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National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012


Fundamentals of the CFBC Technology

D.A. Panchal

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012 33 Fundamentals of the CFBC

Abstract--- Commercial





competitive efficiencies; cost less than today’s conventional

units. It also provides fuel flexibilities (types and quality) for combustion and it cop up with present as well as future environmental stringent rules.


  • I N general, we all know that Boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be transferred into

water (Water is cheap, expand up to 1600 times of water and useful medium to transferring heat to process ) until it becomes heated water and steam.

As per the Indian boiler Act, vide amendment No. 49 of 2007, SEC-2 (2)(b) Boiler means a pressure vessel in which steam is generated for use external to itself by application of heat which is wholly or partly under pressure when steam is shut off but not includes a pressure vessel with capacity less than 25 litres(i.e from feed check valve to Main Steam stop valve) and Pressure <1 Kg/cm2 and Temperature is < 100 Deg




Meaning of CFBC C F B C is the acronym stands for Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion.

Curiosity?How the CFBC technology Evolved and Why this technology is adopted in power generation?

  • Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) system boiler first commercialized in July '82 at Luenen, West Germany by Lurgi (llb). BHEL-the premium manufacturer of coal fired boiler entered in collaboration with llb, Germany in 1993. 1 x 175t/hr CFBC at BILT Grahphic papers, Pune in 1999; 125 MW order received from RVUNL Giral in 2003; 2 x 250 MW order received from Neyveli lignite corporation, Tamilnadu

  • 2 x 125mwe (2x 390 t/hr) at GIPCL, Mangrol since February 2000. KLTPS-4 CFBC generating 75mwe steam at 315t/hr, 94kg/cm2, 540‟c at S/H outlet.



  • Two Major Groups: Atmospheric systems (FBC) & Pressurized systems (PFBC)

  • Two Minor Groups: Bubbling (BFB) & Circulating fluidized bed (CFB)



Corporation Ltd.









Around the globe, we all bear the responsibility of using our energy resources wisely. However, one of the greatest challenges we face is the conversion of affordable fossil fuels into electricity as efficiently and cleanly as possible. Major problem of coal available in India is low Quality, High Ash content and Low Calorific Value. The traditional grate fuel

firing systems have got limitations and are techno-economical unviable to meet future challenges, so concept of CFBC boiler introduced to accept future challenges.

At present Fluidized Bed combustion emerged as a viable alternative and has significant advantages over conventional firing system and offers multiple benefits Compact boiler design, Fuel flexibility, higher combustion efficiency and reduced emission of noxious pollutants such as SOx and NOx.

CFBC could be the good choice if the following conditions are met;

  • A. Flexibility in Fuel

The consumption of energy is increasing at a fast pace while available resources of fuel remain limited. Also out of total amount of energy, around 80% comes from fossil fuel. As far as the indian energy scenario is concerned, India‟s present level of energy consumption is only about 3.8% of the world energy consumption. From which coal dominates the 55% of the total primary energy production. Indian Coal having high ash content (30-45%) and the calorific value in the range of 3000 Kcal/Kg to 4500 Kcal/Kg. Using this coal for the power sector is a challenge in terms of achieving efficiency and environmental management. The conventional boiler firing systems have got limitations so to meet the challenges of future CFBC technology has to adopt because the fuel burnt in these boilers include Coal-lignite, washary rejects, rice husk, bagasse and other agricultural wastes.

Fuel preparation is also very simple and milling system is

not required in CFBC.

Fuel required normal crusher and the

coal size is varying from 6 to 12 mm. Here note that due to non requirement of coal mill, related maintenance will not be there.

  • B. High Efficiency

Combustion process requires the three “T‟s “that is Time, Temperature and Turbulence. In a CFBC, fuel is burned in a self- mixing suspension of gas and solid bed material (usually silica sand and dolomite) in which air for combustion enters from below with uniformly distributed air which enters from Nozzles grate which promoted the turbulence by fluidizing. Also residence time of fuel is many times greater than conventional firing system. Depending on the fluidization velocity and circulating fluidized bed combustion can be distinguished. The intense heat transfer and mixing provide

ISBN 978-93-82338-31-4 | © 2012 Bonfring

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012


good condition for more effective chemical reaction and heat transfer which leads to complete combustion with low excess air demand. The low excess air amounts required reduced the flue gas volume flow and increase combustion efficiency at the great extent. Also availability of FBHE Evaporator and FBHE Super heater in the circulation path of unburnt fuel work as heat exchanger and increase the efficiency of the CFBC.

