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2008

1
UNIT 1

A. WRITING

Introduction to Essay Writing

1. The main types of essays that you will be asked to write are as follows: for and against
essays (present both sides of an issue discussing points in favour of and against a particular
topic), opinion essays (express the writers opinion concerning the topic), narrative essays
(tell a story), descriptive essays (create a clear picture or impression of a person, place or
object). Consider the following topics and decide which of these four types of essays they
represent.

1. You are one of the spectators watching a very exciting football match from the terraces of the
Maracan Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Narrate what happens.
2. My favourite footballer.
3. Famous football players should be allowed to keep their private lives private, without the
invasion of the media. Discuss.
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a well-known football player?
5. Describe your favourite football team.
6. Give an account of a match you watched on TV with your friends.
7. Some professional football players are paid too much. Do you agree?
8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of starting football training at an early age?
9. Describe your favourite football team.
10. Many people maintain that football is the king of sports. Do you agree?

2. Although any essay is made up of an INTRODUCTION, a MAIN BODY and a
CONCLUSION, the content of these parts depends on the type of essay you want to write.
Examine the table below and find the similarities and dissimilarities between the
introductions, main bodies and conclusions of various kinds of essays.

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For and against Opinion Narrative Descriptive
Introduction
Paragraph 1
State topic without stating
your opinion.
Introduction
Paragraph 1
State the topic and your
opinion.
Introduction
Paragraph 1
Set the scene, supply any
necessary background
information.
Introduction
Paragraph 1
Introduce the persons,
places, objects to be
described.
Main Body
Paragraphs 2 and 3
Arguments in favour of
the topic, justifications,
examples or reasons.

Paragraphs 4 and 5
Arguments against the
topic, justifications,
examples or reasons.
Main Body
Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4
3 arguments supporting
your opinion with reasons
and examples.

Paragraph 5
Opposing viewpoint with
reasons and examples.
Main Body
Paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 5
Describe the incidents
leading to the main event
and the event itself in
detail.

Main Body
Paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 5
Each paragraph focuses
on a particular
characteristic/aspect of
the person, object, and
place to be described.
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Give a balanced
consideration or opinion
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Summarize/restate your
opinion
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Refer to peoples
moods/reactions/feelings,
consequences, comments.
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Present general
comments, impressions,
feelings, opinions.

3. Match the following introductions with their corresponding conclusions and decide
which type of essay they belong to.

1. My name is Jane Smith. I am a seventeen-year old
teenager struggling with a stubborn body that has been
putting up fierce resistance to all my attempts to lose
weight. I am 150 centimetres tall and I weigh 70
kilograms. Needless to say, no boy would go on a date
with me. But things are about to change. Today Im
going on a new diet and Im taking up jogging.
a. Years have gone by and despite his flaws and
failings, when I look back on the time we spent
together I can say without hesitation that Jim is still
my best friend. Had it not been for his constant support
and counselling, I would have ended up a deplorable
football player and undoubtedly a weaker man.
2. Technology in sport is the use of man-made objects
or materials in order to change or enhance sporting
performance. The supporters of technology claim that
it has been beneficial to sport in many respects, while
opponents accuse it of influencing sport in an adverse
way.
b. To sum up, I strongly believe that while technology
has made sports safer and training more efficient, it
has also altered athletic performance and disappointed
sports fans.
3. Technology in sport is the use of man-made objects
or materials in order to change or enhance sporting
performance. There are those who maintain that
technological evolution has been beneficial to sport in
many respects. Nevertheless, my opinion is that the
influence of technology on sport has been mostly
adverse.
c. My name is Jane Smith. I am an eighteen-year old
girl who has finally made peace with her body. For the
past year, counting calories and kilometres has been a
way of life for me. It hasnt been a piece of cake but
Ive done it. I am 150 centimetres tall and I weigh 50
kilograms. Now then, would you go out with me?
4. I met Jim on my first day on the pitch. At the time I
was only ten years old and beginning my training in
football. He was sixteen and already a rising star, a
sort of celebrity among teenagers. Standing so close to
him made me a bit nervous because until then I had
watched him play only from the terraces. He must
have felt my anxiety, for he gave me a hearty,
encouraging smile and passed me the ball. Tense as I
was, little did I realise that we had just taken the first
step to a beautiful friendship.
d. It can be concluded that while technology can alter
athletic performance and disappoint sports fans, it can
also make sports safer and training more efficient.
Some sports rely more on technological advances than
others, but throughout the latter part of the 20
th

century, there have been few sports that have not been
influenced in some way by technology. All in all,
technologys impact on sport and society should not be
underestimated.
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4. The discussion clock is a useful tool you may have recourse to when approaching a topic.
This technique helps you examine a topic from various perspectives before deciding on the
points to include in your essay. Read the points below and looking at the discussion clock
decide which aspect each viewpoint relates to.

1. From a psychological point of view, it may be maintained that the physical appearance of
individuals strongly influence their amount of self-esteem.
2. Historically, the esthetical views on the human body have often changed.
3. Socially, a neat physical aspect offers you important advantages.
4. As for the artistic aspect, introducing classes of physical education in schools will help
children develop their creative talents.
5. Economically, you can benefit enormously from adopting a healthy lifestyle since you do not
have to spend money on medicine.
6. While you are not legally required to come to their assistance, denying heath care to these
people is morally unacceptable.






personal
moral
political
social
historical
economic
artistic
scientific
religious
psychological
discussion
clock
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5. For each viewpoint you have thought of, there is usually an opposing argument. Match
each of the following viewpoints with the corresponding opposing arguments.

1. From a religious point of view, the human
body was created by God.
a. However, there are those who maintain that
money would be better used to build new
theatres, cinemas and libraries.
2. From an economic standpoint, the
investment of money in building new fitness
centres could be of great benefit to the health
of people in the long run.
b. On the other hand, many sociologists claim
that paying to much attention to the physical
appearance may result in excessive vanity.
3. Regarding the social implications of
practising sports, it can be noticed that
physically fit teenagers are often very
popular.
c. Nevertheless, the scientists believe that the
creation of our organism has nothing to do
with divine intervention.






























5

The Narrative Essay

Read the following essay. Find the topic sentence in each paragraph, underline the linking
words and consider the role of each paragraph.

The Stranger on the Bridge

P 1 The big Town Hall clock was striking midnight when Frank began to cross the bridge. The night
air was cold and damp. A low mist hung over the river and the street-lamps gave little light.
P 2 Frank was anxious to get home and his footsteps rang loudly on the pavement. When he reached
the middle of the bridge he thought he could hear someone approaching behind him. He looked back but
could see no one. However, the sound continued and Frank began walking more quickly. Then he slowed
down again, ashamed of himself for acting so foolishly. There was nothing to fear in a town as quiet as
this.
P 3 The short, quick steps grew louder until they seemed very near. Frank found it impossible not to
turn round. As he did so, he caught sight of a figure coming towards him.
P 4 After reaching the other side of the bridge, Frank stopped and pretended to look down at the
water. From the corner of his eye he could now make out the form of a man dressed in a large overcoat. A
hat was pulled over his eyes and very little of his face could be seen.
P 5 As the man came near, Frank turned towards him and said something about the weather in an
effort to be friendly. The man did not answer but asked gruffly where Oakfield House was. Frank pointed
to a big house in the distance and the stranger continued his way.
P 6 The inquiry made Frank suspicious because he knew that the inhabitants of Oakfield House were
very wealthy. Almost without realizing what he was doing, he began following the stranger quietly. The
man was soon outside the house and Frank saw him look up at the windows. A light was still on and the
man waited until it went out. When about half an hour had passed, Frank saw him climb noiselessly over
the wall and heard him drop on to the ground at the other side.
P 7 Now Franks worst suspicions were confirmed. He walked quickly and silently across the street
towards a telephone-box on the corner.




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Structure
The general outline for stories should be as follows:
- Before the event
- The event
- After the event
Introduction
Paragraph 1
Catches the attention. It sets the scene, supplies any necessary background information and
arouses the readers interest.
Main Body
Paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 5
Relate the main events of the story in the order in which they happened.
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Summarises and gives a catchy end including an element of surprise. The reader should feel
that the writer has given a total account of the story he/she set out to tell.

Before working on your plan try to decide what the main event will be so that you can build
your story around it. Note a few ideas under each heading so that you have a fairly clean picture
of what you are going to say before you begin writing.
You must do all you can to make your essays interesting so that they will hold the readers
attention to the very end. Include incidents and details which are drawn from everyday life or
which you have imagined. Select those events that help you to tell the story, that help you to
move the action forward, that add interest to the story by making it exciting, suspenseful, or
humorous.
Maintain the readers attention up to the end.
Connect your sentences by using linkers.
adding an idea or fact: also, another, besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition,
next, too, similarly
establishing the order: first, second, third, then, next, meanwhile, before, after,
finally, eventually, later
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cause and effect relationship: as a result, consequently, hence, therefore, thus,
accordingly
examples: such as, for example, for instance
contrast, contradiction: however, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand,
yet, otherwise
comparison: similarly, likewise
location: above, below, here, there, inside, outside, nearby, beyond, between,
over, under
sequence of events
Firstly, The first step is
First of all, The first stage is
To begin with, ... begins with
Initially ... commences with
Beforehand, Before this,
Previously, Prior to this,
Earlier,
At the same time, During
Simultaneously, When this happens
While
Secondly, Thirdly etc After this,
Next, The next step is
Then, In the next stage,
Subsequently, In the following stage,
Later, Following this,
As soon as, ...
Eventually, ... until ...
Lastly, ... finishes with ...
Finally, concludes with
In the last stage, The last step is ...
Balance your essay
At the seaside - unbalanced essay - if you were to spend a whole page describing how you got to
the seaside and then one or two paragraphs more to say what you did there, your essay would be
unbalanced. Keep to the point.
At the seaside - unbalanced paragraphs in an essay - 1 paragraph (25 lines) how you played with
sand, 1 paragraph (10 lines) an entire succession of events constituting in fact the climax of the
story. Never attempt to write an essay in a single paragraph.
Use the chronological order of the events.
Use Past Tense and Past Perfect as the storys main narrative tenses.
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B. GRAMMAR
The Modal Verbs
Introduction:
Modal verbs express the speakers attitude towards what he/she says; the action expressed
can be seen as POSSIBLE, PROBABLE, NECESSARY, OBLIGATORY, WISHFUL etc.
Characteristics of modal verbs:
do not add s at the 3
rd
person, singular.
e.g. He should do it.
form the interrogative by inversion; the negative by adding not.
e.g. You must do it.
Must you do it?
You must not do it.
followed by the infinitive without to.
lack certain verbal forms. In this case they are substituted by be able to, be allowed to, be
permitted to, be to, have to.
if you want to use tag questions with the modals, then use the modal verb expressed in the
sentence.
e.g. He talked a lot, didnt he?
You can sing well, cant you?
You have to come early, dont you?

CAN/COULD
Mainly express ABILITY, POSSIBILITY, PERMISSION
I ABILITY
1. can + inf = to be able to (natural ability)present reference
e.g. Can you run 1500 metres in 5 minutes?
= Are you able to run 1500 metres in 5 minutes?
2. can + inf (learned ability) present reference
e.g. Can you drive a car?
3. could+ inf (natural or learned ability) past reference
e.g. Jim could/couldnt run very fast when he was a boy.
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4. can/could versus be able to
4.1 past ability: could/be able to
e.g. Jim could run fast as a young boy.
= Jim was able to run fast as a young boy.
4.2 specific achievement in the past: be able to
e.g. A man drowned in the Mures river yesterday. Although he could swim (learned ability in the past),
he grew tired so he was not able to reach (unsuccessful completion of a specific action) the shore.
obs. alternative constructions to be able to: manage(d) to, succeed(ed) in
5. skills to be acquired in the future: will be able to
e.g. I will be able to drive by next summer.
6. could may be used as an alternative for would be able tofuture reference
e.g. I could help you with the furniture when you move into your new house.

II (IM)POSSIBILITY
1. can/could + infpresent reference
e.g. Lightening a match in a gas station can cause an explosion.
It can be very cold in winter.
If she catches the 8.30 bus, she can/could get here in time.
Can this be true?
Could this be true? (less credible than can)
You cant bathe here because the river is polluted.
The situation couldnt be worse. (with comparative adjectives)
2. could + inf past reference
e.g. We couldnt bathe there because the river was polluted.
3. cant/couldnt + inf (negative deduction)present reference
e.g. You cant be hungry. Youve just had dinner.
A: I think Lucy is typing the letter now.
B: Lucy cant be typing the letter. She cant type.
4. cant/couldnt have + 3rd form of the vb. (negative deduction or past possibility) past reference
e.g. He couldnt have heard the news on the radio because he was sleeping then.
David could have won the race if he tried.
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5.can as possibility cannot be used in a future sense; it will be possible, will be ablefuture reference
e.g. When the new tunnel is ready, well be able to get to town more easily.
6. could as possibility may be used in a future sensefuture reference
e.g. You could bathe here next summer, as the water will be warm.
7. couldnt (possibly) + inf (unwillingness)present/future reference
e.g. I couldnt possibly leave without helping you!

III PERMISSION
1. can + inf (to ask for permission; informal)present reference
e.g. Can I borrow your car?
2. can/cannot + inf (to express/refuse permission) present reference
e.g. Yes, you can borrow my car.
3. could + inf (to ask for permission; more polite) present reference
e.g. Could I borrow your umbrella, Miss Johnson?
4. cant/couldnt + inf (to ask for permission; insistence) present reference
e.g. Mum, cant/couldnt I stay out till midnight, please?
5.could + inf. (permission; after past tense verbs)past reference
e.g. I told him he could borrow my car.

