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.

In a modulated system, the low-frequency intelligence signal is not called the


Correct Answer: Carrier

2.

A 7.0-MHz carrier is modulated by a voice signal that has three frequency components of
100 Hz, 200 Hz, and 300 Hz. What three frequencies comprise the lower sideband?
Your Answer: 6.9997 MHz, 6.9998 MHz, and 6.9999 MHz

3.

The total output power of an AM transmitter is measured to be 850 W. What is the total
output sideband power if it has a percent modulation of 100%?
Correct Answer: 283.3 W

4.

A 100-kHz carrier is modulated by a 20-Hz 2-kHz signal. The upper sideband is
Correct Answer: 100.02 kHz to 102 kHz

5.

One full revolution of a phasor generates which percentage of a full sine wave?
Correct Answer: 100%

6.

An AM waveform at maximum is 100 V p-p and at minimum is 40 V p-p. The modulation
percentage is
Correct Answer: 37.5%








7.

A transmitter having a 900-W carrier transmits 1188 W when modulated with a single sine
wave. If the carrier is simultaneously modulated with another sine wave at 60%
modulation, calculate the total transmitted power.
Correct Answer: 1350 W

8.

Low-level modulation is
Correct Answer: All the above.

9.

The main advantage of a high-level modulation system compared to a low-level system is
that it
Correct Answer: Allows more efficient amplification.

10.

What is the purpose of a buffer amplifier stage in a transmitter?
Correct Answer: Its high input impedance prevents oscillators from drifting off
frequency.



11.

The purpose of an antenna coupler is to
Correct Answer: Match the output impedance of the transmitter with the antenna's
impedance to provide maximum power transfer.



12.

The main reason for using a dummy antenna is to
Correct Answer: Prevent undesired transmissions.

13.

A spectrum analyzer is
Your Answer: All the above.

14.

The strategy for repair of electronic equipment includes the following.
Your Answer: All the above.

15.

A technique that helps you understand how a carrier and sideband combine to form the
AM waveform is
Correct Answer: Phasor representation.

1.

Direct transmission of intelligence signals without modulation would cause ________
problems.
Correct Answer: interference

2.

A nonlinear device is characterized by a nonlinear output versus ________ relationship.
Your Answer: input

3.

In AM, overmodulation creates frequencies ________ a station's normal allocated range.
Your Answer: outside

4.

In AM, 100% modulation indicates that ________% of the total transmitted power is in
the sidebands.
Your Answer:



5.

An AM transmitter transmits 200 W when modulated at 40%. The power in the lower
sideband is ________ W.
Your Answer: 7.41

6.

The type of transistor modulator (base, emitter, or collector) is determined by where the
________ is input.
Correct Answer: intelligence

7.

The use of a PIN diode modulator is prevalent at ________ frequencies.
Your Answer: microwave

8.

In a newly constructed transmitter, it is common to go through a(n) ________ procedure
to get it on the air.
Your Answer: tune-up

9.

When generating the trapezoid pattern, the intelligence signal is applied to the ________
input of the oscilloscope.
Your Answer: horizontal

10.

When troubleshooting a high-powered transmitter, the most important consideration is
________.
Your Answer: safety

1.

A TRF receiver includes three stages: the RF, ________, and audio amplifier.
Correct Answer: detector

2.

The extent to which a receiver can differentiate between the desired signal and others is
termed its ________.
Your Answer: selectivity

3.

AM detection requires a nonlinear device because a linear device ________ create(s)
difference frequencies.
Your Answer: doesn't

4.

A synchronous detector is able to produce ________ distortion outputs.
Your Answer: low

5.

Another name for the ________ is the first detector.
Your Answer: mixer

6.

The padder and trimmer capacitors are used to facilitate ________ in a superhet receiver.
Correct Answer: tracking

7.

Image-frequency problems are reduced by using ________ conversion systems.
Your Answer: double

8.

The gain of a bipolar transistor can be controlled by varying the ________ emitter current.
Your Answer: dc

9.

The use of a(n) ________ AGC diode reduces receiver gain for very large signals.
Your Answer: auxiliary

10.

A quick test to determine if the audio amplifier is working is to touch a screwdriver to the
center terminal of the ________
Your Answer: volume control

1.

The main problem with the TRF design is
Correct Answer: Frustration in tuning to receive more than one station

2.

The sensitivity of a receiver has to do with its ability to
Correct Answer: Receive weak stations

3.

When the input to an ideal nonlinear device is an AM waveform consisting
of a carrier and its sidebands, the output of nonlinear mixing produces the
original intelligence because
Correct Answer: The difference between the carrier and its sidebands is
the original intelligence frequency.



4.

An AM signal having a carrier frequency of 940 kHz is to be mixed with a
local oscillator output signal in order to produce an intermediate frequency
of 455 kHz. At what should the L.O. frequency be set?
Your Answer: 1395 kHz

5.

Diodes that have been specially fabricated to produce a capacitance that
varies inversely proportional to the amount of reverse bias are called
Your Answer: All the above

6.

The image frequency for a standard broadcast receiver using a 455-kHz IF
and tuned to a station at 680 kHz would be
Correct Answer: 1590 kHz

7.

Double conversion is used to overcome the problem of
Correct Answer: Image frequency

8.

An auxiliary AGC diode
Correct Answer: Decreases sensitivity

9.

Which of the following would occur in a receiver not having AGC?
Your Answer: All the above

10.

The only roadblock to having a complete receiver manufactured on an
integrated circuit is
Correct Answer: Tuned circuits and volume controls

11.

The decibel difference between the largest tolerable receiver input signal
and its sensitivity is called
Correct Answer: The dynamic range of the receiver

12.

The simplest AM detector is the
Correct Answer: Diode detector

13.

Tracking in a superhet receiver is accomplished using a
Correct Answer: Trimmer capacitor and padder capacitor

14.

If no stations are picked up on the lower half of the AM band, the likely
problem is
Correct Answer: LO tracking

15.

If no sound is heard from a receiver, the most likely problem area is the
Correct Answer: Power supply



1.

The most obvious problem with SSB is accurate ________ reinsertion at
the receiver.
Your Answer: carrier

2.

Twin-sideband suppressed-carrier systems are often used in ________
applications.
Correct Answer: military

3.

A balanced-ring modulator connects from ________ diodes in a ring
configuration.
Correct Answer: matched

4.

The balanced-ring modulator provides a ________ output.
Correct Answer: DSB

5.

The high-Q filter in an SSB transmitter is used to eliminate a ________.
Your Answer: sideband

6.

A ________ filter offers the highest-possible Q for use in SSB
transmitters.
Your Answer: crystal

7.

The two common methods of generating SSB are the filter and ________
methods.
Your Answer: phase

8.

A balanced modulator used to recover the intelligence in an SSB signal is
called a(n) ________ detector.
Correct Answer: product

9.

The BFO is a ________-frequency oscillator.
Correct Answer: beat

10.

A test commonly used to determine amplifier linearity is the ________
test.
Your Answer: two-tone

1.

An SSB signal with a maximum level of 200 V p-p into a 50- load results in a PEP rating
of
Your Answer: 100 W

2.

State the chief advantage(s) of a standard SSB system.
Your Answer: Maximum signal range with minimum transmitted power and elimination
of carrier interference

3.

The noise advantage of SSB over AM is
Your Answer: 1012 dB

4.

What is the difference between a balanced modulator and a regular modulator?
Your Answer: There is no carrier produced in the output of a balanced modulator.

5.

In a balanced-ring modulator, the carrier suppression is accomplished by
Your Answer: Center-tapped transformers causing canceling magnetic fields

6.

Which cannot be used successfully to convert DSBSC to SSB?
Correct Answer: Tank circuit

7.

Another term for ripple amplitude for a ceramic filter is
Correct Answer: The peak-to-valley ratio

8.

Which of the following is not an advantage of the phase method over the filter method in
producing SSB?
Correct Answer: The design of the 90 phase-shift network for the intelligence
frequencies is simple.



9.

Once an SSB signal has been generated, it must be amplified by
Correct Answer: A linear amplifier to avoid distortion

10.

The advantages provided by carrier elimination in SSB do not apply to transmission of
Correct Answer: Music

11.

Provide the approximate "outside-of-passband" attenuation of a Butterworth filter.
Your Answer: 6-dB slope per octave

12.

An SSB receiver re-creates the original intelligence signal by
Correct Answer: Filtering out the difference between either sideband and the internally
generated carrier signal



13.

Common types of balanced modulators include
Correct Answer: Ring modulator

14.

Describe the oscilloscope waveform of an SSB transmitter's balanced modulator if it
exhibits carrier leakthrough.
Correct Answer: AM wave

15.

The two-tone test is used to
Your Answer: Test amplifier linearity

1.

The code used to indicate a standard FM radio signal (double-sideband, full-carrier) is
________.
Your Answer: F3

2.

The intelligence amplitude determines the amount and intelligence
frequency determines the rate of carrier frequency ________.
Correct Answer: deviation

3.

Bessel functions are a(n) ________ technique for determining the
bandwidth of an FM signal.
Correct Answer: mathematical

4.

Although a limiter minimizes the effect of noise, it does not stop the
effects that noise has on the ________
Correct Answer: phase shift

5.

Preemphasis gives a boost to the ________ frequencies in an FM
transmitter.
Correct Answer: high

6.

An ________ is the term used to describe the stages in an FM transmitter
to create the modulated signal.
Correct Answer: exciter

7.

The process of combining signals that are at slightly different frequencies
to allow transmission over a single medium is called frequency ________.
Correct Answer: multiplexing

8.

A(n) ________ network is used to process the left and right channels in
FM stereo.
Correct Answer: matrix

9.

________ broadcast of FM occurs in the 90108-MHz range.
Correct Answer: Commercial

10.

The FM modulating signal that extends from 60 to 70 kHz above its carrier
is called the ________ signal.
Correct Answer: SCA

1.

Angle modulation includes the following types of modulation:
Correct Answer: FM and PM

2.

The amount of frequency increase and decrease around the center
frequency in an FM signal is called the
Your Answer: Frequency deviation

3.

The amount of frequency deviation is dependent on the intelligence
frequency in
Correct Answer: A PM signal

4.

An FM signal has an intelligence frequency of 2 kHz and a maximum
deviation of 10 kHz. If its carrier frequency is set at 162.4 MHz, what is its
index of modulation?
Correct Answer: 5

5.

