concentration of $+$ is in $agar@ *atharprati"a@ )osaba@ +ingalganj
and 4a"kahna blocks. (n figure 2.3@ orange coloured s>uares denote the locations having high
concentration of $+$.
3able 2.' :ro@th of Solar 8ome Systems throu)h >4E#/ pro)ramme
Year Tota' Cu?u'at!@e Nu?-er o, S%S
2==- %%@3==
2==; .2@===
2=1= 1==@===
Source: -.#$D1
$ince 1<<-@ Ministry of 4e# and Rene#able Energy AM4REB is providing subsidy for $olar +o"e
1ighting $yste"s A$+$B. (t started #ith Rs 1=@=== per $+$ Ain case of islandsB@ later reduced to Rs -@===
per $+$ and then to Rs %@;== per $+$
. 9his subsidy #as finally #ithdra#n in Nune 2=1= e2cept for 1==
nu"ber of identified re"ote villages of $undarbans #here it is a "ini"u" of <=D of the $+$ cost and Rs
11@=== per $+$. Over last fe# years@ the "arket prices Ae2cluding subsidyB have reduced Arefer table 2..B.
3able 2., ;ear%@ise -ar1et !rice of S8S<in s=
Cate$orC 2&&' 2&&. 2&1&
3. 3p 1%@=== 13@=== 11@===
.& 3p 22@=== 2=@=== 1<@===
Source: -.#$D1
(n addition to provision of $+$ by 3BRE,/@ around 2=@=== $+$ have been provided through the
channels of 4)Os and private sellers. 9hus@ the total nu"ber of $+$ in $undarbans is around 12=@===
and assu"ing an average capacity of %= 3p@ this translates into installed capacity of %.; M3p@ #hich is
greater than the installed capacity of the RE po#er plants in the $undarbans Afigure 2.%B.
4o#@ there e2ists so"e li"ited local capacity for repair and "aintenance of the $+$ in $undarbans. 9he
syste"s are usually repaired at the electrical shops in "ain "arkets or by village level technicians. $o"e
of the pro"inent 4)Os like 'ivekananda (nstitute of Biotechnology@4i"pith have taken steps to train
local youthsJ#o"en in the "aintenance of the $+$. 9aking a plant load factor of 1=D@ the total electricity
generated through $+$ can be esti"ated as %.1 Million 6nitsJ year.
?i)ure 2.4 4rea1%up of Installed ene@able Ener)y Capacity in Sundarbans
$ourceC 3BRE,/
$ourceC Rural 'illage Electrification AR'EB *rogra" of M4RE
Solar PV
Wind (grid-
Biomass gasifier
Solar Home
2"< D!e&e' Generat!on (DG) Set&
/s per the infor"ation collected during the survey@ $undarbans has 11% nu"bers ,) sets #ith capacity
ranging bet#een 1=52& k3. 9hese are operated by private operators and provide electricity "ainly to
"arkets@ co""ercial and institution users. 9aking an average capacity of 1& k3@ the total installed
capacity of ,) sets in $undarbans is 1.. M3. /ssu"ing a plant load factor of 2=D@ the annual electricity
generation fro" ,) sets is esti"ated at 2.< Million 6nitsJ year.
2". Statu& o, %ou&eho'd E'etr!,!at!on
/s per infor"ation provided by 3B$E,01 in the stakeholders #orkshop held on Nune .@ 2=1=@
organi?ed as part of this study@ $undarbans had -.<% households as per 2==1 census. 9ill 2=1=@ 1.2 lakhAas
per 3B$E,01 dataB households Aor 1.D of the total householdsB have been electrified Athat is@ grid
connectedB. 9he details of electrified households in $outh and 4orth 2% *arganas are provided in 9able
2.;. Basanti@ )osaba@ Fultali@ $agar and *atharprati"a are predo"inantly unelectrified blocks. ,etails of
the electrified villages are provided at 9able 2.<.
3able 2.. Status of 8ousehold Electrification
No&" o,
No&" o,
No&" o, hou&eho'd
No"o, BP+
4orth 2% *gs 2.=% lakh =.&3 lakh 1.&1 lakh =.;. lakh
$outh 2% *gs %.<= lakh =.-. lakh %.23 lakh 3.3- lakh
Tota' ."/0 'a#h 1"24 'a#h <"=0 'a#h 0"23 'a#h
Source: -.S$DC/
3able 2.9 7illa)e electrification data of Sundarbans
D!&tr!t& No o,
(a& per
No o,
@!''a$e& a&
per ne*
No" o, une'etr!,!ed and 'e&& than 14H
e'etr!,!ed @!''a$e& a& per ne*
de,!n!t!on 2i%e%( !ess than 103 househo!d
e!ectrified are not to be considered as
e!ectrified no'4
No& o,
e'etr!,!ed 8
To Be Con&!dered
-C 5BSEDC+ ,or
Not P'anned 9
Con&!dered ,or
4orth 2% *gs 32- 2-= &= 1 1&
$outh 2% *gs .&= -.% &% % 1;
Tota' 14=. /30 140 < 33
Source: -.S$DC/
2"= Annua' E'etr!!tC &upp'C
$u""ing5up@ total installed capacity in the islands is esti"ated at around ;2 M3 that is supplying 2-2.;
"illion unitsJ year A9able 2.1=B. Energy fro" rene#able energy sources Aincluding RE po#er plants and
$+$B contributes to "ore than 11D but an interesting fact is that $+$ contributes to "ore than RE po#er
plants in total installed capacity.
/ "ore interesting observation is that even though grid contributes to al"ost ;.D of the total installed
capacity@ it connects only 1.D of the total households in the islands Arefer table 2.;B and supplies
electricity to people "ost of the ti"es at al"ost 3&D belo# the declared supply voltage level Arefer
$ection 2.2.2B. Moreover@ of these ;&D of the villages face po#er outages for %5< hours and around 1%D
of villages have it for "ore than < hours Aas per pri"ary surveyB.
3able 2.1& /nnual Electricity Supply in Sundarbans
Soure& o, E'etr!!tC In&ta''ed
!n In&ta''ed
!n Tota'
)rid5Electricity $upply in 4orth 2%
33.1 %=.2D .;.= 2<..D
)rid5Electricity $upply in $outh 2%
3;.% %-..D 1.%.= --.2D
Electricity generation fro" RE po#er
%.3 &.2D 3.; 1.%D
Electricity generation fro" $+$ %.; &.;D %.1 1.-D
Electricity generation fro" ,) sets 1.. 2.1D 2.< 1.1D
Tota' E'etr!!tC Supp'C >2"3 144H 2.2"> 144H
Chapter 3: E'etr!!tC De?and IRe&u't& ,ro? Pr!?arC Sur@eC
9he key results fro" the pri"ary survey regarding the de"and for electricity in $undarbans are presented
in this chapter.
3"1 O*ner&h!p o, e'etr! app'!ane& and a@era$e onneted 'oad o, e'etr!,!ed hou&eho'd&
(n the pri"ary survey@ infor"ation on electricity appliances o#nership #as collected at the household
level. 9his infor"ation #as used along #ith rating of appliances Acollected "ainly fro" the surveyB to
calculate average connected load of electrified households and the results are sho#n belo#C
1ightingC 9he average nu"ber of light points in an electrified household #as found to be 323 light pointsJ
1== household.
!ansC Being a #ar" and hu"id area@ fans are used e2tensively. 9he average nu"ber of fans per electrified
household #as 1-. fansJ 1== household.
Entertain"ent and co""unicationC 9his is an i"portant category@ and the observed the o#nership pattern
is as follo#sC
1== 9' J1== household in electrified 4on5B*1 +ousehold
&= 0, playersJ 1== households in electrified 4on5B*1 +ousehold
32 radiosJ 1== households
<2 out of 1== electrified household reported o#ning a "obile phone.
9he use of refrigerators@ co"puters@ and #ashing "achines #as found to be negligible.

9he average connected load in grid connected electrified households #as found to be 3.& 3atts of #hich
lights@ fans and co""unication and entertain"ent A"ainly 9'B account for 33D@ 3-D and 31D@
respectively Arefer figure 3.1B.
?i)ure 3.1 4rea1%up of /"era)e Connected 5oad <3,( >= in Electrified 8ouseholds
3ypical o@nership pattern of Electricity /ppliances in a
6on%4!5 Electrified household
35% light points
152 fans
1 9'
1 0, playerJ radio
1 "obile charger
"istribution of ## $onne%ted Load
%i ght
Co22uni "ati on
8 4nt&rtai n2&nt
(t "ay be pointed out that the average connected load A3.& 3B esti"ated a"ong the surveyed households
is higher than the nor"s assu"ed in a nu"ber of policy docu"entsC
3== 3atts Aas generally taken by RE0B@ that is al"ost 2&D higher than the RE0 nor"s
2== 3atts Afor above poverty line A/*1B households as considered by 3B)E,01 #hile preparing
the ,,) ,etailed *roject Reports A,*RsB. 9his nor" #as decided considering 3BRE,/ and
3B)E,018s e2perience in $undarbans area. 9his i"plies that average connected load in the islands
is al"ost ;.D higher than this nor".
-= 3atts Afor B*1 households as considered by 3B)E,01 #hile preparing the ,,) ,*RsB. 9his
load #as considered for B*1 fa"ilies as they are provided only one light point under the B*1 fa"ily
electrification sche"e.
9his thus reflects that there e2ists e2cess de"and for po#er in the islands.
3"2 Ener$C on&u?pt!on pattern and ?onth'C eDpend!ture on Ener$C
9he "onthly average e2penditure on energy per household Afor all households both electrified and un5
electrifiedB #as found to be Rs -=.JhouseholdJ"onth. / recent study in rural Bangladesh
has reported
the average "onthly e2penditure on energy by rural households as 6$R <.-.JhouseholdJ"onth
Aappro2i"ately Rs %&=JhouseholdJ"onthB. $urvey on household energy consu"ption carried out in a
re"ote tribal unelectrified village of Orissa under a project sponsored by the /sia *acific *artnership
during 2==<
@ sho#ed that the villages in #hich the bio"ass is collected Anot purchasedB@ the e2penditure
on energy varies bet#een Rs &= 52==J householdJ "onth. Most of the e2penditure in this case #as found
to be on kerosene@ torch batteries and charging of batteries. (t is clear that on an average the "onthly
e2penditure on energy for a rural household in $undarbans is higher co"pared to households in "ost of
the other rural areas in (ndia and this is due to the high e2penditure on bio"ass@ #hich has to be bought in
the $undarbans.
9he total energy e2penditure of surveyed households is do"inated by bio"ass A.3DB follo#ed by
kerosene A1%DB@ electricity and diesel A%D eachB
. 9he re"aining households use gas and other "eans.
!ire#ood is reportedly priced at around Rs 253 per kg and co# dung a little cheaper at less than Rs 2 per
kg. More than <&D of the surveyed households fro" the sa"pled villages are buying bio"ass fuels
A"ainly fire#ood and dung5cakesB is a rather uni>ue feature of this region@ as generally@ bio"ass is
collected Arather than purchasedB in "ost of the rural areas in (ndia because so"e households engaged in
fishing and other activities depend on those #ho collect bio"ass and then sell bio"ass for livelihood.
3hile this feature contributes to the households8 energy bill in financial ter"s@ in the conte2t of this
study@ #e can "ake an inference 5 the prevalence of bio"ass "arkets indicates the presence of linkages
for bio"ass collection@ storage and transport@ #hich can also be tapped beneficially for using the bio"ass
,anesh Miah@ et. /l. Rural household energy consu"ption in Bangladesh@ Energy *olicy@ 'olu"e 3;@ (ssue 2@ !ebruray 2=1=@
pages <<. 51==3
*ersonal 0o""unication Mr Michael 9uck#ell@ *roject Manager@ /sia *acific *artnership $upported Bushlight (ndia *roject.
$ourceC *ri"ary $urvey
for other purposes. +o#ever@ the average annual rainfall in $undarbans is considerably high and the land
is also fertile. 9his indicates substantial gro#th of bio"ass even outside reserve forest area.
3"3 5!''!n$ne&& to PaC ,or E'etr!!tC
9he survey reported an average e2penditure of Rs <& per "onth on electricity in electrified households@
but as stated earlier there are large outages A"ost of the households reporting "ore than % hours per dayB.
(n this conte2t@ it #as thought appropriate to survey the households on ho# "uch they are #illing to pay
per "onth for stable and reliable electricity supply. 3illingness5to5pay evaluation gives vital infor"ation
for deter"ining financial feasibility of project@ setting reasonable tariffs and evaluating options. (t #as
found that on an average@ households are #illing to pay Rs 1-; per "onth for electricity@ #hich is "uch
al"ost .&D higher co"pared to the average "onthly electricity bill currently paid by the electrified
households ARs <&B in the islands.
(nterestingly@ the average #illingness to pay for stable electricity appears to decline #ith the increases in
access to electricity. 9he #illingness to pay ranges fro" Rs 2&; in villages #ith less than 1=D
electrification to Rs 1.. in villages #ith 1=5&=D electrification and to just Rs ;2 in villages #hich are
over &=D electrified.
3"0 Conneted +oad and E'etr!!tC Con&u?pt!on !n Non Do?e&t! +oad&
(n the pri"ary survey village5level infor"ation #as collected on electricity de"and in institutional@
co""ercial and industrial establish"ents Acollectively na"ed as non5household establish"entsB. ,ata
collected on appliances and connected loads of shops@ schools@ "edical facilities@ govern"ent buildings@
and s"all industries sho#s that the average connected non5do"estic load A4,1B is e>uivalent to 12 k3J
1== household or 12= 3 per household. 9his nu"ber is higher than the range of non5household loads
considered in a nu"ber of ,*Rs prepared for various locations in 3est Bengal Ae.g. < 3@ 13 3 and 3& 3
per household for )osaba@ 4a"khana and *atharprati"a respectivelyB.
But given the li"itations of the survey@ secondary sources #ere scanned for data on sectoral consu"ption
of electricity to i"prove reliability of the data being used for analysis. Electricity consu"ption data for
4orth and $outh 2% *arganas presented in table 3.1 sho#s that #hile in case of 4orth 2% *arganas@ the
electricity consu"ption in the 4on5,o"estic sector accounts for &%D of the electricity consu"ption@ in
case of $outh 2% *arganas they account for 2&D of the electricity consu"ption. Based on this data for the
t#o districts the ratio of non5do"estic loadJ do"estic load for is calculated as =.%- Aafter e2cluding
electricity consu"ption in rail#ays and industries@ given the situation in the $undarbansB.
3able 3.1 Consumption of Electricity in #ifferent Sectors of 6orth D South 24 !ar)anas for 2&&'%&,
<in *&&& 1>h=










