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RESEARCH

B R I E F S

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

JUNE 2000

Integrated
Chemical Enterprise
Materials Fabrication Processes Systems
Research Research Research Research
1 20 41 65
NATIONAL TEXTILE CENTER
The National Textile Center (NTC) is a research consortium of six universities: Auburn University, Clemson Univer-
sity, Georgia Institute of Technology, North Carolina State University, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth and
the Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science. These institutions share human resources, equipment and facilities.
Serving the USA Fiber/Textile/Fabricated Products/Retail Complex, the NTC vision, mission and goals are realized
through innovate research and links to other institutions.

Vision Mission
To be the agent leading change To enhance the knowledge base
in the industry's vision and for a globally competitive
in education for global competitiveness. USA industry.

Goals
1. Research: Design and develop 2. Education: Educate and train 3. Partnerships: Strengthen the
new materials, innovative and personnel in research processes, nation's textile research and educa-
improved manufacturing processes establish industrial partnerships tional efforts by uniting diverse
and integrated systems essential to and create transfer mechanisms to experts and resources in unique
USA competitiveness. ensure utilization of technologies. collaborative
j t

Oversight Committee: Operating Board: Technical Advisory Committee:


Tom Malone, Milliken, Chair David Buchanan, NC State,chair Phil Geoghegan, DuPont, chairman
Stephen Felker, Avondale Mills David Brookstein, PhilaU Bob Adams, Milliken & Company
Neil Hightower, Thomaston Mills Fred Cook, Georgia Tech Don Alexander, Guilford Mills
John Lupo, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Sherif El Wakil, UMassD Chris Bryant, Shaw Industries
David Rea, DuPont Richard Gregory, Clemson Jud Early, [TC]2
Fred Reichert, Ciba Specialty Chemicals June Henton, Auburn Steve Freudenthal, Milliken Research
Jerry Rowland, National Textiles Bill Walsh, Auburn Subhash Ghosh, ITT
Charles Watt, Scientific Research Corp. Jack Larkins, Ciba Specialty Chemicals
Jean-Lou Chameau, Georgia Tech Bob Lewis, RWL Ent.
Site Directors: Mike Mann, Russell Corp
James Gallagher, PCT&S
Sabit Adanur, Auburn Gerald Mauretti, Engineered Yarns Co.
Kermit Hall, NC State
David Buchanan, NC State Phil McCartney, Guilford Mills
Jane McCormick, UMassD John Mi, Cotton Inc.
Michael Moriarty, Auburn Gary Lickfield, Clemson
Dhan Parekh - Johnston Industries
Philip Prince, Clemson Chris Pastore, PhiladelphiaU
David Salem, TRI
Doug Rippy, Clemson
Roger Gilbertson, Dept. of Commerce Preston Sasser, Cotton Inc.
Wayne Tincher, Georgia Tech
Tonya Strickland, Southern Recruiters
Carol Warfield, Auburn
Kris Swamy, National Textiles
Steve Warner, UMassD Roger Warburton, Griffin Mfg
Marshall White, Ciba Specialty Chemicals
NTC Site Directors

This report is submitted to the Department of Commerce to fulfill the quarterly reporting requirements of the NTC grant.
Table of Contents
Materials
Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of natural and synthetic polymers
and fibers, including polymer mixtures and additives.

Chain Orientation in Semi-Solid Polymers ................................................... 1