The amount an FM carrier frequency deviates for a given modulating input
voltage level is called the
Your Answer: Deviation constant

6.

Standard FM broadcast stations use a maximum bandwidth of
Correct Answer: 200 kHz

7.

Carson's rule is used to approximate the necessary
Correct Answer: Bandwidth

8.

An FM transmitter has an output power of 500 W when it is not
modulated. When intelligence is added, its modulation index is 2.0. What
is its output power with a modulation index of 2.0?
Your Answer: 500 W

9.

Another way to describe the modulation index is using the
Correct Answer: Deviation ratio

10.

The inherent ability of FM to minimize the effect of undesired signals
operating at the same or nearly the same frequency as the desired station
is known as the
Correct Answer: Capture effect

11.

In a Crosby FM transmitter, an FM signal having a center frequency of
2.04 MHz and a deviation of 69 Hz is passed through four cascaded
frequency multiplier stages: two triplers, one doubler, and one quadrupler.
What type of signal appears at the output of the last multiplier stage?
Correct Answer: Center frequency of 146.88 MHz and deviation of 4.96
kHz



12.

The circuitry used to increase the operating frequency of a transmitter up
to a specified value is called the
Correct Answer: Pump chain

13.

The purpose of the matrix network in a stereo FM broadcast transmitter is
to
Your Answer: Convert the L and R channels to L + R and L R channels

14.

An FM signal has an intelligence frequency of 5 kHz and a maximum
deviation of 25 kHz. Its index of modulation is
Your Answer: 5

15.

Frequency multipliers
Your Answer: All the above


1.

In FM receivers, the ________ extracts the intelligence from a high-frequency carrier.
Your Answer: discriminator

2.

Cross-modulation is similar to ________ distortion.
Correct Answer: intermodulation

3.

The difference between a receiver's maximum and minimum tolerable input signal is called
its ________ range.
Your Answer: dynamic

4.

A ________ is a circuit whose output is a constant amplitude for inputs above a critical
value.
Your Answer: limiter

5.

The discriminator is also called a(n) ________.
Your Answer: detector

6.

The ________ detector lends itself to integration on a single chip.
Correct Answer: quadrature

7.

A PLL uses ________ feedback to maintain a constant output frequency.
Correct Answer: negative

8.

A stereo demodulator contains a ________-kHz subcarrier.
Correct Answer: 19

9.

Wobbling the IF frequency can help determine if the limiter, discriminator, and ________
circuits are operating correctly.
Correct Answer: audio

10.

The filter in a quadrature detector is usually a ________ type.
Your Answer: ceramic



1.

A difference between AM and FM receiver block diagrams is that the FM version includes a
Your Answer: All the above

2.

An FM receiver rarely works satisfactorily without an RF amplifier because
Correct Answer: FM receivers typically work with smaller input signal levels due to their
noise characteristics.



3.

A certain FM receiver provides a voltage gain of 113 dB prior to its limiter. The limiter's
quieting voltage is 400 mV. Its sensitivity is approximately
Correct Answer:



4.

The use of dual-gate MOSFETs in RF amplifier stages
Correct Answer: Offers increased dynamic range over those of JFETs

5.

The Foster-Seely detector design is superior to the ratio detector in that it
Correct Answer: Offers superior linear response to wideband FM deviations

6.

Local oscillator reradiation refers to radiation through the
Correct Answer: Antenna

7.

Which is not one of the three stages in which a PLL can be operated?
Correct Answer: Searching

8.

A PLL is set up so that its VCO free-runs at 8.9 MHz. The VCO does not change frequency
unless its input is within 75 kHz of 8.9 MHz. After it does lock, the input frequency can
be adjusted within 120 kHz of 8.9 MHz without having the PLL start to free-run again.
The capture range of the PLL is
Correct Answer: 150 kHz

9.

Slope detection is seldom used due to
Your Answer: Nonlinearity

10.

In an FM stereo receiver, what is the purpose of the 2353-kHz filter?
Your Answer: To filter out the L R signal at the output of the discriminator

11.

A dual audio amplifier is rated to provide 65 dB of channel separation. If the right channel
has 4 W of output power, how much of this power could be due to the left channel
intelligence?
Correct Answer:
1.26 W


12.

The hold-in range for a PLL concerns the
Correct Answer: Range of frequencies in which it will remain locked

13.

The input signal into a PLL is at the
Correct Answer: Phase detector

14.

The square-law relationship of the FET's input versus output
Correct Answer: Minimizes cross-modulation

15.

When troubleshooting a stereo demodulator, the input signal should be about
Correct Answer: 100 mV rms