North 20
South 20 2<-@.2= .-@<== 23&@<;= 2@;== 2;= 1.@%3= -<@-%= .//1=<4
Par$ana& A%2.%DB A11DB A33..DB A=.%DB A=. 1DB A2.%DB A1=DB (144H)
Source: District Statistica! +andboo*s for 5orth and South 26 7arganas( 2008
3"< A@era$e Annua' Per Cap!ta E'etr!!tC Con&u?pt!on
/ co"parison of average annual per capita electricity consu"ption in $undarbans #ith (ndia and 3est
Bengal sho#s that the per capita electricity consu"ption is "uch lo#er co"pared to that of (ndia and
3est Bengal@ respectively Arefer table 3.2 and figure 3.2 belo#B. (t is to be noted that the 4ational
Electricity *olicy A2==&B ai"s at per capita consu"ption of electricity to over 1@=== k3hJ year by 2=12.
3able 3.2: !er Capita Electricity Consumption
(ndia .1. A2==.5=;B 3est Bengal has undertaken a large rural
electrification intensification initiative since the year
2==& on#ards. $ubse>uently@ a large nu"bers of
households have been provided #ith electricity. /s a
result the D of electrified households has increased
fro" 3..&D A2==1B to &1D A2==<B. (t is e2pected that
the present Ain year 2=1=B per capita electricity
consu"ption for 3est Bengal is in the range of &==
k3hJ year. 9hough the data for $undarbans is not
available for 2==&5=-@ it can be observed that the
average per capita consu"ption is far belo# that of the
$tate Aby ;%DB and of (ndia Aby <2DB pri"arily
because a large part of $undarbans is yet to be
electrified. 9he *er 0apita *o#er consu"ption is
e2pected to rise >uickly after co"pletion of
electrification sche"es under R))'E that is e2pected
by 2=1&.
/nother reason that can be attributed to lo# per capita
consu"ption in the islands is non availability of
reliable electricity for long hours al"ost daily.
3est Bengal 3;=.-1A2==&5=-B
$undarbans &;.% A2==<51=B
i4 9or :ndia and -est .enga!( the data is as per Centra! $!ectricit" 1uthorit" 2C$14 and pertains to the "ear 200;0
0< 00 the "ear for 'hich state0'ise per capita e!ectricit" consumption data is avai!ab!e at C$1 'ebsite%
ii4 9or Sundarbans the per capita e!ectricit" consumption is ca!cu!ated based on e!ectricit" supp!" of 2<2%= >i!!ion
?nits& "ear and assuming a popu!ation of 6%; mi!!ion in 2010%
?i)ure 3.2 !er Capita Electricity Consumption <1>hEcapitaEyear=
3". O@era'' A&&e&&?ent
9he analysis thus i"plies that there e2ists e2cess de"and for po#er in the islands that is represented by
the #illingness to pay data collected during the pri"ary survey. /lso@ this is de"onstrated by the average
connected load in islands that is higher than "ost of the nor"s being follo#ed in the $tate. But lo#
average per capita consu"ption of electricity i"plies that this is due to non5availability of electricity.
Chapter 0: E'etr!!tC De?and ProBet!on& (2414:2424)
/s per *lanning 0o""ission@ the gro#th rate in electricity consu"ption in do"estic and co""ercial
sector is &.;D and -.;D respectively. +o#ever $undarbans is a virgin area@ #here the po#er supply
syste" is not yet e2tended to "ost of the areas. $o@ the gro#th rate for first fe# years after e2tension of
distribution syste" #ill be "uch higher than the nor"al rate. 9he rate #ill co"e do#n to nor"al once
1==D household electrification is achieved@ so the projection of electricity de"and for $undarbans has
been done for 3 scenariosC
Business5as5usual AB/6B scenario
)ro#th scenario
Energy Efficiency scenario
!ollo#ing assu"ptions are sa"e across all the scenariosC
Gro'th of 7opu!ation: 9he total nu"ber of households in $undarbans as per 2==1 census #as -.<%
lakh. 9he esti"ated nu"ber of households in $undarbans in 2=1=@ assu"ing 1<<152==1 decadal
population gro#th A1;.%DB
and an average fa"ily si?e of & personsJ household is ;.22 lakh.
!ollo#ing the si"ilar trend the nu"ber of households #ould rise to <.;- lakh in 2=2=. 9he population
and household projections are sho#n in figure %.1.
?i)ure 4.1 8ousehold and !opulation :ro@th <2&1&%2&2&=
+ouseho!d $!ectrification 7!an: /ccording to infor"ation provided by 3B$E,01 there are 1.2 lakh
electrified households in $undarbans in May 2=1=. /s per the $tate )overn"ent@ 1==D electrification
of households in $undarbans by 2=1& is a realistic target. 9o achieve this target@ it is assu"ed that
under this scenario on an average 1.& to 1.- lakh households #ould be electrified every year till 2=1&.
/fter 2=1&@ it is e2pected that any ne# households that are added #ould be i""ediately electrified to
ensure 1==D household electrification.
5on0Domestic /oad: Based on the historical sectoral electricity consu"ption data for 4orth and
$outh 2% *arganas@ it is assu"ed that the non5do"estic electricity consu"ption #ould be %-D of the
do"estic electricity consu"ption Aas discussed in $ection 3.%B and this ratio #ould re"ain sa"e
during the forecast period of 2=1=52=2=@ indicating an inherent assu"ption that rate of gro#th of
do"estic and non5do"estic electricity de"and #ill be at si"ilar rates. (t also i"plies that any
,ata taken fro" 1<<1 0ensus and 2==1 0ensus.
2010 2011 2012 2013 201 2015 201! 201" 201# 201$ 2020
efficiency i"prove"ent in non5do"estic sector #ill be achieved along si"ilar lines as do"estic
0"1 BAU Senar!o
9his scenario incorporates the e2isting govern"ent plans for household electrification in $undarbans and
is characteri?ed as the "ost likely path of develop"ent in absence of "ajor interventions to i"prove
livelihood and inco"es of local population. 9he "ajor assu"ptions are as follo#sC
1verage Connected 2Domestic4 /oad: (t is assu"ed that in the absence of any "ajor initiative by the
$tate )overn"ent to i"prove livelihoods and inco"es of the local population@ during the period
2=1=52=2=@ the connected load per household #ould re"ain at the current level i.e. 3.& 3J
7!ant /oad 9actor: (t is assu"ed to re"ain at the current level of 2&D in 2=1=
and assu"ed to be at
3=D fro" 2=11 on#ards considering increase in household connections.
)@D !osses: 9he 9:, losses are assu"ed to re"ain at the current level of about %=D.

#esu!t: 9he scenario esti"ates the annual electricity de"and during 2=1= at 1&& Million 6nits

sho#s that the annual electricity de"and in 2=11 #ould be %2..;2 Million 6nits and in 2=2= #ould
rise over ten5fold to 1&2; Million 6nits Arefer figure %.2B due to e2pected 1==D electrification. 9he
rise in electricity de"and is sharp during 2=1= to 2=1& period #hen an intensive progra""e for
household electrification is assu"ed to take place.
?i)ure 4.2 /nnual :ro@th in Electricity #emand <-0= under 4/0 Scenario <2&1&%2&2&=

*lease refer table %.1 for detailed calculations for 2=1= and 2=2=.
3able 4.1 #emand pro$ection for 1&&F electrification of Sundarbans <2&1& and 2&2&=
S No %ead& 2441 2414 2411 241< 2424 Un!t&
*rojected nu"ber of households -<%2<- ;22=%- ;3.1.2 <==&1= <;-%-2 4o.
*rojected nu"ber of +ousehold
Electrified 12==== 2.-1=2 <==&1= <;-%-2 4o.
1oad !actor =.2& =.3 =.3 =.3
Conneted +oad

+ousehold 1oad L3.& 3Jhh 3.& %&.== 1=3.&% 33..-< 3-<.<2 M3
4on5household load L %-D of hh 2=..= %..-3 1&&.3% 1.=.1- M3
9otal connected loadAS %P&B -&..= 1&1.1. %<3.=3 &%=.=< M3
$ourceC 3B$E,01
$ourceC 3B$E,01
Pea# +oad

,iversity !actor
1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
*eak 1oadAS-J.B &=.&% 11-.2; 3.<.2& %1&.%& M3
A@era$e +oad

/verage 1oadAS ;23B 12.-3 3%.;; 113..; 12%.-% M3
Annua' e'etr!!tC reEu!re?ent 2)a*ing into
consideration 603 )@D !osses4 1&%.<& %2..;2 13<&.3& 1&2;.&3 M6
0"2 %!$h e'etr!!tC de?and $ro*th Senar!o
9his scenario assu"es socio5econo"ic develop"ent of the area Aassu"ing that touris"@ fishery@ and other
agriculture related activities gro#B resulting in rapid gro#th in electricity de"and. 9he "ajor assu"ptions
are as follo#sC
1verage Connected 2Domestic4 /oad: 0onsidering econo"ic develop"ent@ the connected load per
household is e2pected to gro# at a unifor" rate fro" the current level i.e. 3.& 3Jhousehold to %<..12
Aor@ say &==B 3Jhousehold in 2=1& Aconsidering increased per household re>uire"ents for lighting@
fans and household appliances like refrigerator and also considering electricity gro#th rate around
&.;D per annu" till 2=1& as per *lanning 0o""issionB and then it stabili?es at &== 3Jhousehold for
later years till 2=2=.
7!ant /oad 9actor: 9he load factor is e2pected to gradually increase fro" the current level of 2&D to
3=D A1oad factor i"proves #ith increase in no. of connectionsB in 2=11@ 3&D in 2=13 and to %=D in
)@D !osses: 9he 9:, losses are assu"ed to re"ain at the current level of %=D.
#esu!t: 9he scenario esti"ates the annual electricity de"and in 2=2= #ould rise to 21=41 Million
6nits gro#ing by over t#enty ti"es of the annual electricity de"and esti"ate of 1&& Million 6nits in
2=1= Arefer figure %.3B. 9he rise in electricity de"and is sharp during 2=1= to 2=1& period #hen an
intensive progra""e for household electrification is assu"ed to take place. 6nder this scenario@ the
gro#th in electricity de"and is rapid co"pared to B/6 scenario due to the assu"ed econo"ic
?i)ure 4.3 /nnual :ro@th in Electricity #emand <-0= under :ro@th Scenario <2&1&%2&2&=