MAY/MIGHT
Mainly express POSSIBILITY, PERMISSION
I POSSIBILITY
1. may/might +inf present/future reference
e.g. They may/might come today/tomorrow.
A: Where is Bill?
B: He may be at home. He is usually at home at this hour.
C: He might be at home. Im not sure. (less sure)
might - less probable
2. may/might have + 3
rd
form of the vb.past reference
They might not have noticed what was going on.
3. might + inf (indirect speech; i.e. when the introductory verb is in the past)
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e.g. She said: I may go this afternoon.
She said that she might go this afternoon.
4. may/might are not used to express possibility in questions; they are replaced by phrases like do you
think + present/future tense or is it likely + inf present/future reference
e.g. Do you think they know where we parked our car?
Are we likely to meet them in this crowd?

II PERMISSION
1. may + inf (to grant/refuse permission by the speaker) present/future reference
e.g. They may go.
2. may + inf (to indicate the idea of having permission) present/future reference
e.g. I/we may go.
3. may + inf (to request permission) present/future reference
e.g. May I smoke in here?
4. might + inf (to express permission) present/future reference(with conditional implication)
e.g. Might I take your car for an hour?
obs to be allowed to, to be permitted to replace can, could, may, might when they express
PERMISSION.
e.g. I will be allowed to drive a car when Im 18.

fig. - permission relative to degree of politeness:

III Other cases
1. might + inf (strong requests) present reference
e.g. You might tell me what is going on.
2. might have+ 3
rd
form of the vb. (reproach) past reference
e.g. You might have told me what happened.
politeness
Might
May
Could
Can
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3. may/might as well (to indicate intention with a 1
st
person subject)
e.g. Its not far, so we might as well go on foot.
4. may/might as well (to indicate recommendation, with the other persons)
e.g. You might as well start the programme now.
5. might just as well (to indicate an alternative, usually not a very desirable one)
e.g. I might just as well wait until Thomas comes and then start the work.
6. try as I may + present reference
try as I might + past reference
e.g. Try as I may, I cannot do it.
= Although I try hard, I cannot do it
Try as I might, I could not pass my driving test.
= Although I tried hard, I could not pass my driving test.
7. may + vb. (to express although clauses)
e.g. She may be the boss, but that is no excuse for shouting like that.
= Although she is the boss, that is no excuse for shouting like that.

CAN/COULD VS MAY/MIGHT
1. notice the difference in negative sentences
e.g. He may not be at home. (= it is possible that he is not at home)
He cant be at home. (= it is not possible for him to be at home)
2. can theoretical possibility vs. may factual possibility
e.g. The road can be blocked. (it is possible to block the road)
The road may be blocked. (=it is possible that the road is blocked)

MUST/HAVE TO
Mainly express OBLIGATION, POSITIVE DEDUCTION, STRONG NECESSITY,
PROHIBITION/LACK OF OBLIGATION
1. must + inf (obligation imposed by the speaker) present/future reference
e.g. You must be back before it gets dark.
You mustnt be noisy outside a hospital. (total obligation)
2. self-imposed obligation (with the 1
st
person pronouns) present/future reference
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e.g. I/we must do something about the weeds in the garden.
3. must + inf (obligation resulting from rules) present/future reference
e.g. Pedestrians must cross the street on the zebra.
4. have to + inf (external obligation) ) present/future reference
e.g. You will have to leave now or youll miss the train.
5. have to + inf (habitual, repeated obligations)
e.g. I have to be at the hospital every morning at 10 oclock.
Do you ever have to be up at 5 oclock?

6. in the past or future tense have to is used instead of must
e.g. You must stay in bed. Youve got the flu.
You will have to stay in bed when you have a fever again.
He had to stay in bed because he had the flu.
7. dont have to (lack of obligation)
e.g. You dont have to write such a long essay.
obs. future tense form: wont have to
past tense form: didnt have to (occasionally hadnt got to)
e.g. When he was young, he didnt have to help his mother in the kitchen.
8. had to + inf (past obligation) past reference
e.g. Sorry Im late, I had to post some letters.
9. must/had to + inf (inescapable obligation) with a past tense introductory verb (for
present/future reference)
e.g. He told me he must/had to warn me of the consequences.

II DEDUCTION (also called certainty)
1. must + infpresent/future deduction
e.g. You must be hungry. You havent eaten anything since yesterday.
You must be Mr. Smith.
2. must have + 3
rd
form of the verbpast deduction
e.g. She must have worked very hard for this exam. Shes got a very high grade.
3. must + inf with a past tense introductory verb (for present/future deduction)
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e.g. He said George must be a fool to behave like that.
She said I must be hungry.

MUST VS MAY
1. must may be used as a counterpart of may (permission)
e.g. You may borrow my car.
You may not/mustnt borrow my car.

NEED
A. FULL VERB:
e.g. I need help./Do you need any help?/I dont need any help.
e.g. I need(ed) to go to the dentist.
B. MODAL VERB
As a modal, need occurs only in interrogative and negative sentences
e.g. Need you leave so soon?
e.g. You neednt leave so soon.
Mainly expresses NECESSITY, ABSENCE OF NECESSITY
I NECESSITY
1. need + infpresent/future reference
e.g. When need you go to the dentist?
2. neednt have + 3
rd
form of the vb (absence of necessity, but the action was performed)past
reference
e.g. I bought the book. Then they told me it wasnt necessary for me to buy it.
= I neednt have bought the book.
3. didnt need to + inf (absence of necessity, the action was not performed)past reference
e.g. I wanted to buy the book, thinking I have to do it. But I didnt buy it. Then they told me it wasnt
necessary for me to buy it.
= I didnt need to buy the book.

NEED NOT + INF VS DONT HAVE TO + INF
1. they can both express absence of obligation/necessity
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e.g. You dont have to write such a long essay.
You need not write such a long essay.
SHOULD
Mainly expresses ADVISABILITY, SUPPOSITION
I ADVISABILITY
1. should + inf (piece of advice coming from the speaker) present/future reference
e.g. He should learn more in order to pass the exam.
You shouldnt tell lies.
2. should have + 3
rd
form of the verb (reproach or past advisable course of action)past reference
e.g. He should have learnt more in order to pass the exam.
You shouldnt have done it.

II SUPPOSITION
1. should + inf present/future reference
e.g. Mary should be in Paris. At least I think so.
2. should have + 3
rd
formpast reference
e.g. Mary should have been in Paris at 10 oclock. (But her plane was delayed.)

SHOULD VS MUST
1. should + inf (supposition about the present/future) vs. must + inf (logical deduction about the
present/future)
e.g. Mary should be in Paris. At least I think so.
Marys plane lands in Paris at 10 oclock. It is 10.30, so Mary must be in Paris now.
2. should have + 3
rd
form(supposition about the past) vs. must have + 3
rd
form of the vb. (logical
deduction about the past)
e.g. Mary should have been In Paris at 10 oclock. (But her plane was delayed.)
Mary must have been in Paris at 10 oclock. (Her plane was to land at 10 and I dont know of any
delay)
THATSHOULD
1. after suggest, propose, insist, recommend, advise (instead of an ing construction)
e.g. I suggested going there. = I suggested that we (should) go there.
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2. after agree, demand, determine, be determined, order, command (instead of an infinitive
construction)
e.g. He was determined to go there first. = He was determined that nobody should get there before him.
3. after arrange, stipulate, be anxious (instead of for + object + inf)
e.g. I am anxious for nobody to know where I am going. = I am anxious that nobody should know
where I am going.
4. after it is/was + adj. (necessary, important etc.) (instead of for + object + inf)
e.g. It is necessary for him to leave. = It is necessary that he should leave.

OUGHT TO + infpresent/future reference
OUGHT TO HAVE + 3
rd
form of the vb. past reference: can replace SHOULD except in questions
and negatives

SHALL+ infpresent/future reference
1. to express a threat or command in affirmative statements, with a 2
nd
person subject
e.g. You shall do it whether you like it or not.
2. to express a promise
e.g. You shall have a bike for your birthday.
3. to express an intention
e.g. We shall celebrate this very night.
4. in offers
e.g. Shall I help you pack?
5. suggestions
e.g. Shall we meet at the theatre?

WILL
1. to express intention, willingness, determination (1
st
person subject)
e.g. I will write tomorrow.
Well celebrate this very night.
2. to express an impersonal type of command
e.g. You will stay here till you are relieved.
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3. to express insistence which is associated with a habit
e.g. If you will put so much salt in your food, its no wonder you are always thirsty.
He will go swimming in very dangerous waters.
4. to express supposition
e.g. Hell be there by now. =I think he is there by now.
They will have arrived by now.
That will be the postman. (It is 10 oclock. The bell is ringing. The postman usually comes at this
hour)
5. in requests
e.g. Will you show me how to do this?

WOULD
1. instead of will after a past tense verb
e.g. He said that he would never do anything like that.
2. in polite requests
e.g. Would you give me a hand?
3. would + inf (may express certainty - with a suppressed conditional sentence) present/future
reference
e.g. Nobody would agree with that idea (if we asked them)
4. would have + 3rd form of the vb.(events in the past which did not happen; sometimes with a
suppressed conditional sentence) past reference
e.g. I would have accepted the job, but I didnt want to move house.
Nobody would have tried to do it (if we had asked them).
5. would have + 3rd form of the vb (assumptions about the past = past supposition)
e.g. Someone called after you left but didnt leave a message.
That would have been Cathy.






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C. VOCABULARY
Football
1. The Pitch. Fill in the blanks with the field markings of a football pitch.


The rectangular pitch is divided in half by a line drawn between the mid-points of the two longer
sides. This is the 1_____. Exactly halfway across it is the 2_____. Kick-offs, at the start of each
half and after a goal is scored, are taken from this spot. When a team kicks-off, players from the
opposing team must remain at a distance of at least 10 yards (9.15 m) from this spot until the
kick is taken. A circle drawn around the centre spot, known as the 3_____, marks this distance.
At either end of the pitch are the 4_____. These are composed of two upright posts placed
equidistant from the corner flagposts, 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and 8 feet (2.44 m) in height, joined
at the top by a crossbar. Nets are placed behind these objects. Two boxes are marked out on the
pitch in front of each goal. The smaller box, called the 5_____ or colloquially the goal area, is
laid out to surround the goal at an equal distance of 6 yards (5.5 m). Goal kicks and any free kick
by the defending team may be taken from anywhere in this area. An indirect free kick awarded to
the attacking team for an incident occurring within this area must be taken from the point on this
line parallel to the goal line nearest where an incident occurred. The outer box is known as the
6_____ (or colloquially the 18 yard box). It is set 18 yards (16.5 m) to each side of the goal and
18 yards in front of it. A small semicircle (called the 7_____ or the D) is also drawn at the
outside edge of the penalty area, 10 yards (9.15 m) from the penalty mark. This is an exclusion
zone for all players other than the one taking the kick in the event of a penalty being awarded.
The 8_____ (or penalty mark) is immediately in the middle of and 12 yards (11 m) in front of the
goal.
The area of play is defined by the two sets of boundary lines. The longer boundary lines are
called 9_____ while the shorter ones are known as 10_____.
In each corner of the pitch a small quarter circle with a 1 yard (1 m) radius is drawn where corner
kicks are taken from. This is called the 11_____.
touchline
goal line
corner kick
quarter circle

restraining arc
19
2. Field markings. Using the information from the previous exercise complete the following
table with the names and the functions of the field markings of a football pitch.
Field marking Function
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

3. Starts and restarts. From the initial kick-off of a period until the end of that period, the
ball is "in play" at all times until the end of the playing period, except when the ball leaves
the field of play or play is stopped by the referee. Match the words in the first column of
the table with their definitions on the second column to discover the methods by which the
game is restarted in such situations.
1. goal kick a. When the ball has wholly crossed the touchline it is awarded to the
opposing team to that which last touched the ball. To restart the game in
this manner, a player outside the touchline throws the ball to a teammate
who is in play. The player must always use two hands and bring the ball
from behind the head while standing in the spot where the ball left the
field of play.
2. indirect free kick b. Awarded to the attacking team when the ball has wholly crossed the
goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched
by a defender.
3. kick-off c. Such a kick is awarded for penal fouls, such as pulling an opponent to
the ground by grabbing the jersey. The ball may be kicked directly into the
goal from the spot of the foul.
4. dropped-ball d. This method is used to begin each period of play or to restart the game
after a goal having been scored.
5. penalty kick e. This restart method is used when the referee has stopped the play for a
reason which cannot be considered an infraction: a serious injury to a
player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective.
6. direct free kick f. It is awarded to the fouled team following penal foul having occurred in
their opponents penalty area.
7. throw-in g. This names the kick up the field from one of the corners of the goal area
awarded to the defending team after the attacking team has kicked the ball
past the goal line without a goal being scored.
8. corner kick h. Such a kick is awarded to the fouled team for non-penal fouls, such as
obstructing an opponent while pursuing the ball. The ball must touch one
other person (a teammate, opponent, or goalie) before a goal can be
scored.
20
4. The following words name positions of football players on the field. Choose the
appropriate definitions for each of them:

(1) goalkeeper
(2) midfielder
(3) sweeper
(4) centre back (a.k.a. central defender)
(5) striker
(6) winger

(a) He has one main task: to score goals.
(b) He is free to move up and down the field, in contrast to man-to-man markers, who
must stick to their designated attacker.
(c) His job is purely defensive: to guard his teams goal from being breached. He is
allowed to use his hands when playing the ball.
(d) He is a link between defence and attack when his team is in possession of the ball, and
must also defend when the opposing team is in possession.
(e) He plays in a wing position and his job is to provide crosses into the penalty area for
the strikers to score from.
(f) His job is to stop opposing players, particularly the strikers, from getting the
opportunity to score, and to clear the ball from the penalty area. He is usually tall, with
good heading ability.

