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Technology Management

PART A (Descriptive Type) = 16

PART B (Case Study) = 2
PART C = 80
Instant Downloadable Solution from
Descriptive Type Question
Question 1: Explain the following terms:
(a) Economic analysis of technology.
(b) Technology and culture.
(c) Technology scanning.
(d) Technology Life Cycle
(e) The three axes of manufacturing activity.

Question 2(a): What is technology? Discuss the role of technology in the
productivity growth.
Question 2(b): Explain the concept of atlas of technology.
Question 3: What is technology? Define technology in all its dimensions.
Question 4: Explain 'Knowledge Embodied' and 'Knowledge Disembodied'
with minimum of three examples. Analyse how a company can access and
acquire embodied knowledge and disembodied knowledge.
Question 5: Discuss importance of the Strategic Management of Technology.
Question 6: Discuss Crucial Issues in Flexible Technology.
Question 7: What do you understand by technology transfer? Prepare a
check-list of activities that a company should involve and avoid while
planning to do new technology.
Question 8: What changes are required to be made to the Indian Patent Act
of 1970 to bring it in line with WTO commitments?
Question 9: Discuss briefly the Role, Rationale and Requisites of National
Technology Policy.
Question 10(a): Why should technology be considered as a strategic
Question 10(b): Why management of technology at the enterprise level
Question 11(a): What is technology absorption? What are the reasons for
the external acquisition of technology?
Question 11(b): What is technology intelligence capability?
Question 12(a): Explain the term world class manufacturing?
Question 12(b): What is JIT? Discuss the basic elements that constitute JIT.
Question 13(a): Differentiate the terms invention and innovation.
Question 13(b): Why organizations resort to technology transfer? What are
the issues that encompass technology transfer?
Question 14(a): What is technovation? Explain the process of tehnovation.
Question 14(b): What are the principles of technology fusion?
Question 15(a): Explain the term intellectual property right?
Question 15(b): What is the role of WTO in protecting IPR?
Question 16: Write short notes
(a) Concurrent engineering
(b) Core competency
(c) Appropriate technology

Case Study 1
Develop countries, with their high labour costs and strict environmental regulations
translating to higher pollution related costs, began to put up the shutter of their forge
shops due to noise and heat levels.
To make a forging, a piece of metal, mainly steel, usually hot, is worked into a
predetermined shape like bots, fastners, crankshafts, flanges, gear blanks, railway
wagon axels. Depending upon the type of pressure application used, forgings can either
be hammer forging or press forgings, the latter being more sophisticated. In India, most
forging units are equipped with hammers, they are much cheaper and do well for lower
volumes. Depending upon the type of die used, forging can be closed die or open die.
Closed die forgings are used to make smaller parts such as crankshafts and gear
blanks, used mainly in auto sector. Open die forging are used to make the larger and
heavier parts used in heavy machinery.
As per AIDFASI (Association of Indian Drop Forging and Stamping Industries) there are
around 285 units in the steel forging industry with an aggregate installed capacity of
6.85 lakes TPA with another 300 tiny units producing low-tech forged components 1/5 of
it is in open die forging and the rest in closed die. The organized sector has a major
presence in the closed die segment where the quality requirements of OEM's and
export buyers are very stringent.
Global auto-makers are increasing their out-sourcing of components: general Motors- a
$ 150 billion company, currently makes 70% of its required component in-house and
plan to bring it down to 35% in the next few years.
Historically India has concentrated on the lower end of the market, now only there is
increase in export of customized forgings. India has good engineering base, overheads
are low and shops can make small requirements. Availability of raw materials, carbon
and alloy steels is no longer problem. The wage rate here is 1/10 of developed
countries. Problems are technology obsolescence, low material yield, low labour
productivity and high fuel consumption. Over time, the advantages of lower labour costs
could be negated by these factors. The competition is from China, Indonesia, Mexico &
Brazil. Steels, which accepts for 60% of costs is relatively costlier, power and fuel costs
are too higher. Technology upgradation is required t lower fuel consumption and
improve material yield.
1. What is technology in a forging Industry?
2. What does technology upgradation mean in this case?
3. What mode of technology transfer would you recommend for technology

