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Important Mathematical Formulas

Geometry
1. Pythagoras Formula : h
2
= p
2
+ b
2
=> h = p
2
+h
2

p
2
= h
2
b
2
=> p = h
2
h
2

b
2
= h
2
p
2
=> b = h
2
p
2

2. Perimeter of a triangle = sum of the length of its three sides
Perimeter of an equilateral triangle = 3 sides
3. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2(length + breadth)
Length =
pertmeter
2
breadth
Breadth =
pertmeter
2
length
4. Perimeter of a square = 4 side
Length of side =
pertmeter
4

5. Perimeter of a rhombus = 4 side
Length of side =
pertmeter
4

6. Perimeter of a parallelogram = 2 (sum of two adjacent sides)
7. Circumference of a circle = 2nr
8. Perimeter of a semicircle = r(n + 2)
9. Area of a triangle =
1
2
base height
10. Area of a rectangle = length breadth
Length =
Area
Breadth
Breadth=
Area
Length

11. Area of a square = side side
Side of a square = Area
12. Area of a parallelogram = Base Height
13. Area of a rhombus =
1
2
d
1
d
2
[where, d
1
and d
2
are two diagonals]
14. Area of a trapezium =
1
2
(a + b) h [where, 'a' and 'b' are two parallel
sides and 'h' is height]
15. Area of a circle = nr
2

16. Lateral Surface Area of a cuboid = 2 (l + b) h
Total Surface Area of a cuboid = 2 (lb + bh + lh)
Diagonal of a cuboid = l
2
+ b
2
+h
2

17. Lateral Surface Area of a cube = 4 l
2

Total Surface Area of a cube = 6 l
2

Diagonal of a cube = l3
18. Curved Surface Area of a solid cylinder = 2nrh
Total Surface Area of a solid cylinder = 2nr
2
+2nrh


= 2nr (r + h)
Curved Surface Area of a hollow cylinder = 2nRh + 2nrh = 2nh(R + r)
Surface Area of a hollow cylinder = 2nrh + 2nRh + 2(nR
2
nr
2
)
Area of the ring = nR
2
nr
2
= n(R
2
r
2
)
Thickness of the ring = R r


19. Curved Surface Area of a cone = nrl [where, l = slant height]
Total Surface Area of a cone = nr
2
+ nrl = nr

(r + l)
20. Surface Area of a sphere = 4nr
2

Surface Area of a hemisphere = 3nr
2

21. Surface Area of a prism = 2 area of base + perimeter of base height
22. Surface Area of any pyramid = area of base + area of each of lateral faces
23. Surface Area of regular pyramid = area of base +
1
2
ps
Where, p = perimeter of the base
s = slant height
24. Surface Area of square pyramid = b
2
+ 2bs
[Where, b = length of the base, s = slant height]