5. Equipment. Label the picture with the following items of football equipment:

jersey, shorts, socks (stockings), shin guards, football boots (shoes with cleats)





21
6. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase. Write them down in the table
below the text. Each word can be used only ONCE.

of, are, with, pass, players, attacker, is composed of, the, hands, is

Football 1_____a game played by two teams on a rectangular field, in which 2_____ attempt to
knock a round ball through the opponents goal, using any part of the body except the 3_____.
Generally, players use their feet and heads as they kick, dribble, and 4_____ the ball toward the
goal. One player on each team guards 5_____ goal. This player, the goalkeeper, is the only
player allowed to touch the ball 6_____ the hands while it is in play.
In a regulation football game, each team 7_____ 11 players. There 8_____ four main positions:
goalkeeper, defender, midfielder, and 9_____. One player from each team plays the position
10_____ goalkeeper, but the distribution of other players among the other positions can vary.

7. How much do you know about football? Decide whether the following sentences are true
or false.

1. The referee calls fouls on players who commit one of ten major infractions: intentionally
kicking, tripping, or jumping at an opponent; violently charging, striking, holding, pushing, or
spitting at an opponent; tackling an opponent without the ball or touching the ball with the hands.
2. A player cannot be ruled offside when receiving the ball from a throw-in or if the player is in
his or her own half of the field.
3. Coaches determine offside infractions and signal them by waving their flags and pointing to
the spot where the infraction occurred.
4. The referee is assisted by three linesmen.
5. A standard adult football match consists of two periods (known as halves) of 45 minutes each.
6. There is usually a 20-minute break between halves, known as half time.
7. The extra-time and the shootouts come before the fulltime.
8. Players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game.
9. A player who is shown the yellow card once in one game is ejected.
10. If a single foul is violent enough, the referee may immediately show the player a red card,
which means automatic ejection.
11. A replaced player may not re-enter the game.
12. An attacking player is offside if, when receiving a forward pass from a teammate, there are
not at least two opponents (usually one defender and the goalkeeper) behind the receiver, that is,
between the attacking player and the opponents goal line.
13. The referee is allowed to add time on if there are frequent and lengthy interruptions.
14. A football team consists of one goalkeeper and twelve outfield players.
15. A goalkeeper can handle the ball when back-passed.
16. A goalkeeper is allowed to use any part of his/her body when saving the ball.
17. A two-leg stage involves the two teams playing against each other twice.
18. In man-to-man marking each centre back has the job of covering a particular opposition
player.
19. In zonal defence each centre back covers a specific area of the pitch.
20. Formation in football describes how the players in a team are positioned on the pitch.

22
8. Fill in the blanks with the following words:

forehead, tackling, trap, propel, stops, ball, control, goal, jockey, stop, accuracy, blocking, feet,
skills, knocking, kicking, protecting, passes, headers, outside, fake, running, trapping

Football players use five basic skills: kicking, dribbling, passing, heading, and trapping.
1_____is the most basic skill. Players who wish to kick the ball powerfully do so with the top of
the foot, the area just above the toes, generating power from the upper leg and torso. A powerful
kick may 2_____ the ball up to 120 km/h (75 mph). Many players cannot kick the ball equally
well with both 3_____, and favour the stronger foot when making a shot at the goal or kicking
the ball a long distance.
Players move the ball short distances by dribbling. It entails tapping, dragging, or rolling the ball
in front of the body while 4_____. The objectiveto advance the ball while keeping it in control
and 5_____ it from defensive playersis similar to that of dribbling in basketball, using the feet
instead of the hands. A player with good dribbling skills can make quick 6 ______, change
direction, and move the 7_____ from one foot to another with ease. Advanced players can also
8_____ one way with the ball, only to turn and move in the opposite direction.
Players use 9_____ to move the ball around the field more quickly than they can by dribbling.
Passes are like kicks, but they require less power and more 10_____. Players usually pass by
using the inside of the foot to push the ball in a certain direction, though sometimes the 11_____
of the foot is used. Talented players can pass with both feet in all directions, including behind
them.
Players use 12_____ to make plays on balls that are in the air, either to pass or to make a shot on
13_____. To make a header, they knock the ball with the 14_____, using power generated from
the neck muscles. When a ball is high in the air, members of both teams will 15_____ for
position on the ground in order to control the header. Tall players and those who can jump high
have a distinct advantage in these situations.
Players use 16_____ to gain control of loose balls that may be rolling, bouncing, or flying
through the air. To bring the motion of the ball to a momentary 17_____, players absorb the
balls force with a part of their body. Most traps are made with the inside of the foot or the sole
of the foot, but balls may also be brought under control with the leg, chest, head, or top of the
foot. Good trapping allows players to control the tempo of the game by maintaining control of
the ball for long periods of time. It also enables them to pass the ball with pinpoint 18_____,
because they have control of the ball at the moment they pass.
A sixth skill, called 19_____, is the primary tool of defence. Tackling in football is not like
tackling in American football. A tackle in football is a means of taking away the ball from an
opponent, not a means of bringing the opponent down. 20_____ the advance of the ball with the
foot or lower leg is the most common form of tackling in football. Some players also slide in
front of attacking players to steal the ball, a move known as a slide tackle.
A goalkeeper must learn all the skills that other players do, but because the goalkeeper can use
the hands, he or she must also master an entirely different set of 21_____. The goalkeeper must
be able to catch balls in the air and 22_____ them with the hands and body when the ball is
bouncing along the ground. Goalkeepers must also know how to punch away balls that are
kicked towards the top or corners of the goal, as attempting a catch in these difficult situations is
often more dangerous than simply 23_____ the ball away.
23
UNIT 2
A. WRITING

The Descriptive Essay

Read the following essay. Consider the role of each paragraph.

A Walk on a Sunday Morning

P 1 Though I usually go on excursions to the country during the weekend, I had decided to
spend the whole of Sunday in the city for a change and to visit the central square and public
gardens. It was so early when I left home that the streets were deserted. Without the usual
crowds and traffic, everything was strangely quiet.
P 2 When, at last, I arrived at the square I was surprised to find so many people there. Some
were feeding pigeons and others were sitting peacefully at the foot of a tall statue. I went and sat
with them so as to get a better view. What amused me most was a little boy who was trying to
make pigeons fly up to his shoulder. He was holding some birdseed in his hand and whenever a
pigeon landed on his arm, he laughed so much that he frightened the bird away.
P 3 Some time later I made my way to the public gardens. Here there was an entirely
different atmosphere. The sun was now bright and warm and the air was filled with gay laughter.
P 4 The pond interested me more than anything else for many people had come to sail model
boats. There were little yachts with bright red sails, motorboats and wonderful sailing ships.
They moved gracefully across the water carried by the wind while their owners waited for them
to reach the other side.
P 5 After resting for a time under a tree, I went and joined a number of people who had
gathered round a man with a big model of a famous sailing ship called The Cutty Sark. It was
perfectly made and I gazed at it with admiration as its owner placed it in the water where it sailed
majestically among the ducks and swans.
P 6 At midday, I left the gardens and slowly began walking home. I was not at all sorry that I
had not gone to the country for the weekend. There had been much more to see in the city on a
Sunday morning than I could have ever imagined.




24

Structure
Introduction
Paragraph 1
Setting the scene, introducing persons, places, objects to the reader.
Development
Paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 5
Each paragraph describes a particular characteristic/aspect of the person, object, place.
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Impressions, feelings, opinions.

The goal of descriptive writing is to create a clear picture or impression of a person, place or
object.
Selecting details:
- do not include every detail about the person, place, or object you are describing.
- decide whether or not to use a detail on the basis of whether it will contribute to its purpose in
writing the description.
- sometimes the selection is based on the wish of the writer to convey a strong, single impression
to the reader (description of a person)
- sometimes the writer chooses only the details that help to support a general statement he/she
makes (topic sentence)
Use adjectives. Dont forget the proper order:
P1 a. Opinion, b. Size, c. Age, d. Shape e. Temperature
P2 Colours
P3 Material
P4 Purpose
P5 Noun
Using sensory details:
Descriptive writing creates a strong impression through the use of sensory details which appeal
to the readers senses of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch. The choice of words has to evoke a
strong sensory response in the readers imagination.

25
Locating details:
When you describe a scene, you often want your reader to know where the details are located.
You also want to show their relationship to one another (over, next to, beneath, on the right, in
the distance, near, far, above, below, here, there, inside, outside, nearby, beyond, between,
under).
Using tenses:
1. Describing people:
- Present tenses for someone you see every day
- Past tenses can be used to describe someone related to the past
- Present tenses or conditional tenses for the description of ideal persons
2. Describing places or buildings
- Present tenses when you describe something for a tourist brochure, or when you envisage the
description of the general characteristics of an object, or when you pretend to be at the exact
location you are describing
- Past tenses can be used to describe something you saw in the past
- Conditional tenses for the description of an ideal city/house
Find the central idea of what you want to describe. e.g. A market: people buying, things sold
No event will keep the reader in suspense as in the case of the narrative essay. The question
What happens next? does not apply.
Language for rendering, describing facts, states. e.g. description of a man, town, landscape
he looks , He has dark eyes, She wears , Her face
When rendering, describing facts and emotional impressions
- provide an account of your feelings, opinions
- try to get the reader involved
When you describe things you may have to provide information on the position, weight,
structure, colour, composition, size, shape and function of the object described.

Structure
is nailed/screwed/fixed/fastened
linked/welded/tied/connected
attached
to Y by
Z
consists of
X
contains
includes
Y and
Z
26
held in place/ secured/
supported/ suspended
by
joined to

X is
mounted/placed/pivoted on

Y
Position
adjacent to/alongside/below/
beyond/facing (diagonally)/ parallel
to/underneath/opposite/ in the
middle of/on the right of/ on the left
of/near/close to/ touching/behind/in
front of /under/ on top of/
above/below/ level with/diagonally
above/ vertically below




B




A is
between
equidistant from
B and C
Colour
X is dark/light/pale/bright/dull green/blue/
red/
yellow

Talking and writing about colours
shade = one of the different types of a particular colour, especially when describing how dark or
light it is.
e. g. a deep shade of red, subtle shades of blue and green
tone = one of the different types of a particular colour.
e. g. a delicate pink tone, eye shadow in tones of green and brown
-ish = used with colours to make adjectives describing things that look a bit like that colour.
e. g. reddish hair
dark = used for describing colours that look more like black than white. e. g. dark green trousers
deep = used for describing dark colours, especially when they look attractive. e. g. lovely deep
blue eyes
rich = used for describing dark colours that look beautiful and expensive. e. g. rich brown velvet
sombre = dark in the way that seems suitable for a serious occasion and use. e. g. The men were
wearing sombre suits and black ties.
bright = strong and noticeable. e. g. bright yellow paint
vibrant = bright in a way that looks exciting.
e. g. curtains in vibrant shades of red
colourful = brightly coloured, or having a lot of bright colours. e. g. wonderfully colourful
curtains
loud = bright in a way that you think looks silly or ugly. e. g. He tends to wear silk shirts and
loud ties.
gaudy = very brightly coloured, especially in a way that you think shows bad taste. e. g. Look at
those gaudy purple sunglasses.
light = pale rather than bright. e. g. a light blue shirt
pale = like white with a small amount of colour mixed in. e. g. pale grey feathers
pastel = in a soft and attractive way. e. g. summer dresses in pastel shades.
27
faded = something that is pale because it had been washed a lot or because it has been affected
by light or the sun. e. g. faded blue jeans. The paintwork was faded in places.
Composition
X is made of metal/steel/aluminium/cloth/silk/china
wood/plastic/glass/ an alloy of A and B
Size and weight
X is 6
cm
long/wide/high
X is 6 cm in length/height/width/diameter
X is 6 kg in weight
length/height/width/diameter 6 cm The
weight
of X is
6 kg
length/height/width/
diameter
6 cm X
has a
weight
of
6 kg

X measures 6 cm
X weighs 6 kg
Shape




X is
square/round/rectangular/
triangular/semi-circular/
conical/spherical/hexagonal/
octagonal/oval/circular/irregular/
cubical/cylindrical/pyramidal/
spherical/tubular/spiral/
hemispherical/conical/bulbous
tapering/concave/convex




in shape


X is
diamond-shaped/kidney-shaped/U-shaped
star-shaped/bell-shaped/dome-shaped
mushroom-shaped/X-shaped/crescent-
shaped, egg-shaped/pear-shaped/Y-shaped


X is a

shaped like a
square/circle/rectangle
triangle/semi-circle
hexagon/octagon
Function
thermometer measure the temperature

The
function
purpose
aim
objective


of the
tripod


is to
hold the camera

thermometer measuring the
temperature
The
tripod
is used for
holding the camera

28
Properties
X is light/tough/soft/elastic/malleable/flexible/
soluble/a good conductor of electricity/heat/
corrosion resistant/combustible/transparent/
smooth/heavy/brittle/plastic/ductile/rigid/
insoluble/a bad conductor of electricity/not
corrosion resistant/non-combustible/opaque/rough


























29
B. GRAMMAR
Direct and Indirect Speech

I. DIRECT SPEECH
1. We use direct speech whenever we speak. We use the term direct speech to describe the way
we represent the spoken word in writing.
2. Quotation marks (or inverted commas) go round what is actually spoken. They may be
single (), or double () and are placed high above the base-line at the beginning and the
end of each quotation.
e.g. Is that you Jane? Bob asked.
3. When the quotation comes after the reporting verb, it is preceded by comma and the quotation
begins with a capital letter.
e.g. John said, Its good to see you.
4. When the subject + reporting verb comes after what is said, the quotation has a comma before
the second quotation mark.
e.g. Its good to see you, John said.
5. If the quotation ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark, a comma is not used.
e.g. Where can I get a taxi? John asked.
6. Subject + verb can come in the middle of a quotation sentence.
e.g. Where, in the wretched town, John asked, can I get a taxi?
7. If there is a quote within a quote, we use a second set of quotation marks. If double quotation
marks have been used on the outside, single ones are used on the inside and vice versa.
e.g. Ann said, Just as I was leaving, a voice shouted, Stop!.
e.g. What do you mean, Are you all right?? Ann asked.
8. Noun + reporting may be in subject + verb order or may be inverted (vb. + subject)
e.g. This is a serious offence, the judge said/said the judge.
9. If the subject is a long one, then inversion is usual.
e.g. Wheres this train going? asked the lady sitting beside me.
10. With a pronoun subject, inversion is rare in modern English.
e.g. This is a serious offence, he said.