Case Study 2
Managing Technology and R&D
ESAB Indian limited, Bombay is a leading manufacturer of welding consumables and
equipment. ESAB India Limited is the Indian associate of ESAB AB, the Swedish
multinational and the world's largest company in welding and cutting, with production
centers, core representation in most of the countries.
ESAB India, a Public Limited Company with paid up capital of Rs. 50 million, employs
206 people, including 35 S&T personnel, at its Kalwa unit which is the major
manufacturing facility. It had a turnover of above Rs. 30 crores during 1991-92. It is
licensed to make 1250 nos. of welding and cutting equipment and 24020 km of welding
The in-house R&D unit of the company employs about 10 persons including S&T
personnel (scientists and engineers) and is headed by a well qualified chief at the level
of General Manager directly reporting to the Managing Director. The R&D unit is a
separate entity situated within the company premises occupying a floor area of about
300 sq. m. but closely interacts with other functional groups. It has well equipped
laboratories and pilot plant facilities for development purposes. The annual R&D
expenditure was about Rs. 24 lakhs during 1991-92, i.e. about 0.8% of the annual
turnover. A good technical library having books, journals and periodicals in the field of
manufacturing is maintained. The company also encourages close interaction with the
relevant R&D organizations and academic institutions. R&D personnel participate in
technical seminars and meetings in India and abroad. A computerized information
facility has also been built up.
The R&D unit of the ESAB India closely interacts from time to time with the principals in
Sweden and at other places on developmental needs and receives relevant technical
information which is very useful for R&D in India. In fact, there are some products/areas
which have specifically been developed to meet the needs of India and could be
relevant to other developing countries as well, but are not covered in the product range
of the principals abroad. Most of the developments relate to highly specific applications
such as for oil, power, underwater uses and are import substitutes. There are immense
export possibilities through constant development efforts to meet the specific
requirements of other countries.
In the early eighties ESAB realized that to survive in the competitive world of welding it
had to become the biggest company and a leader in technology. As a route to achieve
this objective, ESAB acquired a number of companies active in the field of welding and
cutting. It acquired the European welding activities of Philips electrical and electronic
group, based in the Netherlands in 1985. Subsequently, the welding business unit of
Philips India Limited also became a part of ESAB Group in July 1988. This unit was not
doing well commercially. The turnover of ESAB (India) almost tripled in three years due
to active marketing efforts. In May, 1991 ESAB India Limited acquired the welding
business of Indian Oxygen Limited (IOL), Calcutta. The turnover then approached Rs.
100 crore. The new Indian organization now has four major manufacturing centers and
has sales outlets in all parts of the sub-continent.
ESAB's objective was to become a world leader in welding technology. This was to be
achieved by carrying in-house research and by absorbing the technology of newly
acquired companies. ESAB now has well established R&D facilities in a number of
countries, including India. The R&D unit of ESAB is a DSIR recognized unit and works
presently mainly for the Indian market. In setting the objective of ESAB India, the top
management of the parent company takes into account the in-house capability and
potential for further advancement through imported technology. All possible support to
R&D is extended by the management to retain the leadership in its field.
The company's commitment to welding technology and product development is evident
from the goal of the organization which is to provide technical solutions to the
customers. Here the organization insists on the important distinction that is to provide
solutions and does not sell products.
In a world where technology dominates there are new opportunities for continuous
development. The development of low moisture absorption welding electrodes is a good
example. The offshore structures of the North Sea required welding consumables
(electrodes) which would produce welded fabrication free from structural failure in a very
harsh working environment. The cost of such failures could be tremendous compared to
the cost of welding consumables. Typically, welding consumables constitute less than
1.5% of the total cost of the structure. The cost of failure of the structures is frequently
many times the cost of the structure itself.
The early objective was to have extra low hydrogen in the weld metal. For this purpose
special low hydrogen electrodes were made and then re-packed just before use. This
costly process could be eliminated by packing the electrodes in vacuum sealed
packages (Vac Pac) at a relatively high cost. Efforts at developing the low cost devices
for packing continued. The low moisture absorption electrodes have now been
produced which reduce the cost of the solution of the welding problem. At the same
