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Dirks Accordion Tuner V2.

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Manual

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1. Dirk's Accordion Tuner
This tuner is developed for tuning of accordions and similar `free-reed' instruments such as the diatonic
harmonica, the concertina, the bandonen, the melodica and the reed organ. Dirk's Tuner is developed
for professional experienced tuners, but because it gives good insights in the tuning process, it is very
suitable for beginning tuners as well.

The unique possibilities of this tuner simplify and accelerate the tuning process considerably. The tuner
has a large range from E0 up to C9, a very high accuracy of less than 0.05 Hz (waves of longer than 20
seconds) and can measure to three reeds at the same time. Because of this the tuning of the accordion
can be measured without disabling reeds before opening the case. The real frequencies of the reeds
which are influenced by each other and by the case can be measured now. This way it is considerably
simpler and quicker to select the reed that deviates and needs attention. The tuner measures beatings
that arise because the reeds sound together and shows these in Cent or Hertz. Beatings cannot be
measured accurately enough by measuring the reeds separately, but by measuring them at the same
time it is accurate enough. See chapter 25 for an explanation concerning the accuracy of the tuner. The
measured beatings are compared to the beating list of the accordion concerned which indicates the
desired beating for each note. This beating list can be produced rapidly and simply using a graph in the
tuner.

The tuner can be extended with a module that can record and save all notes of the accordion quickly
and create a report afterwards. This report gives the error of each reed in an easy to read table. After
opening the accordion, the reeds which deviate too much can be corrected on the tuning table using the
values from the report. The reeds (that have a deviated frequency outside the case) will get the correct
frequency after being put back in the accordion. The report can be printed again afterwards and join the
accordion as a tuning report.

Also chords (three reeds) and octaves (two or three reeds in several octaves) can be measured by the
tuner, so the case does not need to be opened for these as well.

Beside the mentioned basic functions, the tuner has a lot of additional functions such as:
- increase the tuner to a full screen for a clear overview.
- freeze the screen to be able to examine the numbers and graphs well.
- play notes using the sound card.
- automatically or manually select the notes to measure.
- automatic correction of possible errors in the accuracy of the sound card.
- automatic reduction of undesirable context sounds and disturbances.

The tuner runs on a pc or laptop with a Windows operating system and works with both built in and
externally connected microphones.
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Table of contents

1. Dirk's Accordion Tuner ..................................................................................................................... 2
2. The trial version................................................................................................................................. 4
3. Extension modules............................................................................................................................ 4
4. A number of important terms............................................................................................................ 5
5. Choice and placement of the microphone....................................................................................... 7
6. The first use....................................................................................................................................... 9
7. Tuning..............................................................................................................................................11
8. The input signal...............................................................................................................................16
9. The equalizer ..................................................................................................................................16
10. The detected note...........................................................................................................................16
11. The frequency spectrum of the detected note...............................................................................17
12. The errors of the reeds ...................................................................................................................17
13. Manual selection of the note to tune..............................................................................................18
14. Measuring long lasting notes..........................................................................................................18
15. Playing notes...................................................................................................................................19
16. Transpose .......................................................................................................................................19
17. Configure the frequency of the A4 ..................................................................................................19
18. Measuring chords ...........................................................................................................................20
19. Measuring octaves..........................................................................................................................21
20. Settings............................................................................................................................................23
21. Beating lists.....................................................................................................................................26
22. Tuning accordions...........................................................................................................................33
23. Tuning accordions with the module 'record and report' ................................................................34
24. Noise reduction and accuracy........................................................................................................41
25. The accuracy of the tuner...............................................................................................................42
26. Hertz and Cent ................................................................................................................................43
27. Beating ............................................................................................................................................44
28. The equal temperament .................................................................................................................45
29. An overview of the screens ............................................................................................................46
30. An overview of the buttons .............................................................................................................47
31. Shortcut keys and clicks .................................................................................................................48
32. Frequency table of the notes..........................................................................................................49
33. System requirements......................................................................................................................52
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2. The trial version
The trial version is meant for getting a good idea of the possibilities of the tuner. Only part of the notes
from the scale can be measured with this version. The following notes are supported: E0 F0 G#0 A0 C1
C#1 E1 F1 G#1 A1 C2 C#2 E2 F2 G#2 A2 C3 C#3 E3 F3 G#3 A3 C4 C#4 E4 F4 G#4 A4 C5 C#5 E5 F5
G#5 A5 C6 C#6 E6 F6 G#6 A6 C7 C#7 E7 F7 G#7 A7 C8 C#8 E8 F8 G#8 A8 C9

3. Extension modules
The tuner can be extended with modules. These extension modules add extra functionality. At this
moment there is one extension module available. This module adds the possibility to record and save all
tones of the accordion quickly and generate a report. Check the Internet site for new extension modules:
http://www.dirksprojects.nl
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4. A number of important terms

Frequency
the number of waves per second of a tone (pitch).

Sound
the range of waves that can be observed by the human ear.

Tone
sound with a fixed pitch.

Note
notation for a tone with a specific pitch and length.

Scale
increasing or decreasing sequence of tones in a fixed order.

Pitch
the perceived frequency of a tone. This is the fundamental frequency.

Fundamental tone
the perceived pitch of a sound is that of the fundamental. The fundamental is the lowest tone of the
tones from which the sound has been built.

Overtone
a tone in a sound with a higher frequency then the fundamental. The overtones of a sound are
multiples of the fundamental.

Beating
the beating in sound which occurs when two tones with a small difference in pitch sound at the same
time.

Interval
The difference in pitch between two notes.

Semitone
the smallest musical interval that is used in western music. An octave exists out of twelve semitones.
In an equal temperament all semitones are equally large. a piano the interval between two
successive white keys is one semitone if there is no black key in between. If there is a black key in
between the white keys, then the interval between the two white keys is two semitones. The interval
between the white keys and the black one is then one semitone. The interval between a note and the
same sharp note (for example C and C
#
) is always one semitone.

Octave
the difference between two tones of which the frequency of the second tone is twice as high as that of
the first.
1 Octave = 12 Semitones.

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Tuning or temperament
the way the frequencies of the notes are chosen. In Western music the equal temperament is most
popular. Other temperaments are for example: the just intonation, the Pythagorean tuning, the mean
tone temperament, the well temperament and the 31 equal temperament.

Chromatic scale
a chromatic scale is a scale that contains all twelve semitones of the octave:
c c
#
d d
#
e f f
#
g g
#
a a
#
b (the white and black keys of a piano)

Half-tone and whole-tone steps
a half tone step is equal to an interval of one semitone such as the interval between two successive
white keys on a piano without a black key in between. A complete tone step is equal to an interval of
two semitones such as the interval between two successive white keys on a piano that do have a
black key in between.

Diatonic scale
a diatonic scale is a scale with half and whole-tone steps:
C major: c d e f g a b (the white keys on a piano or the buttons on a diatonic harmonica)
C minor: c d e
b
f g a
b
b
b


Bisonoric
the term 'bisonoric' is used to indicate to that a key of an accordion-like instrument generates a
different tone when closing or opening the bellows. Examples: bandonen, squeeze box, harmonica.

Hertz
unit for frequency.
1 Hz = 1 wave per second.

Cent
logarithmic unit for the difference in pitch with respect to a tone in the scale.
1200 Cent = 1 Octave.
100 Cent = the distance between 2 successive semitones in an equal temperament.

Frequency spectrum
all frequencies that occur in a sound. The frequency spectrum can be presented in the form of a
graph.

Tuning table
a work table with all kinds of supplies for tuning the reeds of an accordion.
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5. Choice and placement of the microphone

The accuracy of the microphone
For the tuner only the frequency of the measured sound is important. The sound volume does not
matter. The accuracy of the sensitivity of the microphone is not important. The accuracy of the
measured frequency is important. This is however easily sufficient in any microphone.