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8. The tr#+!n!metr#& e-'re%%#!n "!r the &arr#er #% ;& A FFFFF*
9. Tr(e !r "al%e* The &arr#er "re6(en&y rema#n% &!n%tant $(r#n+ A.*
10. An am'l#t($e m!$(lat!r 'er"!rm% the mathemat#&al !'erat#!n !"
a* A$$#t#!n
b* <(btra&t#!n
&* .(lt#'l#&at#!n
$* 9#0#%#!n
11. @h#&h !" the "!ll!/#n+ #% the m!%t &!rre&tH
a. ;m %h!(l$ be +reater than ;&*
b. ;& %h!(l$ be +reater than ;m
c. ;m %h!(l$ be e6(al t! !r le%% than ;&*
d. ;& m(%t al/ay% e6(al ;m
12.@h#&h !" the "!ll!/#n+ #% n!t an!ther name "!r m!$(lat#!n #n$e-H
a* .!$(lat#!n re&#'r!&al
b* .!$(lat#!n "a&t!r
&* 9e+ree !" m!$(lat#!n
$* .!$(lat#!n &!e""#&#ent
13. The $e+ree !r $e'th !" m!$(lat#!n !&&(rr#n+ e-'re%%e$ a% a 'er&enta+e) #% &!m'(te$ (%#n+ the
e-'re%%#!n
a* 2 ;m
b* 100 B m
&* m B 100
$* 100I - m
14. The m!$(lat#!n #n$e- #% the rat#! !" the FFFFF 'ea4 0!lta+e !" the t! the FFFFF*
15.An A. /a0e $#%'laye$ !n an !%&#ll!%&!'e ha% 0al(e% !" ;ma-A 3*8 an$ ;m#nA 1*5 a% rea$ "r!m the
+rat#&(le* The 'er&enta+e !" m!$(lat#!n #% FFFFF 'er&ent*
16. The #$eal 'er&enta+e !" m!$(lat#!n "!r ma-#m(m am'l#t($e !" 8n"!rmat#!n tran%m#%%#!n #% FFFFF
'er&ent*
17.T! a&h#e0e 85 'er&ent m!$(lat#!n !" a &arr#er !" ;e A 40 0!lt% 2;3) a m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal !" ;m A FFFFF #%
nee$e$*
18. The 'ea41t!1'ea4 0al(e !" an A. %#+nal #% 30 ;* The 'ea41t!1'ea4 0al(e !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal #% 12
;* The 'er&enta+e !" m!$(lat#!n #% FFFFF 'er&ent*
19. 5e/ %#+nal% +enerate$ by the m!$(lat#!n 'r!&e%% that a''ear $#re&tly ab!0e an$ bel!/ the &arr#er
"re6(en&y are &alle$ FFFFF*
20. An A. ra$#! %tat#!n !'erat#n+ at 630 4Hz #% 'erm#tte$ t! br!a$&a%t a($#! "re6(en&#e% (' t! 5 4Hz* The
(''er an$ l!/er %#$e "re6(en&#e% are
"><: A FFFFF 4Hz
"E<: A FFFFF 4Hz
21. The t!tal ban$/#$th !" the %#+nal #n the ab!0e e-am'le #% FFFFF 4Hz*
22. A %#+nal /h!%e am'l#t($e #% $#%'laye$ /#th re%'e&t t! t#me #% &alle$ a FFFFF $!ma#n $#%'lay* The te%t
#n%tr(ment (%e$ t! 're%ent %(&h a $#%'lay #% the FFFFF*
23. A %#+nal /h!%e am'l#t($e #% $#%'laye$ /#th re%'e&t t! "re6(en&y #% &alle$ a FFFFF $!ma#n $#%'lay* The
te%t #n%tr(ment (%e$ t! 're%ent %(&h a $#%'lay #% the FFFFF*
24. C!m'le- m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal% &!nta#n#n+ many "re6(en&#e% 'r!$(&e m(lt#'leFFFFF th(% !&&('y#n+ m!re
%'e&tr(m %'a&e*
25. The A. %#+nal that !&&('#e% the +reate%t ban$/#$th #% the !ne m!$(late$ by a
a* 114Hz %#ne /a0e
b* 514Hz %#ne /a0e
&* 114Hz %6(are /a0e
$* 514Hz %6(are /a0e
26. The &!m'!%#te A. %#+nal &an be re&reate$ by al+ebra#&ally a$$#n+ /h#&h three %#+nal%H
27. The t!tal %#$eban$ '!/er #% /hat 'er&enta+e !" the &arr#er '!/er "!r 100 'er&ent m!$(lat#!nH
a* 25 'er&ent
b* 50 'er&ent
&* 100 'er&ent
$* 150 'er&ent
28. 8n"!rmat#!n #n an A. %#+nal #% &!n0eye$ #n the
a* Carr#er*
b* <#$eban$%*
&* :!th t!+ether*
29. The l!a$ #nt! /h#&h the A. %#+nal P!/er #% $#%%#'ate$ #% a2n3 FFFFF*
30. The t!tal tran%m#tte$ '!/er #% the %(m !" the FFFFF an$ FFFFF '!/er%*
31. A 514@ &arr#er /#th 60 'er&ent m!$(lat#!n 'r!$(&e% FFFFF 4@ #n ea&h %#$eban$*
32. 8n an A. %#+nal /#th a &arr#er !" 18@ an$ a m!$(lat#!n 'er&enta+e !" 75 'er&ent) the t!tal '!/er #n the
%#$eban$% #% FFFFF @*
33. An A. %#+nal /#th a &arr#er !" 1 4@ ha% 100@ #n ea&h %#$eban$* The 'er&enta+e !" m!$(lat#!n #% FFFFF
'er&ent*
34. An A. tran%m#tter ha% a &arr#er '!/er !" 200 @* The 'er&enta+e !" m!$(lat#!n #% 60 'er&ent* The t!tal
%#+nal '!/er #% FFFFF @*
35. The t!tal A. %#+nal '!/er #% 2800@* The &arr#er '!/er #% 2000 @* The '!/er #n !ne %#$eban$ #% FFFFF @*
The 'er&enta+e !" m!$(lat#!n #%FFFFF*
36. The (nm!$(late$ &arr#er &(rrent #n an antenna #% 1*5A* @hen the &arr#er #% m!$(late$ by 95 'er&ent)
the t!tal antenna &(rrent #% FFFFF A*
37. An A. %#+nal /#th!(t a &arr#er #% &alle$ a2n3 FFFFF %#+nal*
38. Tr(e !r "al%e* T/! %#$eban$% m(%t be tran%m#tte$ t! reta#n all the #n"!rmat#!n*
39. The a&r!nym <<: mean%
a* <#n+le %#$eban$ /#th &arr#er
b* <#n+le %#$eban$ /#th %(''re%%e$ &arr#er
&* 9!(ble %#$eban$ /#th n! &arr#er
$* 9!(ble %#$eban$ /#th &arr#er
40. A ma!r bene"#t !" 9<: an$ <<: #%
a* H#+her '!/er &an be '(t #nt! the %#$eban$2%3*
b* Creater '!/er &!n%(m't#!n*
&* .!re &arr#er '!/er*
$* 9!(ble the %#$eban$ '!/er*
41. E#%t "!(r bene"#t% !" <<: !0er A. an$ 9<:*
42. E#%t t/! &!mm!n (%e% !" <<:*
43. A &!mm!n (%e !" 9<: #%
a* T/!1/ay &!mm(n#&at#!n*
b* Tele'h!ne %y%tem%*
&* F.BT; %tere!*
$* <atell#te &!mm(n#&at#!n%*
44. Tr(e !r "al%e* 8n <<:) n! %#+nal #% tran%m#tte$ (nle%% the #n"!rmat#!n %#+nal #% 're%ent*
45. The ty'e !" A. %#+nal that #% (%e$ #n T; br!a$&a%t#n+ #% &alle$ FFFFF tran%m#%%#!n*
46.An <<: %#+nal 'r!$(&e% a 'ea41t!1'ea4 0!lta+e !" 720; !n 0!#&e 'ea4% a&r!%% a 751 antenna* The PEP
!(t'(t #% FFFFF @*
47. An <<: tran%m#tter ha% a 1571; %(''ly* ;!#&e 'ea4% 'r!$(&e a &(rrent !" 2*3 A* The PEP #n'(t #% FFFFF
@*
48. The a0era+e !(t'(t '!/er !" an <<: tran%m#tter rate$ at 12@ PEP #% #n the FFFFF t! FFFFF ran+e*
49. The 'r!&e%% !" tran%lat#n+ a %#+nal t! a h#+her !r l!/er "re6(en&y "!r m!re &!n0en#ent 'r!&e%%#n+ #%
&alle$ FFFFF*
50. The &#r&(#t (%e$ "!r tran%lat#n+ the "re6(en&y !" a %#+nal #% re"erre$ t! a% a2n3 FFFFF !r FFFFF*
51.The #n'(t %#+nal% t! a "re6(en&y tran%lat#!n &#r&(#t are "% A 3*7 .Hz an$ "! A 4*155 .Hz* The !(t'(t
%#+nal% are FFFFF*
52. 8n the e-am'le +#0en #n the te-t) /hat !ther l!&al !%&#llat!r "re6(en&y &!(l$ be (%e$ t! 'r!$(&e the
10*71.Hz !(t'(t /#th a 107*1 A .Hz #n'(tH
53. >n/ante$ m#-er !(t'(t %#+nal% are el#m#nate$ by a FFFFF*
54. Tr(e !r "al%e* The l!&al !%&#llat!r #% m!$(late$*
55. Tr(e !r "al%e* Any m!$(lat#!n !n the #n'(t %#+nal t! be tran%late$ #% reta#ne$*
56* The !'erat#!n &arr#e$ !(t by a m#-er #% 4n!/n a% FFFFF*
A5<@ER<
1. tran%late$
2. 0ar#e%) &arr#er
3. m!$(lat!r) &arr#er) m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal
4. am'l#t($e
5. "al%e
6. en0el!'e) m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal
7. t#me1$!ma#n
8. ;& A %#n 2 "&t
9. tr(e
10. &
11. &
12. a
13. $
14. m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal) &arr#er
15. 43*4
16. 100
17. 17*34 ;
18. 66*67
19. %#$eban$%
20. 635) 625
21. 10
22. t#me) !%&#ll!%&!'e
23. "re6(en&y) %'e&tr(m analyzer
24. %#$eban$%
25. $
26. Carr#er) (''er %#$eban$) l!/er %#$eban$
27. b
28. b
29. antenna
30. &arr#er) %#$eban$
31. 0*45
32. 5*06
33. 63*25
34. 236 @
35. 400 @) 89*44 'er&ent
36. 1*8 am'ere%
37. 9<:
38. "al%e