time the product was further developed to give improved welding characteristics in order
to improve manufacturability and to reduce cost.
Expenses incurred on product and process development have to be recovered from
sales so that R&D process for continuous improvement can go on. The key words which
characterize ESAB's commitment to the continuous development of processes and
system are:
The productivity of the welder and fabricator
The quality of weld deposit
The working environment
During the last decade and a half, a shift from the manual welding process to semi and
fully automatic welding processes has taken place in most of the developed countries,
mainly to achieve higher productivity and lower manufacturing cost. Today in these
markets more than half of the total production of weld metal is derived from continuous
solid and flux cored wires processes. It, therefore, became necessary to develop
consumables to meet this challenge. Many new automatic consumables have been
There was a parallel development of new welding machines to match the automatic
welding processes (including welding robots). The packing standards were also
changed to suit automatic welding consumables for uninterrupted supply of high-quality
wire to the robotic processes (ESAB's Marathon Pac).
Products are services which do not meet the quality requirements of the customers and
do not stand the test of time. Today quality does not remain within the boundaries of the
product alone. Total quality is the need of the hour. Introduction of a Total Quality
Program is the ESAB group is a step in this direction. While finalizing the requirement
for a new product the quality of the weld is inbuilt in the specification. Welding is not an
end in itself. It is a process to produce a structure. The most successful welds produce
the base component or fabrication at the lowest level.
The cost and quality of the weld very much depend on the welder who in turn is
profoundly influenced by the working environment. The welder will produce better welds
in a friendly environment or with electrodes with better welding characteristics, a single
point control (synergic control) of the welding machines and reduce fume. Controlling
the toxicity limit of the welding fume shows concern towards the health of the welder
whilst at the same time improving the effectiveness. ESAB's R&D is in the forefront of
action to make the environment friendlier to the welder.
As can be seen, developments in welding concern while process and are realized by
improving existing products and introducing new technologies. Attention will, in future,
focus increasingly on issues relating to the internal and external environment and
economy. Combining ESAB's product, process research and development with the
customers' production experience often lead to collaborative ventures to improve
economy, quality, and productivity and safety standards in the latter works.
The R&D department of ESAB India is the focal point of all technical activities of ESAB
in India. It also acts as the interface between the principals in Sweden and the Indian
organization. It undertakes research and development activities related to new products
and technologies for meeting the needs of the growing Indian market. Emphasis is on
continuous local technological development, absorption and up-gradation of imported
technologies for all the welding activities.
The department is manned by a group of highly qualified persons who have the
experience in other line functions so that their perception of the problem is realistic
rather than theoretical. Members have had previous experience in quality control,
production or marketing before they joined the R&D group. They are capable of
understanding the real problems or the requirement of new products as envisaged by
the customer. All members of the department help each other to keep expectation within
feasible limits.
Technology and product is market lead in India. For instance, in a specific nuclear
project the requirements were very stringent and critical. The required product was
developed in two phases. In the beginning, the technical requirements were first met
and subsequently the cost was reduced. Initially, market demand was not large but with
time it expanded and now they have a proprietary product with large demand.
Many such market-led developments have been successfully carried out in India. This
has helped ESAB earn the name of a technology based company. The R&D department
accordingly has established its importance in the organization and has representation in
all decisions of the group management pertaining to technology and product
If the product development is market-led, the marketing department has to present its
requirements in regard to future market demand, possible new businesses or new
applications. Once the need has been agreed the R&D department attempts to
ascertain whether the product is available within the ESAB group. If it is, the principals
abroad are contracted for details of formulation and production data. In the event that a
group product cannot be identified, then the R&D department of the principals combines
with their Indian counterparts for a program for development. After establishing the
basic formulation and production data, work on adaptation to Indian condition starts.