  • C. Environmental Aspects

The technology burns fuel at temperatures of 1,400 to 1700‟F (760 to 930‟c);a range where nitrogen oxide formation is lowering than in traditional pulverized coal units But increasingly strict US regulations have led to the use of ammonia DeNOX systems even on FBC Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts in Germany to control emission from roasting sulphate ores without the need for external emission controls (such as scrubber-flue gas desulphurization). The mixing action of the fluidized bed brings the flue gases into contact with a sulphur (sulphur may be organic, Inorganic, Sulphatic)- absorbing chemical such as Limestone or Dolomite. More than 95% of the sulphur pollutants in the fuel can be captured inside the boiler by Limestone. The Lime stone also captures some heavy metals though not as effectively as do the much cooler wet scrubbers on conventional units.

Chemical reactions regarding use of lime as sorbent means So2 control reactions in CFBC:

S + O2 -------SO2


(Calcination) CaO + SO2 + ½ O2 -------------CaSo4 (Gypsum) (Sulphation)

Formation of Nox and its Control : There are 2 kinds of Nox i.e Thermal Nox from Air and Fuel Nox from fuel. Here Thermal Nox depends on combustion temperature but in CFBC due to lower combustion temperature Thermal Nox is negligible Fuel Nox depends on Excess air levels and staging but in CFBC due to low level of excess air, the combustion air is staged which leads to low fuel Nox.

  • D. Benefits of Low Temperature Operation in Boiler

In CFBC , the lower combustion temperature is achieved because of high co-efficient of heat transfer due to rapid mixing in the fluidized bed and effective heat extraction of heat from the bed and from the un-burnt fuel through water wall tubes, FBHE Evaporator and FBHE super heater. It is having flame less combustion in combustor. Also low temperature of combustion is good for avoiding ash fusion and ash melting so clinker, slag formation can be avoided.


When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As air velocity is gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended in the air stream – the bed is called „fluidized.‟

With further increase in air velocity, there is bubble formation, vigorous turbulence, rapid mixing and formation of dense defined bed surface. The bed of solid particles exhibits the properties of a boiling liquid and assumes the appearance of a fluid – „bubbling fluidized bed.‟

At higher velocities, bubbles disappear, and particles are blown out of the bed. Therefore, some amounts of particles have to be re-circulated to maintain a stable system – „circulating fluidised bed.‟

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012 34 good condition for more
  • A. Slip Velocity

Fluidization depends largely on the particle size and the air velocity. The mean solids velocity increases at a slower rate than does the gas velocity as shown in figure named relation between Gas velocity and solid velocity. The difference between the mean solid velocity and mean gas velocity is

called as slip velocity. Here Gas Velocity is maintained between minimum fluidisation velocity and particle entrainment velocity. Higher the slip velocity better the heat transfer and intimate contact which gives better residence time and leads to better combustion.

ISBN 978-93-82338-31-4 | © 2012 Bonfring

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012


National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012 35 B. Cyclones Two recycling
National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012 35 B. Cyclones Two recycling
  • B. Cyclones

Two recycling hot cyclones; one each on either side of the combustor for effective separation of solid particles which are returned to the combustor. Comprising of steel shells with refractory lining for insulation & erosion protection. Vortex finders in its design to increase efficiency & to improve carbon burnout. Cyclones are used for excellent solids management & distribution. It generated flue gas along with entrained solids exit from upper combustor and ducted to recycling cyclone where more than 99% of entrained solids are removed. Major portion of the separated solids returned directly into combustor via seal pots fed with a small amount of fluidising air. As per requirement, some Portion of the solids from the seal pot are erected via spiess valve at controlled rate to FBHE and subsequently to combustor bed at lower temperature. Flue gas exiting the cyclone follows a path similar to conventional boiler, from convective pass to APH to ESP to ID fans and to stack.