39. b
40. a
41. le%% %'e&tr(m %'a&e) m!re '!/er #n the %#$eban$% /#th +reater e""#&#en&y) le%% n!#%e) l#ttle !r n! "a$#n+
42. tele'h!ne %y%tem%) t/!1/ay ra$#!
43. &
44. tr(e
45. 0e%t#+#al %#$eban$
46. 863*7
47. 345
48. 31) 41@
49. "re6(en&y &!n0er%#!n
50. m#-er) &!n0erter
51. 4*155 .Hz) 7*855 .Hz) 455 4Hz) 3*7 .Hz
52. 117*8 .Hz
53. "#lter !r t(ne$ &#r&(#t
54. "al%e
55. tr(e
56. heter!$yn#n+
CHAPTER 3
Amplitude Modulation Circuits
1. Am'l#t($e m!$(lat#!n &an be a&&!m'l#%he$ by m(lt#'ly#n+ the &arr#er %#ne /a0e by a +a#n !r
atten(at#!n "a&t!r that 0ar#e% #n a&&!r$an&e /#th the #ntell#+en&e %#+nal*
2. Am'l#t($e m!$(lat#!n &an be &arr#e$ !(t by l#nearly &!mb#n#n+ the &arr#er an$ #ntell#+en&e %#+nal% then
a''ly#n+ the re%(lt t! a n!nl#near &!m'!nent !r &#r&(#t* A $#!$e #% an e-am'le*
3. The %#m'le%t A. &#r&(#t (%e% re%#%t!r% t! l#nearly m#- the &arr#er an$ #n"!rmat#!n %#+nal) a $#!$e t!
re&t#"y the re%(lt) an$ a t(ne$ &#r&(#t t! &!m'lete the /a0e"!rm*
4. Am'l#t($e m!$(lat#!n &an be 'r!$(&e$ by "ee$#n+ the &arr#er t! a 0!lta+e $#0#$er !r !ther net/!r4 an$
then 0ary#n+ !ne !" the re%#%t#0e element% #n a&&!r$an&e /#th the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal* C!mm!n 0ar#able
re%#%t#0e &!m'!nent% are $#!$e% an$ FET%* P85 $#!$e% are (%e$ at >HF an$ m#&r!/a0e "re6(en&#e%*
5. E!/1le0el m!$(lat#!n #% the 'r!&e%% !" +enerat#n+ =the A. %#+nal at l!/ 0!lta+e an$B!r '!/er le0el% an$
then (%#n+ l#near am'l#"#er% t! #n&rea%e the '!/er le0el*
6. H#+h1le0el m!$(lat#!n #% the 'r!&e%%e% !" am'l#t($e m!$(lat#n+ the "#nal '!/er am'l#"#er !" a
tran%m#tter*
7. H#+h1le0el m!$(lat#!n #% a&&!m'l#%he$ /#th a &!lle&t!r 2'late #n 0a&((m t(be%3 m!$(lat!r that 0ar#e%
the &!lle&t!r %(''ly 0!lta+e #n a&&!r$an&e /#th the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
8. F!r 100 'er&ent h#+h1le0el m!$(lat#!n) the m!$(lat#!n am'l#"#er m(%t 'r!$(&e an !(t '(t /a0e /h!%e
'ea41t!1'ea4 #% 2 t#me% the &!lle&t!r %(''ly 0!lta+e*
9. F!r 100 'er&ent h#+h1le0el m!$(lat#!n) the m!$(lat#!n am'l#"#er m(%t +enerate an !(t'(t '!/er that #%
!ne1hal" !" the "#nal RF '!/er am'l#"#er #n'(t '!/er (P# AVcc - Ic).
10. The %#m'le%t an$ be%t am'l#t($e $em!$(lat!r #% the $#!$e $ete&t!r* The A. %#+nal #% re&t#"#e$ by a
$#!$e an$ then "#ltere$ by a &a'a&#t!r t! re&!0er the en0el!'e /h#&h #% the !r#+#nal m!$(lat#n+
#n"!rmat#!n*
11. :alan&e$ m!$(lat!r% are A. &#r&(#t% that &an&el !r %(''re%% the &arr#er b(t +enerate a 9<: !(t'(t
%#+nal that &!nta#n% the (''er 2%(m3 an$ l!/er 2$#""eren&e3 %#$eban$ "re6(en&#e%*
12. A '!'(lar balan&e$ m!$(lat!r #% the latt#&e m!$(lat!r that (%e% a $#!$e br#$+e &#r&(#t a% a %/#t&h* The
&arr#er t(rn% the $#!$e% !"" an$ !n lett#n+ %e+ment% !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal thr!(+h t! 'r!$(&e a 9<:
!(t'(t %#+nal* A &arr#er %(''re%%#!n !" 40 $: #% '!%%#ble*
13. An!ther /#$ely (%e$ balan&e$) m!$(lat!r #% an #nte+rate$ &#r&(#t 28C3 (%#n+ $#""erent#al am'l#"#er% a%
%/#t&he% t! %/#t&h the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal at the &arr#er "re6(en&y* A '!'(lar $e0#&e #% the 1496 !r 1596*
Carr#er %(''re%%#!n &an be a% h#+h a% 50 t! 65 $:*
14. The m!%t &!mm!n /ay !" +enerat#n+ an <<E %#+nal #% t! (%e the "#lter meth!$ /h#&h #n&!r'!rate% a
balan&e$ m!$(lat!r "!ll!/e$ by a h#+hly %ele&t#0e "#lter that 'a%%e% e#ther the (''er !r l!/er %#$eban$*
15. T! ma4e b!th %#$eban$% a0a#lable) <<: +enerat!r% (%e t/! "#lter%) !ne "!r ea&h %#$eban$) !r %/#t&h the
&arr#er "re6(en&y t! '(t the $e%#re$ %#$eban$ #nt! the "#-e$ "#lter) ban$'a%%*
16..!%t <<:) "#lter% are ma$e /#th 6(artz &ry%tal%*
17.A 6(artz &ry%tal #% a "re6(en&y1$eterm#n#n+ &!m'!nent that a&t% l#4e an LC &#r&(#t /#th a 0ery h#+h $.
18. Cry%tal% ha0e %er#e% an$ 'arallel re%!nant m!$e%* The%e &an be &!mb#ne$ #nt! a latt#&e 2br#$+e3 &#r&(#t
that 'r!0#$e% e-tremely %har' %ele&t#0#ty !0er a $e%#re$ ban$/#$th*
19. Ceram#& "#lter% (%e &eram#& re%!nat!r% that a&t l#4e &ry%tal% b(t are %maller an$ l!/er #n &!%t*
20. .e&han#&al ban$'a%% "#lter% are al%! (%e$ #n <<E +enerat!r%* The%e $e0#&e% (%e m(lt#'le re%!nant $#%4%
that 0#brate at %!me "re6(en&y #n the 2001 t! 50014Hz ran+e*
21. The 'ha%#n+ meth!$ !" <<E +enerat#!n (%e% t/! balan&e$ m!$(lat!r% an$ 90J 'ha%e %h#"ter% "!r the
&arr#er an$ m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal t! 'r!$(&e t/! 9<: %#+nal% that /hen a$$e$ &a(%e !ne %#$eban$ t! be
&an&ele$ !(t*
22. 8n 'ha%#n+1ty'e <<E +enerat!r%) the a&&(ra&y !" the 'ha%e %h#"ter% $eterm#ne% the $e+ree% !"
(n/ante$ %#$eban$ %(''re%%#!n*
23.Pre&#%#!n RC net/!r4% are n!rmally (%e$ t! 'r!$(&e the $e%#re$ 90J 'ha%e %h#"t%*
24. A $em!$(lat!r "!r <<E #% a m#-er %(&h a% a balan&e$ m!$(lat!r that) #% &alle$ a 'r!$(&t $ete&t!r* The
&arr#er #% re#n%erte$ #n the re&e#0er /#th a l!&al !%&#llat!r*
25. Fre6(en&y tran%lat#!n !r &!n0er%#!n #% an A. 'r!&e%% that &!n0ert% a %#+nal /#th any m!$(lat#!n t! a
h#+her 2(' &!n0er%#!n3 !r l!/er 2$!/n &!n0er%#!n3 "re6(en&y*
26. Fre6(en&y &!n0er%#!n #% 'r!$(&e$ by a &#r&(#t &alle$ a m#-er*
27. An!ther name "!r "re6(en&y &!n0er%#!n #% heter!$yn#n+*
28. Alm!%t any l!/1le0el A. &#r&(#t &an be (%e$ "!r m#-#n+*
29. 7ne !" the m!%t &!mm!nly (%e$ m#-er% #% a %#n+le $#!$e* Cerman#(m !r h!t1&arr#er $#!$e% are (%e$ "!r
m#-#n+ at 0ery h#+h ra$#! "re6(en&#e%*
30.The #n'(t% t! a m#-er are the %#+nal t! be tran%late$ fs an$ a %#ne ?/a0e fo "r!m a l!&al !%&#llat!r 2E73*
The !(t'(t% are fo% fs% fo + fs% an$ fo 1 fs. A t(ne$ &#r&(#t at the !(t'(t %ele&t% e#ther the %l#m !r
$#""eren&e "re6(en&y /h#le %(''re%%#n+ the !ther%* Any m!$(lat#!n !n the #n'(t a''ear% !n the !(t'(t
%#+nal*
31. :#'!lar an$ "#el$1e""e&t tran%#%t!r% &an be (%e$ a% m#-er% by !'erat#n+ them #n the n!nl#near re+#!n !"
the#r &hara&ter#%t#&%*
32. Tran%#%t!r m#-er% !""er the bene"#t !" +a#n !0er $#!$e m#-er%*
33. :alan&e$ m!$(lat!r% are /#$ely (%e$ a% m#-er%*
34. 9!(bly balan&e$ m!$(lat!r% an$ CaA% FET% are the be%t m#-er% at ;HF) >HF) an$ m#&r!/a0e
"re6(en&#e%*
35. A %#n+le tran%#%t!r &an be &!nne&te$ t! 'er"!rm b!th the m#-er an$ E7 "(n&t#!n%* <(&h a m#-er #% &alle$
a &!n0erter an$ #% (%e$ 'r#mar#ly #n A. re&e#0er% at "re6(en&#e% bel!/ 30 .Hz*
36. A '!'(lar 8C m#-er #% the 5E602) /h#&h &!nta#n% a &r!%%1&!nne&te$ $#""erent#al am'l#"#er m#-er &#r&(#t
an$ an !n1&h#' l!&al !%&#llat!r*
<EEF1TE<T
<(''ly the m#%%#n+ /!r$2%3 #n ea&h %tatement*
Ch!!%e the letter that be%t an%/er% ea&h 6(e%t#!n*
