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Title : Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems


In thousands of one development in computer application, Artificial

intelligence plays a key role in building the program which plays roles of a real

expert, which is meant to be an expert system.

Expert system technology derives from the research discipline of

Artificial Intelligence (AI).It is a branch of computer science concerned with the

design and implementation of programs which are capable of emulating human

cognitive skills such as problem solving, visual perception and language

understanding. Expert system is successfully applied in organic chemistry,

mineral exploration and internal medicines. This concept is meant to build a real

knowledge of human expertise.

What an Expert system is:

An expert system is a computer program that represents and

reasons with knowledge of some specialist subject with a view to solving

problems and giving advice. An expert system may completely fulfill a function

that normally requires human expertise.

Knowledge-based system is used as a synonym for “Expert

system”. Knowledge-based system is any system which performs task by

applying rules of thumb to a symbolic representation of Knowledge, instead of

employing mostly algorithmic or statistical methods.

What task it does:

The typical tasks for expert system involve:

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 The interpretation of data (such as sonar signals)

 Diagnosis of malfunctions (such as equipment faults or

human diseases)

 Structure analysis of complex objects (such as chemical


 Configuration of complex objects (such as computer

systems) and

 Planning sequences of actions (such as might be performed

by robots)

Mannerism that distinguish:

From Conventional program:

It simulates human reasoning about a problem domain, rather

than simulating the domain itself. It emulates an expert’s problem solving abilities

,that is performing some portion of the relevant tasks as well as the expert, or

better than expert.

It performs reasoning over representations of human knowledge,

in addition to doing numerical calculation or data retrieval. The representation is

done in a special-purpose language and kept separate from the code that

performs the reasoning. These distinct program modules are referred to as the

knowledge base and the inference engine, respectively.

It solves problem by heuristic or approximate methods which,

unlike algorithmic solution. A heuristic is essentially a rule of thumb which

encodes a piece of knowledge about how to solve the problems in some domain.

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From other AI program:

It deals with subject matter of realistic complexity that normally

requires a considerable amount of human. Expert system solves problems of

genuine scientific or commercial interest. Rather AI focuses on abstract

mathematical problems or simplified version of real problem.

It exhibit high performance in term of speed and reliability in order

to be useful tool. Where AI research vehicle may not run very fast, and may well

contain bugs.

It must be capable of explaining and justifying solutions or

recommendation in order to convince the user that its reasoning is in fact correct.

How expert system is built:

An expert system is usually built by assembling a knowledge base

which is then interpreted by an off-the-shell program that contains an inference

engine. An empty knowledge base comes with such a program, which is typically

called a shell. The end user of the application interacts with the shell via the

inference engine, which uses the knowledge put in the knowledge base to

answer questions, solve problems, or offer advice.

The knowledge base contains both the rules and various


 User : who, interact with the system for

some application

 Inference Engine : interface between the user and expert

system shel.

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 Knowledge Base : contains the rules and various


 Developer : who develop the system

Expert system development phases:

Fundamental to develop expert system is knowledge engineering,

it includes

Knowledge acquisition- Transfer of expertise from a person to a


Representing knowledge- Encoding expertise in a machine

usable form

Controlling reasoning- Deciding when to apply what piece of


Explaining solution- Transfer of results from program to person

Knowledge Acquisition:

Knowledge acquisition is the transfer and transformation of

potential-solving expertise from some knowledge source to a program. This

transfer is usually accomplished by a series of lengthy and intensive interviews

between a knowledge engineer, who is normally a computer specialist, and a

domain expert who is able to articulate his expertise to some degree.

Stages of knowledge acquisition:

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There are five stages in knowledge acquisition; they are

identification, Conceptualization, formalization, implementation and testing.

(1) Identification: Identify the class of problems that the system

will be expected to solve, including the data that the system will work with, and

the criteria that solutions must meet. Identify the resource available for the


(2) Conceptualization: Describe the characteristics of the different

kinds of data, flow of information and the underlying structure of the domain.

(3) Formalization: Include the certainty and completeness of the

information, and other constraints upon the logical interpretation of the data, such

as time dependency, and the reliability and consistency of different data sources.

(4) Implementation: This is concerned with the specification of

control and the details of information flow. Rules will have to be expressed in

some form under a chosen control engine, while decision must be made about

data structures and the degree of independence between different modules of

the program.

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(5) Testing: Common source of error are rules which are missing,

incomplete or wholly incorrect, those errors are checked. The evaluation of

expert system is far from being an exact science, but it is clear that the task can

be made easier if one is able to run the program on a large and representative

sample of test cases.

Representing Knowledge:

It is concerned with the ways in which information might be stored

and associated in the human brain, usually from a logical, rather than a

biological, perspective.