Externally connected or built in
A built in microphone such as those present in the most laptops, is well usable, but catches more
surrounding noise than an externally to the sound card connected microphone. The case of the laptop
catches up sounds and vibrations and passes them on to the microphone. The cooling fan of the laptop
is an important source of surrounding noise. The majority of this noise is suppressed by the tuner as a
result of which the built in microphone works nevertheless well. Another, much larger, disadvantage of
the built in microphone is that it is impossible (or difficult) to position it right with respect to the
accordion. An external microphone, which is connected with a wire to the sound card, can simply be
placed on the desired location.

Dynamic or condenser
Microphones can roughly be divided in two groups: dynamic microphones and condenser microphones.
More types exist (electret, c-ducer, pzm, crystal, pizo), but they are a little used.





Dynamic microphones and Jack plug





Condenser microphones, preamplifier and XLR plug



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A dynamic microphone exists of a membrane which is placed in a magnetic field. Sound lets the
membrane vibrate in the magnetic field as a result of which an electric voltage is generated. This type of
microphone can be connected without a preamplifier (and therefore also without a power supply) directly
to a sound card and is generally equipped with a so-called Jack plug.

A condenser microphone exists of a conductive membrane which is placed near a fixed, also
conductive, plate. Because of this a condenser is created of which the capacity is dependant of the
position of the membrane. Sound lets the membrane vibrate as a result of which the capacity of the
condenser vibrates as well. By introducing an electric voltage to the condenser, its capacity, and
therefore the sound signal, can be measured. This voltage is called the phantom voltage for which a
special preamplifier is necessary. This type of microphone cannot be connected direct to the sound card
and is generally equipped with a so-called XLR plug.

The dynamic microphone is cheap and can be connected to the sound card directly. The condenser
microphone is expensive and needs an expensive preamplifier with phantom power. The better quality
of the condenser microphone does not improve the accuracy of the tuner. The tuner works very well
with both types but for aforesaid reasons the dynamic microphone is preferred.

Placement of the microphone
The placement of the microphone with respect to the accordion largely determines the sensitivity of the
microphone for the accordion reeds that need to be measured. Always place the microphone on the
same side of the accordion as the reeds that need to be measured. If the reeds on the keyboard-side
are measured then the microphone must be placed on the side of the keyboard. If the reeds on the
bass-side are measured then the microphone must be placed on the bass side of the accordion. If the
reeds block is taken out of the accordion and it is being tuned on the tuning table, then the microphone
must be placed above the reed block so that all reeds can be measured evenly strong. If two reeds
sound at the same time (evenly loud) and the microphone is placed at the wrong position, then it is well
possible that one of the two reeds is measured much weaker. This will influence the accuracy of the
measurement negatively.

The distance from the microphone to the accordion
If the microphone is placed closer to the accordion, the background sounds become weaker, with
respect to the sound to measure. This improves the measurement. A distance of less than half a meter
gives the best result.

Digital effects
Some microphones come with software (so-called drivers) that can modify the sound signal by means of
digital effects. These are effects such as echoes, hum filters, stereo enhancement, direction sensitivity
and noise suppression. These effects deform the measured sound signal as a result of which the tuner
can not function well. These effects must be disabled in the software of the microphone. The
microphone settings 'boost', 'sensitivity', 'volume', 'gain' and 'balance' are no problem.

Conclusion
In practice a simple dynamic microphone that is often provided with the sound card proves to work well.
The frequency range of such a cheap microphone is in most cases not known. Especially for the lower
tones, a qualitative better dynamic microphone can give better results. The much more expensive
condenser microphones are usable, but don't give a better result. Digital effects in the microphone
software must be disabled.
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6. The first use

Tool tips
By hovering above a button or a window of the tuner with the mouse pointer for a short time, a so-called
tool tip is shown. A tool tip is a small text box with explanation about the button or the window.

Select the sound input
To be able to use the tuner it is necessary to select and configure the desired sound input. Generally
this will be a microphone. For this reason the configuration screen is shown at the first start of the tuner.



The left part of the configuration screen above is important for selecting and configuring the sound input.
At 'select the recording device' you select the sound card. The different sound inputs of the selected
sound card are enumerated at 'select the sound input in the recording device'. Here you select the
sound input to use.

The sensitivity of the sound input is configured with the slider 'Sensitivity'. The current signal of the
selected sound input is shown in the graph at the bottom. The tuner works best when the input signal is
as strong as possible, but to prevent distortion of the signal it should not reach the top or the bottom of
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the graph. The signal is too strong then and the functioning of the tuner will be influenced negatively.
The strength of the signal can be reduced by moving the 'Sensitivity' slider to the left. If a microphone is
selected and the signal is too weak, the check mark 'Microphone boost' can be set to amplify the signal
more.

The balance of a stereo sound input is configured with the 'Balance' slider. In most cases the balance
will have will be set to the middle position.

The button 'Windows Recording Control for the selected device' opens the sound input configuration
screen of Windows. This screen is normally not necessary.

A 50 or 60Hz hum in the sound signal can be filtered out by setting the check mark in front of the 'hum
filters'. Such a hum is generally caused by the power supply of the computer that is picked up by the
microphone. The tuner can detect the hum (when the hum filters are disabled) as a G1 (49Hz), a A#1
(58,27Hz) or a B1 (61,74Hz).
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7. Tuning

See to quiet surroundings
The tuner removes undesirable monotonous background sounds. It is however virtually impossible to
distinguish a playing accordion in the background from the desired foreground sounds. The sounds to
tune must be louder than the background sounds and the background sounds influence the speed of the
tuner negatively. The best result is reached in quiet surroundings with few background sounds.

Wait for the initialization
Start the tuner and wait until the text 'Initializing' disappears. Shortly after start up the tuner measures
the background sounds for approximately five seconds. If a note is played during this period, it will be
considered as a background sound. This note will then not be recognized shortly after the initialization. If
this happens, then stop playing the note and waits approximately ten seconds before playing the note
again.




Notes, octaves or chords
Choose what you want to tune using the buttons 'Octaves' and 'Chords': single notes (none of both
buttons pressed), octaves ('Octaves' button pressed) or chords ('Chords' button pressed).

Select the number of reeds
Select the correct number of reeds with the 'Reeds' button. This number must equal the number of
reeds that sound at the same time. If more reeds sound than are selected, then the tuner will recognize
the loudest reeds, but never more than selected. If the sound volumes of the reeds lie closely to each
other and varies a bit then the reeds recognized by the tuner can jump from one to the other and the
reading will be difficult. If less reeds sound than are selected, then there is a chance that the tuner
recognizes a tone from the background sounds. This chance however is small and if it happens, it is not
really a problem, but it makes the reading less clear.

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Error! Not a valid link.Play the note to tune
Play the note to tune with constant bellow pressure until the red text 'Lock' appears. The pitch of the
reed varies a bit with the bellow pressure. If the bellow pressure gets higher the top of the reed will
swing back and forth further as a result of which the pitch decreases. For this reason it is important to
tune with approximately the same bellow pressure as with which the accordion is played. As soon as the
measured note is stable and accurate the red text 'Lock' appears. The tuner will now no longer jump to
another note as long as the current note plays.




Do not play the note for too long
The tuner removes long lasting monotonous background sounds such as the sound of a cooling fan. If
the note to measure lasts for too long (approximately 30 seconds), then it will be recognized as a
background sound and will be removed. If this happens, stop playing the note for approximately five
seconds before continuing tuning.

Watch the sound volume
If the sound volume is too high the input signal will deform, which influences the functioning of the tuner
negatively. If this occurs regularly, then go to the configuration screen (Menu - Settings) and reduce the
sensitivity of the input signal ('Sensitivity' slider). The tuner watches the sound volume and shows to the
red blinking text 'input signal too strong!' as soon as the volume become too high.