*lease refer table %.2 for detailed calculations for 2=1= and 2=2=.
,iversity !actor is the ratio of the su" of the individual "a2i"u" de"ands of the various parts of a po#er distribution syste"
to the "a2i"u" de"and of the #hole syste"
3able 4.2 #emand pro$ection for 1&&F electrification of Sundarbans <2&1& and 2&2&=
S No %ead& 2441 2414 2411 241< 2424 Un!t&
*rojected nu"ber of households -<%2<- ;22=%- ;3.1.2 <==&1= <;-%-2 hh
*rojected nu"ber of +ousehold
Electrified 12==== 2.-1=2 <==&1= <;-%-2 hh
1oad !actor =.2& =.3 =.% =.%
Conneted +oad

+ousehold 1oad 3.& %&.== 1=<.&% %%..-- %<=.3< M3
4on5household load L %-D of hh 2=..= &=.3< 2=&.<2 22&.&; M3
9otal connected loadAS %P&B -&..= 1&<.<3 -&3.&; .1&.<. M3
Pea# +oad

,iversity !actor
1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
*eak 1oadAS-J.B &=.&% 123.=3 &=2..- &&=..% M3
A@era$e +oad

/verage 1oadAS ;23B 12.-3 3-.<1 2=1.1= 22=.3= M3
Annua' e'etr!!tC reEu!re?ent 2)a*ing into
consideration 603 )@D !osses4 1&%.<& %&2.-% 2%--.32 2.=1..3 M6
0"3 Ener$C E,,!!enC Senar!o
9he energy efficiency scenario assu"es that along #ith the econo"ic gro#th assu"ed under the gro#th
scenario@ a progra""e for i"proving energy5efficiency in the appliances as #ell as in bringing do#n
9:, losses #ould be launched. 9he "ajor assu"ptions are as follo#sC
1verage Connected 2Domestic4 /oad: 0onsidering econo"ic develop"ent of the islands@ though the
base average connected do"estic load #ould increase at the sa"e rates as assu"ed under 7gro#th
scenario8@ but #ith adoption of energy5efficient appliances Apri"arily lighting and fansB it #ill gro#
at a discounted rate. 9his #ill result in overall average connected load to gro# at a rate lo#er than
that under gro#th scenario. (t is assu"ed that the use of energy efficient appliances Astar ratedB shall
reduce the energy consu"ption up to 2&D by 2=2=. !or details on adoption and pro"otion of energy
efficient syste"s@ please refer to chapter5. on 7,e"and $ide Manage"ent8.
7!ant /oad 9actor: 9he load factor is e2pected to gradually increase fro" the current level of 2&D to
3=D in 2=11@ 3&D in 2=13 and %=D in 2=1&.
)@D !osses: 3ith focus on energy efficiency in the distribution syste"s@ the 9:, losses are assu"ed
to reduce gradually fro" the current level of %=D to 3=D in 2=13 and to 2=D after i"prove"ent of
syste"@ by 2=1&@ including installation of "ore +9 lines@ $ubstations@ 19 lines and ne# connections.
!or further details on this@ please refer to anne2ure . of the report.
#esu!t: 9he scenario esti"ates that the annual electricity de"and in 2=2= #ould rise to 1=3. Million
6nits@ that is@ by around eleven ti"es fro" the 1&& Million 6nits in 2=12 Arefer figure %.%B. 9his is
al"ost co"parable #ith energy de"and gro#th under B/6 scenario coupled #ith econo"ic gro#th
but #ith adoption of energy efficient syste"s and reduction in 9:, losses.
?i)ure 4.4 /nnual :ro@th in Electricity #emand <-0= under Ener)y Efficiency Scenario <2&1&%
,iversity !actor is tbhe ratio of the su" of the individual "a2i"u" de"ands of the various parts of a po#er distribution
syste" to the "a2i"u" de"and of the #hole syste"
*lease refer table %.3 for detailed calculations for 2=1= and 2=2=.
3able 4.3 #emand pro$ection for 1&&F electrification of Sundarbans <2&1& and 2&2&=
S No %ead& 2441 2414 2411 241< 2424 Un!t&
*rojected nu"ber of households -<%2<- ;22=%- ;3.1.2 <==&1= <;-%-2 hh
*rojected nu"ber of +ousehold Electrified 12==== 2.-1=2 <==&1=
.; hh
1oad !actor =.2& =.3 =.% =.%
Conneted +oad

+ousehold 1oad 3.& %&.== 1=<.&% 33&..% 3-...< M3
4on5household load L %-D of hh 2=..= &=.3< 1&%.%% 1-<.1; M3
9otal connected loadAS %P&B -&..= 1&<.<3 %<=.1< &3-.<. M3
Pea# +oad

,iversity !actor
1.3= 1.3= 1.3= 1.3=
*eak 1oadAS-J.B &=.&% 123.=3 3...=. %13.=- M3
A@era$e +oad

/verage 1oadAS ;23B 12.-3 3-.<1 1&=.;3 1-&.22 M3
Annua' e'etr!!tC reEu!re?ent
1&%.<& %&2.-%
2 M6
0"0 Con'u&!on&
9he co"parison of projected electricity de"and under various scenarios is sho#n in figure %.&. 9he
present supply Ain 2=1=B is 2-2.; M6 Arefer table 2.1=B. $o"e of the "ain conclusions that can be dra#n
fro" the analysis areC
Electrification of all the households in $undarbans #ould increase the de"and for electricity
"anifold. 9he increase in de"and in 2=2= is e2pected to be 1= to 2= ti"es that of the present
,iversity !actor is tbhe ratio of the su" of the individual "a2i"u" de"ands of the various parts of a po#er distribution
syste" to the "a2i"u" de"and of the #hole syste"
de"and. 9his increase in de"and #ould re>uire substantial invest"ents in the electricity supply
9he advantages of follo#ing an energy5efficiency approach are evident. (t can be observed that the
annual electricity de"and under the energy5efficiency scenario is only -&D of that under the gro#th
scenario. 9hus the focus should be on reducing 9:, losses@ and introducing energy5efficiency
appliances particularly energy5efficient fans and lighting. Electricity de"and under the energy
efficiency scenario Aeleven5fold fro" the base levelB is only slightly higher than that under the B/6
scenario Aten5fold fro" the base levelB@ indicating that an e"phasis on electricity efficiency in the
trans"ission@ distribution and end5use side could potentially offset the rise in de"and triggered by
higher rates of electrification as #ell as increase in use of energy efficient electrical appliances in the
do"estic and non5do"estic sectors.
?i)ure 4.( Electricity #emand <-0= !ro$ections under 7arious Scenarios
Chapter <: Strate$C ,or Jnot to -e $r!d e'etr!,!ed6 @!''a$e&
3B$E,01 #ith funding fro" Rural Electrification 0orporation ARE0B and 3est Bengal )overn"ent
has a plan to e2tend the electricity grid to a "ajor part of the $undarbans. 9he plan is to electrify the
"ajority of the villages@ e2cept those that are uninhabited and so"e "ore villages that are still left out.
(n $outh 2% *arganas@ there are .&= villages of #hich -;< villages have been either connected or are
proposed to be connected through gridJ $tate )ovt $che"es and 3< through ,ecentralised ,istributed
)eneration A,,)B sche"e. 1; villages are uninhabited. !urther % villages are not covered under any
sche"e as of no# Arefer /nne2ure & for the list of villagesB.
(n 4orth 2% *arganas@ there are 32- villages of #hich 31= villages have been either connected or are
proposed to be connected through gridJ $tate )ovt $che"es. 1& villages are uninhabited. !urther 1
village is not covered under any sche"e as of no#. *lease refer /nne2ure - for further details.
Regarding the villages under ,,) sche"e@ it #as infor"ed by 3B$E,01 that a total of %% villages
are not being considered under any of its sche"e and thus@ re>uested 3B)E,01 to take steps for
electrification of such villages. Out of these %% villages@ & villages are either uninhabited or #ithin
reserve forest of $undarbans. 9hus@ only 3< villages have been considered for ,,) sche"e.
3able (.1 South 24 !ar)anas: 4loc1%@ise summary of "illa)es co"ered under "arious electrification
B'o# Na?e
E'etr!,!ed 9 to
-e on&!dered
Propo&ed to
-e e'etr!,!ed
throu$h DDG
p'anned 9
Un!nha-!ted Tota'
Basanti -% 5 5 2
0anning ( -1 5 5 5 -1
0anning (( -2 5 5 5 -2
)osaba 3% 1; 5 1 &3
Naynagar 5 ( -. 5 5 2 -<
Naynagar (( %< 5 5 5 %<
Fakd#ip Block 3< 5 5 5 3<
Fultali %3 5 5 3 %-
Mathurapur ( <& 5 5 % <<
Mathurapur (( 2. 5 5 5 2.
4a"khana 3= % % 5 3;
*atharprati"a -< 1. 5 & <1
$agar (sland %< 5 5 1 &=
Tota' .>/ 3/ 0 1> =<4
3able (.2 6orth 24 !ar)anas: 4loc1%@ise summary of "illa)es co"ered under "arious electrification
B'o# Na?e
E'etr!,!ed 9 to
-e on&!dered
to -e
p'anned 9
Un!nha-!ted Tota'
+aroa ;3 5 5 1 ;%
Minakhan -< 5 5 2 .1
$andeshkhali5( 2& 5 5 3 2;
$andeshkhali5(( 21 5 5 3 2%
+asnabad -% 5 5 1 -&
+ingalganj %; 5 1 & &%
Tota' 314 : 1 1< 32.
<"1 5BGEDC+ DDG propo&a' ,or 3/ V!''a$e&
RE0 has recently approved 3B)E,018s proposal for electrification under ,,) sche"e of R))'E to
electrify 3.@&-% households Aor &D of total householdsB in 3< villages #ith an esti"ated e2penditure of
Rs 11= 0rore. 9he total installed capacity is 1=.=<& M3. /ll nine ,,) sche"es covering 3< villages are
based either on single rene#able energy technology or co"bination of t#o. 9echnology selection is based
on the appropriateness of the chosen technology for specific villages Jha"lets.
/n assess"ent of the resource availability is attached at AnneDure 3. 9he block5#ise list of the ,,)
sche"es is provided belo#. / su""ary of all the sche"es including details on the load profile@ capital
cost@ operating cost and tariff are provided in AnneDure 0.
3able (.2 5ist of ##: schemes ecently /ppro"ed by EC
B'o# Go&a-a
S" No V!''a$e Cen&u& Code
No" o,
E&t!?ated ProBet
Co&t (!n R& +a#h)
D"1 DDG She?e No"I :: 2 D 2<4 #5 B!o D!e&e' Generat!n$ Set 8 144 #5 So'ar PV
Fu"ir"ari =%=%<3== 333- 1-1<2
D"2 DDG SC%EME No" II:: 2 D 244 #5 B!o D!e&e' Generat!n$ Set 8 144 #5 So'ar PV
0hi"ta =%=%<=== 1=2= &2%2
*uinjali =%=%<2== <1. %;-=
D"3 DDG SC%EME No" III :: 2 D 1<44 #5 B!o?a&& Bo!'er Tur-!ne Generator
%. 0hhota Molla Fhali =%=&33== 1<%& <-33
&. +etalbari =%=&2<== .%. 3-%3
-. Falidaspur =%=%<%== 1=&% &1&%
.. Bara"ollakhali =%=%<-== -;- 3;==
;. Radhanagar ,akshin =%=%<.== ;-< 3;%1
<. Radhanagar *aschi" =%=%;;== ;2- 3<=&
1=. Radhanagar *urba =%=%;<== -<3 3..1
11. 9aranagar =%=%<&== 1122 &.&3
D"0 DDG SC%EME No" IV :: 2 D 1<44 #5 B!o?a&& Bo!'er Tur-!ne Generator
12. +a"ilton /bad =%=&32== .%; 3%-&
13. 1ahiripur =%=&3.== 1%13 --3.
1%. 1u2bagan =%=&3&== ;&1 %2-3
1&. $adhupur =%=&3-== 13&< -3;.
,ayapur =%=&31== <1< %%%%
1.. $atjalia =%=&3=== 1-;2 ;2%3
1;. $udhansupur =%=&3%== .;< %==-
B'o# Na?#hana
S" No V!''a$e Cen&u& Code
No" o,
E&t!?ated ProBet
Co&t (!n R& +a#h)
D"1 DDG She?e :: <44 #5 B!o D!e&e' Generat!n$ Set 8 (ED!&t!n$ 114 8 <<) #5p So'ar PV
1. Bagdanga =%=-;%== -<1 %=2. &<%.;<
S" No V!''a$e Cen&u& Code
No" o,
E&t!?ated ProBet
Co&t (!n R& +a#h)
2. Fusu"tala =%=-;&== ;-- &=3-
3. Mousani =%=-.%== &1- 31%;
%. Baliara =%=-.&== 12-. .;=2
B'o# Patharprat!?a
S'" No V!''a$e
No" o,
E&t!?ated ProBet
Co&t (!n R& +a#h)
D"1 DDG She?e No"I :: 3 D 2<4 #5 B!o?a&& Ga&!,!er 8 134 #5p So'ar PV
1. 0hoto Banashya" 4agar =%=.%%== .%1 %2-&
2. Rakshaskhali =%=.-;== .-% %=%-
3. Fshetra Mohanpur =%=.-<== ;;< %<-.
%. Brajaballavpur =%=..=== 1=&- &<=-
&. )obindapur /bad =%=..1== <.% &%;&
D"2 DDG SC%EME No" II:: 3 D 244 #5 B!o?a&& Ga&!,!er 8 14< #5p So'ar PV
-. 1aksh"ipur =%=.%.== &=< 3=3;
.. Bishnupur =%=.%;== 3.< 22=2
;. Fa"debpur =%=.%<== %;1 2.=3
<. /chintyanagar =%=.&=== <22 &22&
1=. Fu"arpur =%=.&3== 3<& 22%2
11. Mahespur =%=.&%== 3;% 2=%2
12. Fedarpur =%=.&&== %<= 2&;2
D"3 DDG SC%EME No" III :: 2 D 12> #5 B!o?a&& Ga&!,!er 8 0< #5p So'ar PV
13. *urba $ripatinagar =%=.-1== &<< 3&;.
1%. *aschi" $ripatinagar =%=.-2== <3- &;22
D"0 DDG SC%EME No" IV :: 2 D 244 #5 B!o?a&& Ga&!,!er 8 114 #5p So'ar PV
1&. 6pendranagar =%=.-3== .&2 %311
1-. Rakhalpur =%=.-%== <;- &3%;
1.. $ridharnagar =%=.-&== 11=< --<%
9o understand the proposal sub"itted #ith RE0@ key provisions of the ,,) sche"e under R))'E is
e2plained in Bo2 2 belo#.