In the field of expert system, knowledge representation implies that

we have some systematic way of codifying what an expert knows about some


It concerned with finding ways in which large bodies of useful

information can be formally described for the purpose of symbolic


Symbolic computation means non-numeric computations in which

the symbols and symbol structures can be constructed as standing for various

concepts and relationships between them.

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In above diagram the same message has been in iterated in

different forms in Syntactic English. Those entire sentences should be rendered

in the same way. This has been done in symbolic computation. In a

representation, we try to relate form and meaning more simply than in English.

In father (Sam, Bill)

The first name stands for the parents and the second name stands

for the child, and not vice versa. Therefore all the above sentences will be

rendered in the same way.

The main criteria for assessing a representation of knowledge are:

(1) Logical adequacy means that the representation should be

capable of making all the distinctions that you want to make.

(2) Heuristic power means that as well as having an expressive

representation language, there must be some way of using representations so

constructed and interpreted to solve problems.

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(3) Notational convenience meant the resulting expression should

be relatively easy to write and to read, and it should be possible to understand

their meaning without knowing how the computer will actually interpret them.

Some knowledge representation programs are STRIPS – Stanford

Research Institute Problem Solver), MYCIN etc. CLIPS-C Language Integrated

Production System is a language for knowledge representation.

Controlling Reasoning:

Expert systems design involves paying close attention to the details

of how knowledge is accessed and applied during the search for a solution.

Knowing what one knows, and knowing when and how to use it, is an important

part of expertise; this is usually termed metaknowledge, that is, knowledge

about knowledge. Solving non-trivial problems implies a certain level of planning

and control when choosing what questions to ask, what tests to perform, so on.

Explaining Solution:

The contribution of expert systems researchers to date has been to

place high priorities upon the accountability of consultation programs,

explanation of expert system behavior are important for a number of reasons:

 Users of the system need to satisfy themselves that

program’s conclusions are basically correct for their

particular case

 Knowledge engineer some way to satisfy themselves that

knowledge is being applied properly

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 Domain expert need to see a trace of the way in which their

knowledge is being applied

 Programmer who maintain, debug and extend knowledge-

based programs must have some window on to program’s

behavior above the level of the procedure call

 managers of expert system technology, who may end up

being responsible for a program’s decisions need to satisfy

themselves that a system’s mode of reasoning is applicable

to their domain

Basic type of reasoning:

There are two types reasoning in expert system, one on basis of

rules and second on basis of case, it is a rule-based system and case-based

reasoning respectively.

Rule-based system:

Such system have, some set of inputs, the rules interpreted in a

particular way to determine what the results should be produced. In expert

system applications, such rules normally determine how the symbolic structures

that represent the current state of the problem should be manipulated in order to

bring the representation closer to a solution.

 It contains much of the problem solving knowledge.

 Rules are of the form IF condition THEN action, condition

portion of the rule is usually a fact - (If some particular fact is

in the database then perform this action)

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 Rules can be chained together (e.g. “If A then B” “If B then

C” since A--->B---so “If A then C”).

Case-Based reasoning:

Case is a computer-readable module of knowledge; it is typically

implemented as a frame that structure information about the problem (situation),

solution, and the context.

Elements in a case-based reasoning system are,

 the case base - set of cases, and

 the index library – used to efficiently search and quickly

retrieve cases that are most appropriate or similar to the

current problem.

The Case-based Reasoning Process

 Uses past experiences

 Particularly evident in precedence-based reasoning

 Learning: If no reasonably appropriate prior case is found

then the current case and its human created solution can be

added to the case base thus allowing the system to learn.

Main difference between rule-based reasoning and case-based reasoning

Rule-based reasoning Case-based reasoning

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1. Rules in a rule based are 1. Cases in a case base are

patterns. constants.

2. Rules contain variables. 2. Case do not have variable.

3. Do not describe solution directly. 3. Describe solution directly.

4. A rule is selected on the basis of 4. A case is retrieved on the basis of

an exact match between data in a partial match, facilitated by

working memory and its antecedent. knowledge about its features.

Merits of expert system:

 Achieve Expertise.

 Permanence - Expert systems do not forget, but human

experts may.

 Timeliness - Fraud and errors can be prevented. Information

is available sooner for decision making.

 Breadth - The knowledge of multiple human experts can be

combined to give a system more breadth that a single

person is likely to achieve.

 Reproducibility - Many copies of an expert system can be

made, but training new human experts is time-consuming

and expensive.


Expert systems are capable of amplifying human expertise in a

manner that solves major problems. It has a landmark in the field of medical

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diagnosis, organic chemistry and mineral exploration etc. We can doubt that, in

the 21st century, human knowledge will be one of the world’s most important

commodities and, it will be the target of the expert system in the field of artificial


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