This adaptation is necessary because of variations in the raw materials and production
The formulations are broken into their basic chemical constituents and on them the
chemical composition of the indigenous raw materials is superimposed. Imbalances are
suitably adjusted to provide the correct weld metal analysis and welding characteristics
of the electrode. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience are essential for doing
this. A tentative formula is obtained which is refined through experiment to give the final
desired product. The new formulation is first tried on pilot plant and subsequently
transferred to production. For successful development and commercialization of a
product, marketing and sales, materials management and production departments are
all involved. The R&D personnel remain involved till the product is established
commercially. R&D must also be involved in manufacturing technology to meet the
company's own demand for improved productivity, quality or to increase manufacturing
What has been discussed above works if the situation is ideal? Reality is often different.
Some of the major difficulties encountered in actual practice relate to:
Changes in specifications during the development period
Failure to achieve the required result by the R&D department
Unduly long response time of development
Prohibitive cost of product
In the course of development, the customers' need may change. If such a change is not
very major, it may only cause a small delay but in case of major changes, it may mean
development in an entirely new direction. Alternatively, the specifications may
sometimes be too stringent that it may not be possible to manufacture a new product
within the constraints and projected cost. It is also possible that the targets laid down in
the guidelines received from the principals cannot be met because of non-availability of
specific raw materials at reasonable prices. These are all major handicaps in developing
the desired product.
Undue delay in developing a product may result in losing market opportunity for which it
was intended. Often development may use costly materials and the finished available
product may become more expensive than an alternative product in the market resulting
in failure to develop a commercially viable product. All problems and difficulties
described above combine into a single problem-loading the interest of the customer.
These difficulties can arise in market-led development. However, if development is
production-led, many new and good developments never reach the market because
they do not satisfy a recognized customer need. In relation to development activity, the
following observations of general nature can be made:
1. The top management must commit itself (through the company objectives) to render
active support of development of product and technology. Often in times, expenses
incurred to development come under the microscope. The commitment of the top
management will ensure that in the long-term, investment in R&D activities will pay off
2. Development is not a single department's job. Active involvement from marketing and
sales, production and materials management is essential to make the new product
reach the customer at right time and at the right cost.
3. Cost of the product plays an important role in the development efforts. This point
must be kept in mind from the very beginning. A developer must be conversant with the
cost structure of the product.
4. All industrial R&D activities must have commercialization of the development as its
goal. Any development will be termed a failure if it does not improve the bottom line of
the organization.
5. Many difficulties may be faced during the R&D process, so R&D is assured of a quick
and easy success.
6. Guidelines and directions from the principals abroad are only part of the story. Local
R&D is important to satisfy local needs and constraints. Appropriate technology is the
need for all R&D effort while adapting products and technologies from abroad.
7. ESAB India's role in future will be to develop the existing techniques and to
participate in the research and development of new techniques with a view to maintain
its leading position in the field of welding and cutting in the 21st century.
In the international scenario the technological developments are taking place at a very
rapid pace. India with its wealth of technical expertise should adopt overseas
technological advances for speedy commercial implementation and benefit from them.
Such adaptation will hasten the process of industrialization. Indian R&D efforts should
be directed initially towards meeting the local needs and overcoming local constraints
by suitable adaptation. But finally we must aim to be a world competitive supplier of
welding and cutting solutions.
1. What strategic route ESAB AB followed to become technology leader in the world?
What could be the reasons behind such a route?
2. What efforts were made by ESAB AB and ESAB India in the field of product
3. How is the R&D function at ESAB India organized? Critically examine.
4. What difficulties ESAB has experienced in relation to product development efforts?
What would you suggest to overcome these difficulties? What opportunities are open to
ESAB India? How best can it avail of those opportunities?