4o2 2: Bey !ro"isions of ##: under ::7;
,ecentrali?ed ,istributed )eneration A,,)B under Rajiv )andhi )ra"een 'idyutikaran Eojana@ #hile
i"ple"enting the ,,) projects it has to be ensured that
AiB 9he effort and invest"ent that goes into setting up of ,,)s are utili?ed for the benefit of the target groups and
do not beco"e sunk invest"ent once the village is being connected to the grid and
AiiB 9here is sufficient engage"ent and support of the local co""unity for this initiative.
!or the selection of villages@ the follo#ing approach should be follo#edC
AiB 9he list of villages J ha"lets to be electrified through ,,) is to be finali?ed by the $tate Rene#able Energy
,evelop"ent /gency J depart"ents pro"oting rene#able energy in consultation #ith state utilities and M4RE.
AiiB 9o the e2tent possible@ the selection of the villages J ha"lets is to be carried out in a cluster to take advantage of
the clustering effect@ #herever applicable. ,epending on the pro2i"ity of the villages J ha"lets@ the "erit of
setting up a local distribution grid covering all these villages J ha"lets #ith a central po#er plant as against
setting up of individual village J ha"let level syste"s #ould be evaluated.
AiiiB 'illages J ha"lets that co"prise of "igratoryJfloating population "ay not be considered.
AivB 3hile finali?ing the list@ the villages J ha"lets are to be prioriti?ed and those villages #here grid connectivity is
not foreseen in ne2t & to . years "ust be taken up first for setting up ,,) projects.
AvB 'illages J ha"lets having population of less than 1== shall not be considered under the ,,) $che"e and to be
taken up by M4RE for i"ple"entation. 'illages J ha"lets that are already being planned to be taken up by
M4RE are to be e2cluded under the ,,) sche"e.
AviB 'illages J ha"lets that have been provided #ith solar ho"e lighting syste"s under the Re"ote 'illage
Electrification progra" can also be considered under the ,,) sche"e.
AviiB(nfrastructure for these projects is to be established in a "anner so that they are grid co"patible. 9his #ould
ensure >uick interface #hen grid po#er reaches the village and ensure that the invest"ents "ade today are not
sunk #hen the village is finally connected to the grid.
,ecentrali?ed ,istributed )eneration can be fro" conventional or rene#able sources such as Bio"ass@ Biofuels@
Biogas@ Mini +ydro@ $olar etc. for villages #here grid connectivity is either not feasible or not cost effective.
(.1.1 8ours of Supply
9he sche"es have been designed to supply po#er for 1251- hoursJday. 9he sche"e is designed to provide
po#er supply to "ajority of the households in the area covered under the project.
(.1.2 Choice of 3echnolo)y
/ll nine ,,) sche"es #ould be based either on single rene#able energy technology or co"bination of
t#o. 9echnology selection is based on the appropriateness for specific villages Jha"lets. 9he break5up
bet#een different technologies is given belo#C
3able (.3 3echnolo)y%mi2 for the proposed ##: schemes
Tehno'o$C:?!D No o, &he?e&
Bio"ass gasifier P $*' %
Bio"ass boiler turbine generator 2
Biodiesel generator P$*' 3
Tota' /
3able (.4 3echnolo)y%@ise capacity
Tehno'o$C Un!t& Tota' Capa!tC
$olar *' F3 -<=
Bio"ass )asifier F3 2@==&
Bio"ass boiler turbine generator F3 -@===
Biodiesel )enerator $et F3 1@%==
Tota' Capa!tC
F5 1414/<
M5 14"4/<
$olar *'
9he key features that need to be considered for $olar *' po#er plant option are as follo#sC
9he initial capital cost of the technology is high ARs 1..& lakhJk3pB
(t is a technically "ature technology and if the syste" is "aintained properly@ the po#er plant can
#ork reliably for 1&52= years. (n case of $undarbans@ several $*' po#er plants are operational for
"ore than 1= years.
9he running cost of the syste" is lo# as it does not re>uire any fuel@ ho#ever the replace"ent of
battery bank as #ell as replace"ent of inverter after -5; years is e2pected and entails large invest"ent
Aup to 2&D of the initial capital cost of the syste"B.
/ solar *' po#er plant re>uires significantly large area Aaround 3== "2 for a 1= k3p plantB
Out of the < ,,) sche"es@ in . sche"es $olar *' is proposed as a supple"entary source to bio"ass
gasifiers and biodiesel generators. 9he capacity of $*' po#er plants ranges fro" %& to 13= k3p. 9he
$olar *' po#er plants are designed to provide po#er during lo#5de"and periods@ particularly during
night hours A1= p" to - a"B.
Bio"ass gasifier #ith 1==D gas engine
9he key features that need to be considered for bio"ass gasifier po#er plant option are as follo#sC
9he initial capital cost of the technology ranges fro" Rs &=@=== to -=@=== Jk3.
/ gasifier is considered a preferred bio"ass technology for capacities ranging fro" 1= to &== k3.
4or"ally@ a gasifier is designed for a specific fuel type e.g. for solid fuels As"all5pieces of #ood or
bio"ass bri>uettesB or for loose bio"ass Ae.g. rice husk@ sa# dustB. / "ajority of the gasifiers
deployed for rural electrification earlier are based on solid fuel.
!or trouble free operation@ a gasifier po#er plant re>uires regular and periodic "aintenance. (t is
i"portant that the #eekly@ "onthly and annual "aintenance schedules are prepared early in the
project stage and follo#ed properly during the operations stage.
*roper storage to store bio"ass is essential #ith a bio"ass gasifier syste". 9he gasifier e2periences
technical proble"s #ith #et bio"ass and hence the storage should be covered to keep the bio"ass
dry. / provision for drying of bio"ass is also essential in a place like $undarbans having a long
"onsoon season. ,uring "onsoon@ the bio"ass fuel can be dried utili?ing the heat of e2haust gas.
$o"e )asifer "anufacturers in (ndia "anufacture this type of e>uip"ents. $uch e>uip"ent #ill be
deployed under this sche"e.
(n corrosive "arine environ"ents like $undarbans@ the bio"ass gasifier shell is e2pected to last for
around & years and #ould re>uire replace"ent. 9o reduce the corrosion proble"@ the reactors "ade of
Mild $teel sheets are replaced #ith reactors "ade of stainless steel sheets. 9hus@ reactors "ade up of
stainless steel shall be deployed under such sche"e in the islands.
Out of the < ,,) sche"es@ % sche"es all located in *atharprati"a block have been identified for
setting up bio"ass gasifier po#er plants. *atharprati"a block is kno#n for paddy cultivation and also
have rice "ills and hullers@ #hich results in availability of rice5husk. 9he bio"ass gasifier plants
proposed #ould utili?e this rice5husk either in loose for" or in bri>uetted for". /ll bio"ass gasifier
based units are located in *atharprati"a block because of its pro2i"ity to rice "ills in Fad#ip and
4a"khana blocks.
Bio"ass boiler turbine generator
9he key features that need to be considered for bio"ass boiler turbine generator po#er plant option are as
9he technology is considered #hen the po#er generation capacity is "ore than &== k3
9he initial capital cost is in the range of Rs 2&@===Jk3
Being a conventional boiler syste" based on bio"ass co"bustion@ it can take various types of
bio"ass@ #hich provides "ore fle2ibility in its operation.
(t is a proven and robust technology.
)iven the relatively larger si?e of the po#er plant having larger bio"ass re>uire"ents@ it is essential
to have a good plan for collection and storage of bio"ass. )ood >uality Bio"ass Bri>uetting
"achines are available in operation in "any parts of (ndia. 9hese units are capable of converting
#ide range of loose bio"ass into bri>uette that can be used in the boiler. $uch "achines #ill be
deployed in the islands .9he calorific value is in the range of 3&== to %2== Fcal per kg.
9#o sche"es@ each of 1&== k3 each@ located at )osaba are proposed. Rice husk@ jute sticks and
"iscellaneous bio"ass #ould be the fuel for these units.
Biodiesel generator
9he key features that need to be considered for biodiesel generator po#er plant option are as follo#sC
9he initial capital cost is in the range of Rs 1=@===51&@===Jk3
One of the leading engine "anufacturers has started offering biodiesel generator set of 2&= k3
capacity. (t is e2pected that soon other engine "anufacturers #ill launch their products.
Biodiesel re>uired Ain ter"s of >uantity and >ualityB can only be co""ercially produced in
centrali?ed plants@ having capacities of several tonsJday. 9hus the biodiesel re>uired for the plant has
to be procured fro" these co"panies. *roper arrange"ent for transportation and storage #ill be
re>uired. 3ater transport shall be used for transfer of "aterial.
9he biodiesel generator has been proposed in three ,,) sche"es. 9hese villages do not have sufficient
bio"ass resources to install a bio"ass based po#er plant. 9here is very li"ited scope for local bio5fuel
production as the conditions are not conducive for Natropha cultivation. 9he biodiesel ANatropha and *al"
oilB for the po#er plants is planned to be procured fro" bio5diesel factories at +aldia@ E"ani and +o#rah@
the closest areas to $undarban (slands on the "ainland. 9ransportation across the islands #ill be done
through #ater transport.
(.1.3 Institutional and business model
9he ,,) sche"e under R))'E is based on viability gap funding. 6nder the sche"e@ the gap bet#een
the total e2penditure Aincluding the capital e2penditure for setting5up the po#er generation and
distribution syste" along #ith operation cost for first & yearsB and the revenue generated in the first &
years is funded by the )overn"ent under R))'E. 3B)E,01 #ould be the i"ple"enting agency.
9he )overn"ent of (ndia has already approved a su" of Rs 11= 0rores for viability gap funding. 9he
esti"ated cost is also the sa"e. 9he viability gap funding "ay go up to <=D of the total installation and
O:M cost subject to the li"it of Rs 11= 0rores. ,etails regarding these projects are furnished in the
/nne2ure %. 3B)E,01 #ill tie5up #ith private operators for the construction@ co""issioning and the
operation of the po#er plants. 9he operator has the responsibility to produce and supply electricity for &
years. /fter that plants #ill be transferred back to the $tate )overn"ent. 9here is a rene#al clause after
lapse of first & years of operations in the agree"ent. Even if the contractor is unable to rene# the contract@
there is an option of re5bidding also.
(.1.4 Cost per 1>
9he co"parison of initial cost of capital re>uired across various proposed technologies under ,,)
sche"e is presented in table &.&. (t also provides an appro2i"ate cost of a diesel generator set as #ell as
of grid electricity. /s #e can observe that the cost of diesel generator set is co"paratively lo#er or
e>uivalent to the technology proposed under ,,) sche"e@ use of such generator sets is not
reco""ended in the islands given the fragile ecological conditions.
3able (.( Comparison of Initial Capital Cost across "arious 3echnolo)ies
Tehno'o$C In!t!a' Cap!ta' Co&t (R& J444
per #5)
E&t!?ated OAM Co&t (R&
J444 per #5)
$olar *' 1-< 1.=3
Bio"ass )asifier &=5-= %.==
Bio"ass boiler turbine generator %& %.==
Biodiesel )enerator $et 1=51& %.==
,iesel )enerator set 1=51& %.==
)rid Electricity %& 3.&
$ourceC 3B)E,01 for technology under ,,)@ pri"ary survey for $olar *'@ 3B$E,01 for grid electricity@ and Firloskar
Oil Engines 1i"ited for diesel generator set.
Results of an analysis of the total cost for setting5up the po#er generation and distribution syste" along
#ith the operational cost for five years are presented in figure &.1 in the for" of cost per k3 for various
options. +ere@ an appro2i"ate cost of providing distribution net#ork has been on the basis of cost
esti"ates of ,,) projects prepared by 3B)E,01.
?i)ure (.1 Cost per 1> for different proposed schemes
$"all and dispersed electric loads result in longer feeder lines and hence@ higher 9:, losses. 1arge
nu"ber of B*1 fa"ilies and nonavailability of large co""ercial loads leads to lo# revenue for
electricity distributor and hence@ has a direct i"pact on the long5ter" sustainability of the infrastructure
and resource availability. )iven this@ there is a high likelihood that #hile doing rationing of electricity
during supply deficit situation@ $undarbans #ill not be in an advantageous position. 9he above cost
analysis gains i"portant because even if there is a provision of grid electricity for 1==D households@ the
availability of po#er is likely to face generation constraints in the $tate@ a"ong other factors@ i"plying
load shedding and bro#n5outs. 9his thus highlights an i"portance of the non5conventional sources of
energy irrespective of its scale as standalone as #ell as supple"entary sources of electricity to grid