By decreasing chain entanglements during spinning, we hope to optimize polymer stretching and
increase chain orientation and fiber tenacity. [M98-A4]
Photoadaptive Fibers ..................................................................................... 3
We are developing photoadaptive fibers that reversibly change their optical, heat reflectivity and
electrical properties when exposed to high intensity visible light. [M98-A10]
Intelligent Fibers and Fabrics ........................................................................ 4
We hope to develop new textiles with surfaces coated with stimuli sensitive polymers that
combine the mechanical properties of textiles with environmental responsiveness. [M98-A16]
Chameleon Fibers .......................................................................................... 6
We are designing fibers that can quickly change their color, hue, depth of shade or optical trans-
parency by application of an electrical or magnetic field. [M98-C1]
Biomimetic Manufacturing of Fibers ........................................................... 8
We are exploiting recombinant DNA and plant transgenic technologies to create and produce
novel protein polymers in significant quantities for fiber spinning. [M98-C5]
Nano Fibers
We are developing electrospinning as a way to make novel synthetic fibers with unusually small
diameters ranging from 50 to 500 nm. [M98-D1]
High Stress Elastic Materials ....................................................................... 12
We are designing various textile structures that are characterized by an anomalously large strain
that occurs just prior to failure, giving the material an enormous level of toughness. [M98-D3]
Draw Induced Morphology and Fiber Architecture .................................... 14
By studying how the incremental draw process effects fiber physical properties, we are identify-
ing optimum process conditions to maximize fiber properties. [M-98-G5]
Nano-Machines: Molecular Spinnerets for Polymeric Fibers .................... 16
We are developing nano-material spinning machines to produce custom designed fibers.
[M-98-G8]
Controlling Fluid Flow Through Fabrics ..................................................... 18
We are building a model for non-Newtonian fluid flow through fabrics. [M98-P2]
Biotechnological Production of Polyesters ................................................ 19
We are using enzyme technology to explore the enhanced control of a cell-free process to
produce polyesters with novel functionality. [M99-G11]

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 i


Fabrication
Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of fibrous structures, including yarns,
textiles, garments, nonwovens, carpets, coated fabrics, papers, preforms, etc.

Nonlinear Models for Yarn Transport Systems ......................................... 20


We are developing nonlinear models that predict the tension and balloon shape of yarns under-
going high speed translation and rotation. [F97-C5]
Flock Fundamentals .................................................................................... 22
We are developing a fundamental understanding of flock materials and flocking processes.
[F97-D1]
Fiber Hydroentanglement Using Pulsed Elliptical Jets .............................. 23
Pulsing an impinging jet flow through elliptical holes improves hydroentanglement and fabric
strength in nonwovens. [F98-C4]
Ultra-thick Cross Section Composites ..................................................... 25
We are examining the fundamental fiber and resin material parameters that are important in the
manufacture of thick cross-section composites. [F98-D4]
Fiber-Particle-Airflow Interaction ................................................................ 26
We are developing the knowledge base that can lead to more efficient machines, shortened
production lines and novel processes to convert fiber batt directly to yarns. [F98-G15]
Modeling of Ductile Braided Composites ................................................... 28
We are developing an analytical model of ductile braided composites that describes static and
dynamic load response for such uses as rebars to reinforce concrete. [F98-P1]
Automated 3D Fabric Part Handling ............................................................ 30
We are developing efficient and optimal fabric part handling technologies for automated
processes. [F98-S4]
Fiber-on-Fiber Friction ................................................................................ 32
We are investigating the friction behavior of fibers and energy dissipation under dynamic
loading conditions. [F98-S9]
Microelectromechanical Fabric Formation Systems ................................ 33
We are developing fundamentally new approaches for processing fibers into textile structures
using microelectromechanical systems technology. [F98-S12]
Filling Yarn Insertion in Air Jet Weaving .................................................... 35
We are developing a spiral-eddy flow model to predict fiber and yarn motion dynamics during
insertion of filling yarns in air jet weaving. [F99-A10]
Multicomponent Cotton Blending Variability .............................................. 36
To optimize yarn and fabric processability, we are developing ways to measure the complex
interaction of cotton fibers in multicomponent blends. [F99-A13]
Kansei Engineering of Fabric Aesthetics ................................................... 37
We are applying principles of sensor (Kansei) engineering to design consumer pleasing textile
materials that obey a "1/f" relationship of well-being and harmony. [F99-S2]
Fiber Motion in High-Speed Air Flows ........................................................ 39
We are developing models to study how to optimize high-speed airflows to separate, condense
and twist fibers as in air jet texturing of filament yarns and Vortex spinning of cotton. [F99-S6]
ii National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000
Chemical Processes
Research in dyeing, finishing and waste reduction in textile processes.