Multiple Choice Question - Set 1
Q. (1-8) Match the followings:
1 2 3 4
Mass Service
Project Tech Process Tech Soft. Tech

5 6 7 8
Product Tech
Advanced Tech Group Tech New

Choose from the above and fit in:

Has life cycles
related to product
life cycles.
Deals with one of a
kind of products
that are tailored to
the unique request
of each customer.
Is a way of
organizing and
using data for
components that
have similar
properties and
City School System.

Is a computer
based system for
material needs and
resource allocation.
Is a continuous
programme using
optimized state-of-
the art equipment
and process
Refers to the
application of
computer Software
and other aids that
support managers
of manufacturing
and service
Will reshape
production planning
and scheduling for
vehicle operations
throughout the
world, resulting
into greater
productivity, safer
highways, and
conserved energy.

Q. 9. Three axes of technology are given below. Choose and fit in:
1 2 3
Information Transformation Finalisation
X-Axis Y-Axis Z-Axis
Q. (10-14) Choose odd entity /entities, if any:
10. (a) manual tools
(b) special purpose machines
(c) computerized machines
(d) generalizing facts
(e) innovating abilities
11. (a) operating abilities
(b) producing abilities
(c) adapting abilities
(d) automatic machines
(e) industrial linkages
12. (a) describing facts
(b) familiarizing facts
(c) specifying facts
(d) integrated facilities
13. (a) individual linkages
(b) enterprise linkages
(c) national linkages
(d) improving abilities
14. (a) product planning
(b) application engineering
(c) product engineering
(d) vendor evaluation

Q. 15.Choose the right answer:
(a) Technology is constantly replenishable material resource.
(b) Technology generates wealth.
(c) Technology is a prime factor for domestic productivity
(d) Technology is the drive for new advances among academic business and government.
(e) Technology requires new managerial philosophy and practice.
(f) All above.
Q. 16. Cross
(X) the wrong statement (s):
India is an attraction to Foreign Partners because:
(a) India is a big market.
(b) Geographical diversity.
(c) A Sovereign Democratic Republic.
(d) A simple market.
Q. (17- 40) State True / False: Yes / No
17. After liberalization it is not necessary to seek Government permission for any type of
Technological Agreements. T / F
18. Technology Strategy is the basis of Technology Management. T / F
19. R & D center is not necessary if a firm is following a technology leadership strategy. T/ F
20. While dealing with a single Japanese company, you are dealing with the whole of 'Japan
Incorporation'. T / F
21. Any document which goes into production system, should go through a Methods and
System Division.. T/ F
22. For a Technology transfer, inclusion of an expert in Negotiation Language is so
important. T/ F
23. It is said that while dealing with Japanese, "don't be afraid of silences". They say,
"Those who know, do not speak; and those who do not know speak". Y / N
24. Technology Assessment is essentially a technique for solving man made problems. Y/ N
25. Methodology of Technology Assessment include multivariate analysis and requires
multivariate optimization, hence are very complex to analyse. T/ F
26. FDI (Foreign Direct Investments) usually are not meant for Technology Transfer. T /F
27 WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organisation) has prepared a Hand Book on
acquisition of technology by developing countries. T / F
28. UNDP/UNIDO has developed a Licencing Guide for developing countries. T / F
29. In WCM (World Class Manufacturing), the fundamental functions of manufacturing are
performed by the following systems in an integrated manner.
30. Taguchi methods provide a powerful means for isolating critical product design
parameters that need to be controlled in the manufacturing process. T / F
31. QFD (Quality Function Deployment) is not a comprehensive scheme or framework for
quality. T / F
32. Competitive strategy needs to be built on the transformation of business processes into
strategic capabilities that consistently provide superior value to the customer. T / F