electricity to "eet the un"et de"and for po#er.
(.1.( !roposed 3ariff
9he proposed tariff for the various proposed sche"es is given belo# in table &.-. (t ranges fro" Rs - to
Rs 1=Jk3h. 9he tariff is not deter"ined through regulatory regi"e prevalent in the state but has been
derived on the basis of the #illingness5to5pay Aas esti"ated fro" pri"ary surveyB and already e2isting
tariff in the islands for RE po#er plants that is decided in "utual agree"ent #ith the local people. )iven
this@ the proposed tariff #ill be deter"ined at co""unity level after consultations #ith the local people.
9he tariff #as deter"ined in the sa"e "anner adopted by regulatory co""ission but the rate is high
because of high overhead and transportation cost. (t can be observed that the users of electricity in the
,,) area #ould be paying "uch higher tariff co"pared to their neighbors getting electricity fro" the
grid Arefer table 2.% for co"parisonB.
3able (.' !roposed 3ariff
$che"e nu"bers 1 and 2 A$*' P B,)B refer to ,,) $che"es ( and (( for Block )osaba. $che"e nu"bers 3 and % ABMB9)B
refers to ,,) $che"es ((( and (' for Block )osaba. $che"e nu"ber & ABMB9)B refers to the ,,) sche"e for Black
4a"khana. $che"e nu"bers - to < A$*' P BM)B refer to ,,) sche"es for Block *atharprati"a.
$ost in 's Lahs(&
09908 09906
1949 1949
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 :6&rag&
SPV )*"+
$che"e 5555555555555555555555 T
$*'PB,)C $olar *' and Biodiesel )asifier
BMB9)C Bio"ass Boiler 9urbine )enerator
$*'PBM)C $olar *' and Bio"ass )asifier
S" No" B'o#&
Propo&ed tar!,, (R&"9#5h)
Do?e&t! Co??un!tC Co??er!a' Indu&tr!a'
$*'5B,) )osaba@ 4a"khana - ; ; 1=
BMB )osaba & - - -
$*'5BM) *atharprati"a & & - -
(.1.' Sustainability Issues
9he proposal for the < sche"es has been prepared as per the ,,) guidelines. 9he selection of the
technology has been done considering the availability of resources Arefer AnneDure 3 and AnneDure 0
for details on resource availabilityB. +o#ever@ for long5ter" sustainability Abeyond & years of the present
,,) sche"eB of these sche"es@ plans should be "ade by the state govern"ent at an early stage of design
and i"ple"entation of these sche"es.
<"2 Potent!a' o, Add!t!ona' DDG She?e&
)iven the uncertainty over available bio"ass resource and higher cost of the solar *' technology
associated #ith large land re>uire"ent@ the scope of additional ,,) sche"es is li"ited. / preli"inary
list of 2= villages have been prepared #here studies "ay be undertaken for preparing ,*Rs for ,,)
sche"es. /n esti"ated cost of providing ,,) sche"e to these villages is Rs -= crore. +o#ever@ at this
point of ti"e@ perhaps it is i"portant to i"ple"ent so"e of the ,,) sche"es and get e2perience@ before
proposing any ne# ,,) sche"es.
3able (., 7illa)es identified for ascertainin) feasibility under ##: option
S" No" Na?e o, V!''a$e Cen&u& No" No" o, %ou&eho'd& Popu'at!on
Patharprat!?a -'o#
1. *urba ,#arokapur =%=.&-== &;1 322%
2. Fue"ari =%=.&.== .-< %33-
3. *urba $urendranagar 1%=.&;== .<& %3<&
%. +era"ba )opalpur =%=.&<== 1=;. &<22
&. ,akshin Fashinagar =%=.-=== ;-. %;-;
-. 1aksh"i Nanardanpur =%=.&1== .;- %1.%
.. *urba 0hinta"anipur =%=.&2== %<3 2<%-
;. Banashya" 4agar =%=.%-== ;=; %&.&
<. $ibnagar =%=.%&== .;< %-&%
1=. )angapur =%=.--== &%2 2<=;
11. Frishnadaspur =%=.-.== %&. 2%1%
12. $atyadaspur =%=.;1== %;3 3=;1
13. ,aspur =%=..2== -; 3<&
1%. 6ttar $urendraganj =%=..3== &.= 3=3;
1&. ,akshin $urendraganj =%=..%== -&% 3;;2
1-. (ndrapur =%=..&== .&< %&<1
1.. Buraburir 9at =%=..-== &12 2<1.
1;. $itara"pur =%=...== ..2 %=<=
1<. )obardhanpur =%=..;== 213 11<3
Sa$ar B'o#
2=. )hora"ara =%=-=-== ;<< &23-
<"3 So'ar Ener$C Potent!a'
9he total area covered by 1< blocks under $undarbans is sho#n belo#.
South 20 Par$ana&
North 20 Par$ana&
SE" #? SE"#?
1" 0anning 5 ( 1;..;- 1" %aroa 1<2"=3
2" 0anning 5 (( 21%.<3 2" %a&na-ad 1<3"4=
3" Basanti %=%.21 3" %!n$a'$anB 23>">
0" )osaba 2<-..3 0" M!na#han 1<>">2
<" Mathurapur 5 ( 1%..3 <" Sande&h#ha'! : I 1>2"3
." Mathurapur 5 (( 22..%& ." Sande&h#ha'! : II 1/="21
=" Fakd#ip 2&2..%
Tota' 14>2"/3 >" 4a"khana 3.=.-1
/" $agar 2;2.11
14" *atharprati"a %;%.%.
11" Noynagar 5 ( 131.=1
12" Noynagar 5 (( 1;-.2&
13" Fultali 3=-.1;
10" 9otal 3%<1.;&
)rand total %&.%..;
/s per international practice@ 1D of total area as available for $*'@ the total area %&..& s>.k" S
11@3=&.=.1 acres. /rea re>uired per M3 is & acres@ so total potential is S 22-1.=1 AsayB 22&= M3.
<"0 5!nd Ener$C Potent!a'
/s per survey conducted by 053et under Ministry of 4e# : Rene#able Energy@ the total potential for
#ind energy generation is %&= M3. +o#ever@ all such sites are located near the sea shore. 9he average
#ind velocity in the interior areas of $undarbans is not suitable for techno5econo"ically viable projects.
<"< T!da' Po*er Potent!a'
/s per 3BRE,/@ the total tidal po#er potential in $undarbans area is 1== M3. / 3.- M3 9idal po#er
project located near )osaba #as sanctioned by M4RE under 3BRE,/. 9he po#er fro" tidal po#er
plants is nor"ally available for a "a2i"u" period of 1% hours per day depending ti"ing of tides. $o@ it
cannot be used solely for local distribution and "ust be connected to grid net#ork.
<". Fator& a,,et!n$ Re'!a-'e Po*er Supp'C to the I&'and&
9o su""ari?e@ for ,,) areas@ follo#ing factors deter"ine the reliabilityC
/vailability of Biodiesel fro" local sources.
/vailability of rice husk fro" local rice "ills in Fakd#ip : 4a"khana area.
/vailability of agricultural@ social forestry #astes and silvicultural #aste fro" forest for bio"ass
co"bustion syste"s.
Maintenance of trans"ission syste"s across rivers@ rivulets and creeks.
Chapter .: Strate$C ,or Jto -e $r!d e'etr!,!ed6 @!''a$e&
."1 ED!&t!n$ Gr!d In,ra&truture
/s stated in 0hapter &@ al"ost 2-3 villages in the islands are grid connected and "ost of the" are
being proposed to be grid connected by 2=1&.
/s stated $ection 2.2@ "ost of the substations #ill be unable to "eet the increased de"and for po#er
if all the households are to be connected to the grid.
Moreover@ long feeder lines that so"eti"es e2tends up to "ore than &= k"@ results in higher losses
and poor >uality of po#er. 9his is further a"plified by inade>uate nu"ber of distribution
transfor"ers. /s a result@ tail end voltage level is al"ost 3&D belo# the declared voltage supply
Even though grid contributes to al"ost ;.D of the total installed capacity@ al"ost ;%D of the villages
do not get po#er for %5< hours and 1%D of the villages for "ore than < hours.
9his re>uires aug"entation of the e2isting grid infrastructure in the villages to i"prove reliability of
po#er supply.
9his also re>uires supple"enting the grid electricity #ith the already e2isting non5conventional
sources of po#er.
."2 Propo&a' ,or Further Gr!d E'etr!,!at!on
/s per the plan of the state govern"ent@ 3B$E,01 shall achieve 1==D village electrification by
2=1&. But since as per the ne# definition of electrification@ an electrification of village "ay not "ean
1==D electrification of households in the village.
!unds to the tune of Rs 1<;.31 have been approved under R))'E for the ongoing electrification.
!or further intensification of electricity infrastructure in to5be grid connected households is esti"ated
at Rs 1<;.12 crore #hereas a si"ilar e2ercise in e2isting grid connected villages #ill re>uire another
Rs 1== crore of funds. !urther the esti"ated fund re>uire"ent for the villages that can be considered
by the state govern"ent for electrification at a later date #ould re>uire an additional Rs 2== crore.
3hile i"ple"enting the proposed plan@ length of 19 lines should be restricted to 2.= FM for proper
voltage regulation and reduction in line losses.
*roposed tariff is furnished in 9able 2.%
(nstitutional "echanis" during the stakeholder consultation@ it #as discussed that ,epart"ent of
*o#er@ )overn"ent of 3est Bengal #ill ad"inister the entire progra" and 3B$E,01 is and #ill
act as a nodal agency for i"ple"entation of R))'E sche"e. But since there are "any agencies
#orking on different aspects of energy technology@ there is a need for better coordination a"ongst all
of the".
$ince the state itself is under po#er deficit situation that is likely to continue in near future@ it is likely
that supply of po#er to the islands #ill be a secondary priority as there is not "uch load Adue to
absence of any "ajor industryB and frag"entation of the islands. 9hus@ the >uality of po#er is likely
to continue to re"ain poor in the islands. +ence@ it is proposed that the non5conventional sources of
po#er should be connected to the grid to i"prove >uality of po#er supply to the people.
!ollo#ing sections discuss various "easures that should be adopted to i"prove >uality and reliability of
po#er supply.
9hese figures are based on the available cost esti"ates in the islands
."3 Redut!on !n TAD +o&&e&
/s "entioned earlier the 9:, losses in $undarbans are esti"ated to be around %=D
. 9he "ain reasons
for these losses areC
1d0+oc $Apansion of the S"stem 'ithout Scientific 7!anningC ,istribution syste"s have been
e2panded on an ad5hoc and hapha?ard basis #ith the sole objective of giving connections under
pressure fro" influential persons but #ithout "uch scientific planning #hich has resulted in higher
/o' 7o'er 9actorC 9here are pu"ps@ fabrication and other s"all industries@ #hich operate #ithout
"aking provision for po#er factor i"prove"ent and thus the syste" has a lo# po#er factor #hich
results in higher losses.
:mproper /oad >anagementC ("proper "anage"ent of the load@ "ainly unbalanced load has led to
unevenJ over5loading of conductors and transfor"ers in the syste" causing higher losses.
Distribution )ransformers 2D)#4 not /ocated at /oad CentreC 9he ,9Rs are nor"ally located by
road side for easy access but not located centrally #ith respect to consu"ers. 0onse>uently@ the
overall length of the distribution net#ork increases and the farthest consu"ers receives lo# voltage
even though a reasonably good voltage level is "aintained at the transfor"ers8 secondary. 9his again
leads to higher line losses.
7oor Construction and :nadeBuate >aintenance of $BuipmentC Majority of poles for 33 k' and 11
k' line are e2tended by cla"ping a piece of 1== "" 2 &= "" M$ channel to the *$0 poles. 9his
"ay result in co"pro"ising #ith the $afety !actor@ #hich "ust be a "ini"u" of 2.& for *$0 poles.
9he lines should be erected #ith poles #ithout joints and safety factor of atleast 2.& "ust be
Some of the distribution transformers are o!d and repaired. *oor #ork"anship also contributes
significantly to#ards increasing distribution losses. Noints are a source of po#er loss. 0onnections to
the transfor"er bushing@ drop out fuse@ isolator@ and 19 s#itch cause losses. Moreover@ poor
construction results in increased losses. *oor #ork"anship leads to hot spots@ e>uip"ent failure and
interruption in supply. ,eteriorated #ires and services@ #hich are not ti"ely "aintained@ cause
leakages and loss of po#er
/ong feeder !ines as discussed in 0hapter 2. 9he 11 k' lines are e2tended beyond their design li"it
causing line loss@ instability and proble"s in voltage regulation.
One of the steps of the proposed strategy #ould be to i"prove the condition of the e2isting grid
infrastructure. 9he potential "easures are enu"erated in /nne2ure -.
."0 Up:$radat!on o, Su-&tat!on&
9o "eet the gro#th in de"and for electricity the electricity infrastructure including substations needs to
be upgraded.
(n 4orth 2% *arganas@ aug"entation of 33J11 k' substations at Minakhan fro" e2isting A223 M'/B to
A223 P 123.1& M'/BO at +asnabad fro" e2isting A12& P 223.1& M'/B to A22-.3 P 223.1& M'/BO and at
+ingalganj fro" e2isting A223.1& M'/B to A223.1& M'/ P 12-.3 M'/B has been planned in the
(n $outh 2% *arganas@ in addition to aug"entation of capacity of the e2isting substations@ four ne# sub5
stations are planned A9able -.1B.
3able '.1: E2istin) and !roposed 33E11 17 Substations % South 24 !ar)anas
$ourceC 3B$E,01
Na?e o, B'o#
Na?e o,
33911 #V
33911 #V
+oad ,ro?
&ur@eC (!n
+oad ,ro?
&ur@eC (!n
E2istin) substations
Naynagar 5 (( Noynagar 1-.3 1&..& 32.1 ..&% <.%2
0anning5( Miyargheri 3.1& 5 3.1& <.1- 11.%&
Fakd#ip )anespur 12.- 5 12.- ..;. <.;3
Basanti ,igherpar -.3 5 -.3 5
!roposed Substations
Basanti $onakhali 5 5 5 11.2< 1%.11
)osabaG 5 5 5 ;..1 1=.;;
Naynagar ( Beliachandi 5 <.%& <.%& ;.&. 1=..1
0anning5((G 5 5 5 ;.3& 1=.%%
Fultali Na"tala 5 1.- 1.- -.3- ..<&
Mathurapur (G $undirhat 5 5 5 ..%2 <.2.
Mathurapur ((G Roydighi /bad 5 5 5 ;.3- 1=.%&
4a"khanaG 4a"khana 5 5 5 -.21 ...-
5 5 5 1=.-2 13.2;