Flexible Crosslinking Systems in Durable Press Cotton ............................ 41


We are investigating the relationship between the loss of mechanical strength in durable press
finished cotton fabrics and the molecular structure of the crosslinking agent. [C97-C3]
Moisture Transport in Textiles ..................................................................... 43
We seek to fundamentally understand moisture transport in fibrous assemblies to improve
drying processes and fluid management in textile structures. [C97-G31]
Antimicrobial Textiles .................................................................................. 45
We are developing textiles that deliver reactive chemical species, especially those with exten-
sive antimicrobial activity. [C98-A17]
Finish Film Stability ...................................................................................... 47
We are investigating ways to minimize “mist” and “slinging” from the breakup of finish film on
fiber. [C98-P2]
Delivering Additives Embedded in Textile Fibers and Polymers ............... 49
We are embedding textile additives into polymer and fibers during spinning.
Simultaneous Dyeing and Finishing ............................................................ 51
We are developing ways to combine dyeing and finishing in textile wet processing by designing
textile dyes capable of imparting finishing affects to textile fibers. [C98-S4]
Closed Loop Desizing, Scouring and Bleaching ........................................ 53
Using nontoxic, environmentally-friendly enzymes, we are developing a closed-loop process,
including reuse of treatment effluent, to desize, scour and bleach cotton. [C99-A7]
Chemistry and Transport in Super and Sub-Critical Fluids ....................... 55
We are studying the solubility and transport of dyes and chemicals in super- and sub-critical
fluids and their interactions with textile substrates. [C99-C3]
Improving Textile Ink Jet Printing ............................................................... 57
We are learning how image formation is dependent on how particles influence ink flow behavior
and how a single ink jet droplet is formed and interacts with the textile substrate. [C99-G8]
Optimizing Batch Dyeing Process Control ................................................. 59
We are optimizing our batch dyeing process model to improve dye process control strategies.
[C99-S2]
Dye Diffusion in and Surface Treatment of Fibers ..................................... 61
To minimize dye streaks, we are studying dye diffusion in and surface treatment of fibers using
laser scanning confocal microscopy to measure the 3-D distribution of dye in fiber. [C99-S4]
Non-Aqueous Fabric Finishing .................................................................... 63
We are investigating the use of high energy plasma to create a continuous non-aqueous fabric
treatment system, encompassing desizing, scouring, dyeing and especially finishing. [C99-S9]

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 iii


Integrated Enterprise Systems
Research in systems to enable rapid response, including information technology, computer modeling, management processes,
market research, expert systems, customer interactive design and demand-activated, closed-loop production systems.

Lifestyle Aspiration as a Purchasing Motivation ....................................... 65