1. 8n the m!$(lat!r) &#r&(#t !" F#+* 312) the &arr#er an$ m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal% are 2'a+e 391Frenzel3
a* A$$e$
b* <(btra&te$
&* .(lt#'l#e$
$* 9#0#$e$
2. 8n F#+* 312)91 a&t% a% a2n3 2'a+e 391Frenzel3
a* Ca'a&#t!r
b* Re&t#"#er
&* ;ar#able re%#%t!r
$* A$$er
3. 8n F#+* 314) 91 a&t% a% a2n3 2'a+e 411Frenzel3
a* Ca'a&#t!r
b* Re&t#"#er
&* ;ar#able re%#%t!r
$* A$$er
4. A. &an be 'r!$(&e$ by 'a%%#n+ the &arr#er thr!(+h a &#r&(#t /h!%e FFFFF !r FFFFF &an be 0ar#e$ #n
a&&!r$an&e /#th the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
5. The name !" the n!nl#near re%'!n%e !" a $e0#&e that 'r!$(&e% A. /#th !nly %e&!n$1!r$er 'r!$(&t% #%
FFFFF*
6. A &!m'!nent that ha% an e-'!nent#al re%'!n%e #$eal "!r 'r!$(&#n+ A. #% the FFFFF*
7. 8n F#+* 312) the ne+at#0e 'ea4% !" the A. %#+nal are %(''l#e$ by the FFFFF* 2'a+e 391Frenzel3
8. 8n F#+* 315) the FET a&t% l#4e a2n3 FFFFF* 2'a+e 411Frenzel3
9. 8n F#+* 315) A. #% 'r!$(&e$ by 0ary#n+ the FFFFF!" the !'1am' &#r&(#t* 2'a+e 411Frenzel3
10. 8n F#+* 315) a '!%#t#0e1+!#n+ m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal &a(%e% the &(rrent #n the FET t! FFFFF) #t% re%#%tan&e t!
FFFFF) an$ the +a#n !" the &#r&(#t t! FFFFF*2'a+e 411Frenzel3
11. @hen "!r/ar$1b#a%e$) a P85 $#!$e a&t% l#4e a2n3 FFFFF*
12. P85 $#!$e m!$(lat!r% are (%e$ !nly at "re6(en&#e% ab!0e ab!(t FFFFF*
13. A P85 $#!$e m!$(lat!r #% a 0ar#able
14. H#+h &(rrent #n a P85 $#!$e mean% that #t% re%#%tan&e #%FFFFF*
15. The A. %#+nal% +enerate$ by l!/1le0el m!$(lat#n+ &#r&(#t% m(%t ha0e the#r '!/er le0el #n&rea%e$ by
a2n3 FFFFF be"!re be#n+ tran%m#tte$*
16. 8n a h#+h1le0el A. tran%m#tter) the !(t'(t %ta+e #% (%(ally a &la%% FFFFF am'l#"#er* *
17. A h#+h1le0el m!$(lat!r l#4e that #n F#+* 318 #% re"erre$ t! a% a FFFFF m!$(lat!r* 2'a+e 431Frenzel3
18. The !(t'(t !" a h#+h1le0el m!$(lat!r &a(%e% the FFFFF a''l#e$ t! the "#nal RF am'l#"#er t! 0ary /#th the
am'l#t($e !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
19. The "#nal am'l#"#er !" a h#+h1le0el m!$(lat#!n C: tran%m#tter ha% an #n'(t '!/er !" 5 @* The m!$(lat!r
m(%t be able t! %(''ly a '!/er !" FFFFF @ "!r 100 'er&ent m!$(lat#!n*
20. The "#nal RF '!/er am'l#"#er ha% a %(''ly 0!lta+e !" 12;* F!r 100 'er&ent A. (%#n+ a h#+h1le0el
m!$(lat!r) the 'ea4 a& !(t'(t !" the m!$(lat#!n tran%"!rmer m(%t be FFFFF ;*
21. T! a&h#e0e 100 'er&ent h#+h1le0el m!$(lat#!n !" an RF '!/er am'l#"#er) #t% FFFFF m(%t al%! be
m!$(late$*
22. The '(r'!%e !" a FFFFF #% t! re&!0er the !r#+#nal m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal "r!m an A. /a0e*
23. The m!%t /#$ely (%e$ am'l#t($e $em!$(lat!r #% &alle$ a FFFFF*
24. The m!%t &r#t#&al &!m'!nent #n the &#r&(#t !" F#+* 3111 #% FFFFF*2'a+e 461Frenzel3
25. The &har+#n+ an$ $#%&har+#n+ !" C1 #n F#+* 3111 'r!$(&e% FFFFF /h#&h &a(%e% FFFFF !" the m!$(lat#n+
%#+nal* 2'a+e 461Frenzel3
26. An!ther name "!r the $em!$(lat!r #n F#+* 3111 #% FFFFF $ete&t!r*
27. E#%t the t/! ma#n bene"#t% !" the "(ll1/a0e am'l#t($e $em!$(lat!r !0er the hal" /a0e &#r&(#t*
28. Tr(e !r "al%e* An am'l#t($e $em!$(lat!r #% a &!m'lete ra$#! re&e#0er*
29. A balan&e$ m!$(lat!r el#m#nate% /h#&h !" the "!ll!/#n+ "r!m #t% !(t'(tH
a* >''er %#$eban$
b* E!/er %#$eban$
&* Carr#er
$* :!th %#$eban$%
30. The !(t'(t %#+nal !" a balan&e$ m!$(lat!r #%*
a* A.
b* <<:
&* F.
$* 9<:
31. @h#&h ha% better &arr#er %(''re%%#!nH
a* Eatt#&e m!$(lat!r
b* 8C balan&e$ m!$(lat!r
32. A balan&e$ m!$(lat!r (%#n+ a $#!$e br#$+e #% &alle$ a2n3 FFFFF* 2'a+e 481Frenzel3
33. 8n the balan&e$ m!$(lat!r !" F#+* 3114) the $#!$e% are (%e$ a% FFFFF*
34. A balan&e$ m!$(lat!r ha% a &arr#er "re6(en&y !" 1*9 .Hz an$ a m!$(lat#n+ %#ne /a0e !" 2*6 4Hz* The
!(t'(t %#+nal% are FFFFF an$ FFFFF4Hz*
35. 8n F#+* 3118) tran%#%t!r% FFFFF %(''ly a &!n%tant &(rrent* 2'a+e 511Frenzel3
36.8n F#+* 3118) tran%#%t!r% K1 t! K4 !'erate a%FFFFF* 2'a+e 511Frenzel3
37. Tr(e !r "al%e* An 8C anal!+ m(lt#'l#er may be (%e$ "!r 9<: %#+nal +enerat#!n*
38. The m!%t &!mm!n /ay !" +enerat#n+ an <<: %#+nal #% the FFFFF meth!$*
39. A "#lter &a'able !" 'a%%#n+ the $e%#re$ %#$eban$ /h#le ree&t#n+ the !ther %#$eban$ m(%t ha0e
+!!$FFFFF*
40. A balan&e$ m!$(lat!r ha% a 31.Hz &arr#er #n'(t an$ a m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal #n'(t !" 1*5 4Hz t! 'a%% the
l!/er %#$eban$) a "#lter m(%t ha0e a &enter "re6(en&y !" FFFFF .Hz*
41. The m!%t '!'(lar "#lter (%e$ t! %ele&t the $e%#re$ %#$eban$ #n an <<: +enerat!r (%e% FFFFF "!r
%ele&t#0#ty*
42. 5ame the t/! /ay% !" +enerat#n+ e#ther the (''er !r l!/er %#$eban$ #n a "#lter ty'e <<: +enerat!r*
43. A 6(artz &ry%tal a&t% l#4e a h#+hly %ele&t#0e FFFFF &#r&(#t*
44. 8n a "#lter1ty'e <<: +enerat!r) a &ry%tal latt#&e "#lter #% (%e$* The t/! &ry%tal "re6(en&#e% are 3*0 an$
3*0012 .Hz* The "#lter ban$/#$th #% a''r!-#mately FFFFF 4Hz*
45. .e&han#&al "#lter% 'r!0#$e %ele&t#0#ty be&a(%e they FFFFF at a %'e&#"#& "re6(en&y*
46. A &eram#& "#lter #% %#m#lar #n !'erat#!n t! a2n3 FFFFF "#lter*
47. The !'erat#n+ "re6(en&y ran+e !" a me&han#&al "#lter #% FFFFF t! FFFFF 4Hz*
48. 8n the 'ha%#n+ meth!$ !" <<: +enerat#!n) FFFFF #% (%e$ t! &an&el the (n$e%#re$ %#$eban$*
49. A FFFFF &#r&(#t #% &!mm!nly (%e$ t! $em!$(late !r re&!0er an <<: %#+nal*
50. The &#r&(#t (%e$ t! $em!$(late an <<: %#+nal #% ty'#&ally &alle$ a2n3 FFFFF*
51. The m#-#n+ 'r!&e%% #%
a* E#near*
b* 5!nl#near*
52. 8n (' &!n0er%#!n) /h#&h %#+nal #% %ele&te$H
a. "1 1 "2
b. "1 G "2
53. @h#&h tran%#%t!r m#-er #% 're"erre$H
a* :#'!lar
b* FET
54. An!ther name "!r the m#-#n+ 'r!&e%% #% FFFFF*
55. The '(r'!%e !" a m#-er #% t! 'er"!rm FFFFF*
56.The !(t'(t %#+nal% 'r!$(&e$ by a m#-er /#th #n'(t% "1 an$ "2 are FFFFF) FFFFF) FFFFF) an$ FFFFF*
57. The ty'e !" m#-er m!%t (%e$ at m#&r!/a0e "re6(en&#e% #% a2n3 FFFFF*
58. The t/! m#-er% 're"erre$ at ;HF an$ >HF are FFFFF*
59. Tran%#%t!r m#-er% 'r!0#$e FFFFF) /h#le $#!$e m#-er% $! n!t*
60. A m#-er 'r!$(&#n+ $!/n &!n0er%#!n ha% an #n'(t !" 1390 4Hz an$ an E7 "re6(en&y !" 1845 4Hz* The
!(t'(t #% FFFFF 4Hz*
61. A %#n+le1tran%#%t!r &#r&(#t that &!mb#ne% the m#-er an$ E7 "(n&t#!n% #% 4n!/n a% a2n3 FFFFF*
62. The m#-er &#r&(#t #n the '!'(lar 5E602 8C #% FFFFF*
63. 8n a$$#t#!n t! a m#-er an$ a 0!lta+e re+(lat!r) the 5E602 m#-er 8C &!nta#n% a2n3 FFFFF*
64. The !(t'(t !" a 5E602 m#-er 8C #% 5*5 .Hz* The l!&al !%&#llat!r #% %et t! 26*8 .Hz* The #n'(t "re6(en&y
#% FFFFF*
65. Tr(e !r "al%e* .#-#n+ #% the %ame a% A.*
66. Tr(e !r "al%e* Any balan&e$ m!$(lat!r may be (%e$ a% a m#-er*