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Check the detected note
The tuner shows the value of the detected note. The octave of the note is shown at the bottom right of
the note character. The A of 440 Hz is in octave 4 and is shown as A4.




Read the errors numerically
The errors of the measured reeds are shown by the tuner numerically. These errors can be calculated
with respect to the exact frequency from the scale. This way the reeds must be tuned so that the
measured errors are equal to the desired beatings. The moving red needles show the same errors. The
errors can also be calculated with respect to the desired beatings from the beating list. This way the
reeds must be tuned so that the measured errors are all zero. In chapter 21 it is explained how beating
lists can be used. The method that is used to calculate the errors can be configured in the configuration
screen (Menu - Settings).




Read the errors with the moving needles
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The errors of the measured reeds are also shown by the tuner by means of moving red needles. These
errors are calculated with respect to the exact frequency from the scale. The scale of the gauge runs
from 50 Cent too low to 50 Cent too high. This is the range of one semitone. This way the reeds must be
tuned so that the measured errors are equal to the desired beatings. The errors cannot be calculated
here with respect to the desired beatings from the beating list. The absolute frequencies of the
measured reeds can be shown in text boxes (in Hertz). With the 'Freq' button at the bottom of the tuner
these boxes can be turned on and off.




Read the beatings
The beatings of the measured reeds are shown by the tuner numerically. The 'Hz/Cent' button changes
between presentation in Hertz or in Cent.




Freeze the tuner
The tuner can be frozen so that the shown values and graphs remain unchanged and can be read
quietly. The tuner is also frozen by pressing the spacebar on the keyboard.




Enlarge the tuner to a full screen
The tuner can be enlarged to a full screen so that the shown values and graphs can be read well, also
on a larger distance.

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8. The input signal
The sound signal that the tuner uses for its measurements is graphically shown in the top left corner of
the tuner. The degree in which the signal goes up and down indicates the strength of the input sound. If
the sound becomes too strong to fit in its window, then the signal is not shown any stronger so that it will
always fit in its window. The name of the sound input that is chosen in the settings screen (Menu -
Settings) is also shown in this window. You can use this window to check if the input signal is present.




9. The equalizer
The tuner converts the input signal from a time signal to a frequency signal. The equalizer shows the
strength of the measured notes (from E0 up to C9) graphically. Each vertical blue bar reflects the
strength of the note concerned. How stronger the note in the measured signal how higher the bar. If one
of the bars becomes too strong to fit in its window, then the bars is not shown any stronger so that it will
always fit in its window. In this case all notes are shown less strongly so that the note strengths with
respect to each other are still correct. In this window also the overtones present in the input sound are
visible. The tuner does use these. The strengths of the background sounds are represented by a small
horizontal green line. If the blue bar reaches the green line then the tuner recognizes that note as a
foreground sound. The tuner selects the note to tune from the foreground sound. The selected note is
marked by a dark green background. When tuning chords or octaves several notes are selected.




10. The detected note
The detected note is shown as a character, an octave number and possibly a sharp sign in the note
window of the tuner. The frequency of the tone in the scale is shown in the top left corner of this window.
This is not the measured frequency. Below this frequency it is indicated if the note is selected
automatically or manually. The configured frequency for the A4 is shown in the top right corner of this
window. This is 440.0 Hz by default. If the notes are transposed then this is indicated at the bottom of
this window.

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11. The frequency spectrum of the detected note
The vertical blue bar in the equalizer of the detected note covers a small part of the total frequency
spectrum (all blue bars) of the input sound. The tuner enlarges the frequency spectrum of this one
detected blue bar and shows it graphically in the frequency spectrum window. The horizontal axis
represents the frequency and vertical axis represents the strength of the frequencies. The red line
shows the frequency spectrum of the detected note. The ends of the red line proceed in white lines.
These white lines show a small part of the adjacent notes. The high peaks in the red line indicate the
measured frequencies of the input sound. Each sounding reed of the accordion causes a peak in the
frequency spectrum. The distance between two peaks determines the frequency of the observed
beating. The tuner detects the peaks in the red line and marks these with blue vertical lines. There are
no more peaks detected than the number of reeds configured. The configured number of reeds is shown
in the bottom right corner of this window. The vertical dark green line indicates the frequency from the
scale of the detected note. The vertical light green lines indicate the desired deviations for the reeds
from the beating list. The distances between the blue and the green lines indicate the errors of the
reeds. If single tones, chords or octaves are measured is shown in the bottom left corner of this window.
The calibrated correction factor for the frequencies is shown in the top right corner of this window.




12. The errors of the reeds
The errors of the reeds are shown numerically and with moving red needles. The beatings are
calculated and shown numerically. The absolute frequencies of the reeds can be shown numerically as
well. See chapter 7 for an explanation concerning reading the errors and beatings.

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13. Manual selection of the note to tune
If the 'Auto' button is pressed then the tuner selects the note to tune automatically. If this button is not
pressed then the note to tune can be selected manually. The note to tune can be selected with the four
buttons '- Note +' and '- Octave +'. The left and right arrows on the keyboard can also be used for this.
The selected note is marked in the equalizer window with a green background.

Manual selection of the note to tune can be used (among other things) in the following situations:
- In the automatic selection mode the tuner selects the fundamental of the input sound. In manual
selection mode it is possible to measure one of the other tones (for example an overtone).
- In manual selection mode the tuner reacts more sensitively as a result of which it becomes possible
to measure weaker tones.
- In the settings screen (Menu - Settings) it can be configured that the tuner must measure
continuously, in the manual selection mode, also if there is no foreground sound present. This way
long lasting sounds can be measured.
- If many disturbing background sounds are present in the automatic selection mode, it can occur that
the tuner selects the wrong note now and then.




14. Measuring long lasting notes
Long lasting notes will be recognized by the tuner as background sound after approximately 30
seconds. These sounds will then no longer be selected automatically. In the settings screen (Menu -
Settings) it can be configured that the tuner must measure continuously, in the manual selection mode,
also if there is no foreground sound present. This way long lasting notes and other background sounds
can nevertheless be measured.

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15. Playing notes
In manual selection mode the tuner can play notes using the sound card. By clicking on the 'Sound'
button the selected note is played for ten seconds. The tuner corrects the frequency of the playing note
by means of the calibration which is carried out at start up. Because of this the playing note is not
dependent on the accuracy of the sound card. The generated sound wave is sine shaped. Sound
volume is strongly dependant on the pitch and the frequency characterization of the used speakers.
Without a bass speaker the lower tones (below the C3) can generally not be heard at all.

The playing note can be used to check the tuning 'by ear' or to find the selected note on the accordion
quickly. It is also a quick test to check if the tuner is functioning.




16. Transpose
To tune your instrument in another tone then the standard C, you can use the buttons '- Trans +' in the
bottom of the tuner. With these buttons the tuning can be transposed to another tone. In the bottom of
the note screen it is indicated where the C of the instrument is transposed to. 'C => C
#
'' means that
when a C
#
is measured this is shown in the tuner as a C. All other tones are transposed proportionally.
The transpose function only works when measuring single notes and not when measuring chords or
octaves.




17. Configure the frequency of the A4
To tune an instrument in another pitch then the standard A=440Hz you can use the slider on the right
side of the tuner. With this slider the frequency of the A4 can be adjusted between 430Hz and 450Hz in
steps of 1Hz. All other tones will change proportionally. If the frequency must be adjusted even further, it
is possible to combine the A4 frequency with transposing one or more semitones. See chapter 16. By
double clicking on the slider the default frequency of 440Hz is set again. The current pitch (frequency) of
the A4 is shown in the top of the note window.
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If notes are recorded with the 'Record' button then it is not possible to modify the frequency of the A4. In
order to be able to compare the recorded notes it is necessary that the A4 frequency stays the same.