  • C. Seal Pots

Two seal pots; one each on either side of combustor which is connected at lower part of Cyclones, Sealpots received portion of the circulating solids is discharged from cyclone to seal pot via spiess valve to FBHE for heat removal and subsequently returned to combustor at lower temp. Seal pot is

received fuel through two trains of extraction drag link chain conveyors & self-cleaning type rotory Air Lock Feeder and is fed into the return leg of seal pot from where it is fed to combustor. Seal pot bottom is equipped with uniform distributing air nozzles. Each seal pot is having Spiess valve. The solids flow to FBHE is adjusted by spiess valve provided in the seal pots.

  • D. FBHE Evaporator and FBHE Super Heater

FBHE means Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger - CFBC has two special FBHE one each on either side of combustor for effective utilisation of energy in hot recycled solid particles, for fuel flexibility and to allow for easy temperature adjustment .FBHEs which are unfired dense fluidized beds that extract heat from the solids collected by the cyclone before it is returned to the combustor. The FBHEs are used as Evaporative as well as super heater surfaces as FBHE contains coils of super heater/evaporator surfaces in the Bundle chambers. Hence It avoids heat transfer surfaces such as pendant evaporators or super heater inside the combustor. FBHE casing of steel shell (having One Empty chamber and One bundle Chamber) with refractory lining for insulation and corrosion protection. It includes necessary inlet & outlet connections, elements&piping for evaporator & super heater. Bottom of both the FBHEs are equipped with the FBHE

ISBN 978-93-82338-31-4 | © 2012 Bonfring

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012


Blowers air distribution nozzles and the whole structure is supported with expansion joints to take care of expansion differences between combustor &FBHE.

The solids flow to FBHE is controlled by spiess valve in the seal pot. Heat from solids is recovered in FBHE chambers, separated from each other by refractory lined weirs and each chamber contains fluidising nozzle grid.Solids fluidised in each chamber and cooled by tube bundles in bundles chamber. Solids are discharged from FBHE bundle chamber& flow directly to combustor.

FBHEs use low fluidizing velocities (1 to 1.5 m/s) and virtually no combustion occurs in the heat exchanger because of the low carbon content (1%) of the solid unburnt fuel is circulated. FBHEs also offer high co efficient of heat transfer. . This characteristics combined with fine particles size of circulating solids minimise tube erosion. FBHE incorporated into primary CFB loop to check FBHE solids flow adjusted to maintain CFB temperature/super heater temperature over entire range and Control far below softening points of fuel to prevent sticking of ash( Temperature less than ash Fusion temperature and melting of ash can be avoided) .Maintain optimum combustion & sulphur capture conditions irrespective of type of fuel or load.

Advantages of Fbhes: Steam after inter super heater further superheated in FBHE coils on its way to final Super heater. Facilitates turndown as part of production is de- coupled from combustion absence of FBHE turndown has to be achieved by simultaneously balancing combustion & heat transfer requirements in the combustor. This would require adjustment of excess air, temperature & solids concentration to arrive at a compromise between combustion and heat transfer requirements. FBHE on the other hand, provides an additional degree of freedom allowing combustion & heat transfer be controlled independently. Thus, simplifies operation & provides better efficiency at turndown conditions.

  • E. Stationary Tubular Type Air Pre heater

A tubular air pre-heater (instead of rotary APH) after the convective path /economiser which contains sections for preheating primary, secondary and FBHE air. an air heater air side bypass system for primary & secondary for protection against cold end corrosion during start-up.APH tubes are made

of carbon steel. APH consists of three sections (lower, middle & bottom) for primary & secondary air with additional FBHE block in between upper & middle blocks for preheating of FBHE air. Thus, pre heating of primary & secondary air in two stages in APH blocks. Flue gas cooled down as they exit the APH while at the same time primary, secondary &FBHE air are preheated in APH.