5 5 5 -.&& ;.1;
Tota' 3;.3& 2-.;= -&.2 1=..=1 133..%
*$Aact !ocation of 33&11 *C Substation is "et to be fina!iDed
Source: -.S$DC/
."< Inten&!,!at!on o, e'etr!,!at!on !n eD!&t!n$9propo&ed @!''a$e& to -e $r!d e'etr!,!ed
9he level of electrification in "ost of the e2isting grid electrified villages is lo#. (t has been observed that
in the sanctioned sche"es for grid electrification@ only Rs 1& lakh per village has been sanctioned by the
state govern"ent for laying5out of the distribution lines and connecting households. Based on e2perience@
it is esti"ated that a "ediu"5si?ed village of around %== households in $undarbans re>uires around Rs 3&
lakh for laying5out of the distribution lines and connecting all the households. 9his thus leaves a gap of
Rs 2= lakh per village. 9hus@ an esti"ated a"ount of Rs 1;= crore Aconsidering <== nu"bers of villagesB
#ould be re>uired for intensification of grid electrification in e2isting and proposed villages to achieve
1==D household electrification during 2=1=52=1&.
.". For?at!on o, Sundar-an& Po*er Supp'C Corporat!on
)iven the fact that the conditions in $undarbans are very different fro" the "ainland@ #hich re>uire
specialised technical capabilities@ involves synergetic develop"ent of grid and off5grid options and
re>uires "anpo#er on the ground for efficient tariff collection and >uick "aintenance@ it is proposed that
a ne# organi?ation 5 $undarbans *o#er $upply 0orporation be for"ed. 9his corporation #ill coordinate
all the #orks related to various po#er sector agencies@ such as@ 3B$E,01 for grid electricity@
3B)E,01 for ,,)@ 3BRE,/ for RE po#er plants@ etc. (t is proposed that the initial e>uity for this
ne# 0orporation can be contributed as follo#s AtentativeBC &=D fro" 3B$E,01@ 2&D fro" 3B)E,01
and 2&D fro" $undarbans ,evelop"ent Board. (t is to be "entioned that there are recent e2a"ples of
for"ation of such corporation for specific purposes e.g. 4e# 9o#n Electric $upply 0o"pany A+(90OB
for"ed by 3B$E,01 to serve 4e# 9o#n and $undarbans (nfrastructure ,evelop"ent 0orporation for
all infrastructure develop"ent at $undarbans.
9he proposed 0orporation #ould be responsible for the follo#ingC
*o#er purchase fro" generating co"panies and distribution of the sa"e in grid connected areas
falling under its jurisdiction.
$etting up of ,,) plants in off5grid areas and distribution lines for distribution of po#er in the
villages covered under the project.
Operation and "aintenance of the ,,) plants@ substations and lines including service connections
and "etering etc.
Overall operation and "aintenance of other sources of po#er including grid and RE po#er plants.
Billing and revenue collection.
,isaster "anage"ent during cyclone and floods.
9he 0orporation #ould also pro"ote public5private partnership. *ublic5*rivate participation in
i"ple"enting the project is essential. /s sho#n above@ cost of electrification in this area is bound to be
higher than "ainland due to various reasons. *rivate entrepreneurs #ill not participate in the process
incurring losses. !ro" our past e2perience@ the $tate )overn"ent #ill find it difficult to "aintain the
syste" in an efficient "anner. *rivate parties "ay be attracted if provided viability gap finance in the
initial installation stage and the project should be for"ulated in such a #ay so that the )overn"ent #ill
not be re>uired to finance O:M. Moreover@ involve"ent of local co""unities is e>ually i"portant for
efficient #orking of the syste". 1ocal capacity through carrying out training sessions on day to day O:M
can be build.
."= A@a!'a-!'!tC o, Po*er Supp'C to the I&'and&
/vailability of the reliable po#er supply to the islands #ill ulti"ately depend on the follo#ing factorsC
/ug"entation of generation capacity of conventional generating stations in 3est Bengal.
/vailability of po#er fro" 0entral $ector po#er plants of 4ational 9her"al *o#er 0orporation
A49*0B and 4ational +ydro *o#er 0orporation A4+*0B.
9he follo#ing table gives a snapshot of the installed capacity in the state at the end of 1=
five year plan.
3able '.2: Installed Capacity in >est 4en)al at the end of 1&
!lan <?i)ures in ->=
Setor %Cdro
R"E"S Tota'
Coa' Ga& D!e&e' Tota'
$tate 1-1.. 321&.1 1==.= 12.1 332..1 2;.; 3&1..-
*rivate =.= 1=;1.% =.= =.1 1=;1.& =.1 1=;1.-
0entral 1%.= ;%-.. =.= =.= ;%-.. =.= ;-=..
Tota' 1=<"= <103"1 144"4 12"2 <2<<"3 2>"/ <0</"/
!ollo#ing table illustrates the peak and energy shortage faced by the state during last year. (t is clear that
there is a deficit supply of po#er and hence@ it is likely to be the secondary priority for the state to supply
po#er to the islands.
3able '.3: >est 4en)al !ea1 and Ener)y Shorta)es
Month Pea# &horta$e (H) Ener$C &horta$e (H)
May 2==< 53.2 51.1
Nune 2==< 5=.3 53.2
Month Pea# &horta$e (H) Ener$C &horta$e (H)
Nuly 2==< 51.. 53.2
/ugust 2==< 51.% 5%.2
$epte"ber 2==< 5=.2 53.1
October 2==< 5=.3 52
4ove"ber 2==< =.= 5=.;
,ece"ber 2==< 5=.; 5=..
Nanuary 2=1= 5=.& 53.%
!ebruary 2=1= =.= 5=.%
Marh 2414 :2"1 :0"/
Apr!' 2414 :>"< :="1
MaC 2414 :4"1 :3"3
Source: Centra! $!ectricit" 1uthorit"
Chapter =: De?and S!de Mana$e?ent
="1 O-Bet!@e&
9he "ain objective is to achieve a better integration of fle2ible de"and A,e"and Response@ ,e"and
$ide Manage"entB #ith ,istributed )eneration@ energy storages and $"art )rids. 9his #ould lead to an
increase of the value of ,e"and Response@ ,e"and $ide Manage"ent and ,istributed )eneration and a
decrease of proble"s caused by inter"ittent distributed generation based on rene#able energy sources in
the physical electricity syste".
="2 O@er@!e* o, the S!tuat!on
9he electric supply sources in $undarbans can be broadly divided into t#o categories@ AiB )rid 0onnected
net#ork and AiiB ,istributed generation 4et#orks. 9he grid connected syste" is easier to "aintain
because it gets po#er supply fro" a central source #hereas the distributed syste" depends on local po#er
stations that depends on locally available resources. 9he project area is crisscrossed by a nu"ber of
rivers@ canals and creeks@ #hich "akes installation and "aintenance of distribution syste" difficult.
="3 D!&tr!-ut!on SC&te?
9he distribution syste" consist of 11 k' trans"ission lines@ 11J=.%33 k' distribution substations and
three phase four #ire %== volt distribution lines. Efforts should be "ade to install s"all transfor"ers
nearer to load and reduce length of 19 lines as far as practicable.
,.3.1 11 17 3ransmission lines
11 k' 9rans"ission lines #ill be "ade #ith aerial bunched conductors A/B0B to lo#er the cost of
construction@ reduce necessity of forest clearance for line "aintenance and safety. 9hese lines #ill be
co"paratively "uch safer during cyclones in co"parison to conventional overhead bare conductor lines.
,.3.2 53 5ines
9he 19 lines #ill be "ade #ith 19 /B0 conductors to lo#er the cost of construction@ reduce necessity of
forest clearance for line "aintenance and safety. 9his #ill be very useful to prevent theft of po#er.
,.3.3 #istribution Substations
9he distribution substations shall be installed nearer to the load as far as practicable to lo#er the length of
19 lines and to provide better voltage to consu"ers.
="0 In,ra&truture o, De?and S!de Mana$e?ent
9he infrastructure for "aintenance of po#er supply needs so"e innovative solutions. (n these islands@
"any of the load centres@ even ,,) stations are not approachable by "otorable road. 9he "aintenance
staff should "ove to different areas in fast "echani?ed boats but in so"e places light "otor vehicles
including battery operated vehicles #ill be useful for s"all distances.
="< D!&tr!-ut!on and PrepaC?ent Opt!on&
3hile it is necessary to create en(ironmental-friendly generation and distri)&tion systems *it' increased efficiency+ it is also of
&tmost im%ortance to ma,e smarter+ more efficient distri)&tion systems- 9here are a nu"ber of tools available to help
drive efficiencies. Every distribution co"pany is currently i"ple"enting load "anage"ent and efficient
revenue collection syste"s.
/ key co"ponent of an intelligent grid is an electric "eter. $o"e Meters are designed to house
functionality that can allo# the utility to re"otely connect and disconnect electrical service to a pre"ise
as needed. 9his functionality has "any applications such as load control@ de"and5side "anage"ent@
electricity theft avoidance@ and prepay"ent "etering. /ll of these applications "ake re"ote
connectJdisconnect capability a po#erful tool for utilities and a pri"ary building block of an advanced
trans"ission and distribution syste" or a co"ponent of an intelligent grid.
,.(.1 5oad Control
$"art load control helps reduce the risk of getting into a condition that "ay lead to a blackout. (n an
effort to avoid prolonged outages or operating capacity e"ergencies@ it is necessary to )alance t'e generation to
t'e load- .n t'e e(ent of a ca%acity deficiency+ generation and transmission systems o%erate at t'eir f&ll ca%acity to %rom%tly restore
normal system fre/&ency and (oltage- .f all ot'er actions are &na)le to relie(e t'e ca%acity emergency+ t'e system may ta,e
immediate action+ *'ic' incl&des man&al load s'edding-
,.(.2 Shutdo@n D estoration
(f an area disturbance causes abnor"al levels of fre>uency or voltage@ "aking it unsafe to operate the
generators or their support e>uip"ent in parallel #ith the syste"@ it is necessary to isolate the" fro" the
syste". 0usto"er load #ill be nor"ally restored as generation and trans"ission e>uip"ent beco"es
available@ since load and generation "ust re"ain in balance at nor"al fre>uency during the restoration.
3hen voltage@ fre>uency@ and phase angle allo#@ the syste" operator "ay resynchroni?e the isolated area
#ith the surrounding area. 9he electrical net#ork is syste"atically restored #ithout overloading the
re"aining syste". 9he syste"5level control is co"plicated and has a #ider i"pact than locali?ed load
control@ difficulty in "ove"ent due to difficult terrain conditions in $undarbans@ leads to the need for a
re"ote disconnect load. 9he rising prices of electrical energy@ the increasing de"andJsupply gap@ and the
i"balance of load on the syste" also "andate load shedding.
,.(.3 5oad -ana)ementG 4illin)G e"enue Collection D 3heft /"oidance.
*repay"ent "etering and load "anage"ent should be adopted because the consu"er base #ill be spread