18. Measuring chords
The tuner can measure chords which exist of three notes. The three notes are measured at the same
time as a result of which the tuner is able to show the name of the chord such as: Dm, A, Fsus2 or Edim.
The tuner measures chords if the 'Chord' button at the bottom of the tuner is pressed.

The tuner selects the three notes of the chord from the input sound and marks these in the equalizer
window with a dark green background. The name of the chord is shown in the note window. The
frequency spectrum window is subdivided into three parts so that the frequency spectra of all three
notes can be shown. See chapter 9 for an explanation about the equalizer window. See chapter 11 for
an explanation about the frequency spectrum window.




The measured errors of the three reeds are shown numerically and with three red needles. The name of
the note from the chord is shown in dark green together with the concerning numerical errors. The
errors are calculated with respect to the exact frequency from the scale. The scale of the windows with
the red needles runs from 30 Cent too low to 30 Cent too high. The absolute frequencies of the
measured reeds can be shown in text boxes (in hertz). The 'Freq' button at the bottom of the tuner turns
these boxes on and off.

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19. Measuring octaves
The tuner can measure two or three notes which are an octave apart at the same time. The octaves
must be succeeding. It is not possible to skip octaves. If the octaves are not succeeding then these
notes can be measured using the manual selection mode. See chapter 13 for an explanation about this.
The tuner measures octaves if the 'Octaves' button in the bottom of the tuner is pressed.

With the 'Reeds' button in the bottom of the tuner it is configured if 2 or 3 notes are measured. The
configured number of notes is shown in the bottom right corner of the frequency spectrum window. The
tuner selects the notes in the successive octaves from the input sound and marks these in the equalizer
window with a dark green background. The name of the note and the octave number of the lowest note
is shown in the note window. The frequency spectrum window is subdivided into three parts so that the
frequency spectra of three notes can be shown. See chapter 9 for an explanation about the equalizer
window. See chapter 11 for an explanation about the frequency spectrum window.




The measured errors of the reeds are shown numerically and with the red needles. The name of the
note and its octave number is shown in dark green together with the concerning numerical errors. The
errors are calculated with respect to the exact frequency from the scale. The scale of the windows with
the red needles runs from 30 Cent too low to 30 Cent too high. The absolute frequencies of the
measured reeds can be shown in text boxes (in Hertz). The 'Freq' button at the bottom of the tuner turns
these boxes on and off.

With notes in several octaves, the beating that occurs between the overtones of the lower octaves and
the higher octaves can be heard. This beating is measured by the tuner and is shown in hertz or in
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Cent. The 'Hz/Cent' button in the top of the tuner changes between Hertz and Cent. In the case of Cent,
the beating is calculated with respect to the higher octave.



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20. Settings
The settings screen can be opened by clicking on the 'Menu' button at the bottom of the tuner. A menu
will appear in the top left corner of the tuner in which the option 'Settings' must be chosen. The
settings screen can also be opened by clicking on the window with the input signal in the top left of the
tuner.





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Choosing the sound input
The left part of the settings screen shown below is important for selecting and configuring the sound
input. See chapter 6 for an explanation about how to select and configure the desired sound input.

A component of Windows Mixers is 'Windows Recording Control'. This is the place in Windows where
the sound input is selected and configured. The settings screen of the tuner does the same as a result
of which the Windows settings are not necessary. By clicking on the 'Windows Recording Control for the
selected device' button, the Windows settings screen for the selected sound card is opened.

Choosing the image on the main screen
In the top right corner at 'select the main screen image' the instrument that it is displayed in the middle
of the tuner is chosen.

How the errors are calculated
In the middle of the right side at 'select how to display the error values' you can choose how the
measured reed errors are shown. There are two options:

1. 'Display error values with respect to the straight pitch from the scale'.
With this option the deviation of the reed is calculated with respect to the exact frequency of the
note in the scale. This means that, during tuning, the errors shown by the tuner must become equal
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to the desired beatings.

2. 'Display error values with respect to the desired pitch from the beating list'.
With this option the deviation of the reed is calculated with respect to the desired value from the
beating list. This means that, during tuning, the errors shown by the tuner must become zero.

Disable the large tool tips
By hovering above a tool of the tuner (button, window, slider, check mark, text, etc.) with the mouse
pointer for a short time, a so-called tool tip is shown. A tool tip is a small text box with explanation about
the tool that appears on top of the tuner. These help texts give important information on the functioning
of the tuner and are therefore very useful. For the experienced user, that does not need this information
any longer, the tool tips are however annoying because they cover a part of the tuner. By enabling the
setting 'Disable large tool tips' in the middle of the right side of the tuner, most of tool tips are disabled.

Constantly keep on updating (measuring) in manual selection mode
The measured values and graphs are updated if the tuner recognizes foreground sound. Background
sounds are not measured. Foreground sounds which last for a long time (approximately 30 seconds)
are also considered background sound. Because of this it is not possible to continue measuring sounds
over a long period. By enabling the setting 'Update continuously in manual note detection mode' in the
middle of the right side of the tuner, the tuner updates the measured values and graphs ongoing in
manual selection mode. This does not work when the tuner is in recording mode. See chapter 14 for an
explanation about measuring long lasting notes.

Stop updating (measuring) after the note is locked.
If a detected note is locked, the tuner continues updating the measured values and graphs. By enabling
the setting 'Stop updating after lock' in the middle of the right side, the tuner stops updating after the
note is locked.

Lists with desired beatings
The tuner can use beating lists. These are lists with the desired beating per note. By clicking on the
button 'Edit desired beating values' in the bottom right corner, the screen with which the beating lists
can be created, examined, loaded and saved will be opened. The text above this button shows the
currently selected beating list. In chapter 21 the functioning of the beating lists is explained.
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21. Beating lists
Accordions generally have several reeds per note. The different reeds are slightly differently tuned as a
result of which a characteristic beating is achieved. The further the pitches of simultaneously sounding
reeds lay from each other, the faster the beating. The amount of beating is different for every note. The
beating generally gets larger (in hertz) as the notes get higher. The distribution of the amount of beating
over the notes of the accordion is different per type of accordion and is stored in so-called beating lists.
Each type of accordion has its own characteristic beating list. These beating lists can be created with
the tuner. During tuning the tuner shows the desired beatings for the reeds of the note to tune. The
tuner can show the measured error of a reed with respect to the desired deviation from the beating list.
See chapter 20, paragraph 'How the errors are calculated' for an explanation concerning this setting.

The measured errors with respect to the desired value from the beating list
In the example below the tuner shows the measured errors with respect to the desired deviation from
the beating list. The tuner takes the desired deviations for the reeds of the note to tune from the beating
list and shows these in dark green, right below the white value of the measured error of the concerning
reed. The desired deviation from the beating list for reed 1 is in this case -14.9 Cent. The white value
+2.0 Cent indicates that the reed is still 2.0 Cent too high. The deviation with respect to the exact value
from the scale is therefore -14.9 + 2.0 = -12.9 Cent. The red needles at the bottom always give the
errors of the reeds with respect to the exact value from the scale. The left red needle indeed indicates
approximately -12.9 Cent. This way a reed has the desired value if the white measured value indicates
zero. This applies for each reed and for each note.



The measured beatings with respect to the desired beating from the beating list
The deviation of a reed is allowed to be a view Cent. The human ear is not able to observe this. The
beating between two reeds is however observed much more accurate. For this reason the distance
between the pitches of two reeds must be tuned more accurate then the separate reeds. If the errors of
both reeds are equally too high or too low, then the beating nevertheless is good. The tuner can
measure the deviation of the beating and this value can be used to tune the reeds.