33. Among the core competencies and capabilities needed by a company, the
commercialization of technology is not so crucial. T/ F
34. The corporate imagination needs to be channelised or guided along the following lines
"Leading customers rather than simply following them". T / F
35. Relatively flexible and loose nature of organization structure and teaming across
functions and disciplines is highly relevant for Innovative World Class Manufacturing
Enterprises. T / F
36. A Matrix Type of organization is best suited for Project Management T / F
37. IT has virtually no role to play in decision-making structures that integrate qualitative
inputs from many people. T / F
38. TQM increases overall quality cost. T / F
39. A prime requisite for the competitiveness strategy, today, needs a radical change -
away from structures and systems based on functions such as marking, inventory, and
manufacturing towards work processes like: filling an order, developing a product or
delivering a service. T / F
40. Centralised Command and Control are superior to Central goal-setting and coordination.
T/ F

Multiple Choice Question Set 2

1. Which of the following is NOT a part of Techno ware
A) Powered equipment
B) Automated machines
C) Computerized machines
D) Operating ability

2. Info ware consists of all the following EXCEPT
A) Describing facts
B) Familiarizing facts
C) Repairing abilities
D) Utilizing facts

3. Which of the following is NOT very important in managing technology
A) Production process
B) Product & process design
C) Information systems
D) Compensation packages

4. Technology management is concerned with all EXCEPT
A) Incremental innovation in existing technologies
B) Development of new technology
C) Combining older technologies
D) Procurement of machines similar to the one existing

5. An R& D centre is to be set up when
A) Technology is a competing strategy
B) The company uses reverse engineering
C) Subsidy exists for setting up R&D units
D) A Ph. D qualified person is to be promoted as a unit head

6. Which of the following depict the central role of a corporate R&D
A) Development of relevant breakthrough technology
B) Continuous process and product improvement
C) Day to day problem solving
D) Engage in basic research

7. All of the following are determinants of productivity except
A) Effective control over cost and quality
B) Rationalization of work flow
C) Training hours spent on staff
D) Optimal scheduling of work and material handling

8. A term used to indicate a good match between the technology utilized and
the resources required for its optimal use
A) New technology
B) Emerging technology
C) Appropriate technology
D) Codified technology

9. Reverse engineering is also known as
A) Experience and design looping
B) Design to cost
C) Reengineering
D) Zero defect production

10.Productivity techniques used to reduce costs of one or more of production
inputs by replacing with the cheaper available substitutes is known as
A) Group technology
C) Factor substitution
D) Six Sigma

11.All of the following are characteristics of high technology EXCEPT
A) A fast rate of growth
B) High ratio of R&D expenditure to sales
C) Very limited market
D) Less educated employees

12.All are reasons for external acquisition of technology EXCEPT
A) Firm lets other firms to take big risk before participation
B) Technology already developed saves time and cost
C) Technology that can be handled with existing machines and equipment
D) Doesnt require recruitment of skilled labor

13.Technology that proprietary to a firm is known as
A) Basic technology
B) Generic technology
C) Key technology
D) Appropriate technology

14.Which is NOT an issue in acquisition and absorption of technology from
external sources
A) Difficult to assess the relative merits of technologies which are
B) Adapting and modifying technologies to local conditions
C) Negotiating technology license
D) Arranging payment for the technology

15.All the following are technological intelligence capability EXCEPT
A) Ability to monitor worldwide technological trends
B) Ability to source technology
C) Ability to get skilled labor
D) Ability to mange acquired technology

16.A technology for which research has progressed far enough to indicate its
success is known as
A) High technology
B) Emerging technology
C) Appropriate technology
D) Codified technology

17.All of the following are basic constituents of JIT EXCEPT
A) Simplification of product design
B) Improvement of plant layout design based on flow
C) Immediate payment to suppliers
C) Making vendors partner to the production process