30
II. INDIRECT SPEECH
We use indirect speech when we are telling someone what we or another person says or said.
D. S.: I shall help you tomorrow, John said.
I. S.: John said that he would help me the next day.
D. S.: What are you doing, Mary asked.
I. S.: Mary asked what I was doing.
1. Reporting verbs
The commonest reporting verbs are say, tell, ask
SAY - is used in indirect speech when we do not want/need to mention the listener.
e.g. He said (that) his life was in danger
TELL - is used in indirect speech when we want/need to mention the listener. It must be
followed by an indirect object (tell somebody ).
e.g. He told me (that) his life was in danger.
ASK - a) is followed by if /whether when reporting yes/no questions
e.g. Are you comfortable? he asked (me).
He asked (me) if /whether I was comfortable.
b) is followed by a Wh - word when reporting a Wh - question
e.g. Where are you going ? he asked (me).
He asked (me) where I was going.
2. CHANGES
2. 1 Verbal tense changes :
A. Reporting verb in the present NO CHANGES
Ive read Tonys book and I dont understand it, John says.
John says (that) he has read Tonys book and doesnt understand it.
B. Reporting verb in the past BACKSHIFT
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Present Tense Past Tense
Past Tense Past Perfect
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Past Perfect Past Perfect
Future Tense Future-in-the-Past
(would + inf)
31
e.g. Ill help you, John said.
John said (that) he would help me.
I have moved to another flat, Mary told me.
Mary told me (that) she had moved to another flat.
Exceptions !!!
The backshift does not occur in the following situations:
1. When reporting habits.
e.g. George said, I go to the seaside every summer.
e.g. George said that he goes to the seaside every summer.
2. When reporting scientific facts.
e.g. The teacher said, Water boils at 100 Celsius.
The teacher said that water boils at 100 Celsius.
3. When reporting a past statement which is still true at the moment of speech.
e.g. Last night George told me I dont have enough money to buy a car.
Last night George told me that he doesnt have enough money to buy a car.

MODAL VERBS
-cancould
-willwould
-maymight
e.g. I can/may/will see you later, he said.
He said he could/might/would see me later.
-shall (future reference) would
-shall (offers, suggestions, requests for advice) should
-should (desirability)should
-would, could, might, ought to, neednt have No change
- must must/had to
must (future reference) must/would have to
must (deduction) must


32
ADVERBS AND DEMONSTRATIVES
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
today that day
yesterday the day before
the day before yesterday two days before
tomorrow the next/following day
the day after tomorrow in two days time
next week the next/following week
last week the previous week/the week before
a year ago a year before/the previous year
this that
these those
here there
now then

OTHER CASES:
1. Yes and No
He said No. He refused. He denied it. He answered in the negative.
He said Yes. He agreed/accepted/answered in the affirmative.
2. When reporting interrogative sentences, besides ask we ca also use: wonder, want to know,
inquire.
e.g. Helen asked (me)/wondered/wanted to know why Tom was angry.
3. Exclamatory sentences:
- What (a) !, How! That Clauses
e.g. How very kind of him to help! mother said.
Mother exclaimed that it was very kind of him to help.
- Oh!, Ah!, Ugh! He exclaimed with surprise/disgust. He gave an exclamation of
surprise/disgust.
- verbs such as exclaim, complain, shout, remark, observe, say admiringly, say scornfully can be
used to report exclamatory sentences depending on the meaning.
33
e.g. What a delicious cake ! the guest said. The guest said admiringly that the cake was
delicious.
e.g. How tired I am! the old woman said. The old woman complained that she was tired.
- She said, Thank you. She thanked me.
- He said Damn it! He swore.
- They said, Good morning! They greeted me/wished me a good morning.
- She said, A happy new year! She wished me a happy new year.
- He said Well done! He congratulated me.
- She said Liar! She called me a liar.
4. Imperative sentences
- imperative infinitive
He said Sit down, Peter! He told Peter to sit down.
- Verbs such as tell, order, command (orders), ask, request, beg, urge (requests), warn, advise,
recommend (advice) can be used when reporting imperative sentences.
e.g. Officer to soldiers: Clean the barracks! The officer ordered the soldiers to clean the
barracks.
e.g. Teacher to Tom: You should go to the doctor. The teacher advised Tom to go to the
doctor.
- Lets + infinitive suggest + Gerund
e.g. Nick said, Lets watch TV. / What about watching TV?
Nick suggested watching TV/that they should watch TV/That they watch TV.
- be to can also be used.
e.g. He says, Do the next exercise! He says that we are to do the next exercise.








34
C. VOCABULARY

Gymnastics



1. Read the following text and fill in the blanks in the diagram.

Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical
strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, grace and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings,
handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. It developed from beauty practices and fitness
used by the ancient Greeks, including skills for mounting and dismounting a horse and circus
performance skills. There are three major forms of competitive gymnastics: artistic gymnastics,
rhythmic gymnastics and trampoline.
Artistic Gymnastics is usually divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics, each group
doing different events; Men compete on Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Vault,
Parallel Bars and High Bar, while women compete on Vault, Uneven Bars, Beam and Floor
Exercise. Though routines performed on each event may be short, they are physically exhausting
and push the gymnast's strength, flexibility, endurance and awareness to the limit.
Only women compete in the discipline of rhythmic gymnastics. However, there is a new
version of this discipline for men being pioneered in Japan which involves the performance of
five separate routines with the use of five apparatus ball, ribbon, hoop, clubs, rope on a
floor area, with a much greater emphasis on the aesthetic rather than the acrobatic. Rhythmic
routines are scored out of a possible 20 points and the music used by the gymnast can contain
vocals, but may not contain words.
Trampolining consists of four events: individual, synchronized, double mini and
tumbling. Only individual trampoline is included in the Olympics. Individual routines in
trampolining involve a build-up phase during which the gymnast jumps repeatedly to achieve
height, followed by a sequence of ten leaps without pauses during which the gymnast performs
aerial tumbling. Routines are marked out of a maximum score of 10 points. Additional points
(with no maximum limit at the highest levels of competition) can be earned depending on the
difficulty of the moves. Synchronized trampoline is similar except that both competitors must
perform the routine together and marks are awarded for synchronicity as well as the form of the
moves. Double mini trampoline involves a smaller trampoline. After a run-up, two moves are
performed and the scores are marked in a similar manner to individual trampoline. In power
tumbling, athletes perform an explosive series of flips and twists down a sprung tumbling track.
Scoring is similar to trampoline.

35

competitive
gymnastics
artistic rhythmic



men













rope

double
mini

build
up
phase


ten
leaps

36

2.
A. Fill in the blanks of the following diagram with the qualities of a gymnast you can find
in the text.



B. Fill in the blanks with the words/phrases in the diagram.

1. Lifting that heavy barbell requires a lot of _____ .
2. The ballet dancer was moving with extraordinary _____ .
3. The long and difficult journey tested our courage and _____ to the limit.
4. Your joints are very rigid. You should do some exercises to improve your _____ .
5. He lost his _____ and fell.
6. A gymnast needs _____ in order to be able to execute highly accurate movements.

3. Match the names of the events in womens artistic gymnastics with their definitions.

1. balance beam a. In this event, gymnasts sprint down a 25 meter runway, jump onto a
springboard and onto an apparatus, known as a horse in a straight body
position, touching it with their hands and blocking off it. The dismount may
include one or multiple leaps and twists.
2. floor b. In this event, the gymnast navigates two horizontal bars set at different
heights. The height is generally fixed, but the width may be adjusted.
Gymnasts perform swinging, circling, transitional and release moves as well
as handstands.
3. uneven bars c. The gymnast performs a choreographed routine from 60 to 80 seconds in
length consisting of leaps, acrobatic skills, turns and dance elements on a
padded sprung beam. The event requires in particular, balance, flexibility and
strength.
4. vault d. Gymnasts perform a choreographed exercise from 70 to 90 seconds long.
The music is instrumental and cannot have vocals. The routines consist of
tumbling passes, series of jumps, dance elements, acrobatic skills and turns.
The exercise is performed on a carpeted, spring floor, 12 m x 12 m. A
gymnast has three or four tumbling passes that include three or more tricks.








gymnast
37

4. Match the beginnings of the definitions marked 1-6 with the right endings marked a-f to
find the description of the events in mens artistic gymnastics: floor exercise, pommel
horse, still rings, parallel bars, high bar (horizontal bar), vault.

1. The floor event occurs on a carpeted 12 m
12 m square, usually consisting of hard foam
over a layer of plywood, which is supported by
springs or foam blocks. This provides a firm
surface that will respond with force when
compressed, allowing gymnasts to achieve
extra height and a softer landing than on usual
surfaces.
a. Successful vaults depend on the speed of the
run, the length of the hurdle, the power and
strength the gymnast has in the legs and arms
and shoulder girdle, the kinesthetic awareness
in the air and the speed of rotation in the case
of more difficult and complex vaults.
2. This is the ultimate balancing act. Gymnasts
must perform continuous circular movements
around the horse while allowing only their
hands to actually touch it.
b. At least one static strength move is required,
but some gymnasts may include two or three.
A routine must begin with an impressive
mount and must conclude with an equally
impressive dismount.
3. This event is arguably the most physically
demanding event. The rings are suspended on
wire cable from a point 5.75 meters off the
floor and adjusted in height so the gymnast has
room to hang freely and swing. He must
perform a routine demonstrating balance,
strength, power and dynamic motion while
preventing the rings themselves from
swinging.
c. The gymnasts perform a series of swings,
balances and releases that require great
strength and coordination.
4. Gymnasts sprint down a runway, which is a
maximum of 25 metres in length, before
hurdling onto a springboard. The body position
is maintained while "punching" (blocking
using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting
platform. The gymnast then rotates to a
standing position.
d. This is considered one of the most difficult
of the men's events and requires flawless
control of balance and body position.
5. Men hold themselves on two bars slightly
further than shoulders width apart and usually
1.75 m high.
e. By using all of the momentum from giants
and then releasing at the proper point, enough
height can be achieved for spectacular
dismounts, such as a triple-backflip.
6. A 2.4 cm thick steel bar raised 2.5 m above
the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold
onto as he performs giants (revolutions around
the bar), twists and changes of direction.
f. A series of tumbling passes are performed to
demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance.
The gymnast must also perform circles, scales,
and presses. Men's floor routines usually have
four passes that will total between 6070
seconds and are performed without music,
unlike the women's event.

38
5. Choose the right variant to fill in the blanks:

The origins of gymnastics 1_____ be traced to the ancient civilizations 2_____ China, Greece, Persia and
India. Exercises such as rope-climbing 3_____ in the ancient Olympic Games. Gymnastic exercise was
4_____ practised by the Romans in military preparation. 5_____ the demise of the ancient Olympic
Games in 393 AD, and the fall of 6 _____ Roman Empire, the sport disappeared until 7 _____ revival in
the 19
th
century.
The first gymnastic club in Britain was formed in 1860 8_____ German immigrants. Over the
next twenty years, most major cities established gymnastic clubs. The sport boomed 9_____ during this
time, 10 _____ the foundation of the International Gymnastic Federation in 1881.

1. A. would, B. can, C. ought to, D. was able to
2. A. with, B. by, C. of, D. on
3. A. was included, B. included, C. were included, D. includes
4. A. almost, B. also, C. among, D. along
5. A. following, B. followed, C. according to, D. as it follows
6. A. the, B. a, C. an, D. - (zero article)
7. A. his, B. its, C. it, D. him
8. A. in, B. of, C. at, D. by
9. A. internationale, B. international, C. internationally, D. internationaly
10. A. leading to, B. lead to, C. leding to, D. lading to








39
UNIT 3
A. WRITING

The For and Against Essay


1. Read the following essay. Find the topic sentence in each paragraph, underline the
linking words and consider the role of each paragraph.

Advantages and disadvantages of using technology in sport

P 1 Technology in sport is the use of man-made objects or materials in order to change or
enhance sporting performance. The supporters of technology claim that it has been beneficial to
sport in many respects, while opponents accuse it of influencing sport in an adverse way.
P 2 One of the main arguments for the use of technology in sport is that it has improved the
training methods. Athletes have access to more equipment that allows them to watch themselves
on video, test their fitness in a laboratory and adjust their diet in order to get peak performance.
Moreover, problems of climate can be solved using technology. Training apparatus can be used
to provide constant training for the athlete, regardless of inclement weather.
P 3 What is more, safety equipment has undergone vast improvement owing to technology.
The rather precarious position of the jockey has been improved by equipment such as hard hats
and body padding. Motor sport has been made safer with fire resistant suits, helmets and body
reinforcement in cars.
P 4 On the other hand, with increased knowledge of the body, certain drugs can be used to
affect performance in both humans and animals. Horses and greyhounds can be given drugs in
order that their performance is affected to cause them to either win or lose a race. Some snooker
and darts players have been accused of taking beta-blockers, which slow the heart rate in order
that the athlete is more relaxed and therefore less likely to miss a shot.
P 5 In addition to this, technology has been held responsible for taking the excitement out of
sporting competition. For example, the improvements to the McLaren cars on the 1998 Formula
1 Grand Prix circuit at the beginning of the season were far superior to the other teams, with the
result that McLaren won consistently. Many followers of Formula 1 became disenchanted,
knowing that one particular team would probably win every race.
40
P 6 It can be concluded that while technology can alter athletic performance and disappoint
sports fans, it can also make sports safer and training more efficient. Some sports rely more on
technological advances than others, but throughout the latter part of the 20
th
century, there have
been few sports that have not been influenced in some way by technology. All in all,
technologys impact on sport and society should not be underestimated.