In the example below the tuner shows the measured errors with respect to the desired deviation from
the beating list. The tuner takes the desired beating between the reeds of the note to tune from the
beating list and shows these in dark green, right below the white value of the measured beating error of
the concerning reeds. The desired beating between reed 1 and reed 2 from the beating list is in this
case 2.36 Hertz. The white value -1.04 Hertz indicates that the measured beating is still 1.04 Hertz too
low. The text boxes at the bottom near the red needles show the absolute frequencies of the measured
reeds in Hertz. The difference between the left two frequencies is 260.89 - 259.58 = 1.31 Hertz. This is
indeed 1.04 Hertz (2.36 1.31) too low. This way the beating has the desired value if the white
measured value indicates zero.
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Creating beating lists
The screen, in which the beating lists can be created, can be opened in two ways:
1. In the settings screen (Menu - Settings), click on the button 'Edit desired beating values'.
2. Click on the text below the image of the accordion in the main screen of the tuner.






Beating lists can simply be created with the tuner using a table. Only a couple of beating values need to
be filled in. In the beating list below all notes (E0 up to C9) are present. The desired beatings of a
number of notes must be filled in to the 'Btng' column. The value can be filled in by clicking on the
desired line in the table and using the keyboard to type the value. The value can be changed by clicking
on the concerning value and pressing 'Enter'. The remaining columns 'Rd 1', 'Rd 2' and 'Rd 3' are
automatically calculated and filled in by means of the 'Btng' column. The missing beating values,
however, are calculated (interpolated and extrapolated) by means of the notes which are filled in.
Whether these interpolations and extrapolations should be calculated or not can be configured with the
three check marks in the middle at the top of the screen. Which of the three reeds that should be tuned
on the exact value from the scale (deviation = 0) can be chosen in the middle at the bottom of the
screen. The beating list can be filled in Cent or in Hertz. This can be configured in the bottom left corner
of the screen. See chapter 26 for an explanation about Cent and Hertz.

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A graphical overview of the beating list
The beating list is shown on the right side of the screen using a graphical overview. The columns
represent the notes. The desired deviations of the reeds for each note are shown as horizontal lines.
Reed 1 is red, reed 2 is yellow and reed 3 is blue. The maximum value of the graph (Max scale) is
shown on the right side above the graph. This is the highest value in the graph. The zero line is in the
middle and the value entirely at the bottom is also maximum but then negative. By clicking on a note
(column) that note is marked with a dark green background and at the same time that note is also
selected in the table on the left of the screen. The other way around, if another note is selected in the
table then the marked note in the graphical overview also changes. By hovering with the mouse pointer
for a moment just above a note in the graphical overview, a tool tip with the concerning note name and
associated pitch in Hertz is shown.

By clicking on the 'View in Cent' button, the graphical overview is shown in Cent instead of in Hertz. The
beating values do not change because of this, but the lines in the graph look differently because the
values in Cent are relative with respect to the pitches of the notes concerned. A screenshot of this is
shown below. If the beating list is filled in Cent then this button changes to 'View in Hertz' and its
function is inverted.

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Determine the beating list using the recorded notes
The beating list of an accordion is often not known. The beating list can then be determined mostly quite
simple by recording all notes of the accordion and then in the screen for the beating lists creating a
beating list and filling in the table. The recorded deviations of the reeds are shown in the graphical
overview of the beating list when the button 'show recorded' is pressed. This is only possible if the
module 'record and report' is present in the tuner. The lines in the graphical overview that represent the
desired beatings can now be adapted (by adapting the values in the table) in such a way that they run
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through the recorded deviations as well as possible. See chapter 23 for an explanation about recording
the notes.




Asymmetrical beating lists
The beatings are calculated symmetrical by default. This means that the beating between the first and
the second reed is just as large as the beating between the second and the third reed. By filling in a
percentage in the edit box 'Asymmetricity', the beating between the second and the third reed is raised
by this percentage of the beating between the first and the second reed. This is shown in the screenshot
below.

Missing parts in the lines of the graphical overview
Note in the screenshot below that a part of the blue line is missing. The blue line shows the beatings in
Hertz. If the beatings are shown in Cent (like in the second screenshot below) it can be seen that in this
part of the blue line the beatings are larger than 50 Cent. Such large beatings are not realistic and are
not supported by the tuner.


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Store and load beating lists
To be able to use the beating list it must get a name first. Enter the desired name in the text box
'Description'. Beating lists can be stored as .btg files to be loaded again later. Use the button 'Save' to
store the beating list and the button 'Load' to load a beating list.

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A beating list is loaded with the screen below.


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22. Tuning accordions

Measure the correct pitch
The pitch of a reed changes slightly if the accordion is opened (or closed). The pitch changes also if the
reed block is taken out of the accordion (or placed into). If a reed is tuned outside the accordion one
must take this change in pitch into account. If the reed is placed back afterwards and the accordion is
closed again, then the pitch must be exactly right. To check the final pitch of a reed it must be measured
when the reed is in the closed accordion again.

Measure several reeds at the same time
When a conventional tuner is used, only one reed is allowed to play at the same time during measuring.
Many accordions play several reeds at the same time when pressing a key. If the accordion has no
buttons with which the reeds concerned can be disabled, the accordion must be opened first to disable
those reeds. Afterwards the accordion must closed again to be able to measure the pitch. With Dirk's
Accordion Tuner it is possible to measure several reeds (three maximum) which sound at the same time
as a result of which it is not necessary to open the accordion and disable the reeds.

The conventional tuning process
To carry out the tuning process efficiently the following steps are generally used:
1. Open the accordion.
2. Disable the necessary reeds.
3. Close the accordion.
4. Measure all notes one by one and write down the measured values.
5. Repeat step 1 to 4 until all reeds are measured.
6. Compare all measured values with the desired values, calculate the differences and write them
down. The errors of all reeds are now known.
7. Open the accordion.
8. Take the reed blocks out of the accordion.
9. Tune the necessary reeds by means of the errors written down.
10. Tune the beatings by ear.
11. Place the reed blocks back into the accordion.
12. Repeat step 2 to 6 to check the tuned reeds.

The tuning process with Dirk's Accordion Tuner
1. Measure all notes one by one and write down the errors with respect to the desired values (and the
beatings as well).
2. Open the accordion.
3. Take the reed blocks out of the accordion.
4. Tune the necessary reeds (including beatings) by means of the errors written down.
5. Place the reed blocks back into the accordion and close the accordion.
6. Repeat step 1 to check the tuned reeds.

The tuning process with the module 'record and report'
With the module 'record and report' the same steps are necessary, but nothing needs to be written down
anymore and a tuning report can be printed.

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23. Tuning accordions with the module 'record and report'

The tuner can be extended with a module that can quickly record all the notes of the accordion and
generate a report from that. This report gives the errors of all reeds in a conveniently formatted table.
After opening the accordion, the reeds that differ too much can be corrected on the tuning table using
the errors from the report. The reeds (that have a deviated pitch outside the case) will have the right
pitch after putting them back into the accordion. The report can be generated and printed again
afterwards to go with the accordion as the tuning report. See chapter 22 for an explanation about tuning
an accordion. With the module 'record and report' the possibility is given to create (unknown) beating
lists of existing accordions. See chapter 21 for an explanation about producing beating lists.

Record the notes
The record mode of the tuner is enabled by pressing the button 'record'. The record mode only works
when single notes are measured. Chords and octaves cannot be recorded. The mesh on the
background of the equalizer turns red in record mode and a cursor (the red beam) appears in the left
side of the equalizer. As soon as the tuner measures a stable and accurate note, the measured errors of
the reeds are stored in the box of the red cursor. The word 'Recorded' then appears in the note window
in red on the left side below the note character. The red cursor then shifts one box to the right. After a
short period of silence the next note can be recorded. Recorded notes can be removed with the
'Backspace' of the keyboard. By shortly hovering above a box with stored errors with the mouse
pointer, a tooltip with information about the stored note, the errors and beatings appears. It is possible to
record the same note several times as is necessary with most diatonic harmonicas. In the screenshot
below a number of notes are recorded with two reeds (horizontal red and yellow lines) per note.