We are developing an online, visual-based methodology to assess the impact of lifestyle-related
consumption imagery on consumers’ preferences for textile and apparel products. [I97-A11]
On-Line Data Measurement ......................................................................... 67
We are designing a new on-line quality measurement system that will make full use of all data
captured on-line. [I97-S1]
Building Global Brand Image Strategies ..................................................... 69
We are developing a computer simulation model to forcast the impact of various brand image
strategies on consumer purchase intentions in targeted international markets. [I98-A6]
An Interactive, On-line Baby Boomer Panel ............................................... 71
By discovering how baby boomers are visualizing their retirement lifestyles, we can explore
web-based consumer research. [I98-A7]
Fitting Preferences of Females ................................................................... 73
We seek to understand the nuances of fit from the consumer's perspective so we can translate
consumer fit preference data into an expert system. [I98-A8]
Simulating Consumer's Apparel Purchases ............................................. 75
We are using agent-based simulation to model the formation of a consumer’s intent to purchase
apparel. [I98-A9]
Integrated Supply Chain Analysis ............................................................... 77
We are attacking critical softgoods supply chain integration and decision support problems using
fuzzy mathematics and neural network technologies. [I98-S1]
Predicting Textile and Apparel Demand .................................................... 79
We are designing consumer demand equations to predict consumer purchases in textiles and
apparel. [I98-S6]
Apparel Production Systems to Support Quick Response ....................... 81
We are developing software to understand the role of manufacturing configuration and produc-
tion planning and control in support of quick response replenishment to retail. [I98-S12]
Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers, and Fibers .................. 83
We are using genetic algorithms, neural networks and fuzzy logic with molecular orbital
methods to design a variety of dyes, chemical auxiliaries, polymers and fibers. [I98-P1]
Fabric Drape Model ...................................................................................... 85
We are developing a physically based model of fabric drape that can be used in apparel design
including multiple layers of fabrics, two-ply seams and fabrics with stitches. [I98-P2]
Compressing the Supply Chain .................................................................. 86
We are helping to design Enterprise Resource Planning software that will compress the time
between order entry and shipment in fabric weaving. [I98-P3]

iv National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


New Textile Technologies: Will They Flourish or Perish? ....................... 88
To improve purchasing decisions, we are developing a model to predict how new textile
technologies will survive, flourish, diminish and perish versus competitive technologies.
[I99-A2]
When is Domestic Apparel Manufacturing Competitive? .......................... 90
We are studying how synergistic combinations of business strategies, garment types and market
trends can favor quick response domestic apparel manufacturing vs. offshore sources. [I99-D16]
Educating the Educators .............................................................................. 92
We are researching the best way to teach textile science and engineering students by identifying,
testing and implementing various active learning methods. [I99-P1]
Developing Better Products Faster ............................................................. 94
By linking textile and pattern design software, we are developing ways to rapidly create new,
improved digital printed fabrics and to minimize fabric waste. [seed project: I99-S7]
Information Engineering .............................................................................. 95
We are developing ways to extract the "meaning" from on- and off-line textile manufacturing
raw data so that humans can quickly make more effective decisions. [I99-S10]

Index By Principal Contributor ................................................................... 97

In This Section
Table of Contents .......................................................................................... i
Index by Project Management ................................................................... vi
Auburn ......................................................................................................... vi
Clemson ...................................................................................................... vii
Georgia Tech ............................................................................................ viii
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth ....................................... ix
North Carolina State ............................................................................ x
Philadelphia University ....................................................................... xi
Abbreviations .................................................................................................. xi
Discontinued Projects ................................................................................. xii

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 v


Index by Project Management

AUBURN Management
Consumer Preferences for Apparel and Textile Products as a Function
of Lifestyle Imagery (Solomon with Berry College) [I97-A11] .................................... 65
Textiles Having the Ability to Deliver Reactive Chemical Systems
(Broughton with Georgia Tech, UC Davis) [C98-A17] ....................................................... 45

Building Global Textile & Apparel Brand Image Strategies: A Cross


National Model (Forsythe with Sandia) [I98-A6] ...................................................... 69
Interactive Cohort Analysis: An Online Panel of "Baby Boom" Consumers
Anticipating Their Retirement Years (Ulrich) [I98-A7] ...................................... 71
Understanding Fitting Preferences of Female Customers:
Development an Expert System to Enhance Accurate Sizing Selection
(Connell with UNC-Greensboro, Nottingham Trent, [TC]2) [I98-A8] ........................................ 73

Agent-Based Simulation of the Consumer's Apparel Purchase Decision


(Brannon) [I98-A9] ............................................................................................... 75

Development of Chain Orientation During Deformation of Semi-Solid


Polymers (Broughton with NC State) [M98-A4] ......................................................... 1
Photoadaptive Fibers For Textile Materials (Mills) [M98-A10] ........................... 3
Intelligent, Stimuli-Sensitive Fibers and Fabrics (Walsh with NC State) [M98-A16]. 4
Environmentally Benign Closed-Loop Preparatory Process (Buschle-Diller with
Georgia Tech, NC State, UCalDavis) [C99-A7] ................................................................ 53