  • F. Combustor

Particular Brief details of combustor of KLTPS Unit 4, combustor has 11.5 x 6.8m cross section based on velocity of 5-6 m/s. includes 9.0 mtr. Height of refractory in the lower section to prevent corrosion & attack of metal surfaces. Overall height of combustor is about 32 mtr. Expansion of combustor is vertical downward. Nozzles are located at the floor of combustor/grate for evenly distribution of primary air. Entire combustor as well as grate is enclosed by fusion welded water walls. The lower water wall section is refractory lined to prevent corrosion & attack of metal surfaces. Upper water wall section is not refractory lined, provides majority of evaporation duty of boiler. The water walls are fed by sufficient number of down comers. Flue gas resulting from combustion of fuel along with the entrained solids exit the combustor via refractory lined gas outlet located in upper water wall is ducted to the recycling cyclone. Vertical & inclined walls are provided with secondary air nozzles, ash extraction holes, fuel feeding nozzles return line from seal pot, openings for connection to FBHE & several temp. & pressure measurement nozzles. Upper combustor water walls absorb heat from gas & solids. Evaporative surfaces located in evaporative water walls of combustor, convective pass enclosure & in FBHE as evaporator coils .The water / steam mixture circulated by natural circulation through appropriately sized down comers and risers for connection to drum.

  • G. Spiess Valves

At KLTPS, UNIT #4: 05 Nos. Of Spiess valves are erected as listed below.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Combustor To Ash cooler -1 Combustor to Ash Cooler-2 SEAL POT
Combustor To Ash cooler -1
Combustor to Ash Cooler-2
SEAL POT to FBHE Evaporator
SEAL POT to FBHE Super heater
FBHE Super heater to Ash Cooler -1

Spiess valve is used to control the flow of the inventory through the FBHEs during circulation of Inventory. To control the combustor differential pressure by removing generated ash

to ash coolers via Combustor to Ash coolers Spiess valves. Spiess valves having Purge and seal air line and one cooling water lines.

ISBN 978-93-82338-31-4 | © 2012 Bonfring

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012


  • H. Blowers

Each blower has its specific function. Ash cooler blowers: 2 nos, FBHE bundle chamber blower: 03 nos (02 + 01),

FBHE empty chamber blower: 02 nos, seal pot blower: 03 nos (02 +01)

Purge & seal air blower:02 nos.

  • seal pot blowers (02r + 01s): seal pots are fed with small amount of fluidising air through seat pot. Blowers solids separated by cyclone returned to combustor via seal pot fed with air supplied by seal pot blowers as pressure at base of cyclone is less than that in combustor.

  • Purge& seal air blowers ( 02 nos) : for :

    • a. All spiess valves

    • b. To transport combustor bottom ash

    • c. Purge& seal air system for lignite bunker 1&2.

    • d. Purge& seal air system for bed material silo

    • e. Purge& seal air at start up burner various purges & fluidising air flows also contribute combustion air.



Primary air fans:

supply of air to the combustor bottom

nozzle grate for fluidisation of bed material

Secondary air fans: It supplies air require for combustion of fuel in a combustor.

ID fan: To provide balance Draft in a boiler and able to handle combustion products and proper exhaust through stack.

  • J. Ash Coolers

Two water cooled fluidised bed ash coolers .The cooler extracts heat by passing the fluidised ash over water cooled tube bundles. The ash then extracted directly from the combustor & the rest from FBHE. Bottom ash discharged from combustor at 850 0c cooled in ash cooler to approx. 200 to 250 0c.

  • K. CFBC Sub Systems

Major sub systems include

CFB combustion system (heat generation) Fuel feeding system Lime feeding system Bed material feeding system Combustion
CFB combustion system (heat generation)
Fuel feeding system
Lime feeding system
Bed material feeding system
Combustion & fluidizing air supply system
Flue gas system, ESP & ID fans
Ash system
Start-up system

CFBC Working Mechanism

Proper sized Fuel fed into return leg of seal pot preheated before entry to vertical chamber called combustor and is burnt

at 850‟c. Particles circulating consist primarily of coal; ash and

Bed material (size 50-300 microns). Bed material fluidized by preheated primary air through a nozzle grate at the bottom of

bed & generated by Combustion gases so it flows upward at a relatively high Fluidizing velocity. Entire combustor contains a high concentration of Suspended solids which decreases towards top of the Combustor. Combustion gas entrains a considerable portion of the Solids & carries them to cyclones where 99% entrained solids are separated from the gas. Larger portion of solids continuously return to the bed by recycle loop.