A5<@ER<
1. a
2. b
3. &
4. +a#n) atten(at#!n
5. %6(are la/
6. $#!$e
7. t(ne$ &#r&(#t
8. 0ar#able re%#%t!r
9. +a#n
10. #n&rea%e) $e&rea%e) #n&rea%e
11. re%#%t!r
12. 100 .Hz
13. atten(at!r
14. l!/
15. l#near am'l#"#er
16. C
17. &!lle&t!r
18. %(''ly 0!lta+e
19. 2*5
20. 12
21. $r#0er
22. $em!$(lat!r
23. $#!$e $ete&t!r
24.C1
25. r#''le) $#%t!rt#!n
26. en0el!'e
27. %maller "#lter &a'a&#t!r) le%% r#''le an$ $#%t!rt#!n
28. tr(e
29. &
30. $
31. b
32. latt#&e m!$(lat!r !r $#!$e r#n+
33. %/#t&he%
34. 1897*4) 1902*6
35.K7) K8
36. %/#t&he%
37. tr(e
38. "#lter
39. %ele&t#0#ty
40. 2*9985
41. &ry%tal%
42. >%e !ne "#lter "!r ea&h %#$eban$, %ele&t the &arr#er "re6(en&y %! that the $e%#re$ %#$eban$ #% #n the "#lter
'a%%ban$*
43.t(ne) re%!nant) !r EC
44. 1*8 23*00121 3*0 A 0*0012 .Hz A 1*2 4Hz, 1*2 - 1*5 A 1*8 4Hz3
45. 0#brate !r re%!nate
46. &ry%tal
47. 200 t! 500
48. 'ha%e %h#"t
49. m#-er !r balan&e$ m!$(lat!r
50. 'r!$(&t $ete&t!r
51. b
52. b
53. b
54. heter!$yn#n+
55. "re6(en&y &!n0er%#!n !r tran%lat#!n
56."1 )"2) "1 G "2) "1 1 "2
57. $#!$e
58. $!(bly balan&e$ m#-er) CaA%FET
59. +a#n
60. 455 21845 L 1390 A 4553
61. &!n0erter
62. &r!%%1&!nne&te$ $#""erent#al am'l#"#er
63. l!&al !%&#llat!r
64. 21*3 !r 32*3 .Hz
65. tr(e
66. tr(e
CHAPTER 4
Freuenc! Modulation
1. 8n F.) the #n"!rmat#!n %#+nal 0ar#e% the "re6(en&y !" the &arr#er*
2. The am!(nt !" "re6(en&y &han+e "r!m the &arr#er &enter "re6(en&y #% &alle$ the "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n*
3. 8n P.) the $e0#at#!n #% 'r!'!rt#!nal t! the am'l#t($e !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
4. 9(r#n+ F.) the &arr#er am'l#t($e rema#n% &!n%tant*
5. :!th F. an$ P. are ty'e% !" an+le m!$(lat#!n%*
6. 8n P.) the 'ha%e %h#"t !" the &arr#er #% 0ar#e$ by the am'l#t($e !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
7. Pha%e m!$(lat#!n 'r!$(&e% "re6(en&y m!$(lat#!n*
8. The F. 'r!$(&e$ by P. #% &alle$ #n$#re&t F.*
9. .a-#m(m "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n #n a P. %#+nal !&&(r% /here the rate !" &han+e !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal
am'l#t($e #% +reate%t) /h#&h #% at #t% zer!1&r!%%#n+ '!#nt%*
10. Fre6(en&y $e0#at#!n $!e% n!t !&&(r at the !(t'(t !" a 'ha%e m!$(lat!r (nle%% the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal
am'l#t($e 0ar#e%*
11. The am!(nt !" "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n 'r!$(&e$ by a 'ha%e m!$(lat!r #n&rea%e% /#th the m!$(lat#n+
"re6(en&y*
12. T! 'r!$(&e tr(e F. "r!m a P. %#+nal) the am'l#t($e !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal m(%t be $e&rea%e$ /#th
"re6(en&y %! that "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n $!e% n!t &han+e /#th m!$(lat#n+ "re6(en&y*
13. 8n P.) a l!/1'a%% "#lter !n the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal &!m'en%ate% "!r #n&rea%e$ "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n at the
h#+her m!$(lat#n+ "re6(en&#e%*
14. Fre6(en&y m!$(lat#!n 'r!$(&e% 'a#r% !" %#$eban$% %'a&e$ "r!m the &arr#er #n m(lt#'le% !" the
m!$(lat#n+ "re6(en&y*
15.The m!$(lat#!n #n$e- m !" an F. %#+nal #% the rat#! !" the "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n f& t! the m!$(lat#n+
"re6(en&y fm 2m A f& / fm).
16. The $e0#at#!n rat#! #% the ma-#m(m "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n $#0#$e$ by the ma-#m(m m!$(lat#n+
"re6(en&y*
17. The m!$(lat#!n #n$e- $eterm#ne% the n(mber !" %#+n#"#&ant 'a#r% !" %#$eban$% #n an F. %#+nal*
18. The am'l#t($e% !" the &arr#er an$ %#$eban$% 0ary /#th the m!$(lat#!n #n$e- an$ &an be &al&(late$ /#th
a mathemat#&al 'r!&e$(re 4n!/n a% the :e%%el "(n&t#!n%*
19. The &arr#er !r %#$eban$ am'l#t($e% are zer! at %!me m!$(lat#!n #n$e-e%*
20. The ban$/#$th !" an F. %#+nal #% 'r!'!rt#!nal t! the m!$(lat#!n #n$e-*
21. There are t/! /ay% t! &al&(late the ban$/#$th !" an F. %#+nal*
a. :@ A 2'fm ma-
b. :@ A 2(f& ma- G fm ma-3
22. F!r F.) the 'er&enta+e !" m!$(lat#!n #% the rat#! !" the a&t(al "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n an$ the ma-#m(m
all!/e$ "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n m(lt#'l#e$ by 100*
23. The 'r#mary a$0anta+e !" F. !0er A. #% #t% #mm(n#ty t! n!#%e*
24. 5!#%e #% %h!rt1$(rat#!n am'l#t($e 0ar#at#!n% &a(%e$ by l#+htn#n+) m!t!r%) a(t! #+n#t#!n%) '!/er
tran%#ent%) an$ !ther %!(r&e%*
25. E#m#ter &#r&(#t% #n F. re&e#0er% &l#' !"" n!#%e %#+nal%*
26. An!ther bene"#t !" F. !0er A. #% the &a't(re e""e&t that all!/% the %tr!n+e%t %#+nal !n a "re6(en&y t!
$!m#nate /#th!(t #nter"eren&e "r!m the !ther %#+nal*
27. A th#r$ bene"#t !" F. !0er A. #% +reater tran%m#tter e""#&#en&y %#n&e &la%% C am'l#"#er% may be (%e$*
28. A ma!r $#%a$0anta+e !" F. #% that #t% ban$/#$th #% /#$er than the ban$/#$th !" A.*
29. The %'e&tr(m %'a&e ta4en (' by an F. %#+nal may be l#m#te$ by &are"(lly &!ntr!ll#n+ the $e0#at#!n
rat#!*
30. An!ther $#%a$0anta+e !" F. #% that the &#r&(#t% t! 'r!$(&e an$ $em!$(late #t are (%(ally m!re &!m'le-
an$ e-'en%#0e than A. &#r&(#t%*
31. 5!#%e !&&(r% 'r#mar#ly at h#+h "re6(en&#e%, there"!re) n!#%e #nter"ere% m!re /#th h#+h m!$(lat#n+
"re6(en&#e%*
32. 8nter"eren&e "r!m h#+h1"re6(en&y n!#%e &an be m#n#m#ze$ by b!!%t#n+ the am'l#t($e !" h#+h1"re6(en&y
m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal% 'r#!r t! m!$(lat#!n* Th#% #% &alle$ 're1em'ha%#%*
33.Pre1em'ha%#% #% a&&!m'l#%he$ by 'a%%#n+ the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal thr!(+h an RC net/!r4 that l#nearly
b!!%t% the am'l#t($e !" "re6(en&#e% ab!0e 2122 Hz #n 'r!'!rt#!n t! "re6(en&y* Th#% #n&rea%e% the
%#+nal1t!1n!#%e rat#! at the h#+her "re6(en&#e%*
34.The e""e&t !" 're1em'ha%#% #% &!rre&te$ "!r) #n an F. re&e#0er by $e1em'ha%#z#n+ the h#+her "re6(en&#e%
by 'a%%#n+ them thr!(+h an RC l!/1'a%% "#lter*
35.The 're1em'ha%#% an$ $e1em'ha%#% net/!r4% ha0e a t#me &!n%tant !" 75 % an$ a &(t!"" "re6(en&y !"
2122 Hz*
<EEF1TE<T
<(''ly the m#%%#n+ /!r$2%3 #n ea&h %tatement*
Ch!!%e the letter that be%t an%/er% ea&h 6(e%t#!n*
1. The +eneral name +#0en t! b!th P. an$ P. #% FFFFF m!$(lat#!n*
2. Tr(e !r "al%e* 8n F.) the &arr#er am'l#t($e rema#n% &!n%tant /#th m!$(lat#!n*
3. The am!(nt !" "re6(en&y %h#"t $(r#n+ m!$(lat#!n #% &alle$ the FFFFF*
4. The am!(nt !" "re6(en&y %h#"t #n P. #% $#re&tly 'r!'!rt#!nal t! the FFFFF !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
5. A% the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal am'l#t($e +!e% '!%#t#0e) the &arr#er "re6(en&y FFFFF* A% the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal
am'l#t($e +!e% ne+at#0e) the &arr#er "re6(en&y
6. 8n P.) the &arr#er FFFFF #% 0ar#e$ #n 'r!'!rt#!n t! the am'l#t($e !" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
7. A 0ary#n+ 'ha%e %h#"t 'r!$(&e% a2n3 FFFFF*
8. A 'ha%e m!$(lat!r 'r!$(&e% a "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n !nly /hen the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal #% FFFFF*
9. 8n P.) the "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n #% 'r!'!rt#!nal t! b!th the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal FFFFF an$ FFFFF*
10. @hen the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal am'l#t($e &r!%%e% zer!) the 'ha%e %h#"t an$ "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n #n a 'ha%e