Characterization of Air-Yarn Interface in Air-Jet Weaving (Adanur) [F99-A10] . 35


Developing Fundamental Measures of Cotton Multi-Component Blending
Performance (El Mogahzy with Georgia Tech, UNO, ITT) [F99-A13] ................................ 36
Bionomic Analysis of Predatory Exclusion of Technologies
(Thomas with VaTech, ITT) [I99-A2] ........................................................................... 88

vi National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Clemson Management
Investigation of Flexible Crosslinking Systems for the Retention of
Mechanical Strength and Abrasion Resistance in Durable Press
Cotton Fabrics (Lickfield with Georgia) [C97-C3] .................................................... 41
Development and Experimental Validation of Nonlinear Phenomena for
High-Speed Yarn Transport Systems (Goswami with NC State, Univ. of Sydney
(Australia)) [F97-C5] ............................................................................................. 20
Improved Fiber Hydroentanglement Using Pulsed Elliptical Jets (Ellison)
[F98-C4] ......................................................................................................... 23
Chameleon Fibers: Dynamic Color Change From Tunable Molecular
and Oligomeric Devices (Gregory with Georgia Tech, Furman) [M98-C1] .................... 6
Biomimetic Manufacturing of Fibers (Ellison) [M98-C5] ..................................... 8
Chemistry and Transport in Super and Sub-Critical Fluids
(Drews with NC State) [C99-C3] ................................................................................ 55

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 vii


Georgia Tech Management
Fundamentals of Moisture Transport in Textiles: Magnetic Resonance
Imaging Studies (Beckham with UMassD [C97-G31] ................................................. 43
Analysis of Fiber-Particle-Airflow Interaction and Its Application to the
Development of a Novel Card-Spinning System (Wang with Clemson) [F98-G15].. 26
Draw Induced Morphology Development and Fiber Architecture
(Jacob with Ohio State, TRI) [M98-G5] ....................................................................... 14

Molecular Spinnerets for Polymeric Fibers (Jacob) [M98-G8] ........................... 16


Textile Ink Jet Performance and Print Quality Fundamentals (Carr with
InstPaperSci&Tech) [C99-G8] ................................................................................... 57

New Approaches for Biotechnical Production of Polyesters (May with Auburn)


[M99-G11] ......................................................................................................... 19

viii National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Management
Scientific Study of Flock Materials and the Flocking Process (Kim)
[F97-D1] ........................................................................................................... 22
Ultra-thick Cross Section Fiber Reinforced Composites (Kim) [F98-D4] ......... 25
A Fundamental Investigation of the Formation and Properties of
Electrospun Fibers (Warner with M.I.T.) [M98-D1] .................................................. 10
High Stress Elastic Materials (Chen with UMass Dartmouth) [M98-D3] ...................... 12
When is Domestic Apparel Manufacturing Competitive?
(Warburton with NC State, URI) [I99-D16] ........................................................... 90

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 ix


North Carolina State Management
Real-Time Yarn Characterization and Data Compression Using
Wavelets (Suh) [I97-S1] ..................................................................................... 67
Delivering Additives Embedded in Textile Fibers and Polymers
(Tonelli) [C98-S1]

Simultaneous Dyeing and Finishing (Freeman) [C98-S4] .................................... 51


Automated Three Dimensional Fabric Part Handling (Eischen with Clemson)
[F98-S4] ............................................................................................................ 30

A Novel Approach for Measurement of Fiber-on-Fiber Friction


(Qiu with Cotton Inc, Georgia Tech) [F98-S9] ................................................................ 32

Micromachine Based Fabric Formation Systems (Hodge with Loughborough Univ)