18.Which of the following is not a characteristic of CIM
A) Compatible hardware and software
B) Paperless office and integrated business system
C) Flexibility of operations and low cost of implementation
D) Use of CNC machines

19.Gauravs role in his organization is to scan the market and bring new
technologies to the organization. His role can be identified as
A) Project manager
B) Sponsor
C) Technological gatekeeper
D) Entrepreneur

20.The development of new hybrid technologies by combining the capabilities
of existing technologies is called
A) Technovation
B) Technology fusion
C) Technology intelligence
D) Technology push

21.A necessary condition for technological fusion is
A) Technological diversification
B) Technological determinism
C) Technology codification
D) Technology integration

22.All of the following are part of business alliances in use in Japan EXCEPT
A) Exchange of expertise by companies in different fields
B) Merger and acquisition of companies
C) Alliance among large, medium and small companies
D) International alliances among industries in developed countries

23.Core competence of Sony is
A) Capacity to miniaturize
B) Optical media expertise
C) Heavy R&D expenditure
D) JIT production

24.Japanese companies focus on ___________ rather than result
A) People
B) Processes
C) Quality
D) Plans

25.Which of the following is NOT a conducive atmosphere for innovation
A) An open decentralized organizational structure
B) Ensure that new ideas are not easily killed
C) Minimize administrative interference
D) Tight deadlines

26.Two basic objectives of a national policy relate to the promotion of
productivity, innovation and competition on one hand and the facilitation
of the firms _________ on the other
A) Competitive capabilities
B) Financial strength
C) Autonomy
D) Labor unions

27.Following are reasons for making inventions EXCEPT
A) Personal satisfaction
B) Solving problems faced in everyday life
C) Being recognized by others
D) Zeal for charity

28.Neighboring rights does not include
A) The rights of performing artists in their performance
B) The rights of producers of Phonograms in their phonograms
C) The rights of broadcasting organization in their radio television
D) The rights of authors in their books

29.The process of ___________ threatens the developing world by
appropriating the collective knowledge of the society into proprietary
knowledge for the commercial profit of a few
A) Liberalization
B) Globalization
C) Privatization
D) Commercialization

30.Which is not a planned channel for technology transfer
A) Reverse engineering
B) Joint venture
C) Franchise
D) Foreign Direct Investment

31.The six step ASSETS process does not contain
A) Asses current situation
B) Specify technology strategy
C) Codify technology
D) Select technology portfolio

32.Traditionally intellectual property is divided into two groups. If one is
Copyrights, which is the other
A) Agricultural Property rights
B) Real estate rights
C) Industrial Property rights
D) Self expression rights

33.WIPO convention covers all of the following under IPR except
A) Performances of performing artists, phonograms and broadcasts
B) Scientific discoveries
C) Trademarks, service marks, and commercial names and designations
D) Agricultural patent rights

34.A form of networking of institutions and activities for inducting high
A) Technology Park
B) Technology associations
C) Technology groups
D) Technology centers

35.The act of producing or selling a product containing an intentional and
calculated reproduction of a genuine trademark is called
A) Counterfeiting
B) Cyber squatting
C) Infringement
D) Copyrights violation

36.When a producer has authorization from an IPR holder to produce goods
but exceeds the quantity, the excess goods are
A) Illegitimate goods
B) Overrun goods
C) Grey market goods
D) Black goods

37.The term used to protect the rights of an unpublished book
A) Copyright
B) Trademark
C) Service mark
D) Publishing rights

38.Area not covered by TRIPS agreement
A) Trademarks and service marks
B) Industrial designs
C) Geographical indications
D) Layout design of manufacturing plans

39.MFM treatment under TRIPS means
A) Mild and fast foreign negotiations with MNCs
B) Treating everyone equally
C) Special treatment to some nations
D) Increasing reciprocity

40.Darjeeling tea has protected its intellectual property rights based on
A) Trademark
B) Service mark
C) Geographical indications
D) Patents