over nu"ber of villages located in islands@ #here surface co""unication facilities e2cept river transport
are al"ost non5e2istent. *repay"ent "etering re>uires custo"ers to pay in advance for the electricity
they e2pect to use. 9he prepay"ent "eters have the ability to disconnect and reconnect the load based on
the purchase of additional Uelectricity unitsU by a custo"er. 9his syste" ensures advance receipt of
pay"ent and avoids any potential non5pay"ent issues. 9his #ill also help in eli"inating the need for
appointing personnel to "anually take "eter reading and prepare bills and accept pay"ent.
,.(.4 #/3/ #ocumentation of the !o@er System
Reliable and sufficiently detailed data is re>uired to facilitate decision "aking in all activities of the
distribution syste" "anage"ent. 0ontrolling costs@ i"proving efficiency and reducing do#n ti"e have
beco"e essential for a utility in order to succeed. 9he data re>uire"ents for "anage"ent of distribution
syste"s are volu"inous and varied. $o"e of the" are indicated belo#C
,.(.4.1 Consumer #ata
0ategory #ise nu"ber of consu"er and connected load including the Bulk 0onsu"er8s details such as
0ontract de"and
Ma2i"u" de"and
Energy 0onsu"ption
$upply 'oltage
,.(.4.2 #emand data
*eak de"and F3JF'/R5si"ultaneous and non si"ultaneous
/nnual Energy 0onsu"ption data
,.(.4.3 6et@or1 data
)eographical "ap Ato scale of the area depicting 9rans"ission and $ub5trans"ission syste"B.
$ource AsB of po#er supplyJ)rid substation AsB supplying po#er to the area
E2isting $ubstation
E2isting lines
,.(.4.( Sub%3ransmission System
E2isting 33J11 k' $ub5$tations : E2isting 33 k' 1(4E$.
6nder 0onstruction $ub5$tation.
6nder 0onstruction 33J11 k' lines.
,.(.4.' #istribution System
11k' lines
,istribution transfor"ers
19 lines.
,.(.4., 9perational parameters
$ubstation e>uip"ent status
!ailure of distribution transfor"ers
9ripping on 33 k' : 11 F' feedersJlines
0onsu"er outages
,.(.4.. Electrical net@or1 details
Electrical net#ork details single line diagra"s #ith conductor si?es@ lengths@ transfor"er locations@
capacitors@ capacitors@ consu"er location and load etc.
*ara"eters of e>uip"ents@ devices and conductors
1oad data5peak load@ diversity factor@ po#er factor etc.
,.4.(.9 57 6et@or1
$ection length
0onductor si?e of each section
0onnected load for each group of consu"er
4u"ber of consu"ers in each group
9otal connected load on the transfor"er
,.(.4.1& EAuipment !arameter #ata
9he $che"atic diagra" for e2isting sub5stations are to be prepared #ith infor"ation of po#er
transfor"er rating and nu"bers@ i"pedance values@ bus bar sche"e@ isolators@ circuit breakers type e.g.
"ini"u" oilJbulk oilJ$!-J'acuu" and type of installation AindoorJoutdoorB@ no of inco"ing and
outgoing feeders@ 09s and *9s@ details of taps and nor"al tap position@ spare bays etc.
,.(.4.11 5oad #ata
9he load data covering the "onthly@ daily and yearly details of energyJpeak po#er in the electrical syste"
as #ell as infor"ation as belo# is re>uiredC
*eak load on each transfor"erJfeeder and corresponding actual voltage.
,iversity factor at various voltage levels.
*o#er factor at various voltage levels
1oad factor and loss load factor at various voltage levels.
=". D!&tr!-ut!on Auto?at!on
)eographic (nfor"ation $yste"s A)($B can be used in distribution syste"s "anage"ent forC
+andling custo"er in>uiries
!ault Manage"ent
Routine "aintenance can be planned.
4et#ork e2tensions and opti"i?ation
4et#ork analysis
4et#ork reconfiguration
("proved revenue "anage"ent
$0/,/ can be integrated #ith )($
="= Better Mana$e?ent o, D!&tr!-ut!on Tran&,or?er&
9he follo#ing "easures are to be takenC
1ugmentation&1ddition of Distribution )ransformersC ,istribution transfor"ers have to be aug"ented
by installing additional transfor"ers or increasing the capacity of the transfor"er #hen the "a2i"u"
de"and on the transfor"er is near its rating. (t is al#ays better to add a transfor"er than to aug"ent.
#e!ocation of Distribution )ransformers at /oad CentresC 9he location of transfor"ers and type of
transfor"ers in the distribution syste" is strategically decided to ensure that losses are kept #ithin
opti"u" li"its. $o"eti"es@ distribution transfor"ers are not located at the load centre.
0onse>uently@ the farthest consu"ers receive lo# voltage even though reasonably good voltage levels
are "aintained at the sending end. 9his again leads to higher line losses. (n order to reduce the
voltage drop in the line to the farthest consu"ers@ the distribution transfor"er should be located at the
load centre to keep voltage drop #ithin per"issible li"its.
?se of $nerg" $fficient )ransformers 21morphous4C 9his can also help in preventing distribution
losses. Recently distribution transfor"ers #ith a"orphous core have entered the (ndian "arket and
fe# utilities have installed these. 9he core losses A"agneti?ing or no load lossesB get substantially
/oad .a!ancing and /oad >anagement: (t has been learnt on en>uiry during survey that the load on
all three phases of a distribution line and a"ong the feeders are not balanced in "any substations.
9his results in increased current in the heavily loaded line #ith increased line losses.
="> Capa!tor In&ta''at!on
9he use of capacitors to correct for poor po#er factor is a #ell5established and cost5effective "eans of
reducing distribution syste" losses and "a2i"i?ing the revenue. 0apacitor banks can be placed close to
the lo# po#er factor loads@ and other suitable locations for "a2i"i?ing the syste" benefits in ter"s of
releasing syste" capacity@ controlling voltage and "ini"i?ing syste" losses. 9he capacitors should be a
co"bination of s#itched and fi2ed type to prevent overco"pensation. $hunt capacitors can be connected
in the follo#ing #aysC
/cross individual custo"ersO
/t vantage points on 19 and 11 k' feedersO
/t distribution transfor"ersO and
/t +' substations.
="/ Adopt!on o, %!$h Vo'ta$e D!&tr!-ut!on SC&te? (%VDS)
/doption of 11 k' +igh 'oltage ,istribution $yste" A+',$B reduces the technical losses considerably.
11 k' lines should be dra#n nearest to load point and the step5do#n distribution transfor"ers should be
installed for connecting consu"ers. 9he length of 19 lines should be kept as short as possible.
="14 Pre@ent!@e and Re$u'ar Ma!ntenane
*reventive and regular "aintenance of co"ponents of the distributions syste" is necessary to
reduceJeli"inate breakdo#ns. 0are should be taken to opti"i?e preventive "aintenance@ because each
shutdo#n due to preventive "aintenance is also a source of revenue loss. *reventive "aintenance can be
"ini"i?ed by careful design and healthy installation practices. 9he follo#ing "easures should be
undertaken for preventive "aintenanceC
Maintenance of overhead lines@ #hich re>uires re"ovingJtri""ing of trees along a sufficiently #ide
right5of5#ay to avoid their possibly da"aging the line. 9he creepers and bird nests should also be
re"oved. 9he best and per"anent solution #ill be replace"ent of bare conductors #ith /B0.
Repairing of broken or da"aged cross5ar"s@ insulators@ conductors and supports should be done on a
regular basis.
BendingJleaning of poles should be corrected and stays should be tightened.
="11 Spread!n$ A*arene&& re$ard!n$ Ener$C E,,!!ent App'!ane&
(n addition to above@ the state should also take initiatives in pro"ote energy efficient appliances and
should create a#areness about the energy savings resulting fro" the use of such appliances.
Chapter >: A'ternate Ener$C U&e In'ud!n$ Coo#!n$
Energy has a nu"ber of applications that can i"prove the living standard of the people. 9his chapter #ill
discuss so"e of such applications that can be i"ple"ented in $undarbans.
>"1 Coo#!n$
$ince "ost of the traditional indoor chulhas depend e2tensively on the local fuel and contributes to
environ"ental as #ell as health proble"s@ it is i"portant to find alternate #ays to use energy to avoid
such proble"s. One such application of rene#able energy is i"proved cook stove that benefits rural
#o"en. 9he "ajor positive i"pacts are related to the i"prove"ent of #o"en8s health@ reducing
environ"ental proble"s and increase in the productivity. Feeping this in vie#@ Ministry of 4e# and
Rene#able Energy AM4REB had launched 4ational *rogra" for ("proved 0ookstoves A4*(0B in 1<<2.
3BRE,/ actively participated in this progra". 9he t#o types of i"proved stoves are AiB !i2ed 0hullas
and AiiB *ortable 0hullas. / nu"ber of variants are available for these stoves Asuch as #ith or #ithout
chi"neyB depending on the re>uire"ents of the fa"ily@ different types of fuel@ etc.
..1.1 ?i2ed Chullas
9hese chulhas are pro"oted by 3BRE,/ throughout the state including $undarbans. 9he i"proved
fi2ed type chulhas are "ade of ce"ent for durability. 9he recipient pays a s"all part of the cost and the
rest is subsidi?ed by the )overn"ent. ("proved chulhas have proved to reduce lung obstruction diseases
fro" &%D to 3&D and eye proble"s fro" -.D to %1D of #o"en affected #ithin - "onths
..1.2 !ortable Chulhas
9he portable type i"proved 0hulhas are "ade of M$ sheets and can be transported fro" one house to
other easily and it is very convenient for rural people.
>"2 Go-ar Ga& P'ant&
0o#dung is locally kno#n as )obar gas. 9his gas can be easily o''eted and &tored ,or '!$ht!n$1
oo#!n$ and other hou&eho'd u&e&" 9he gas can be generated in one of the several types of units
available in the "arket and these are also pro"oted by 3BRE,/. /fter bacteria digest the co# dung@ the
by5products so obtained are "ethane rich biogas and nitrogen rich organic fertili?er@ #hich is very useful
for agriculture. 9hat fertili?er is "ore effective than ra# dung@ #ith !?portant -ene,!t& ,or hand&:on
9here are no negative effects of this application. 4o #aste is generated. 4o poisonous residues or
batteries are left over. !e# type of )obar )as "aking units available in the country are "entioned belo#C
..2.1 #eenabandu :obar :as !lant
9his type of plant produces biogas fro" kitchen #aste by using ther"ophilic "icroorganis"s that
flourish in e2tre"e environ"ent. 9he biogas plant has follo#ing co"ponentsC a "i2erJ pulper A& hp
"otorB for crushing the solid #aste@ pre"i2 tanks@ predigester tank@ solar heater for #ater heating@ "ain
digestion tank A3& "