The overview of the recorded notes
The overview of the recorded notes (the tuning) is opened by releasing the button 'Record'. The
overview can also be opened through 'Menu - Record and Report'. The screenshot below shows an
overview of a diatonic harmonica with two reeds per note. Instruments with three reeds per note are
also possible. In the upper text box 'Tuning description', a description of the tuning must be given. This
description is used in the tuning report. All recorded notes are listed in the table.
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The data concerning the reeds
The data concerning the reeds are grouped by reed below the headings 'Reed 1', 'Reed 2' and 'Reed 3'.
The columns for the reeds which are not recorded remain empty. It concerns the following columns:
Note - The name of the recorded note. The order of the recorded notes in the table is equal to the
order in which the notes are recorded. The same note can appear several times.
Curr - The current measured error of the reed in Cent with respect to the exact pitch from the scale.
Goal - The desired deviation for the reed from the beating list in Cent. This column is empty when no
beating list is loaded.
Error - The error in Cent which the reed is apart from the desired deviation. This column is empty when
no beating list is loaded.

The data concerning the beatings
The data concerning the beatings are grouped per reed couple below the headings 'Beating 1-2' and
'Beating 2-3'. The columns for the beatings which are not recorded remain empty. Below the table is
chosen if the values in these columns are given in Cent or in Hertz. It concerns the following columns:
Curr - The current measured beating.
Goal - The desired beating. This column is empty when no beating list is loaded.
Error - The error in the beating. This column is empty when no beating list is loaded.

Edit the recorded errors
The values in the 'Curr' columns of the reeds can be manually edited here by clicking on the value
concerned and pressing the Enter button of the keyboard. If a value is changed, the other values of the
same note are calculated again.

Stop recording
If this screen with the recorded tuning is closed with the red cross then the tuner will continue recording.
Recording is stopped if there are no recorded notes left. All recorded notes are removed at once by
pressing the button 'Clear'. If this screen with the recorded tuning is closed afterwards then the tuner
stops recording.

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The graphical overview of the recorded errors
The graphical overview of the recorded errors 'Graphical overview of the recorded tuning errors' shows
the errors of the reeds per note. The notes are sorted from left to right from E0 to C9. The notes which
are recorded several times fall into the same column and are all shown there. The different red, yellow
and blue lines then are not clearly distinguishable from each other. By shortly hovering above a column
with recorded notes with the mouse pointer, a tool tip appears with data concerning the note (name and
frequency), the errors of the reeds and the beatings. If the note concerned is recorded several times
then this data is shown in the tool tip several times. On the right side above the graph the maximum
value of the scale (Max scale) is shown. This is the upper most value in the graph. The zero line is in the
middle and the value at the bottom is also the maximum but then negative. By clicking on the column,
the column is marked by a dark green background and the corresponding line in the table is selected. If
the note concerned is recorded several times then the corresponding lines in the table are selected one
after each other by clicking several times on the column in the graphic overview.

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Store and load recorded tunings
To be able to use the recorded tuning it must first be given a name. Enter the desired name in the text
box 'Tuning description' in the top of the screen. Recorded tunings can be stored as .tun files to be
loaded later. Use the button 'Save' to store the recorded tuning and the button 'Load' to load a
previously stored tuning.



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With the screen below a previously stored tuning is loaded.




Edit the beating list
The screen with which the beating list can be loaded and edited, is opened with the button 'Edit desired
beating values'.




Show the desired beatings
The desired deviations from the current beating list can be shown in the graphical overview by pressing
the button 'Show beating values'.




Create tuning reports
A report can be created from the recorded tuning. This report gives the error of each reed in a
conveniently formatted table. After opening the accordion, the reeds which deviate too much can be
corrected on the tuning table using the values from the report. The reeds which have an deviated
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frequency outside the case will get the correct frequency after being put back into the accordion. The
report can be generated again afterwards and be joined with the accordion as its tuning report. The
screen with which a tuning report can be created, is opened by pressing the button 'Report'. See
chapter 22 for an explanation about tuning an accordion.




A tuning report can be created with the screen below. The information that will be placed in the report in
addition to the measured errors and the beatings must be filled in here. Company information such as
name, address and place of residence of the tuner can be entered in the text box 'Company info'. The
website of the tuner (URL) can be entered in the text box 'Company website'. To test the URL, the
website can be opened by pressing the button 'Go'. The company's logo can be loaded with the button
'Load logo'. The following formats are supported: bmp, gif, jpg and wmf. The date that comes on the
report can be changed with 'Report date'. If all information is entered, the tuning report can be created
with the button 'Create tuning report'.




The tuning report is stored as an XML file. With the screen below the path is chosen, the file name is
entered and the file is stored with the button 'Save'. An XSL file is also stored in the same path as the
XML file. This XSL file is necessary to be able to view the tuning report (the XML file) with an Internet
browser. Take care that both files remain together if the tuning report is copied to another location.
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View and print the tuning report
As soon as the tuning report is stored it is opened in the Internet browser. The tuning report can be
viewed again afterwards by looking it up with the Windows Explorer and then double clicking on it. The
tuning report can be printed using the print function of the Internet browser. An example of a tuning
report with a number of notes from a diatonic harmonica with two reeds per note is given below. Three
reeds per note is also possible. See earlier in this chapter for an explanation about the columns of the
table.


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24. Noise reduction and accuracy
Beside the notes that need to be measured, a lot of other undesirable sounds are measured by the
microphone. These are for example sounds such as the cooling fan of the computer, a car driving by, a
slamming door, a barking dog, wind etc. All these sounds disturb the measurements and for this reason
are suppressed by the tuner automatically.

Background sounds
The tuner measures background sounds and determines their pitch and volume. The strength of
background noise is indicated in the tuner with a horizontal green line per note. Long lasting sounds are
considered as background sounds. As soon as a note (one of the blue bars) reaches out of the
background sounds then the tuner can select this note to be measured. In case of an extreme amount
of background sounds it is possible to enable the option 'Enh. Noise reduction' in the settings screen
(Menu - Settings). Background sounds are then extra reduced.




Slamming doors or foot steps
The low sounds which are produced by for example slamming doors or foot steps on a wooden floor are
automatically filtered out by the tuner.

50 or 60 Hz hum
The 50 or 60 Hertz hum which is frequently produced by the power supply of the computer is filtered out
by the tuner automatically. If an extreme amount of this type of hum is picked up by the microphone, a
so-called 'hum filter' can be enabled in the configuration screen (Menu - Settings). The tones nearby
50 or 60 Hertz are then extra reduced.

Automatic sensitivity
The sound volume of the reed to measure that is received by the tuner depends on the following factors:
1. The sound volume produced by the reed.
2. The distance from the reed to the microphone.
3. Obstacles between the reed and the microphone.
4. The sensitivity of the microphone.
5. The sensitivity of the sound card.
6. The Windows volume settings for the microphone input.

To make the tuner work under all circumstances, the incoming signal is amplified to a standard level
automatically.

Higher sensitivity in the manual selection mode
In manual selection mode (see chapter 13) the tuner only pays attention to one note at the same time as
a result of which there is less chance on disturbing sounds. In this mode the tuner's sensitivity is
increased so softer sounds can also be measured.