m!$(lat!r are
a* At a ma-#m(m
b* At a m#n#m(m
&* Mer!
11. A 'ha%e m!$(lat!r may (%e a l!/1'a%% "#lter t! !""%et the e""e&t !" #n&rea%#n+ &arr#er "re6(en&y
$e0#at#!n "!r #n&rea%#n+ m!$(lat#n+
a* Am'l#t($e
b* Fre6(en&y
&* Pha%e %h#"t
12. The F. 'r!$(&e$ by a 'ha%e m!$(lat!r #% 4n!/n a% FFFFF*
13. Tr(e !r "al%e* An F. %#+nal 'r!$(&e% m!re %#$eban$% than an A. %#+nal*
14. The ban$/#$th !" an F. %#+nal #% 'r!'!rt#!nal t! the FFFFF*
15. The ma-#m(m "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n !" an F. %#+nal #% 10 4Hz* The ma-#m(m m!$(lat#n+ "re6(en&y #%
3*33 4Hz* The $e0#at#!n rat#! #%FFFFF*
16. An F. %#+nal ha% a m!$(lat#!n #n$e- !" 2*5* H!/ many %#+n#"#&ant 'a#r% !" %#$eban$% are 'r!$(&e$H
2<ee F#+* 416*3 2'a+e 751Frenzel3
17. 8n an F. %#+nal that m!$(lat#n+ "re6(en&y #% a 1*514Hz %#ne /a0e* The &arr#er "re6(en&y #% 1000 4Hz*
The "re6(en&#e% !" the th#r$ %#+n#"#&ant %#$eban$% are FFFFF an$ FFFFF 4Hz*
18. Re"er t! F#+* 416* @hat #% the relat#0e am'l#t($e !" the "!(rth %#+n#"#&ant 'a#r !" %#$eban$% #n an F.
%#+nal /#th a $e0#at#!n rat#! !" 4H 2'a+e 751Frenzel3
19. The am'l#t($e% !" the %#$eban$% #n an F. %#+nal are $e'en$ent ('!n a mathemat#&al 'r!&e%% 4n!/n a%
FFFFF*
20. A P. %#+nal ha% a $e0#at#!n rat#! !" 3* The ma-#m(m m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal #% 5 4Hz* The ban$/#$th !" the
%#+nal #% FFFFF4Hz*
21. 8" the ma-#m(m all!/e$ $e0#at#!n #% 5 4Hz b(t the a&t(al $e0#at#!n #% 3*75 4Hz) the 'er&enta+e !"
m!$(lat#!n #% FFFFF 'er&ent*
22. A ne+at#0e %#+n !n the &arr#er an$ %#$eban$ am'l#t($e% #n F#+* 416 mean% a2n3 FFFFF*
23. Tr(e !r "al%e* The &arr#er #n an F. %#+nal &an ne0er $r!' t! zer! am'l#t($e*
24. Cal&(late the ban$/#$th !" an P. %#+nal /#th a ma-#m(m $e0#at#!n !" 10 4Hz an$ a ma-#m(m
m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal "re6(en&y !" 4 4Hz* >%e the t/! meth!$% +#0en #n the te-t) %#+n#"#&ant %#$eban$%)
an$ Car%!n=% r!le) an$ &!m'are y!(r an%/er%* E-'la#n the $#""eren&e*
25. The ma#n a$0anta+e !" F. !0er A. #% #t% #mm(n#ty "r!m FFFFF*
26. 5!#%e #% 'r#mar#ly a 0ar#at#!n #n
a* Am'l#t($e*
b* Fre6(en&y*
&* Pha%e*
27. F. re&e#0er% ree&t n!#%e be&a(%e !" b(#lt1#n &#r&(#t%*
28. The #n an F. re&e#0er &a(%e% a %tr!n+er %#+nal t! $!m#nate a /ea4er %#+nal !n the %ame "re6(en&y*
29. Ty'#&ally F. tran%m#tter% are m!re e""#&#ent than A. tran%m#tter% be&a(%e they (%e &la%% FFFFF
am'l#"#er%*
30. The b#++e%t $#%a$0anta+e !" F. #% #t% e-&e%%#0e (%e !" FFFFF*
31. Tr(e !r "al%e* An A. &#r&(#t #% (%(ally m!re &!m'le- an$ e-'en%#0e than an F. &#r&(#t*
32. 5!#%e #nter"ere% 'r#mar#ly /#th FFFFF m!$(lat#n+ "re6(en&#e%*
33. The meth!$ (%e$ t! !""%et the e""e&t !" n!#%e #n F. tran%m#%%#!n% by b!!%t#n+ h#+h "re6(en&#e% #%
4n!/n a% FFFFF*
34. T! b!!%t h#+h "re6(en&#e% a2n3 FFFFF &#r&(#t #% (%e$*
35. T! &!rre&t "!r the h#+h1"re6(en&y b!!%t) a2n3 FFFFF &#r&(#t #% (%e$ at the re&e#0er*
36.The t#me &!n%tant !" a 're1em'ha%#% &#r&(#t #% FFFFF %*
37. 8n an F. re&e#0er) "re6(en&#e% ab!0e FFFFF Hz are atten(ate$ 6 $: 'er !&ta0e*
A5<@ER<
1. an+le
2. tr(e
3. $e0#at#!n
4. am'l#t($e
5. #n&rea%e%) $e&rea%e% 2the re0er%e &!(l$ al%! be tr(e3
6. 'ha%e %h#"t
7. "re6(en&y %h#"t !r $e0#at#!n
8. &han+#n+ !r 0ary#n+
9. am'l#t($e) "re6(en&y
10. a
11. b
12. #n$#re&t F.
13. tr(e
14. m!$(lat#!n #n$e-
15.3 2m A 10B33 A 33
16. 5
17.995*5) 1004*5 N321*53 A 4*5 OHz, 1000 4*5 A 995*5 an$ 1004*5 4HzP
18. 0*28
19. :e%%el "(n&t#!n%
20. 60 N2253263A 60 4HzP
21. 75 N23*75B53100 A 75IP
22.'ha%e #n0er%#!n !r 180 %h#"t
23. "al%e
24. :@ A 40 4Hz, :@ A 28 4Hz (%#n+ Car%!n=% r(le, Car%!n=% r(le +#0e% narr!/er ban$/#$th% be&a(%e
%#$eban$% !" le%% than 2 'er&ent am'l#t($e are n!t &!n%#$ere$
25. n!#%e
26. a
27. l#m#ter 2!r &l#''er3
28. &a't(re e""e&t
29. C
30. %'e&tr(m %'a&e
31. "al%e
32. h#+h
33. 're1em'ha%#%
34. h#+h1'a%% "#lter
35. $e1em'ha%#%
36. 75
37. 2122
CHAPTER 5
Freuenc! Modulation Circuits
1. The &!m'!nent m!%t /#$ely (%e$ "!r F. !r P. #% the 0ara&t!r $#!$e !r 0!lta+e 0ar#able &a'a&#t!r
2;;C3*
2. A ;;C #% a %'e&#ally $e%#+ne$ %#l#&!n (n&t#!n $#!$e !'t#m#ze$ "!r lar+e &a'a&#t#0e 0ar#at#!n%*
3. A re0er%e1b#a%e$ (n&t#!n $#!$e /#ll a&t a% a %mall &a'a&#t!r /here the $e'let#!n re+#!n #% the $#ele&tr#&*
4. The &a'a&#tan&e !" a 0ara&t!r #% #n0er%ely 'r!'!rt#!nal t! the re0er%e1b#a%e$ 0!lta+e am'l#t($e*
5. The m!%t &!mm!n "re6(en&y m!$(lat!r% (%e a 0ara&t!r t! 0ary the "re6(en&y !" an LC &#r&(#t !r &ry%tal
#n a&&!r$an&e /#th the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
6. A rea&tan&e m!$(lat!r #% an am'l#"#er that #% ma$e t! a''ear #n$(&t#0e !r &a'a&#t#0e by 'ha%e %h#"t* 8t #%
(%e$ t! 'r!$(&e /#$e $e0#at#!n $#re&t F.*
7. Cry%tal !%&#llat!r% are 're"erre$ "!r the#r "re6(en&y %tab#l#ty !0er LC !%&#llat!r%) b(t !nly 0ery %mall
"re6(en&y $e0#at#!n #% '!%%#ble /#th &ry%tal !%&#llat!r%*
8. An 8C ;C7 'r!$(&e% e-&ellent $e0#at#!n F. at "re6(en&#e% bel!/ 1 .Hz*
9. 8n a 'ha%e m!$(lat!r) the &arr#er #% %h#"te$ #n 'ha%e #n a&&!r$an&e /#th the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal* Th#%
'r!$(&e% #n$#re&t F.*
10. 7ne !" the be%t 'ha%e m!$(lat!r% #% a 'arallel t(ne$ &#r&(#t &!ntr!lle$ by a 0ara&t!r*
11. .!%t 'ha%e m!$(lat!r% 'r!$(&e 0ery %mall am!(nt% !" "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n*
12. Fre6(en&y $e0#at#!n an$ &arr#er "re6(en&y &an be #n&rea%e$ by 'a%%#n+ them thr!(+h a "re6(en&y
m(lt#'l#er*
13. 7ne !" the !l$e%t an$ be%t "re6(en&y $em!$(lat!r% #% the F!%ter1<eeley $#%&r#m#nat!r that #% a 'ha%e
$ete&t!r /h!%e !(t'(t 0!lta+e #n&rea%e% !r $e&rea%e% /#th 'ha%e &han+e% 'r!$(&e$ by #n'(t
"re6(en&y $e0#at#!n*
14. A F!%ter1<eeley $#%&r#m#nat!r #% %en%#t#0e t! #n'(t am'l#t($e 0ar#at#!n% an$) there"!re) m(%t be
're&e$e$ by a l#m#ter*
15. A 0ar#at#!n !" the F!%ter1<eeley $#%&r#m#nat!r #% the rat#! $ete&t!r /#$ely (%e$ #n !l$er T; re&e#0er
$e%#+n%* A 'r#mary a$0anta+e !" the rat#! $ete&t!r #% that n! l#m#ter #% nee$e$*
16. A '(l%e1a0era+#n+ $#%&r#m#nat!r &!n0ert% an F. %#+nal #nt! a %6(are /a0e !" #$ent#&al "re6(en&y
0ar#at#!n (%#n+ a zer! &r!%%#n+ $ete&t!r) &!m'arat!r) !r l#m#ter &#r&(#t* Th#% &#r&(#t tr#++er% a !ne %h!t
that 'r!$(&e% '(l%e% that are a0era+e$ #n a l!/'a%% "#lter t! re'r!$(&e the !r#+#nal m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
17. A 6(a$rat(re $ete&t!r (%e% a (n#6(e 'ha%e %h#"t &#r&(#t t! 'r!0#$e 6(a$rat(re 290J3 F. #n'(t %#+nal% t!
a 'ha%e $ete&t!r* The 'ha%e $ete&t!r 'r!$(&e% a $#""erent '(l%e /#$th "!r $#""erent 'ha%e %h#"t%* The%e
'(l%e /#$th 0ar#at#!n% are a0era+e$ #n a l!/1'a%% "#lter t! re&!0er the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
18. K(a$rat(re $ete&t!r% are a0a#lable #n 8C "!rm an$ are !ne !" the m!%t /#$ely (%e$ T; a($#!
$em!$(lat!r%*
19. A $#""erent#al 'ea4 $ete&t!r #% an 8C F. $em!$(lat!r that (%e% a $#""erent#al am'l#"#er an$ &a'a&#t#0e
%t!ra+e 'ea4 $ete&t!r% 'l(% t(ne$ &#r&(#t% t! tran%late "re6(en&y 0ar#at#!n% #nt! 0!lta+e 0ar#at#!n%*
20. A 'ha%e1l!&4e$ l!!' 2PEE3 #% a "ee$ba&4 &!ntr!l &#r&(#t ma$e (' !" a 'ha%e $ete&t!r) 0!lta+e &!ntr!lle$
!%&#llat!r 2;C73) an$ l!/1'a%% "#lter* The 'ha%e $ete&t!r &!m'are% an #n'(t %#+nal t! the ;C7 %#+nal an$