A for and against essay is a formal piece of writing in which a topic is considered from
opposing points of view. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them
objectively and in equal detail.
Structure
Introduction
Paragraph 1
Clearly state the topic without giving your opinion.
Main body
Paragraphs 2 and 3
Arguments for and justifications, examples, and/or reasons.
Paragraphs 4 and 5
Arguments against and justifications, examples, and/or reasons.
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Balanced considerations/your opinion directly or indirectly

Before you start writing your essay you should make a list of the points for and against.
Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises the topic of the
paragraph.
Do not use informal style (short forms, colloquial language) or strong language to express your
opinion (I know , I strongly believe that ).
Express your opinion in a non-emotional way (It seems that , I therefore feel that )



41
Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
to list points:
Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with, Secondly, Thirdly,
Finally
to list advantages:
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of is
The main/greatest/first advantage of is
to list disadvantages:
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of is
The main/greatest/first/most serious disadvantage of is
Another negative aspect of
to introduce points/arguments for or against:
One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of /against
A further common criticism of
It could be argued that

It is
often
widely
generally
claimed/suggested
argued/maintained
felt/believed/held

that

claim/suggest/argue/feel that
maintain/believe/point out/agree/hold that
advocate (+ing/noun)/support the view that
oppose the view that


some/many
most people/experts
scientists/skeptics
critics
are in favour of/against
of the opinion that/convinced that
opposed to

to add more points to the same topic:
in addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as
well as, not to mention (the fact) that , also, not only but also/as well, both
and/there is another side to the issue/question/argument of



42
to make contrasting points:

it may be said/argued/claimed that on the other hand, however
still, yet, but, nonetheless,
nevertheless, even so,
others
many people
oppose this viewpoint
(strongly) disagree ,
claim/feel/believe this argument is
incorrect/misguided

although. though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact
that), regardless of the fact that
Opponents of argue/believe/claim that
The fact that contradicts the belief/idea that
While it is true to say that , in fact
While/Although , it cannot be denied that
to introduce examples:
for example, for instance, such as, like, in particular, particularly, especially
This is (clearly) illustrated/shown by the fact that by the fact that
One/A clear/striking/typical example of (this)
The fact that shows/illustrated that
to emphasize a point:
clearly, obviously, it is obvious, naturally, of course, needless to say, indeed
to express reality:
in fact, the fact (of the matter) is, actually, in practice, it is a fact that, in effect
to make general statements:
as a (general) rule, generally, in general, on the whole, by and large, in most cases
to make partially correct statements:
to a certain extent/degree, in a way/sense, this is partly true (but), to a limited
extent, there is some truth in (this), in some cases, up to a point
to explain/clarify a point:
in other words, that is to say, this/which means that
to express cause:
owing to, due to (the fact that), on account of, on the grounds that, given that,
because, since
43
to express effects:
therefore, thus, as a result/consequence, consequently, so, for this reason, if
were to happen, the effect/result would be .
to express intention:
to, so as to, in order to, so that, with the intention of (+ ing)

to draw conclusions expressing balanced considerations/opinions indirectly
In conclusion,
On balance,
All things considered,
Taking everything into account/
consideration,
To conclude,
To sum up,
All in all,
Finally/Lastly,
it can/must be said/claimed that
is seems/appears that
it would seem that
it is likely/unlikely/possible/foreseeable that
there is no/little doubt that
the best course of action would be to
achieving a balance between would be
it is true to say that
although it must be said that
it may be concluded/said that

All things considered, the obvious conclusion to be drawn is that
There is no absolute answer to the question of
In the light of this evidence, it is clear/obvious that
In conclusion,
All in all,
To sum up,

it is
clear/apparent
plain/obvious
evident

from the
above

foregoing
evidence
points
arguments

to draw conclusions expressing opinions directly
In conclusion,
On balance,
All things considered,
Taking everything into account/
consideration,
To conclude,
To sum up,
All in all,
Finally/Lastly,


it is my belief that/opinion that
I believe/feel/think that
I am inclined to believe that
I (do not) agree that/with

Taking everything into account, I therefore conclude/feel/believe (that)
For the above-mentioned reasons, therefore, I firmly believe that
44
B. GRAMMAR
The Passive Voice

I. Introduction
1. In the active voice, the subject is the person or thing doing the action.
e.g. John cooked the food last night.
2. In the passive voice, the action is done to the subject.
e.g. The food was cooked by John last night.
3. The passive transformation
Active Voice Passive Voice
Object (the food) Subject
Subject (John) Agent (by John)
Main Verb (cooked) to be + past participle (was cooked)
II. Form of the passive
Simple Aspect Continuous Aspect
a form of to be + past participle
(3
rd
form of the verb)
a form of to be + being + past participle (3
rd
form of the
verb)
Conjugation Patterns
Tense/Mood Active Voice Passive voice
Present
Simple
A doctor cures sick people. Sick people are cured by the doctor.
Present
Continuous
She is watering the flowers. The flowers are being watered by her.
Present
Perfect
They have opened a new
shop.
A new shop has been opened.
Past Simple I taught them English
yesterday.
They were taught English (by me) yesterday.
Past
Continuous
They were singing songs. Songs were being sung.
Past Perfect They had heard the news. The news had been heard.
45
Future Tense She will call me in the
morning.
I shall be called (by her) in the morning.
Future
Perfect
I shall have seen them by the
end of the week.
They will have been seen before the end of
the week.
Future-in-
the-Past
I thought I would hear the
bell.
I thought the bell would be heard.
Imperative Do it at once! Be done with it at once!
Infinitive Its hard to hear in such a
noise.
Its hard to be heard in here.
Present
Conditional
They would excuse me if I
explained.
I would be excused if I explained.
Past
conditional
I would have sent for the
doctor if I had thought it
necessary.
The doctor would have been sent for if I had
thought it necessary.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Only the present tense and the past tense continuous are common in the passive voice.
e.g. He is being interviewed now.
e.g. He was being interviewed at 10 oclock.
However, modals with progressive aspect sometimes occur.
e.g. I know Mark was going to have an interview sometimes this afternoon. He may be being
interviewed as we speak.
2. The adverbial particle or the obligatory preposition are placed immediately after the verb in
the passive voice.
Active Voice Passive Voice
They are speaking to you. (prep.) You are being spoken to.
The wind blew the tent down. (adv. particle) The tent was blown down.
No one can put up with her any more. (adv.
particle + preposition)
We have done away with the old rules. (adv.
particle + preposition)
She cant be put up with any more.

The old rules have been done away with.

46
III. Uses of the passive
1. When speakers do not wish to commit themselves to actions, opinions, or statements of which
they are not completely certain.
e.g. The matter will be dealt with as soon as possible.
2. When the stress falls on the action and not on the doer of the action.
e.g. My car has been scratched!
e.g. Thousands of beaches are polluted.
e.g. Charles I was beheaded in 1649.
3. When the doer of the action is unknown or when we want to avoid using a vague word
(somebody, a person) as a subject.
e.g. After my talk, I was asked to explain a point I had made.
e.g. A doctor has been sent for.
4. In scientific writing (to describe process).
e.g. The mixture is placed in a crucible and is heated to a temperature of 300C. It is then
allowed to cool before it can be analysed.
5. Announcements
e.g. Candidates are required to present themselves fifteen minutes before the examination begins.
They are asked to be punctual.
e.g. Passengers are requested to remain seated until the aircraft comes to a complete stop.
6. Headlines, advertisements, etc
e.g. PRICES SLASHED! ALL GOODS GREATLY REDUCED! PETROL CUPONS
ACCEPTED
IV. The use of by + agent after a passive
1. An agent is a doer, the person or thing that performs the action expressed by the verb. By +
agent in passive constructions tells us who or what did something.
e.g. The poem was recited by Mary.
e.g. The window was broken by a stone.
2. By + agent is only necessary when the speaker wishes to say (or the hearer has to know) who
or what is responsible for the event in question.
e.g. The window was broken by a slate that fell off the roof. (not by a person)
e.g. The window was broken by the boy who lives next door. (not by my brother)
47
3. By + agent is often used with the passive of verbs like build, compose, damage, design,
destroy, discover, invent, make, wreck, write.
e.g. The action of penicillin was discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming.
e.g. The electric light was invented by Thomas Edison.
e.g. The Eiffel Tower was designed and built by Gustave Eiffel.
V. By + agent is omitted in the following situations:
1. When the subject of the sentence in the active voice is expressed by a vague word: you, they,
one, everybody, everyone, somebody, someone, all, a person.
e.g. A. V. People speak English all over the world.
P. V. English is spoken all over the world.
2. When the agent can be inferred from the context.
e.g. The thief was arrested. (one can easily infer that it was the police that arrested the thief)
e.g. The bridge was built last year. (one can easily infer that it was the workers who built the
bridge)
3. When the doer of the action is unknown or the speaker does not wish to mention him/her/it.
e.g. A doctor has been sent for.
e.g. This subject will be treated fully in the next chapter.
VI. The passive with verbs of saying and believing.
1. It + passive + that -clause with verbs like agree, allege, arrange, assume, believe, consider,
decide, declare, discover, expect, fear, feel, find, hope, imagine, know, observe, presume, prove,
report, say, show, suggest, suppose, think, understand.
e.g. People say that John is thief. It is said that John is a thief.
2. Subject (other than it) + passive + to- infinitive with verbs like acknowledge, allege, believe,
consider, declare, know, recognize, report, say, suppose, think, understand.
e.g. They know that Mary is a spy. Mary is known to be a spy.
3. There + passive + to be + complement with verbs like acknowledge, allege, believe, consider,
fear, feel, know, presume, report, say, suppose, think, understand.
e.g. They say that there is plenty of oil in our country. There is said to be plenty of oil in our
country.


48
VII. Miscellaneous
1. Verbs such as bring, give, offer, tell can have two passive forms.
e.g. A. V. Tom gave me a pen.
a) I was given a pen by Tom.
b) A pen was given to me by Tom.
!!! Because we are often more interested in people or animals, variant a) is more common than b)
2. Active verbs with passive meaning.
e.g. This surface cleans (can be cleaned) easily.
e.g. These clothes wash well. The wine is selling quickly. Whats showing at the cinema this
weekend? Her novel is reprinting already.
3. Verbs such as be born, be married, obliged are used more frequently in the passive than in the
active.
4. Passive constructions are common after verbs followed by the -ing form, such as like, enjoy.
dislike, remember and after verbs followed by a to- infinitive.
e.g. Most people dont like being criticized.
e.g. He hates to be criticized.
VIII. Get + past participle
Get is often used instead of be before certain past participles (arrested, caught, confused,
delayed, divorced, dressed, drowned, drunk, elected, engaged, hit, killed, lost, married, stuck ) in
colloquial English. Be can sometimes be replaced by become.
We use get in the following situations:
1. When we do something to ourselves.
e.g. I got dressed as quickly as I could.
2. When we manage to arrange something in our favour.
e.g. I see old Morton has got himself promoted at last.
3. When something (often unfavourable) happens beyond our control.
e.g. We got delayed because of the holiday traffic.
4. When we express commands or insults.
e.g. Get dressed! Get washed! Get lost!


49
C. VOCABULARY
Track-and-field
1. Use the following words to label the representation of the track-and-field arena below.
water jump, shot put area, pole vault area, infield, track, hurdles, long and triple jump pit,
discus and hammer area, high jump area, javelin area


2. Choose the correct variant.
1. The high jumper managed to _____ the bar at his first attempt.
a. cross, b. traverse, c. clear, d. touch
2. Michael would have won the race if he had not _____ the last hurdle.
a. overthrown, b. overcome, c. overrun, d. overturned
3. The start of the race was cancelled because one of the sprinters had jumped the _____.
a. the starting signal, b. the starting line, c. the queue, d. the gun
4. During the second lap, the Romanian athlete was already leading _____.
a. the field, b. the race, c. the event, d. the competition
5. John saw that Paul was getting tired after the first two laps so he _____ the lead.
a. gained, b. took, c. earned, d. got
6. As she was exhausted, she tried to slow down a bit but soon she noticed that the pursuers were
gaining _____ her.
50
a. off, b. of, c. to, d on.
7. During the second half of the race, Andrew sped up, which allowed him to _____ three
runners.
a. overtake, b. overcome, c. overlap, d., overstep
8. Due to his excellent physical fitness, he had no trouble qualifying _____ the final.
a. for, b. in, c. to, d. at
9. Since all the competitors were very well trained, the race had a _____ finish.
a. predictable, b. close, c. inevitable, d. even
10. Jim was running so fast that he soon _____ the other competitors.
a. beat, b. lapped, c. defeated, d. overcame
11. In case of failure, each jumper is entitled to an additional _____.
a. try, b. trying, c. trialing, d. trial
12. At the end of a competition, the runners-up are awarded the _____ medal.
a. gold, b. silver, c. bronze
13. The long jumper missed the take-off board because he had made a mistake during the _____.
a. run-up, b. rundown, c. runabout, d. run-off
14. The Romanian team lost the race because of a misunderstanding during the first _____
passing.
a. stick, b. rod, c. staff, d. baton
15. The English athlete had an advantage over the other competitors because he had started the
race on the _____.
a. runway, b. inner lane, c. middle lane, outer lane
16. The sprinters were disadvantaged by a very strong _____.
a. assisting wind, b. headwind, c. crosswind, d. windshield
17. A long jumper needs a very good sense of _____.
a. equilibrium, b. stability, c. balance, d. steadiness
18. The athlete _____ one mile in four minutes.
a. covered, b. finished, c. terminated, d. executed
19. John had been leading the field for two minutes when he suddenly felt exhausted and
reluctantly had to _____ to the other competitors.
a. to abandon, b. give away, c. give way, d. give up
51
20. Jane had been out of training for three months so she had a hard time keeping _____ with the
other runners.
a. rhythm, b. speed, c. velocity, d. pace
3. Match the names of the track-and-field events with their definitions.
1. long-distance running a. Contest in which athletes must throw a very heavy round ball as
far as possible.
2. hurdle race b. A long-distance race of 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 km)
3. steeplechase c. An event in which athletes must throw a heavy thick-centered
disc.
4. middle-distance running d. An event in which a long light spear is thrown by the athletes as
far as possible.
5. relay race e. An event in which competitors throw an object called hammer
as far as possible.
6. cross-country race f. The goal in this event is to race as fast as possible while still
maintaining a walking gait. During the race the heel of the forward
foot must maintain touch with the track until the toe of the trailing
foot leaves the ground.
7. hammer throwing g. Race in which athletes must run across fields or countryside.
8. discus throwing h. Event in which competitors attempt to vault over a high bar
with the aid of a long flexible pole.
9. shot put i. Race between teams of runners in which each team member in
turn must cover part of the total distance while carrying a baton.
10. javelin throwing j. Event in which competitors jump as far as possible along the
ground in one leap.
11. marathon race k. Races ranging from 600 meters to 3,000 meters. The most
popular distances are the 800-meter, 1,500-meter, and 3,000-meter
runs.
12. race walking l. Event in which athletes must run at full speed over a short
distance.
13. high jump m. Race in which athletes must jump over a series of four hurdles
and water jumps.
14. long jump n. Event in which athletes must jump as far as possible by
performing a hop, a step and a jump from a running start.
15. pole vault o. A race in which athletes must jump over a series of upright
frames.
16. sprint p. Event in which competitors jump as high as possible over a bar
of adjustable height.
17. triple jump r. Race in which competitors have to cover distances longer 3,000
meters. The most common are ones of 5,000 to 10,000 meters, and
the marathon.