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25. The accuracy of the tuner

The maximum accuracy in Hertz and in Cent
The accuracy of the Accordion Tuner is better (less) than 0.05 Hertz (waves longer than 20 seconds).
The accuracy in Cent gradually changes over the range of the tuner because a Cent is a relative unit.
The interval (the width) of a note in Hertz increases as the pitch gets higher and the width of a note in
Cent is by definition (always) 100. Some values of the accuracy of the tuner in Cent: C1: 2.6 Cent, C2:
1.3 Cent, C3: 0.7 Cent, C4: 0.3 Cent, C5: 0.2 Cent, C6: 0.08 Cent, C7: 0.04 Cent, C8: 0.02 Cent, C9:
0.01 Cent. So in Cent, the tuner gets therefore more accurate as the pitch gets higher. See chapter 26
for an explanation about Hertz and Cent.

Detectable pitch differences
The smallest by human ear detectable pitch difference is approximately 2 Hertz. The accuracy of the
tuner of 0.05 Hertz is many times better. This high accuracy is necessary to measure the beatings
between two reeds. A difference in beating of more than approximately 0.1 Hertz is already detectable
by the human ear.

Accuracy of the measured beating
The accuracy of the measured beating is better (less) than 0.1 Hertz. The smallest measurable beating
is approximately 0.6 Hertz. The largest measurable beating is limited because both tones must be in the
range of the same note.

Automatic calibration
The tuner uses the sound card for its measurements. To compensate possible errors in the sound card,
the tuner carries out an automatic calibration. Manual calibration such as those often possible on
conventional tuners (with a screw for example), is not necessary. Because of this the measurements of
the tuner are always accurate enough.

The internal accuracy
The tuner shows the measured errors with 1 or 2 decimal places (digits behind the comma). The tuner
calculates with 7 decimal places internally. Right before an error is shown, it is rounded on 1 or 2
decimal places.

Influences from outside
Beside the accuracy of the tuner itself, the following influences from outside must be taken into account:
1. The pitch of a reed changes if the accordion is opened and changes back if the accordion is closed
again.
2. The pitch of a reed changes if the reed block is taken out of the accordion and changes back if the
reed block is put back in again.
3. The pitch of a reed decreases as the bellow pressure increases. The amount of beating between
two reeds virtually does not change because both reeds decrease equally.
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26. Hertz and Cent
A tone which exists of exactly one frequency looks like a sine wave:



Hertz
The pitch of such a tone is expressed in Hertz: the number of waves per second. In the figure above two
waves are shown.

Cent
The notes in the scale (equal temperament) increase in frequency. Every octave exists of 12 notes
(semitones) and corresponds to a doubling in frequency. The A4 is 440 Hz and the A5 880 Hz. The
frequency range (width) of a note is therefore larger if the pitch is higher. The A4 runs from 428 up to
453 HZ and the A5 runs from 855 up to 906 Hz. The width of a semitone is by definition (always) 100
Cent.

The ratio between Cent and Hertz
The width of a tone in Hertz increases as the pitch increases. The width of a semitone in Cent is always
100. The difference in Cent between two tones with frequencies f1 and f2 (in Hertz) can be calculated
as follows:

= 1200 log2 (f1 / f2)

If the frequency difference (f2 - f1 in Hertz) increases linearly then the difference in Cent increases
logarithmic.

The deviation of a measured tone in Cent
If the tuner shows an error of a measured tone in Cent, then an error of 0 Cent means that the tone is
exactly right. If the deviation is -50 Cent then the measured tone is exactly in the middle of the desired
tone and the previous semitone. If the deviation is +50 Cent then the measured tone is exactly in the
middle of the desired tone and the next semitone.
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27. Beating
Beating occurs when two tones with a small pitch difference are played at the same time. The waves of
both tones then add up and influence each other. At some moments they amplify each other and at
other moments they weaken each other. In the figure below, two tones (f1 and f2) with a small
frequency difference are shown. In the bottom wave both tones are added up (f1 + f2). The occurring
beating by the alternating amplifying and weakening of the combined signal is clearly visible. The
frequency of the beating is exactly equal to the difference of the two tones (f2 - f1).








Beating of octaves
When two tones that lie approximately an octave apart from each other are played at the same time
beating can also occur. In that case beating occurs from the addition of the higher octave and the first
overtone of the lower octave. These are again, just like with 'ordinary beating', two frequencies which lie
near at each other.
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28. The equal temperament
The tuning or temperament of a scale is the way the frequencies of the notes are chosen. In Western
music the equal temperament is most popular. Other temperaments are for example: the just intonation,
the Pythagorean tuning, the mean tone temperament, the well temperament and the 31 equal
temperament.

An octave is divided into 12 'proportionally increasing' distances. The ratio of the frequencies of two
successive semitones is always the same (approximately 1.0594631). Because of this, all intervals
(second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh), except the octave, deviate from the just tuning. They cause
beating. All equally named intervals sound equally false (they beat). The advantage of this tuning is that
it remains the same when switched to another tone type (a number of semitones higher or lower), and it
is therefore not needed to tune the instrument differently.

Below an overview is given of the intervals and the differences of the equal and the just temperament.
The just temperament is the way to construct a scale where the frequency ratios are simple integers.
This produces music which is experienced as pure (not false).

Interval Equal Cent Just Difference
Unison 1.000000 0 1/1 = 1.000000 0.00%
Minor second 1.059463 100 16/15 = 1.066667 -0.68%
Major second 1.122462 200 9/8 = 1.125000 -0.23%
Minor third 1.189207 300 6/5 = 1.200000 -0.90%
Major third 1.259921 400 5/4 = 1.250000 +0.79%
Fourth 1.334840 500 4/3 = 1.333333 +0.11%
Augmented fourth 1.414214 600 7/5 = 1.400000 +1.02%
Fifth 1.498307 700 3/2 = 1.500000 -0.11%
Minor sixth 1.587401 800 8/5 = 1.600000 -0.79%
Major sixth 1.681793 900 5/3 = 1.666667 +0.91%
Minor seventh 1.781797 1000 16/9 = 1.777778 +0.23%
Major seventh 1.887749 1100 15/8 = 1.875000 +0.68%
Octave 2.000000 1200 2/1 = 2.000000 0.00%

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29. An overview of the screens



1. Input signal - The currently measured signal. See chapter 8.
2. Equalizer - The volumes of all notes. See chapter 9.
3. Note spectrum - The frequency spectrum of the detected note. See chapter 11.
4. Beating list - The name of the selected beating list. See chapter 21.
5. Note letter - The detected note. See chapter 10.
6. Reed deviation - Numerical display of the reed deviation. See chapter 12.
7. Beating - Numerical display of the beating. See chapter 12.
8. Reed deviations - Graphical display of the reed deviations. See chapter 12.
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30. An overview of the buttons



- Hz / Cent - Switch the beating screens (7) between Hertz and Cent. See chapter 7.
- Record - Start recording multiple notes, open the report screen. See chapter 23.
- Sound - Play the selected note. See chapter 15.
- Octave - Increase or decrease the selected note by one octave. See chapter 13.
- Note - Increase or decrease the selected note by one semi tone. See chapter 13.
- Auto - Switch between automatic and manual detection. See chapter 13.
- + - Increase the frequency of the A4. See chapter 17.
- - - Decrease the frequency of the A4. See chapter 17.
- Menu - Open the menu with extra functions in the upper left corner of the tuner.
- Octaves - Measure octaves. See chapter 19.
- Chords - Measure chords. See chapter 18.
- Reeds - Configure the number of reeds to measure. See chapter 7.
- Freq - Turn the three little frequency screens in the bottom on or off.
- Trans - Transpose. See chapter 16.
- Freeze - Freeze the Tuner. See chapter 7.
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31. Shortcut keys and clicks

Shortcuts on the keyboard
- Left arrow - Decrease the selected note by one semi tone. See chapter 13.
- Right arrow - Increase the selected note by one semi tone. See chapter 13.
- Spacebar - Freeze the tuner. See chapter 7.
- Enter - Record a note that is not (yet) locked. See chapter 23.
- Backspace - Remove the last recorded note. See chapter 23.