[F98-S12] .......................................................................................................... 33

Integrated Supply Chain Analysis and Decision Support (Berkstresser)


[I98-S1] ............................................................................................................. 77

Demand Systems Approach to Prediction of Textile and Apparel


Demands Under Dynamic Social Trends (Suh) [I98-S6] ................................. 79
Analysis of Apparel Production Systems to Support
Quick Response Replenishment (King with [TC]2) [I98-S12] ............................... 81
Optimizing Dyeing Process Control Through Improved Modeling (Smith)
[C99-S2] ........................................................................................................... 59

Fundamental Dye Diffusion and Surface Treatment of Fiber (Tonelli with


Clemson, Georgia Tech, LSU) [C99-S4] ....................................................................... 61

A Novel Non-Aqueous Fabric Finishing Process (McCord) [C99-S9] ................ 63


Sensory (Kansei) Engineering of Aesthetics in Textile Fabrics (Barker)
[F99-S2] ............................................................................................................ 37

Fiber Motion and Yarn Forming in High Speed Air Flows (Oxenham with
Loughborough (ENG), South India TRA) [F99-S6] ............................................................ 39

Rapid Prototyping: Developing Better Products Faster


(Istook: Seed Project) [I99-S7] .................................................................................. 94

Information Engineering: Textile Industry's Value-Adding Key To


Effective Decision-Making (Hodge with ITT) [I99-S10] .......................................... 95

x National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Philadelphia University
Finish Film Stability and Its Relevance to Slinging to Spin Finish on a
Spinline (Kamath with TRI) [C98-P2] ....................................................................... 47
Braided Hybrid Composites for Bridge Repair (Pastore with Drexel) [F98-P1] ...... 28
Use of Artificial Intelligence in Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries,
Polymers and Textile Fibers (Sztandera) [I98-P1] .............................................. 83
Physically Based Fabric Drape Models as Tools for Computor-Aided
Design of Apparel and Other Textile Structures (Govindaraj) [I98-P2] ............. 85
A Programmatic Solution to Compress the Supply Chain in a Fabric
Weaving (Duenas) [I98-P3] ................................................................................. 86
Evaluating Fluid Flow Through Fabric (Dunn) [M98-P2] .................................... 18
Educating the Educators (Pastore) [I99-P1] ........................................................ 92

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are not always defined in articles


Auburn (A): University of Auburn, MAE: Mechanical and Aerospace TexE: Textile Engineering
Auburn AL 36849 Engineering TFE: Textile and Fiber Engineering
Chem Eng: Chemical Engineering ME: Mechanical Engineering TFPS: Textile, Fiber & Polymer Science
CivE: Civil Engineering M.I.T.: Mass. Inst. of Technology TRI: Textile Research Institute (Prince-
Clemson (C): Clemson University, NC State (N): North Carolina State ton NJ 08542)
Clemson SC 29634 University, Raleigh NC 27695 UAB: Univ. of Alabama-Birmingham
dpf: denier per filament NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance UC-Davis: University of Calif - Davis
ESR: electron spin resonance PET: poly(ethylene terephthalate) UD: = University of Delaware
Fib: Fiber PhiladelphiaU (P): Philadelphia Univer- UG: University of Georgia
Georgia Tech (G): Georgia Institute of sity, Philadelphia PA 19144 UNC-G: University of North Carolina at
Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 Poly Sci: Polymer Science Greenville
IPST or InstPaperSci&Tech: Institute of S: University of Sydney, Australia UMassD (D): University of Massachu-
Paper Science &Technology TAM: Textile and Apparel Management setts at Dartmouth, MA 02747
ITT: Institute of Textile Technology, [TC]2:Textile/Clothing Technology Corp UofPA: University of Pennsylvania
Charlottesville VA 22903-4614 TE: Textile Engineering U of Tenn: University of Tennessee
Tex: Textile
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 xi
Discontinued Projects