52
UNIT 4

A. WRITING

The Opinion Essay


Read the following essay. Find the topic sentence in each paragraph, underline the linking
words and consider the role of each paragraph.

Although the position of women in society today has improved, there is still a great deal of
sexual discrimination. Do you agree?

P 1 Throughout this century, the role of women within society has changed, and the majority
of people feel that this change is for the better. More women work than ever before, and it is
accepted in Western culture that many women now have careers. Nonetheless, in my opinion
there is still a great deal of sexual discrimination against women within society, and the belief
that sexual equality has been achieved is not altogether accurate.
P 2 To begin with, many women find it very difficult to return to work after having children.
The main reason for this is that there are rarely any provisions made for childcare in the
workplace and, in these cases, women are forced to find someone to look after the children while
they are at work. Obviously, this can prove to be a time-consuming and expensive process, yet it
must be done if mothers are to be able to resume their careers.
P 3 Secondly, the traditional views of the position of women within society are so deeply
ingrained that they have not really changed. For instance, not only is the view that women should
stay at home and look after their family still widely held, but it is reinforced through images seen
on television programmes and advertisements. An example of this is that few men are ever seen
doing housework on television, since this is traditionally thought of as a womans job.
P 4 Thirdly, since families often need two incomes in order to enjoy a good standard of
living, a woman finds herself doing two jobs: one at home and one at the office. So, it could be
said that a womans position has, in fact, deteriorated rather than improved, with the result that
women carry the burdens of equality but get none of the benefits.
53
P 5 In contrast, there are some people who claim that the problem of sexual discrimination no
longer exists. They point out that women do, after all, have legal rights intended to protect them
from discrimination. In addition, a few women are now beginning to reach top positions as
judges, business leaders and politicians, while a number of previously all-male professions are
opening their ranks to women. Nonetheless, these examples are not the norm and discrimination
is still very much with us.
P 6 Taking these points into consideration, I would say that the position of women has
improved only slightly. While rules and laws have changed, it is the deep-rooted opinions of
people within society which are taking a longer time to evolve. Needless to say, until these
attitudes have changed, sexual discrimination will remain a problem, which we all need to face
and fight against.

An opinion essay is a formal piece of writing. It requires your opinion on a topic, which must
be stated clearly, giving various viewpoints on the topic supported by reasons and/or examples.
You should also include the opposing viewpoint in another paragraph.
Structure
Introduction
Paragraph 1
State the topic and your opinion clearly
Main body
Paragraph 2
Viewpoint 1+reason/example
Paragraph 3
Viewpoint 2+reason/example
Paragraph 4
Viewpoint 3+reason/example
Paragraph 5
Opposing viewpoint+reason/example
Conclusion
Paragraph 6
Summarise/restate your opinion.
54


Decide whether you agree or disagree with the subject of the topic, then make a list of your
viewpoints and reasons.
Write well-developed paragraphs, joining the sentences with appropriate linking words and
phrases. Do not forget to start each paragraph with a topic sentence which summarises what the
paragraph is about.
Linking words and phrases should also be used to join one paragraph with the other.

Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
to give opinions:
To my mind/To my way of thinking
It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction that
I (firmly) believe that
I am (not) convinced that
I (do not) agree that/with
It strikes me that
My opinion is that
I (definitely) fell/think that
I am inclined to believe that
It seems/appears to me
As far as I am concerned,













55
B. GRAMMAR
Conditional Sentences

1. If=when

1.1 What is always true: If+present+present
If I work late, I get tired.
1.2 What was always true: If+past+past
If it was foggy, we went home.


2. Type 1 (real condition)

If+present tense Shal/will+infinitive
If we run, we shall not be late.

3. Type 2 (imaginary condition)

If+past tense would+infinitive
If I knew the answer, I would tell you.
If I were you, I would stop smoking.

4. Type 3 (impossible condition)

If+past perfect would+have+3
rd
form
If I had known the answer, I would have told you.

5. Type 3+Type 2 (past events with results in the present)

If+past perfect would+infinitive
If Jim hadnt missed the plane, he would be here now.



56
6. Unless =if not

Unless we hurry, we shall miss the buss. = If we dont hurry, we shall miss the buss.

7. Provided=only if

You can go out to play provided (that) you finish your homework first.

8. Should (after if this makes the possibility of an event seem unlikely)

If you should see Ann, could you ask her to call me? (But I do not expect you to see her.)

9. If it were not for/If it hadnt been for

If it werent for Jim, this company would be in a mess.
If it hadnt been for their goalkeeper, United would have lost.

10. But for=if not (it must be followed by a noun form)

If you hadnt helped us, we would have been in trouble.
But for your help, we would have been in trouble.

11. Supposing/Suppose=if

Supposing you won the competition, what would you do?

12. Otherwise=or if not

I hope the weather improves. Otherwise, well have to cancel the picnic.






57



Hypothetical Constructions
1. Wish
- wish + to infinitive = immediate desire
e. g. I wish to apply for a visa. (I shall apply)
I wish you to speak to the manager. (You will speak to the manager.)
Verbs that can be used in the same way: like, love, ask, beg, expect, want, intend, need, prefer
e. g. I like to keep everything tidy. (refers to my actions)
I like you to keep everything tidy. (refers to your actions)
- wish + Past Tense = wishes referring to the present
e. g. I regret they dont agree to my proposal.
I wish they agreed to my proposal.
- wish + Past Perfect = wishes referring to the past (unrealised situations in the past)
e. g. I wish you had let me know yesterday.
- wish + would + infinitive functions like a polite request.
e. g. I wish you would be quiet.
I wish you wouldnt make so much noise.
!!! We use could not would after I and we
e. g. I wish I could be you.
I wish we could be together.
2. If only
- If only + Past Tense = wishes referring to the present
e. g. I dont live in the country.
If only I lived in the country.
- If only + Past Perfect = wishes referring to the past (unrealised situations in the past)
e. g. If only I had been here yesterday.
- the position of only after if
only can be separated from if and can be placed:
after be e. g. If he were only here now!
before the past participle e. g. If I had only known!
58
after the modal e. g. If you would only try harder.
3. Its time
- Its time to = the time has arrived to do something
e. g. Its time for us to have lunch. (Its about noon)
- Its time + Past Tense
e. g. Its time we had our lunch. (Its past two oclock)
4. Would rather/sooner - preferences
4.1 would rather/sooner + bare infinitive
preference + action - same subject
would rather + infinitive - refers to the present
e. g. I would rather be a teacher than a bank clerk.
would rather + have + past participle - refers to the past
e. g. If I had lived in 1400, I would rather have been a knight than a monk.
4.2 would rather/sooner + past tense/past perfect
preference + action - different subjects
would rather/sooner + past tense - present/future reference
e. g. I would rather Jack left on an earlier train.
would rather/sooner + past perfect - past reference
e. g. I would rather they had left on time.
5. As if/As though
Simultaneous
He looks as if he were ill. (He is not necessarily ill.)
He looked as if he were ill.
Anterior
He looks as if he had been ill.
He looked as if he had been ill.





59
C. VOCABULARY

Tennis

1. Read the following text and fill in the diagram.

Tennis players (or teams) stand on opposite sides of the net. One player is designated the
server and the opposing player, or, in doubles, one of the opposing players, is the receiver.
Service alternates between the two halves of the court.
For each point, the server stands behind his/her baseline, between the centre mark and the
sideline. The receiver may stand anywhere on his/her side of the net, usually behind the
diagonally opposite service box. When the receiver is ready, the server will serve.
In a legal service, the ball travels over the net (without touching it) and into the
diagonally opposite service court. If the ball hits the net but lands in the service court, this is a let
service, which is void. If the first service is otherwise faulty in any way, the serving player has a
second attempt at service. If the second service is also faulty, this is a double fault and the
receiver wins the point.
A legal service starts a rally, in which the players alternate hitting the ball across the net.
A legal return consists of the player or team hitting the ball exactly once before it has bounced
twice or hit any fixtures. It then travels back over the net and bounces in the court on the
opposite side. The first player or team to fail to make a legal return loses the point.
A tennis match usually comprises one to five sets. A set consists of a number of games,
which in turn consist of points.
Matches consist of an odd number of multiple sets, the match winner being the player
who wins more than half of the sets. The match ends as soon as this winning condition is met.
Some matches may consist of five sets (the winner being the first to win three sets), while most
matches are three sets (the winner being the first to win two sets).
A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games,
ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria. Typically, a player wins a set when
he wins at least six games and at least two games more than their opponent.
A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving and it is
won by the first player to have won at least four points and at least two points more than their
opponent. The running score of each game is described in a manner particular to tennis: scores of
zero to three points are described as "love" (or "zero"), "fifteen", "thirty", and "forty".










60
1. 2.


3.
4.



forty
thirty

fifteen
love







Start
The divisions of a tennis match






court






service

61
2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.
server, strikes, serve, net, doubles, racket, court, indoors, match, receiver
Tennis is a game played with a 1_____ and a ball by two (as in singles) or four (as in 2_____)
competitors, on a rectangular 3_____ with a 4_____ strung between the two sides of the field. Tennis may
be played 5_____ or outdoors.
A 6_____ begins every point of a tennis 7_____. The player who initiates the point is called the 8_____,
and the one who receives the ball is called the 9_____. To serve, a player tosses the ball into the air and
10_____ it before it touches the ground, hitting it into the opponents service area, known as the service
box.

3. Fill in the blanks with the words in the diagram

A 1_____ is hollow and composed of inflated 2_____ covered with a fabric made of 3_____ and
4_____. 5_____ and 6 _____ balls are used in tournament competition and are the most common
colours, although balls of other colours are manufactured. A standard tennis ball measures
between 7_____ in diameter and weighs between 8 _____.

4. Read the following text and fill in the diagrams.

There is no uniform design of tennis rackets, and their sizes and shapes vary. The general
classifications, determined by the size of the racket head, are standard, midsize, oversize, and
super oversize. In tournament play, the maximum length of a racket is 73.7 cm. The maximum
width is 31.8 cm. The head of the racket may not exceed a length of 39.4 cm and a width of 29.2
cm, and it is usually strung with resilient gut or nylon or other synthetic materials. There are no
restrictions on weight. Rackets were originally made of wood, but now virtually all rackets are
made of materials such as aluminium, graphite, and carbon fibre, which are stronger and lighter
than wood. The racket handle is generally covered with a rubber or leather grip.


tennis ball
size colour composition
diameter
6.35-6.6 cm
weight
56-59.4 g

yellow white rubber wool artificial
fibres
62




tennis racket
structure size

composition







racket
head
general
size
specific
size
string
comp.






racket handle
grip composition

63
5. Fill in the blanks with the following words in order to find out the names of the lines and
areas of a tennis court: doubles side line, singles side line, service courts, baseline, net.





1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Tennis court
64
UNIT 5
A. WRITING


The Curriculum Vitae

A curriculum vitae (known as C.V. for short) is a short account, laid out in a clear form, of the
details of your life. It includes the following things:
your name and precise address and telephone number
your date of birth
a precise record of schools attended
a precise record of colleges/faculties attended
examination qualifications
personal achievements (e.g. in sport or music etc.)
employment positions held (including part-time work)
interests and activities
future education plans
references (names and addresses of responsible people who will write a reference for you if
approached)

CURRICULUM VITAE

Address:
Andrew Foster
105 Cheriton Road
Dorchester
Dorset DY4 4HQ

Telephone: Dorchester (0305) 69542

Date of Birth: January 15
th
, 1948

Nationality: British

Languages: Conversational French

Computer literacy: WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3

Education
1953-1960 Maynard Boys Junior School, Waltham Forest, London
1960-1967 Romford Royal Liberty School, Romford, Essex
1968-1971 Hull University, Yorkshire
1974-1976 Darlington Hall, Devon
1977-1978 College of St Mark and St John, Plymouth


65


Qualifications
GCE 0 level examinations (June 1965): English Language (3); English Literature (4);
Mathematics (5); Combined Science (6); History (1); Geography (1)
GCE A level examinations (June 1967): History (B); Economics (E); Geography (B)

2
nd
Class Honours Degree in Psychology (B. Sc.) from Hull University (1971)
Diploma in Music (Darlington Hall, 1976)
Post-Graduate Certificate of Education in Primary Teaching (1978)

Other Achievements
Captain of School Swimming Team (1966-67); School Basketball Team; School Debating Team;
School Debating Vice-Captain (1967); University Basketball Team; President of University Arts
Society (1970); President of Student Union, Darlington Hall, (1975-1976)

Employment
1964-1967 Part-time work weekends/holidays furniture removal
1966-1969 Christmas work for Post Office
9/67 to 4/68 Salesman, Little Foxes Record Shop, Fulham, London
9/71 to 10/72 Salesman, HMV Record Shop, London
10/72 to 7/74 Junior Officer, Arts Council, London
10/76 to 6/77 Paid sabbatical president, students union, Darlington Hall
9/78 to 7/81 Teacher, Grove Middle School, Dorchester
4/83 Self-employed harpsichord constructor

Interests and Activities
Playing the piano and harpsichord; chess; literature; psychology; hill walking; horticulture

Personal
Married 1979
Two children, born 1981 and 1982

References
Dr. Bryan Tunniwell, Darlington Hall, Devon
Mr Richard Raine, Headmaster, Grove Middle School, Dorchester, Dorset

1. Adapt and transfer the information from this Curriculum Vitae to the European
Curriculum Vitae Format on the next page.