High circulating rates & recycling system of solids produces consistently uniform temperature throughout combustor and preventing from temperature peaks. High slip velocity, long residence & Contact time coupled with small particle sizes produces efficient Heat & Mass transfer rates which resulting into high Combustion Efficiency.

Combustion air introduced into combustor at two Levels- 40% as primary fluidizing air through grate at the bottom & balance is admitted as secondary air through multiple pots in side walls of combustor. Combustion proceeds in two zones

called “Staged Combustion” a primary reducing zone in lower Section & complete combustion in upper section using excess air via secondary air pots. Staged combustion at controlled low temperature (850‟C) suppresses Nox formation.


Heat Extraction

Heat for steam generation obtained from systems in three main Areas:


A Primary Loop: from solids circulating



system. Heat is transferred through upper part combustor water walls used for Evaporation.


External FBHE: consisting of fluidized chambers where heat is transferred from directed circulating solids to super heater & evaporator surfaces and returned to combustor at reduced temp.


A Back Pass: where heat is removed from flue gas through super heater, Economizer & APH surfaces. Flue gas exiting from cyclone follows similar path as in Conventional boiler system. Ash discharged from combustor, back pass & APH hoppers and from ESP hoppers.


Technical Data

Important Data KLTPS#4 CFBC BOILER- Water tube boiler with bare tube économiser, Natural circulation top supported, balance draft fin welded water wall with circulating fluidized bed combustion.

  • Generator output: 77 mw.
    Boiler Heating surface 13881 m2.

Boiler efficiency: 76.4% (75mw stage, 315t/hr).

Steam Generation at SH outlet at bmcr condition:


  • Heat rate at 100% mcr: 2186.3kcal/kwh.
    Temperature & Pressure of steam leaving SH outlet:

540‟c, 95 kg/cm2.

  • Total Auxiliary Consumption: 7170kW (9.31%). GCV of Lignite: 2621 kcal/kg.

ISBN 978-93-82338-31-4 | © 2012 Bonfring

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012


National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012 38 (Carbon-26.5%, Hydrogen- 2.19%, Sulphur-3.5%

(Carbon-26.5%, Hydrogen- 2.19%, Sulphur-3.5% Nitrogen:

1.72% Oxygen (by difference): 7.76%. moisture: 34.74% ash:


National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012 38 (Carbon-26.5%, Hydrogen- 2.19%, Sulphur-3.5%

Limestone: (% by weight) Caco3- 80.6%; mgco3- 3.0%; sio2- 6.02%; moisture- 2.0%; others- 8.38%).

Lignite size

.100% less than 15mm . 80% less than 10mm


50% less than 1 mm

Limestone size

100%- less than 1mm 90% greater than 0.04mm

80% less than 0.2 mm

50% less than 0.16 mm


Bed Material Requirement

Chemical composition ( % by weight)


Al2O3 = 30 to 40 %


SiO2 = 50 to 60 %


Alkalis (Na2O + K2O)= <3%


Iron Oxide = <3.5 %


Moisture = <1 %


Initial Deformation Temperature= >1300 C( As per ASTM D 1857/1968)


Bed Material Size


100 % less than 1 mm


80 % less than 180 to 200 micrometer.


5 % less than 150 to 170 micrometer


3 % less than 63 micrometer.

  • Bulk density : 1500 to 1800 kg/m3. Emission







designed Lignite.

  • Sulfur: 3.5%, GCV: 2621kcl/kg Sox: 100mm, Nox: 50mm, Spm: 100 mg/nm3


Condenser design inlet water temp: 34 ‟c

Lignite handling plant capacity: 400t/hr.

Feed water temperature at economizer inlet: 237.3 ‟c.

Superheated steam flow: 286.3t/hr.

  • P. Advantages of CFBC Boiler Technology

    • 1. Simplified fuel preparation, less than 10 mm ( Absence of Coal Milling/Pulverising System)

    • 2. Environmental benefits: Low Nox emission due to low combustion temperature and Sox emission effectively Controlled by adding lime stone.

    • 3. High Efficiency: Higher boiler efficiency even on part loads due to better burn ability. Fuel can be burn with combustion efficiently over 95% irrespective of ash content. Operate with overall efficiency of 84% plus or minus 2% independent reheat temperature control.

