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Thevenin Equivalent Circuits (EC 4.

10)

Thevenin equivalent
Current delivered to any load resistance by a circuit is equal to:
Voltage source equal to open circuit voltage V
th
at load
In series with a simple resistor R
th
(the source impedance).


Procedure for Finding Thevenin Equivalent

(1) Remove all elements not included in the circuit,
Remove all loads at the output.

(2) Find the open circuit voltage =V
th


(3) Do one of the following to get R
th
:
(3a) Find the output resistance R
th
:
Turn off all sources
Voltage sources become shorts
Current sources become open
Then calculate resistance of circuit as seen from output.

(3b) Find short circuit current:
Calculate the load resistance by

short
th
th
I
V
R =


Example Thevenin Equivalents

Consider the simple voltage divider circuit
Finding V
th
by open circuit voltage
This acts a simple voltage divider

V 7 10
14000 6000
14000
V
R R
R
V V
2 1
2
open th
=
+
=
+
= =

Setting sources off (short voltage source)
Then input resistance is parallel resistors

mhos 10 38 . 2
6000
1
14000
1
R
1
R
1
4
tin th

= + = =

= K 2 . 4 R
th


Example Thevenin Equivalents

Using alternate method for R
th

Short the output
Hence R
2
removed
Short circuit current is

mA 667 . 1
6000
10
R
V
I
1
short
= = =

Then

= = = K 2 . 4
00166 . 0
7
I
V
R
short
th
th

Note often easier to use short output method.


Norton Equivalent Circuits

Norton Equivalent
Current delivered to any load resistance by a circuit is equal to:
Constant current source =to short circuit current I
N
at the load
Shunt resistor R
N
=resistance circuit when all sources are stopped.


Procedure for Norton Equivalent Circuits

(1) Remove all elements not included in the circuit
Remove all loads at the output.

(2) Find the short circuit current =I
N


(3) Do one of the following:
(3a) Find the output resistance: turning off all constant sources
Voltage sources become shorts
Current sources become open
Then calculate resistance of circuit as seen from output.

(3b) Find the open circuit voltage V
open

Calculate the Norton resistance R
N
by

N
open
N
I
V
R =


Example Norton Equivalent Circuit

Consider a current source with R
1
in parallel & R
2
on output
Find the short circuit current =I
N

When shorted becomes a simple current divider

= =
2 1
2
1 1
1
R R
R
I I I
short N

mA
R R
R
I I
N
4
00075 . 0
0005 . 0
006 . 0
2000
1
4000
1
2000
1
006 . 0
1 1
1
2 1
2
= =

=

Then find the output resistance
Setting the current source off (open)
Now R
1
and R
2
in series

= + = + = = K R R R R
out N
6 4000 2000
2 1



Example Norton Equivalent Circuit Cond

Alternate way for R
N

Finding the open circuit voltage

V IR V
open
24 4000 006 . 0
2
= = =

Thus the output resistance is

= = = K
I
V
R
N
open
N
6
004 . 0
24

Depending on circuit this may be faster then shutting off source


Relationship Between Thevenin and Norton Circuits

Can easily change Thevenin into Norton or vice versa
By definition

N th
R R =
Thus

th N N N th
R I R I V = =

N
th
th
th
N
R
V
R
V
I = =


When to Use Thevenin and Norton Circuits

Thevenin equivalents most useful for:
Where the information wanted is a single number
Such as the current out of a given line.
Circuits similar to non-ideal voltage sources
Eg Battery or simple power supply (50 ohm input)
There R
th
provides current limit & internal resistance


Norton equivalents are most useful for:
Circuits that approximate a non-ideal current source.
Eg. current limited power supply
There R
N
creates the voltage limit & internal resistance


Superposition of Elements

Another way of solving circuits with linear circuit elements
With linear circuits the effect of the combined system is linear
Obtained by adding together effect of each source on circuit

To use superposition analysis:

(1) Set all power sources except one to zero
Short circuit all voltage sources
Open circuit all current sources
These can be thought of as simplified circuits

(2) Calculate the voltages and currents from that one source

(3) Repeat 1-2 for each source individually

(4) Final result, at each point in the circuit:
Sum the voltages and currents of all the simplified circuits
Result is the combined voltage/current of the circuit.


Example of Superposition

Solve the circuit below with a current and voltage source


First turn off (open circuit) the current source
Then really only have two resistors in series:

mA 1
4000 2000
6
R R
V
I
2 1
1
=
+
=
+
=

Using a voltage divider for the R
2
line

V 4
4000 2000
4000
6
R R
R
V V
2 1
2
1 R
=
+
=
+
=


Example of Superposition Continued

Now turn on the current source
Turn off the voltage source (short circuit it)
Then using the current divider formula

=
2 1
2
2
R
1
R
1
R
1
I I
mA 2
00075 . 0
00025 . 0
006 . 0
2000
1
4000
1
4000
1
006 . 0
R
1
R
1
R
1
I I
2 1
2
2
= =

=

Similarly for the R
1
branch

mA 4
00075 . 0
0005 . 0
006 . 0
2000
1
4000
1
2000
1
006 . 0
R
1
R
1
R
1
I I
2 1
2
1
= =

=

The voltage across the R
2
is

V 8 4000 002 . 0 R I V
2 2 2 R
= = =


Example of Superposition Continued

Now add the voltages and currents

For the voltage across R
2


V 12 4 8 V V V
on V 2 R on I 2 R 2 R
= + = + =



For the current in R
2


mA 3 1 2 I I I
on V 2 R on I 2 R 2 R
= + = + =



For the current in R
1

Note: the V and I source only currents are in opposite directions

mA 3 1 4 I I I
on V 1 R on I 1 R 1 R
= = + =



Voltage drop across R
1


V 6 2000 003 . 0 R I V
1 1 R 1 R
= = =

With this we have a full analysis of the circuit