66

EU R O P E A N
C U R R I C U L U M V I T A E
F O R MA T




PERSONAL INFORMATION

Name
[ SURNAME, other name(s) ]
Address
[ House number, street name, postcode, city, country ]
Telephone

Fax

E-mail


Nationality

Date of birth [ Day, month, year ]


WORK EXPERIENCE

Dates (from to) [ Add separate entries for each relevant post occupied, starting with the most recent. ]
Name and address of employer
Type of business or sector
Occupation or position held
Main activities and responsibilities


EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Dates (from to) [ Add separate entries for each relevant course you have completed, starting with the most
recent. ]
Name and type of organisation
providing education and training

Principal subjects/occupational
skills covered

Title of qualification awarded
Level in national classification
(if appropriate)

67

PERSONAL SKILLS
AND COMPETENCES
Acquired in the course of life and career
but not necessarily covered by formal
certificates and diplomas.

MOTHER TONGUE [ Specify mother tongue ]

OTHER LANGUAGES

[ Specify language ]
Reading skills [ Indicate level: excellent, good, basic. ]
Writing skills [ Indicate level: excellent, good, basic. ]
Verbal skills [ Indicate level: excellent, good, basic. ]

SOCIAL SKILLS
AND COMPETENCES
Living and working with other people, in
multicultural environments, in positions
where communication is important and
situations where teamwork is essential
(for example culture and sports), etc.
[ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ]

ORGANISATIONAL SKILLS
AND COMPETENCES
Coordination and administration of
people, projects and budgets; at work, in
voluntary work (for example culture and
sports) and at home, etc.
[ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ]

TECHNICAL SKILLS
AND COMPETENCES
With computers, specific kinds of
equipment, machinery, etc.
[ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ]

ARTISTIC SKILLS
AND COMPETENCES
Music, writing, design, etc.
[ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ]

OTHER SKILLS
AND COMPETENCES
Competences not mentioned above.
[ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ]

DRIVING LICENCE(S)


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
[ Include here any other information that may be relevant, for example contact persons,
references, etc. ]

ANNEXES [ List any attached annexes. ]

68
The Letter of Application

A letter of application should include the following:
where you got the information to make the application
inquires about the thing you are applying for
your personal interests and professional experience that may make your application successful,
including qualifications.
your ability to speak foreign languages

Language notes
Introduction:
Id like to apply for

Job:the job/post/position advertised in /I saw advertised in /Ive just seen in the
bursary/scholarship
course/cultural exchange
Experience: recent
for the last Ive been
Ive been since
general
Ive had experience of
Ive done before
past
In 1979 I worked
before that I worked
Interests: Im very (especially) interested in
Im rather keen on
One of the reasons Im applying is
One of my reasons for applying is
Writing biographical information
I was born and brought up in
was educated at
was given a job dismissed
was injured in a car crash
Time sequences:
after and before: After this, I
After graduating from high school, I applied for
Before this, I had worked in
Before moving to Bucharest, I sold my house in Cluj.
Until then, I lived/had lived
same time: During this period, I become ill
While working at , I got interested
While I was working at
It was then that I started


69
Model

14, Newton Road
Densfield
Worcestershire
WO4 6YH
Tel: (01256) 456789
18
th
May 1992
Ms A Winter,
Personnel Manager,
LIB Publishing
45 Book Street
London W1B 4BK

Dear Ms Winter,
I am writing to apply for the position of Editorial Assistant that you advertised in The Guardian
on 8
th
May 1996, as I believe it offers the career challenge that I am seeking.

As you will see from my enclosed Curriculum Vitae, I graduated from the University of Sussex
last year and since then I have had a successful year working in a scientific environment with a
local chemical services firm.

I would like to highlight the following skills, which, I believe, would add value to your
organisation:

Organisational skills - developed in my current job with Desford Chemical Services.

Accounting skills - developed in my role as University Entertainments Officer where I prepared
annual reports and accounts and was responsible for a budget of 15,000 per annum.

Interpersonal skills - developed through working in a team environment in my current role and
through a number of holiday vacation positions.

I have a keen interest in scientific publishing and would appreciate the opportunity of an
interview to discuss why I believe I am a good match for your requirements.

Id be grateful if you could tell me what the wages and hours are before you invite me for an
interview.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

Angela Nadia Smith


70
2. Apply for the following summer job advertised in the Wales Advertiser. Give personal
details, ask about wages, hours and length of season.

Can you swim ? Earn some money this season on one of the loveliest beaches in Wales as a life
guard. Apply in writing to: The Town Clerk, Town Hall, Bangor, Wales

3. Read the following advertisement

Work experience! Come and work in the U.K. for six months or a year, at our expense!
The British Government are just beginning a scheme whereby exchanges may be arranged
between you and someone in Britain doing the same job. Youll work in Britain while someone
works in your job.
Apply to: JOB SWAP
Department for Economic Trade and Development
London WC2 5TR
Great Britain.

Write a letter of application to the local British Council for the scheme. Explain why an
exchange would be interesting/useful to you. Say something about your English ability. Ask
for more details, or about anything youre not clear about.


























71
B. GRAMMAR
Inversion
Use
1. After adverbials (adverbs, adverbial phrase) at the beginning of a clause.
Never have I heard such a thing.
I have never heard such an excuse.
2. Time expressions: never, rarely, seldom.
These are most commonly used with PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT, MODALS
Rarely/Seldom/Never had I seen such a behaviour.
3. Time expressions: hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner.
These refer to an event that quickly follows another. They are used with PAST PERFECT,
although no sooner can be followed by PAST SIMPLE.
Hardly/Barely/Scarcely had I entered the room when the phone rang.
No sooner had I entered the room than the phone rang.
4. After only.
Only later did I realize Mary was right.
Only after learning the theory was I able to solve the exercise correctly.
Only after I posted the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a stamp.
Only if you tell me what is wrong can I help you.
Only when you tell me what is wrong can I help you.
5. Phrases containing no/not (under no circumstances, on no account, at no time, in no way,
on no condition, not until, not onlybut also)
On no condition are you to open this box.
Not until I got home did I notice that I had the wrong umbrella.
Not only did he fail to report the accident, but also later he denied that he had been driving the
car.
6. Little
Little did she care about her job.
7. Three types of IF-sentences can be inverted when IF is not used.
A. If they were to escape the police, the police would catch them again. (Type 2)
Were they to escape, the police would catch them again.
72
If the police had found out, I would have been in trouble.
Were the police to have found out, I would have been in trouble. (Type 3)
B. If you should meet her, tell her that I love her.
Should you meet her, tell her that I love her.
C. If I had been there, I would have helped you.
Had I been there, I would have helped you.
8. After so, neither, nor.
- I like pizza. - I dont like tea.
- So do I. - Neither/ nor do I.
9. With so and such
SUCH+NOUN
Such fun am I having that I dont want to leave.
Such a relief did she feel that she couldnt speak.
SO+ADJECTIF/ADVERB
So impressive was everything that he burst out crying.
So impressive a show was it that he burst out crying.
10. A MAY-clause introduced by although
Although it may be difficult, I want to do it.
Difficult as it may be, I want to do it.
11. After as
We were short of money, as were most people in our neighbourhood.
Exercises
Rephrase the following sentences
1. The facts were not all made public until later.
Only _____________________________________
2. If I had realized what would happen, I wouldnt have accepted the job.
Had ______________________________________
3. The response to our appeal was so great that we had to take on more staff.
Such _____________________________________
4. Harry broke his leg, and also injured his shoulder.
Not only __________________________________
73
5. The police didnt at all suspect that the judge was murdered.
Little _____________________________________
6. If you do happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me.
Should ____________________________________
7. The bus driver cannot be blamed for the accident in any way.
In ________________________________________
8. The snowfall was so heavy that all the trains had to be cancelled.
So ________________________________________
9. There was so much uncertainty that the financial markets remained closed.
Such ______________________________________
10. You wont be allowed in until your identity has been checked.
Only ______________________________________
11. Just after the play started there was a power failure.
Hardly _____________________________________
12. The Prime Minister has hardly ever made a speech as inept as this.
Rarely _____________________________________
13. We had only just arrived home when the police called.
Scarcely ___________________________________
14. Press photographers are banned from taking photographs backstage.
On no _____________________________________











74
C. VOCABULARY
Swimming
1. Read the following text and solve the tasks below.
Swimming is the act of moving through the water by using the arms, legs, and body in motions
called strokes. The most common strokes are the crawl, backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, and
sidestroke. Swimming is an integral part of almost all water-based activities. It is also a competitive sport
itself.
Some scientists believe that human beings are born with an instinctive ability to use their arms and
legs to stay afloat. That instinct, however, disappears within a few months after birth. Later in life many
children and adults learn to swim in order to be safe around the water, to have fun, and to participate in
competition.
In rivers and oceans, all swimmers should respect the power of nature. Powerful waves, tides, and
currents can easily overpower even the most experienced swimmers, sweeping them out beyond safety or
throwing them into coral or rocks. Caves pose additional dangers because swimmers can be trapped inside
them. Swimmers must follow the instructions of lifeguards and obey posted information about water
conditions, tides, and other dangers such as jellyfish or pollution. A good precaution for children is the
buddy system, in which each child is paired with another while in the water. This system ensures that no
person is swimming alone and that if an emergency does happen, the lifeguard can be notified
immediately.
Swim meets are organized competitions that pit individual swimmers or swimming teams against
each other. Most meets feature preliminary races, called heats, that occur before the finals. The top eight
swimmers from the preliminaries compete in the finals of each event. In the finals, the fastest swimmers
are assigned to the middle lanes. These lanes are considered most desirable because the swimmers in
them are most aware of the positions of their competitors. Swimmers in the middle lanes also encounter
the least wave action from the water as it travels from the swimmers and bounces off the sides of the pool.
During competition, swimmers must obey the starters commands. When the starter announces
Take your marks, all the swimmers must assume the starting position by crouching on the blocks. The
starters horn (or pistol) then sounds, indicating the start of the race, and the swimmers dive into the
water. In most meets, any swimmer who makes a false start by leaving the starting block before the horn
sounds is disqualified. In Olympic competition, two false starts are allowed for the competitors as a
whole. After these two, any competitor who makes a false start is disqualified.
Swimmers are also disqualified for swimming the wrong stroke or for swimming the stroke
incorrectly, as judged by officials. Turning incorrectly or failing to surface 15 m after the turn can also
lead to disqualification.
75
A. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text.

1. The strokes are pieces of equipment used by professional swimmers.
2. It is thought that humans are completely incapable of swimming at birth.
3. People learn to swim only for recreational reasons.
4. Swimming is both an individual and a team sport.
5. The heats and the finals take place at the same time.

B. Choose the correct answer according to the text.

1. In the text the word overpower means

A. to take advantage of, B. to be stronger than,
C. to help somebody to become stronger.

2. How many children swim together according to the buddy system?

A. four, B. three, C. two.

3. In the text the phrase pit against means

A. to make somebody compete against someone else, B. to try hard to achieve something
C. to make somebody cooperate with somebody else.

4. Why are the fastest swimmers assigned to the middle lanes?

A. so that the spectators can see their performance better, B. because these lanes have several
shortcomings, C. because these lanes give them some advantages over their opponents.