B@ "anure pits@ gas la"ps for utilisation of the biogas generated in the plant
..2.2 #omestic Bhadi and 7illa)e Industries Commission <B7IC= -odel :obar :as !lant
)obar )as A0o# dungB is an eco5friendly energy source that converts co# dung and hu"an e2creta into
biogas. 9his can be set up #ith household co#s or buffalos. 9hese are very co""on in rural areas. 1o#
#ater consu"ing toilets can be attached to this type of plants.
>"3 Do?e&t! 5ater %eater&
$olar #ater heating devices can be used for supplying hot #ater to vast range of re>uire"ents. $olar
#ater heater ranging fro" 1== 1*, to &== 1*, or higher si?es are used in +ospital@ +otels and also in
individual households.
>"0 So'ar %o?e +!$ht!n$ SC&te?&
$olar ho"e lighting syste"s are po#ered by solar energy using solar cells that convert sunlight into
electricity directly. 9hese syste"s are used e2tensively in $undarbans area. 9he units #ith 3. #att and .%
#att $*' Modules are popular.
>"< So'ar +antern
$olar lanterns are lo# cost portable lighting syste"s "ost popular in un5electrified areas. /fter H/(1/I
cyclone ravaged $undarbans thousands of $olar 1anterns #ere distributed a"ongst the victi"s by
>". So'ar Para-o'! Coo#er
/ solar cooker is like a hot bo2 in #hich food can be cooked #ithout gas@ coal@ #ood@ kerosene or
electricity. +o#ever@ this is not very popular in $undarbans as $olar Radiation is "uch less than &
>"= So'ar Street +!$ht&
$olar $treet 1ight illu"inates nu"ber i"portant Netties@ river side ghats@ offices and roads in different
parts of $undarbans.
Ta-'e >"1: E&t!?ated Pr!e o, the @ar!ou& !te?&
S'" No" Na?e o, the Ite?& Pr!e Ran$e (R&")
1. !i2ed 0hullas &=
2. *ortable 0hulhas 1==
3. ,eenabandu )obar )as *lant 1=@===
%. ,o"estic F'(0 Model )obar )as *lant 1=@===
&. ,o"estic 3ater +eaters A1== 1*,B 1-@===
-. $olar +o"e 1ighting $yste"s 1&@=== 1;@===
.. $olar 1antern 2@=== 2@2==
;. $olar *arabolic 0ooker 1=@===
<. 22 #att $olar $treet 1ights A0!1J1E,B 2<@=== 5 3=@===
1= && #att 1E, based $olar $treet 1ights &;@=== -=@===
Source: -.G$DC/& -.#$D1
Chapter /: Con'u&!on&
9he "ain conclusions of the study are as follo#sC
1arge nu"ber of B*1 fa"ilies@ dispersed nature of the settle"ents that are separated by #ide rivers
and creeks@ and non5availability of large co""ercial loads due to absence of any "ajor industry
results in lo# revenue and higher costs for electricity distributor. 9his thus results in deferred
achieve"ent of break5even point for invest"ent and hence poses a "ajor challenge in ensuring long5
ter" sustainability of electricity infrastructure in the region. 1ong feeder lines and non5availability of
ade>uate nu"ber of distribution transfor"ers are also another i"portant factor that results in poor
>uality of electricity.
E2pectations and de"and of consu"ers have increased. 9he general e2pectation is to have 2% hours
electricity supply to "eet re>uire"ents for lighting@ fans@ entertain"ent@ and livelihood activities@
#hich the e2isting RE po#er plants are unable to "eet.
9he average connected load esti"ated a"ong the surveyed households in $undarbans A3.& 3B is
higher than nor"s used by the $tate )overn"ent A3== 3 by RE0@ etc.B. /verage connected non5
do"estic load in the islands is e>uivalent to 12= 3 per household.
On an average the "onthly e2penditure of Rs -.& on energy for a rural household in $undarbans is
higher co"pared to households in "ost of the other rural areas in (ndia and this is due to the high
e2penditure on bio"ass@ #hich has to be purchased in $undarbans.
On an average@ households are #illing to pay Rs 1-; per "onth for electricity@ #hich is "uch higher
co"pared to the average "onthly electricity bill currently paid by the electrified households of Rs <&.
(nterestingly@ the average #illingness to pay for stable electricity appears to decline #ith the increases
in access to electricity. 9he #illingness to pay ranges fro" Rs 2&; in villages #ith less than 1=D
electrification to Rs 1.. in villages #ith 1=5&=D electrification and to just Rs ;2 in villages #hich are
over &=D electrified.
Even though the data on per capita electricity consu"ption for $undarbans is not available for 2==&5
=-@ it #as observed that the average per capita consu"ption is far belo# that of the $tate and of (ndia.
9he "ain reason that can be attributed to lo# per capita consu"ption in the islands is non availability
of reliable electricity. 9hus@ there e2ists #illingness to pay but the poor >uality of po#er is a "ajor
constraint for the people living in $undarbans.
Only 1.2 lakh out of esti"ated -.<% lakh households in $undarbans are electrified through grid
electricity. 6nder the sanctioned sche"es funded under R))'E and funds fro" $tate )overn"ent it
is planned to electrify 3.&3 lakh households. +o#ever@ provision of grid electricity to the islands
should be considered on the econo"ic and financial viability of the invest"ents as it is ulti"ately ta2
payers8 "oney. (t is i"portant to recogni?e that >uality of grid po#er is likely to be poor in near
future and hence@ it should be supple"ented #ith non5conventional sources of electricity. Both
e2isting and planned RE po#er plants should be connected to grid to i"prove reliability of po#er
supply. 9his #ould need a close coordination bet#een 3BRE,/ and 3B$E,01 in ter"s of selling
po#er to the grid and installation of re>uired e>uip"ent for connecting the RE plants to grid.
/dditional funds #ould be re>uired for intensification of electrification in the electrified villages
Ae2isting and proposedB. 9hus@ there is an urgent need to identify potential sources of "oney that can
fund these #orks.
)iven the rapid increase in de"and and high 9:, losses of %=D@ a co"prehensive strategy is
re>uired for up gradation of the grid infrastructure including sub5stations to "eet this de"and and
reduce technical losses.
6nder the ,,) sche"e of R))'E@ there is a proposal to electrify 3< villages A3.@&3% households
that constitute al"ost &D of total householdsB. 9he fund re>uire"ent for the sche"e is Rs 11= crore
and is under active consideration of RE0 and Ministry of *o#er. 9he plants #ill be handed over back
to the state govern"ent after & years of operation. 9he contract has a rene#al clause as per #hich the
e2isting contract can be e2tended further. (f this does not #orks out then re5bidding to operate the
plant #ill be carried out.
)iven the li"ited resource availability@ the potential for further ,,) e2pansion see"s to be li"ited.
/ list of 2= villages has been provided #here the potential of ,,) can be e2plored.
9here is a very high likelihood that the population of $undarbans #ill be dependent on the non5
conventional sources of energy including bio"ass based po#er plants for years to co"e. *urchase of
bio"ass A"ainly fire#ood and dung5cakesB rather than its collection is a uni>ue feature of this area.
9he prevalence of bio"ass "arkets indicates the presence of linkages for bio"ass collection@ storage
and transport@ #hich can also be tapped beneficially for using the bio"ass for other purposes.
Moreover@ the average annual rainfall in $undarbans is considerably high and the land is also fertile.
9his indicates e2istence of potential for substantial gro#th of bio"ass outside the reserve forest area.
9here is a potential to develop %&= M3 of #ind grid connected po#er generation syste" in
$undarbans. 3B)E,01 has plans to invite private participation for develop"ent of %= M3 as of
no#. 9his electricity #ould be fed into the "ain grid.
6nder three different scenarios it is esti"ated that the de"and for electricity #ould gro# bet#een 1=
to 2= fold bet#een 2=1= and 2=2=. (t is sho#n that pursuing an energy5efficiency path@ it is possible
to reduce the de"and for electricity by around 3&D. 9hus the focus should be on introducing energy5
efficient appliances particularly fans and lighting. (n fact@ electricity de"and under the energy
efficiency scenario is observed to be lo#er than that under the gro#th scenario@ indicating that an
e"phasis on electricity efficiency in the trans"ission and distribution could potentially offset the rise
in de"and triggered by increased access to electricity as #ell as increased usage of electrical
appliances in the do"estic and non5do"estic sectors.
$ince $+$ have been successfully i"ple"ented and so"e for" of ancillary industry has started to
bloo"@ there is a scope of tapping this industry to introduce ne# avenues for e"ploy"ent generation
in the islands. (t is reco""ended that for"al training should be provided to local people to build their
capacity and aug"ent their inco"e.
$ince there are "ultiple institutions for various aspects of electricity provisioning Afor instance@
3B$E,01 is involved in grid electricity@ 3BRE,/ in RE po#er plants@ 3B)E,01 in ,,)@ and
local co""unities in "aintenance of so"e of such for"s of electricityB there is a need to have a
planned and integrated develop"ent of the islands that is based "ore on socio5econo"ic and financial
viability than driven by political agenda. /lso@ a co"prehensive funds flo# "echanis" is re>uired for
sustainability of all the ongoing as #ell as proposed invest"ents. (t is proposed to have a nodal
agency Asay@ $undarbans *o#er $upply 0orporationB that can address all such issues.
/n esti"ate of the funds re>uired for achieving 1==D electrification in $undarbans is provided in
table belo#. 9his does not include the fund re>uire"ent for grid electricity that is esti"ated at Rs
3=;.31 crore Arefer table 1.2B.
3able 9.1 3otal In"estment Identified for 2&11%1(
G/ssess"ent has been done in A/nne2ure 3B
S" No" She?e
Soure o, ,und&
1. /dditional $che"e for intensification of
electrification in the villages that are proposed to be
connected through grid electricity
Rs 1<;.12 crore R))'E@ RE0
2. ,,) invest"ent in approved sche"e for 3< villages
to be e2ecuted through 3B)E,01
Rs 11= crore R))'E
3. 'illages to be 0onsidered by 3B$E,01 but #ith
no announced sche"e so far
Rs 2== crore 4ot yet identified
%. 0apacity building and e>uipping the ne#
0orporation Asay@ $undarbans Electricity $upply
Rs 1= crore 4ot yet identified
&. (nvest"ent for 6pgrading the Electricity
(nfrastructure in the /lready Electrified 'illages.
Rs 1== crore 4ot yet identified
-. 9ail End 3ind *o#er *lantsG Rs 2&= crore 4ot yet identified