The following NTC programs were discontinued Research Briefs or the November 1999 NTC
because they successfully completed their Annual Report. You may also contact the princi-
maximum three-year life span or because other pal investigators whose phone numbers and E-mail
research was of higher priority. For their last addresses are listed therein. However, several new
report, see the NTC Web site at programs grew out of these projects. See the notes
http://www.ntcresearch.org, the April 1999 NTC following the listings below and a page number, if
li bl
Biological Renovation and Reuse of Spent Reactive Dyebaths [C96-G2]
Information Integration in the Textile Complex (with Georgia Tech) [I96-S15]
Production of Fibers From New Polymers Derived from Biotechnology
(with Bioelastics) [M96-A2]

Chaotic Mixing in Extrusion Based Melt Spinning of Fibers [M96-C1]


Rapid Solidification of Polymeric Fibers (with U. Delaware, Univ. de Nancy I, France)
[M96-G19]

Molecular Structure of Wool [seed project: M98-P1]


Development of Characterization Methodologies of Fiber Surface
Characteristics: Surface/Process Analysis [F96-A3]
On-Line Measurement of Fabric Mechanical Properties for
Process Control (with NC State) [I96-A9]
Effect of Enzymatic Treatment on Dyeing and Finishing of
Cellulosic Fibers: A Study of the Basic Mechanisms and Optimization
of the Process (with Georgia Tech) [C96-A1] see C99-A7 ............................................ 53
Biological Renovation and Reuse of Spent Reactive Dyebaths [C96-G2]
Information Integration in the Textile Complex (with Georgia Tech) [I96-S15]
Developing Subjective-Based Objective Parameters of Fabric Comfort for
Predicting Textile/Human/Environment Interaction Under Various
Physical Activities (Seed Project) [I98-A19]
Brain Wave Fluctuations to Target Consumer Tactile Preference
(Seed Project) [I98-A19] see F99-S2 ............................................................................ 37

Fluid Flow in Fine Capillarities (Seed Project) [C98-G30] see C99-G8 ......................... 57
Modeling Blood Flow Through Vascular Grafts [C98-P1] see M98-P2 ................ 18
Intelligent Manufacturing and Management Systems for an Agile U.S.
Softgoods Complex (with [TC]2) [I95-S2] see I98-S1 ............................................. 77

xii National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Materials
Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of natural and synthetic polymers and fibers,
including polymer mixtures and additives.