5. In the Olympic Games, swimmers are allowed to make:

A. no more than two false starts, B. more than two false starts,
C. a limitless number of false starts.

2. Each of the following pictures illustrates a swimming stroke. Write their names in the
box bellow the pictures.

1 2 3 4 5






76
3. Match the names of the swimming strokes with their definitions.
1. crawl a. This stroke is one of the easiest and most
relaxing strokes for novices. Competitive
swimmers, however, find it difficult because it
uses more energy than the crawl and
backstroke when swum at a fast pace. When
using this stroke, the swimmer enters the water
with the body streamlined, facing the pool
bottom with arms and legs fully extended. To
begin the stroke, the swimmer sweeps the arms
out with the hands facing outward and bent
slightly upward at the wrist.
2. backstroke b. This stroke is powerful, graceful, and fast.
More than any other stroke, it relies on good
technique. It is swum with an undulating
motion. The arms are brought forward over the
waters surface, then brought back together in
front of the body simultaneously. Each arm
stroke is complemented by two dolphin kicks,
meaning the feet are kept together and brought
down then up again, much like the motion of a
dolphins tail.
3. breaststroke c. This is the only stroke that is swum on the
back, with the swimmer looking up. Swimmers
therefore cannot see where they are going.
Because the face is out of the water, swimmers
need no special breathing technique. The
flutterkick is similar to that used by crawl
swimmers.
4. butterfly d. This strokes propulsion comes mainly from
the legs in a movement called a scissors kick,
because the legs are brought together
powerfully like the shears of a pair of scissors.
The arms provide some propulsion but mainly
serve to stabilize the body on its side.
5. sidestroke f. It is the fastest and most efficient swimming
technique. It is also called the freestyle,
because swimmers use it in freestyle events,
which allow the use of any stroke. The
swimmer travels through the water with the
chest and head pointing downward toward the
bottom. The legs move in a flutterkick, moving
up and down quickly and continually. Each
arm stroke begins as the right arm is brought in
front and slightly to the right of the swimmers
head and into the water.
77
4. The natural sequence of moments in the following strokes has been mixed up. Look at
the pictures and read the fragments carefully to re-establish the appropriate order.
a. The swimmer continues the rotation of his
body, and his face and chest are now
submerged. His right arm continues its stroke
through the water, providing power and
movement. His left arm is back in the water and
helps streamline the body as the swimmer glides
forward. His legs continue the flutterkick.
b. The swimmer now tips his body on its left
side and takes a breath. His right arm has
finished its stroke through the water and comes
above the surface. His left arm moves under the
surface to begin its stroke. The flutterkick
continues.
c. The swimmer is rotating his body down into
the water, and his right arm is beginning to pull
under his body. The swimmer has swung his left
arm through the air out in front of his body and
is about to dip it into the water again. His legs
continue to move in a flutterkick.
Crawl


d. The swimmer has tipped his body on its right
side and it taking a breath. His right arm is
stretched out ahead of his body, ready to start
pulling down through the water. His left arm has
just finished a stroke, and the swimmer has
pulled it out of the water and is about to swing it
through the air ahead of his body again. The
swimmer is moving his feet in a flutterkick.
a. The swimmer has tipped her body slightly on
the right side. Her right arm is outstretched and is
beginning to pull from above her head down
through the water. Her left arm is just coming out
of the water. The swimmer is moving her feet in a
flutterkick.
b. The swimmer rotates her body onto its left side.
Her left arm begins its stroke down through the
water while her right arm comes out of the water
and the swimmer begins to pull it through the air
ahead of her body. The flutterkick continues.
c. The swimmer is rotating her body so that her
back has dropped into the water. Her right arm
pulls down through the water as her left arm
swings up through the air ahead of her body. Her
legs continue to move in a flutterkick.
Backstroke

d. The swimmer starts to rotate her body onto its
left side as her left arm dips into the water ahead
of her body. Her right arm has finished its stroke
through the water and is about to come above the
surface again. Her legs continue the flutterkick.
78





a. The swimmer drops his face back into the water
and throws his arms forward under the water. While
keeping his upper legs in position, he swings his
lower legs out. When he straightens them again, he
will push his body forward.
b. The swimmer pulls his head and shoulders
entirely out of the water and takes a breath. Having
pulled his arms down to his chest the swimmer now
pulls his hands up under his chin, just about at water
surface. He continues to flex his knees.
c. The swimmer begins to rise out of the water. He
swings his arms out, bends his elbows, and begins to
pull down through the water. He flexes his knees to
begin the leg stroke.
Breaststroke

d. The swimmer has extended his body into a
streamlined position and is gliding through the
water. His face is under the water surface, and his
arms are out ahead of his body. His palms are turned
upward, ready to begin a stroke.
a. The swimmer has extended his body in a
streamlined position, and his face is under the water
surface. His arms have just dipped under the water.
Facing out, his palms are ready to begin their stroke
through the water. His legs have just finished a kick
and are now extended.
b. The swimmer begins to pull his face out of the
water as he bends his elbows and pulls his arms
together through the water underneath his body. His
legs begin to flex together in a powerful dolphin
kick.
c. He now straightens his arms and throws them
forward to begin his next stroke. His face dips under
the water again as he streamlines his body. He is
about to flex his legs for another quick dolphin kick,
which will begin just as his hands hit the water.
Butterfly

d. The swimmer arches his back, and his head rises
out of the water completely as he takes a breath. His
elbows stay bent as the arms continue their stroke
through the water. His legs now begin to straighten
again.




79

a. The swimmer moves back to the original glide
position.
b. When the glide slows, the swimmer pulls her
left arm down through the water as she moves her
right arm toward her left shoulder. She draws her
knees up toward her chest slightly.
c. The swimmer crosses her arms in front of her
chest. At the same time, she flexes her knees and
kicks her right leg forward in front of the body
and her left leg back behind the body.
Sidestroke

d. With her left ear in the water, the swimmer has
extended her body in a streamlined position as she
glides through the water.






80
SPEAKING

Introducing oneself

Name
My name is John Smith.

Age
I am twenty (years old).

Place and time of birth
I was born in Braov in 1980.

Family
I have a brother/son whose name is Michael and a sister/daughter whose name is Cathy.

Education
I am a final-year student at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport at the moment.
The reason for choosing to attend the courses of this particular faculty is my passion for
everything related to physical development and health. The topic of my diploma paper is
Techniques of teaching swimming to beginners.

Occupation
I also work as a shop assistant in a supermarket in order to support myself but I dont
intend to do this for the rest of my life.

Hobbies
In my spare time I like/love/enjoy swimming, playing football, reading and clubbing with
my friends. My favourite football team is Manchester United. I watch their games
whenever I have the time. The last book I read was a novel called The Wheel of Time
by Robert Jordan. I dont like/dislike/hate waking up early in the morning and travelling
by plane.

Plans for the future

After graduation I would like to continue my studies and obtain a Master of Arts Degree
in physical education. Meanwhile, I would like to change my job and start working as a
personal coach. My plans for the future also include getting married and starting a family.








81
Rhetorical functions

Asking for opinions
What do you think about ...?
What are you views on ...?
What do you feel about ...?
What's your opinion of ...?
What are your feelings about ...?
Have you got any comments on ...?
Could I have your reaction to ...?
Do you have any particular views on ?

Giving opinions
To my mind/To my way of thinking
It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction that
I (firmly) believe that
I am (not) convinced that
I (do not) agree that/with
It strikes me that
My opinion is that
I (definitely) fell/think that
I am inclined to believe that
It seems/appears to me
As far as I am concerned,
I'm sure that....
As I see it, ....
I really do think that....
I think ....
I consider ....
I tend to think that ....

Listing advantages
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of is
The main/greatest/first advantage of is

Listing disadvantages
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of
is
The main/greatest/first/most serious advantage of is
Another negative aspect of is

Introducing points/arguments for or against
One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of /against
A further common criticism of


82
Asking for information
Could you tell me ...?
Could you tell me how to ...?
Would you mind telling me ...?
Do you know ...?
What happens if ...?
Where can I ...?
When can I ...?
How can I ...?
Something else I'd like to know is ....
Asking for clarification/more information
I didn't understand what you said about
I'm sorry, I didn't catch what you said about
I'm sorry, could you repeat what you said about ?
Sorry, but I'm not quite clear on
I'd like to ask you about
I didn't understand the bit about the ...
What does mean?
I'm not sure what you mean.
I don't see what you mean.
Could we come back to that?
Could you explain that again, please?
What did you mean when you said ?
Could you be more specific about ?
Could you expand a little bit on what you said about ?
Could you give an example of ?
Could you explain in more detail?
So you're telling me that I can't ?
So what you're saying is that ?
So you mean that ?
Are you saying that ?
Am I correct in assuming that ?
Let me just make sure your point is that
If I have understood you correctly, your point is that...
Agreeing
I couldn't agree more.
On the whole, I think the speaker's arguments are fair.
I (quite) agree.
I think you're absolutely right.
That's a very good point.
You've got a very good point there.
83
I fully support what you say.
I totally agree.
Exactly!
Disagreeing
But don't you think that ?
I see what you mean, but .
But isn't it really a question of .
But what about ?
But surely ?
I take your point, but .
Yes, but on the other hand ....
But all the evidence suggests that .
I'm afraid I can't agree with on this matter.
I wouldn't say that.
I don't agree at all.
I can't accept that.

MAKING COMPARISONS
comparative superlative
adjectives with one
syllable
adj + -er (+ than) the + adj + -est
e.g. cheap


ending in silent e: safe
ending in a consonant + y:
dry
ending in a single vowel + a
single consonant: big
The hamburger is cheaper
than the cheeseburger.
omit final e: e.g. safer
change y to i: drier

double the final consonant:
bigger
The hot dog is the cheapest.

omit final e: e.g. the safest
change y to i: the driest
double the final consonant:
the biggest
adjectives with two or
more syllables
more + adj the most + adj
expensive The hamburger is more
expensive than the hot dog.
The cheeseburger is the
most expensive.
irregular adjectives
good
bad
far
old
little
many/much
better
worse
further/farther
older/elder
less
more
the best
the worst
furthest/farthest
oldest/eldest
least
most


84
THAN
Mary is better than Monica.
Mary is a better player than Monica.

JUST AS AS - things compared are equal
Mary is just as good as Cathy.

NOT AS AS - things are compared negatively
Cathy is not as good as Mary.

MORE, LESS
This game is more interesting than the last one.
I think this game is less interesting than the last one.

COMPARING

X is like Y
X and Y are similar
X is similar to Y
X is the same as Y
X resembles Y
with respect to W.
as regards W.
as far as W is concerned.
regarding W.
in that W is the same.
in terms of W.
Both X and Y cost W.
X is as expensive as W.
X costs the same as Y.
X is the same price as
Y.
X has a Y.
Similarly, it has a W.
Likewise, it has a W.
Correspondingly, it has a W.
It has a W, too.
It also has a W.



CONTRASTING

X differs from Y
X is unlike Y
X and Y differ
X is different from Y
X contrasts with Y
with respect to W.
as regards W.
as far as W is concerned.
regarding W.
in terms of W.

X costs 1,174, whereas Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, while Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, but Y costs W.
85
X costs 1,174, in contrast to Y, which costs
W.
X is more expensive than Y.
X is not as expensive as Y.
X costs more than Y.
X is expensive to
buy.
On the other
hand/In
contrast/However,
it is W.
Although X is
expensive buy
It is W.


Describing places/landscapes

Read the following texts paying attention to the words written in bold.
1. Oxford is an exceptionally old university town, on the river Thames, about 60
miles from London. Unlike modern university towns, where you usually find the
university on the edge of the town, or on its own campus, Oxfords centre is the
university; and all around the crossroads at the very heart of Oxford, Carfax, there
are grey stone Colleges and other university buildings. In the centre you can also
find interesting old pubs and paved passages. There are a lot of churches, and one or
two really large and interesting buildings, such as the Ashmolean Museum, the
round library, the Bodleian and the Radcliffe Camera, with its domed roof. Like all
English towns, there are parks, and one The Parks, is the leafy home of university
cricket in the summer months. As you leave the centre and go towards the
outskirts of Oxford you can see industrial estates and car factory in one direction;
and in another, attractive (and expensive) suburbs. There is, in fact, quite a lot of
industry in Oxford.

2. My hotel room looks out across a main road which runs beside the river. To the
left, about half a mile down the road there is a splendid-looking castle situated
majestically on a small hill. The road bends right past this and crosses the river over
a stone bridge, entering a small village, whose church dominates the skyline. This
village is set on a small hill, and beyond there are rolling hills right to the horizon,
intersected by one or two valleys.

Useful language:
Location: down by the river/railway-station
on the River Thames
near the bus station
in the centre
on the outskirts
in the suburbs
in the countryside
below me
86
very near
a few metres away
in the distance
on the horizon
on the skyline
on the left
to my right
It is situated
The village lies in a valley.
The village is set on a small hill.
Existence: There is/are
There has/have always/never been
The statue stands there
You can find/discover/see a farm.
Special features:
one of the of the most interesting places
is
the is famous/popular for its history


Describing people
1 Faces and bodies

Loose, wavy brown hair hangs down to her waist at the back. She has a fringe
over her forehead that almost hides her pale blue eyes. The nose not her best feature
is long but not ugly. She has a regular set of white teeth and she is full-lipped.
Her round face looks rather sallow in complexion; she isnt very tall or slim, and
she walks with slightly rounded shoulders. When I knew her she must have been in
her early thirties, and she even had one or two tell-tale wrinkles round the mouth.

2 Clothes

I first met him at a small party and he was dressed in a rather ill-fitting suit with
patches on the elbows; underneath there was an opened-necked striped shirt. After
that I dont think I ever saw him in a suit again. He mostly wore casual clothes
faded jeans, T-shirts, and open sandals.

He has a long coat on.
Hes wearing an elegant
suit.
Shes dressed in a long
dress.




87
3 Facial and bodily expressions

People often think of him as looking irritable but that must be because of his
somewhat pink complexion and his bloodshot eyes. He flaps his hands quite a bit and
rarely looks relaxed or calm.
However, his face changes dramatically when he smiles, perhaps it is more of a
boyish grin than a smile and it alters ones view of him immediately.

He is frowning / scowling.
He often has a grin on his face.
He is / looks / seems / feels happy / angry
/ puzzled / surprised / frightened / sad /
tired / in love / embarrassed / bored /
disappointed / guilty / worried / anxious /
hurt / excited / frustrated / annoyed / guilty.
He looks as if hes going to burst into
laughter.
Jack smiled as though he was enjoying a
joke.

4 Character and habits
She has the irritating habit of biting her nails but apart from that she is always
positive and welcoming, once you know her well. If you dont, you might think her a
bit stand-offish, but she isnt really. Actually, she isnt all that bright and often
appears intensely puzzled by life.
She is always
She has the habit of


Changing the subject/moving on
If we can now turn to ....
Can we move on to the next point now.
I'd like now to move on to .
Turning now to.
Moving on now to
Having looked at , I'd now like to consider .
I now want to turn to ....
The next point is .
Another interesting point is .
The next aspect I'd like to consider is .
I'd now like to turn to .
What do you think about X?

88
Evaluating
That's a good idea.
That's a very good point.
You've got a good point there.
I agree entirely.
That's exactly what we need.
I'm not sure what you mean by ....
That's an interesting point, but ....
You might be right.
That's all very well, but ....
I'm not so sure about that.
Yes, but don't you think ....
I can see your point, but ....
You seem to have forgotten ....
Very interesting. How exactly do you propose to ..?
I don't see how you can argue that ...
I can't accept that at all.
Giving further information
Furthermore, ....
An additional point is ....
Another point is ....
A further point is ....
A similar point is ....
In addition, ....
Moreover, ....
Similarly, ....
Apart from ..., ....
Not only , but ....
We can add ....
I could add that ....
Further, ....
As well as...,....
Besides, ....
..., as well.
..., too.
..., also.