'r!$(&e% an !(t'(t that #% "#ltere$ by a l!/1'a%% "#lter #nt! an err!r %#+nal that &!ntr!l% the ;C7
"re6(en&y*
21. The PEE #% %yn&hr!n#ze$ !r l!&4e$ /hen the #n'(t an$ ;C7 "re6(en&#e% are e6(al* 8n'(t "re6(en&y
&han+e% &a(%e a 'ha%e !r "re6(en&y %h#"t /h#&h) #n t(rn) 'r!$(&e% an err!r %#+nal that "!r&e% the ;C7
t! tra&4 the #n'(t an$ re$(&e the#r $#""eren&e t! zer!*
22. The ran+e !" "re6(en&#e% !0er /h#&h a PEE /#ll tra&4 an #n'(t #% &alle$ the l!&4 ran+e* 8" the #n'(t %tray%
!(t%#$e) the l!&4 ran+e) the PEE /#ll +! !(t !" l!&4 an$ the ;C7 /#ll !'erate at #t% "ree1r(nn#n+
"re6(en&y*
23. The &a't(re ran+e !" a PEE #% that narr!/ ban$ !" "re6(en&#e% !0er /h#&h a PEE /#ll re&!+n#ze an$ l!&4
!nt! an #n'(t %#+nal* The &a't(re ran+e #% narr!/er than the l!&4 ran+e an$ #t ma4e% the PEE l!!4 l#4e a
ban$'a%% "#lter*
24. The PEE #% the be%t "re6(en&y $em!$(lat!r be&a(%e #t% "#lter#n+ a&t#!n rem!0e% n!#%e an$ #nter"eren&e
an$ #t% h#+hly l#near !(t'(t "a#th"(lly re'r!$(&e% the !r#+#nal m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal*
<EEF1TE<T
<(''ly the m#%%#n+ /!r$2%3 #n ea&h %tatement*
Ch!!%e the letter that be%t an%/er% ea&h 6(e%t#!n*
1. 8n&rea%#n+ the re0er%e b#a% !n a 0!lta+e 0ar#able &a'a&#t!r &a(%e% #t% &a'a&#tan&e t!
a* 8n&rea%e
b* 9e&rea%e
2. C!nne&t#n+ a ;;C a&r!%% a 'arallel EC &#r&(#t &a(%e% the re%!nant "re6(en&y t!
a* 8n&rea%e
b* 9e&rea%e
3. 8n the &#r&(#t !" F#+* 513) a ne+at#0e1+!#n+ m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal &a(%e% the &arr#er "re6(en&y t!
a* 8n&rea%e
b* 9e&rea%e 2'a+e 871Frenzel3
4. A &ry%tal #% !'erat#n+ #n #t% %er#e% re%!nant m!$e* A ;;C #% &!nne&te$ #n %er#e% /#th #t* The &ry%tal
"re6(en&y
a* 8n&rea%e%
b* 9e&rea%e%
5. @h#&h #% &a'able !" +reater "re6(en&y $e0#at#!nH
a. EC !%&#llat!r
b* Cry%tal !%&#llat!r
6. An!ther name "!r 0!lta+e10ar#able &a'a&#t!r #% FFFFF*
7. .!%t ;;C% ha0e a n!m#nal &a'a&#tan&e #n the FFFFF t! FFFFF 'F ran+e*
8. A &ry%tal !%&#llat!r ha% %('er#!r FFFFF !0er an EC !%&#llat!r*
9. The a&r!nym ;C7 mean% FFFFF*
10. A 0!lta+e10ar#able &ry%tal !%&#llat!r #% re"erre$ t! a% a2n3 FFFFF*
11. Carr#er "re6(en&y an$ "re6(en&y $e0#at#!n may be #n&rea%e$ by (%#n+ a2n3 FFFFF a"ter the &arr#er
!%&#llat!r*
12. A rea&tan&e m!$(lat!r #% %et (' t! a&t l#4e an #n$(&t#0e rea&tan&e* 8" the m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal #n&rea%e% #n
am'l#t($e) the e""e&t#0e #n$(&tan&e $e&rea%e%* Th#% &a(%e%* The !%&#llat!r "re6(en&y t! FFFFF*
13. An 8C ;C7 n!rmally (%e% a &!mb#nat#!n !" FFFFF an$ FFFFF t! %et the &enter !'erat#n+ "re6(en&y*
14. Tr(e !r "al%e* ;!lta+e10ar#able &a'a&#t!r% %h!(l$ n!t be "!r/ar$1b#a%e$*
15.Tr(e !r "al%e* F!r h#+hly %table &arr#er +enerat!r%) EC !%&#llat!r% are 're"erre$ !0er &ry%tal !%&#llat!r%*
16. Tr(e !r "al%e* A rea&tan&e m!$(lat!r #% (%e$ /#th &ry%tal !%&#llat!r%*
17. Tr(e !r "al%e* 8C ;C7 !'erate% 'r#mar#ly at "re6(en&#e% bel!/ 1 .Hz*
18. Pha%e m!$(lat#!n #% &alle$ FFFFF F.*
19. Tr(e !r "al%e* Pha%e m!$(lat#!n 'r!$(&e% "re6(en&y 0ar#at#!n a% /ell a% am'l#t($e 0ar#at#!n !" the
&arr#er*
20.8n a %#m'le RC net/!r4) the 'ha%e %h#"t #% bet/een FFFFF an$ FFFFF $e+ree%*
21. 8n the &#r&(#t% !" F#+* 517) 'ha%e #% 0ar#e$ by &han+#n+ the FFFFF !r FFFFF* 2'a+e 911Frenzel3
22. Ear+er l#near 'ha%e %h#"t% are !bta#ne$ /#th a2n3 FFFFF &#r&(#t*
23. The &!ntr!l element #n a 'ha%e m!$(lat!r #% (%(ally a2n3 FFFFF*
24. 8n F#+* 5110) the &!m'!nent /h#&h a$(%t% the $e0#at#!n #% FFFFF* 2'a+e 931Frenzel3
25.8" a 'arallel EC &#r&(#t #% at re%!nan&e) #n&rea%#n+ C /#ll &a(%e the &(rrent t! FFFFF 2lea$) la+3 the a''l#e$
0!lta+e*
26.8n F#+* 5172b3) #" C #% $e&rea%e$) /#ll the 'ha%e %h#"t #n&rea%e !r $e&rea%eH 2'a+e 911Frenzel3
27. 8n the 'ha%e m!$(lat!r !" F#+* 518) the FET &(rrent #% the 'ha%!r %(m !" the &(rrent% 'r!$(&e$ by FFFFF
an$ FFFFF*
28. The %mall 'ha%e %h#"t% 'r!$(&e$ by #n$#re&t P. are #n&rea%e$ by %en$#n+ the P. %#+nal t! a2n3 FFFFF
&#r&(#t*
29. 8n the F!%ter1<eeley $#%&r#m#nat!r an$ rat#! $ete&t!r &#r&(#t%) an #n'(t "re6(en&y 0ar#at#!n 'r!$(&e%
a2n3 FFFFF that &a(%e% an !(t'(t 0!lta+e 0ar#at#!n*
30. 8n the '(l%e1a0era+#n+ $#%&r#m#nat!r) a l!/ 'a%% "#lter a0era+e% the "#-e$1/#$th) "#-e$ am'l#t($e '(l%e%
"r!m a2n3 FFFFF*
31. <h!(l$ the #n'(t "re6(en&y #n&rea%e !r $e&rea%e "!r the a0era+e 0!lta+e !(t'(t !" the l!/1'a%% "#lter #n
a '(l%e1a0era+#n+ $#%&r#m#nat!r t! #n&rea%eH
32. K(a$rat(re re"er% t! a FFFFFJ 'ha%e $#""eren&e*
33. 8n F#+* 5113) $!e% #n'(t : la+ !r lea$ #n'(t AH 2'a+e 961Frenzel3
34. The 'ha%e $ete&t!r #n a 6(a$rat(re $ete&t!r #% (%(ally a2n3 FFFFF*
35. The 6(a$rat(re $ete&t!r #n'(t &#r&(#t 'r!$(&e% a 0ary#n+ FFFFF a% the #n'(t "re6(en&y &han+e%*
36. The 0ary#n+1/#$th '(l%e% 'r!$(&e$ by the 6(a$rat(re $ete&t!r are &!n0erte$ #nt! the !r#+#nal
m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal by a2n3 FFFFF*
37. The &#r&(#t #n a $#""erent#al 'ea4 $ete&t!r 8C that tem'!rar#ly %t!re% the 'ea4 0al(e !" an #n'(t %#ne
/a0e #% &alle$ a2n3 FFFFF*
38. 8n the $#""erent#al 'ea4 $ete&t!r) the &!m'!nent% FFFFF &!n0ert "re6(en&y 0ar#at#!n% #nt! the am'l#t($e
0ar#at#!n% that (lt#mately be&!me the !(t'(t*
39. The three ma#n element% !" a PEE are FFFFF*
40. The FFFFF &#r&(#t 8n a PEE re&!+n#ze% FFFFF !r FFFFF &han+e% bet/een the #n'(t an$ ;C7 %#+nal%*
41. The 'art FFFFF !" a PEE #% a %#m'le "re6(en&y m!$(lat!r*
42. 8t #% the FFFFF %#+nal #n the PEE that 0ar#e% the ;C7 "re6(en&y*
43. The ran+e !" "re6(en&#e% !0er /h#&ha PEE /#ll &a(%e the #n'(t an$ ;C7 %#+nal% t! rema#n %yn&hr!n#ze$
#% 4n!/n a% the FFFFF ran+e*
44. 8" the PEE #n'(t #% zer!) the ;C7 /#ll !'erate at #t% FFFFF "re6(en&y*
45. The ran+e !" "re6(en&#e% !0er /h#&h a PEE /#ll lat&h !nt! !r re&!+n#ze an #n'(t %#+nal #% &alle$ the FFFFF
ran+e*
46. <#n&e a PEE /#ll !nly re%'!n$ t! %#+nal% !0er a narr!/ "re6(en&y ran+e) #t a&t% l#4e a2n3 FFFFF*
47. 8n a PEE "re6(en&y $em!$(lat!r) the err!r %#+nal #% the FFFFF*
48. 8n a PEE $em!$(lat#n+ an F. %#+nal) the ;C7 !(t'(t #% an e-a&t re'r!$(&t#!n !" the FFFFF*
49. Tr(e !r "al%e* The F!%ter1<eeley $#%&r#m#nat!r #% %en%#t#0e t! #n'(t am'l#t($e a% /ell a% "re6(en&y
0ar#at#!n%*
50. Tr(e !r "al%e* The rat#! $ete&t!r re6(#re% a l#m#ter*
51. Tr(e !r "al%e* The l!&4 ran+e !" a PEE #% narr!/er than the &a't(re ran+e*
A5<@ER<
1. b
2. b
3. b
4. a
5. a
6. 0ara&t!r $#!$e 2!r 0ar#&a'3
7. 1)200
8. "re6(en&y %tab#l#ty
9. 0!lta+e1&!ntr!lle$ !%&#llat!r
10. ;Q7
11. "re6(en&y m(lt#'l#er
12. #n&rea%e
13. re%#%tan&e) &a'a&#tan&e
14. tr(e
15. "al%e
16. "al%e
17. tr(e
18. #n$#re&t
19. tr(e
20. 0) 90
21. re%#%tan&e) &a'a&#tan&e
22. 'arallel re%!nant 2!r t(ne$3
23. 0ara&t!r
24.R04
25. lea$
26. $e&rea%e
27.C1) C2) K1 an$ C1) R1) K1
28. "re6(en&y m(lt#'l#er
29. 'ha%e %h#"t
30. !ne1%h!t !r m!n!%table m(lt#0#brat!r
31. #n&rea%e
32. 90
33. lea$
34. $#""erent#al am'l#"#er
35. 'ha%e %h#"t
36. l!/1'a%% "#lter
37. 'ea4 $ete&t!r
38.C1) C2) E1
39. 'ha%e $ete&t!r) ;C7) l!/1'a%% "#lter
40. 'ha%e $ete&t!r) "re6(en&y) 'ha%e
41. ;C7
42. err!r
43. l!&4
44. "ree1r(nn#n+
45. &a't(re
46. ban$ 'a%% "#lter
47. m!$(lat#n+ %#+nal !r #n"!rmat#!n %#+nal
48. F. #n'(t
49. tr(e
50. "al%e
51. "al%e