Clicks on screens
1. Click on the input signal screen to open the settings screen. See chapter 20.
2. Click on a column in the equalizer to select a note in manual selection mode. See chapter 13.
3. Click on the name of the beating list to open the screen where beating lists can be created, loaded
and edited. See chapter 21.


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32. Frequency table of the notes
The table on the next page gives an overview of the frequencies of the notes which are supported by
the Accordion Tuner. These are the notes from the equal temperament.

The table exists out of the following columns:
Semitone number - The number of the semi tone
Note name - The name of the note
Note octave - The octave of the note
Note frequency - The notes frequency form the scale in Hertz.
Note width - The width of the note in Hertz.
Accuracy - The accuracy of the tuner for this note in Cent.

Semitone
number
Note
name
Note
octave
Note frequency
(Hz)
Note width
(Hz)
Accuracy
(Cent)
4 E 0 20,6017223 1,1906640 4,1993
5 F 0 21,8267645 1,2614646 3,9636
6 F# 0 23,1246514 1,3364751 3,7412
7 G 0 24,4997147 1,4159461 3,5312
8 G# 0 25,9565436 1,5001426 3,3330
9 A 0 27,5000000 1,5893457 3,1459
10 A# 0 29,1352351 1,6838532 2,9694
11 B 0 30,8677063 1,7839803 2,8027
12 C 1 32,7031957 1,8900613 2,6454
13 C# 1 34,6478289 2,0024502 2,4969
14 D 1 36,7080960 2,1215220 2,3568
15 D# 1 38,8908730 2,2476743 2,2245
16 E 1 41,2034446 2,3813280 2,0997
17 F 1 43,6535289 2,5229291 1,9818
18 F# 1 46,2493028 2,6729503 1,8706
19 G 1 48,9994295 2,8318922 1,7656
20 G# 1 51,9130872 3,0002853 1,6665
21 A 1 55,0000000 3,1786915 1,5730
22 A# 1 58,2704702 3,3677063 1,4847
23 B 1 61,7354127 3,5679606 1,4014
24 C 2 65,4063913 3,7801225 1,3227
25 C# 2 69,2956577 4,0049003 1,2485
26 D 2 73,4161920 4,2430441 1,1784
27 D# 2 77,7817459 4,4953486 1,1123
28 E 2 82,4068892 4,7626560 1,0498
29 F 2 87,3070579 5,0458582 0,9909
30 F# 2 92,4986057 5,3459006 0,9353
31 G 2 97,9988590 5,6637844 0,8828
32 G# 2 103,8261744 6,0005705 0,8333
33 A 2 110,0000000 6,3573830 0,7865
34 A# 2 116,5409404 6,7354127 0,7423
35 B 2 123,4708253 7,1359211 0,7007
36 C 3 130,8127827 7,5602451 0,6614
37 C# 3 138,5913155 8,0098007 0,6242
38 D 3 146,8323840 8,4860882 0,5892
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Semitone
number
Note
name
Note
octave
Note frequency
(Hz)
Note width
(Hz)
Accuracy
(Cent)
39 D# 3 155,5634919 8,9906972 0,5561
40 E 3 164,8137785 9,5253119 0,5249
41 F 3 174,6141157 10,0917164 0,4955
42 F# 3 184,9972114 10,6918011 0,4676
43 G 3 195,9977180 11,3275687 0,4414
44 G# 3 207,6523488 12,0011410 0,4166
45 A 3 220,0000000 12,7147660 0,3932
46 A# 3 233,0818808 13,4708253 0,3712
47 B 3 246,9416506 14,2718423 0,3503
48 C 4 261,6255653 15,1204902 0,3307
49 C# 4 277,1826310 16,0196013 0,3121
50 D 4 293,6647679 16,9721764 0,2946
51 D# 4 311,1269837 17,9813945 0,2781
52 E 4 329,6275569 19,0506239 0,2625
53 F 4 349,2282314 20,1834329 0,2477
54 F# 4 369,9944227 21,3836023 0,2338
55 G 4 391,9954360 22,6551374 0,2207
56 G# 4 415,3046976 24,0022820 0,2083
57 A 4 440,0000000 25,4295320 0,1966
58 A# 4 466,1637615 26,9416506 0,1856
59 B 4 493,8833013 28,5436845 0,1752
60 C 5 523,2511306 30,2409803 0,1653
61 C# 5 554,3652620 32,0392026 0,1561
62 D 5 587,3295358 33,9443527 0,1473
63 D# 5 622,2539674 35,9627890 0,1390
64 E 5 659,2551138 38,1012477 0,1312
65 F 5 698,4564629 40,3668658 0,1239
66 F# 5 739,9888454 42,7672045 0,1169
67 G 5 783,9908720 45,3102749 0,1104
68 G# 5 830,6093952 48,0045640 0,1042
69 A 5 880,0000000 50,8590639 0,0983
70 A# 5 932,3275230 53,8833013 0,0928
71 B 5 987,7666025 57,0873691 0,0876
72 C 6 1046,5022612 60,4819607 0,0827
73 C# 6 1108,7305239 64,0784052 0,0780
74 D 6 1174,6590717 67,8887055 0,0736
75 D# 6 1244,5079349 71,9255780 0,0695
76 E 6 1318,5102277 76,2024954 0,0656
77 F 6 1396,9129257 80,7337316 0,0619
78 F# 6 1479,9776908 85,5344091 0,0585
79 G 6 1567,9817439 90,6205497 0,0552
80 G# 6 1661,2187903 96,0091280 0,0521
81 A 6 1760,0000000 101,7181279 0,0492
82 A# 6 1864,6550461 107,7666025 0,0464
83 B 6 1975,5332050 114,1747382 0,0438
84 C 7 2093,0045224 120,9639214 0,0413
85 C# 7 2217,4610478 128,1568105 0,0390
86 D 7 2349,3181433 135,7774110 0,0368
87 D# 7 2489,0158698 143,8511560 0,0348
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Semitone
number
Note
name
Note
octave
Note frequency
(Hz)
Note width
(Hz)
Accuracy
(Cent)
88 E 7 2637,0204553 152,4049908 0,0328
89 F 7 2793,8258515 161,4674632 0,0310
90 F# 7 2959,9553817 171,0688182 0,0292
91 G 7 3135,9634879 181,2410995 0,0276
92 G# 7 3322,4375806 192,0182561 0,0260
93 A 7 3520,0000000 203,4362558 0,0246
94 A# 7 3729,3100921 215,5332050 0,0232
95 B 7 3951,0664100 228,3494763 0,0219
96 C 8 4186,0090448 241,9278428 0,0207
97 C# 8 4434,9220956 256,3136209 0,0195
98 D 8 4698,6362867 271,5548220 0,0184
99 D# 8 4978,0317396 287,7023120 0,0174
100 E 8 5274,0409106 304,8099817 0,0164
101 F 8 5587,6517029 322,9349264 0,0155
102 F# 8 5919,9107634 342,1376364 0,0146
103 G 8 6271,9269757 362,4821989 0,0138
104 G# 8 6644,8751613 384,0365121 0,0130
105 A 8 7040,0000000 406,8725115 0,0123
106 A# 8 7458,6201843 431,0664100 0,0116
107 B 8 7902,1328201 456,6989527 0,0109
108 C 9 8372,0180896 483,8556856 0,0103
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33. System requirements.
The Tuner runs optimally on machines starting from the Pentium II, 1 GHz. On less fast machines the
tuner also works fine, but will react more slowly. The tuner runs under Windows 2000, XP, Vista and 7
and uses a microphone input. See chapter 5.