    • 4. Combustion temperature is much below the ash fusion temperature, melting of ash and associated problems are avoided. Slag free combustion and no clinker formation. Easier ash removal as ash flows like liquid from combustion chamber. In conventional boiler there is risk of clinker formation if temperature exceeds 950‟C and loss of combustion efficiency if temperature falls below 800‟C.

    • 5. No slagging in furnace & no frequent soot blowing: Volatization of alkali components in ash does not take place & ash is non Sticky. Hence no slagging or soot blowing required.

    • 6. Suitable for using wide range of Fuels and fuel qualities. Operated efficiently with variety of fuels. Even fuel like flotation slimes, coal washer rejects, high sulphur coals, Agro waste, Lignite, Bio-mass, wastes, etc can be burnt efficiently either independently or in combination of coal. Give rated output even with inferior quality fuel. Coal

ISBN 978-93-82338-31-4 | © 2012 Bonfring

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012


with high ash content as high as 62% can be fired & GCV of as low as 2500Kcal/kg. Even carbon content of only 1% (by weight) can sustain fluidized bed combustion i.e. high carbon burn out up to 98-99% can be achieved.

  • 7. Ease of Start up : Provision of automatic Ignition System and Control systems using micro-processors & automatic Ignition equipment give excellent control. Burner management System for Start Up burners only.

  • 8. Sustainability under Cyclic loading:- Minimizes stress on boiler tube material with low variation of combustor temperature under cyclic loading of boiler particularly under varying grid frequencies

So it has fast response to

.. load fluctuations: Excellent operational flexibility. Part

load down to 25% mcr & ideally suited to wide load fluctuation. Inherent high thermal storage characteristics can easily absorb fluctuation in fuel feed rates. Response to changing load demand is comparatively quick to that of oil fired boiler.

  • 9. High Reliability because low flue gas velocities in combustor minimizes erosion and hence the boiler tube failures leading to very high reliability of the boiler.

    • 10. Elimination of heat transfer bundle /panel in combustor zone.

    • 11. Reduction in boiler size: High heat transfer rate over a small heat transfer area resulting overall size reduction of boiler so compact plant design.

Operation staff Feedback on CFBC Technology which draws our attention towards better design of CFBC Boilers;

  • 1. Combustor: (1) Back shifting of Bed material in PA wind box area which is located at the bottom of combustor Nozzle grate. (2) Combustor lower temperature measurement thermocouples tip erosion due to fluidizing bed material with velocity. (3) Combustor Corners having minor leakages. (4) Oil Bed lance chock up problem and its tip found damaged. (5) Combustor to Ash cooler Spiess valves not working properly in running condition.(6) If Boiler tube leakage in combustor zone than hardening of bed material/ash is critical problem.

  • 2. Non-metallic expansion joint (NMEJ) leakage from Seal pot to combustor. MEJ failure at Combustor to Cyclone.

  • 3. All spiess valves are not working properly and found stuck at running plant condition.

  • 4. Enough bed material quantity is required prior to starting of Unit, boiler area cleaning is constantly require as leakages of bed material, Lignite and Lime dusting to avoid functional complication to boiler auxiliaries as well as working staff.

  • 5. There is an uneven circulation of material inventory while any ne of the Lignite feeding system to seal pot return leg becomes in operative, leading to temperature rise in system.

  • 6. As the system is working on fluidization principle, so the lignite and bed material size plays vital role in combustion and proper functioning of recirculation in system.

  • 7. Combustor takes more days to cool down in shut down.

  • 8. Tube leakage in APH leads to reduction in air flow and pressure further causing inefficient operation of unit.



CFBC provides efficient approach even in poor fuel quality leading to good aspect for developing countries. Further CFBC has best and suitable control over environment issues. It meets with the present and future growing demands with economical viability.



BHEL Manuals


B E E Ref. Guides


KLTPS Power Plant Documents & Images.

National Symposium CFBC Technology - Contemporary Scenario and Future Challenges 2012 39 with high ash content


Dharmeshkumar A. Panchal, Deputy Engineer, GSECL, KLTPS UNIT 4. Email: da., dharmesh_ias1@yahoo. com Contact: +9198795 41322

ISBN 978-93-82338-31-4 | © 2012 Bonfring