Development of Chain Orientation During Cellulose Gel


Previous work tried to enhance spinnability by reducing
the Deformation of Semi-Solid Polymers molecular chain interactions so that solutions could flow more
M98-A4
Roy Broughton, leader; Yasser Gowayed (Auburn), easily. In contrast, we are trying to enhance molecular chain
John Cuculo (NC State) interaction so that fibers can withstand stretching ratios after
the gel passes through the spinneret. In the process pictured
Chain orientation is the principal factor which dominates below, the gel threads are stretched in the air gap at different
the mechanical properties of fibers. The traditional method to ratios as soon as the polymer solution passes through the spin-
achieve polymer chain neret. As the stretching
orientation in the fiber Pump Spinneret Air gap Quenching bath ratio in the air gap
direction is based on increases, fiber orienta-
drawing solid fiber at a tion and tenacity
temperature moderately Coagulant bath Resin Drawing in hot air Dry
increase somewhat.
above its glass transition Dramatically higher orientation occurs during coagulation and
temperature. But chain mobility in solid polymer is very lim- annealing to produce strengths as high as 5 g/denier. Our con-
ited due to strong chain interaction and/or crystallization clusions to date are:
which creates a high level of stretching tension. On the other
• The best conditions we found thus far are a 1.5 stretching
hand, high speed spinning of polymeric melts produces only
ratio in the gel state and a 20°C quench bath temperature.
moderate degrees of fiber orientation which is limited by the
relaxation phenomena in the melt. • The more stretching during quenching, the higher the orien-
tation.
Our research is based on the proposition that in very high
• Annealing aids achieving and maintaining orientation.
viscosity liquids or gels, there is a higher molecular mobility
flow that may upon quenching form highly orientated, high • Significantly higher strength regenerated cellulose fibers are
strength fibers. Such an approach has already been success- possible from very high viscosity liquids.
fully demonstrated in one very high molecular weight We are now focusing on increasing the stretch ratio in both the
system.1,2,3 air gap and the quench bath and on solvent recovery.
A fiber-forming polymer fluid represents a network of Molten Polyester
entangled chains. The degree of entanglement affects the elas- We spun high molecular weight polyester monofilaments at
ticity and flow of polymer melts and solutions, and it plays an take up speeds up to 8000 m/min and then cooled them over a
essential role in fiber formation and fiber strength develop- four meter path with a liquid isothermal bath (LIB) in the first
ment. Since gel spinning is a relatively slow process the meter. The LIB process5 involves placing this liquid isother-
degree of chain entanglement may be more important in mal bath in the threadline, somewhere between the spinneret
restricting the orientation of molecules than the relaxation and take-up roll, to increase threadline tension and tempera-
processes. ture, thereby producing more fully developed fiber
By decreasing chain entanglements morphology.
during spinning, we hope to optimize Although polyester is not chemically cross-linked, chain
entanglements and crystallites create an effective network
polymer stretching and increase structure which permits, above the glass transition
chain orientation and fiber tenacity. temperature, the use of rubber elastic models. Thus, we can
By understanding how chain entanglement and viscoelastic- use classical rubber elasticity theory to relate fiber shrinkage
ity of molten and gel polymers lead to chain orientation during stress to extension ratio upon heating using the equation:
fiber formation, we should be able to produce a degree of ori- ó = NkT (ë2 -ë-1)
entation (and thereby fiber strength) that has been generally where
unattainable in most polymeric fibers. Throughout our ó = shrinkage force per unit deformed cross-section area, g/cm sec2
research, we will also be developing techniques to quantita- k = the Boltzman constant, 1.38×10-16 gcm2/sec2 k
tively measure the entanglement density in fiber spinning and T = the absolute temperature, K
drawing processes and how this further affects the resulting ë = the extension ratio: 1/(1–shrinkage)
fiber structure and properties. Initially, our work will concen- N = the classical entanglement density, the number of active network
trate on polyester melts and cellulose solutions. chain segments per unit volume, cm-3
We found that entanglement density, thus crystallinity, is more
dependent on the take-up speed for LIB fibers than for those
fibers spun under normal cooling conditions, especially when

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 1


the take-up speed increases from 2000 to 3000m/min. (See Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of
Figure 2). Textile Engineering at Auburn since
1976, received his Ph.D. with concen-
Figure 2. The entanglement density vs.take-up speed for trations in textile chemistry and fiber
fiber spun under normal cooling condition and with LIB and polymer science from NC State.
500
Density(E20 cm-3)

Before joining Auburn, Roy worked


Entanglement

400 in polyester research at Goodyear


300 Tire & Rubber. His research inter-
LIB(80 cm) ests include manufacture, utilization
200

100
(No LIB) and testing of fibers and nonwovens.
M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10,
0
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11
Take-up speed(m/min) royalb@eng.auburn.edu
(334)-844-5460
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton
Both permanent and slip-link entanglements likely exist in
polyester fibers and are affected by spinning conditions, such John A. Cuculo, Hoechst Celanese
as take-up speed and cooling conditions. Our model does not Professor Emeritus of Fiber and Poly-
mer Science at NC State, joined the
efficiently characterize both types of entanglements in the faculty in 1968 after an 18-year career
fiber network but we will try incorporating the findings of in fiber research at DuPont. He
Qian, et. al.6 to improve our model. received a Ph.D. in chemistry from
Duke and a Sc.B. from Brown.
[Other Contributors: graduate student: Lewin Guo, Sung Sig John's research interests include
Yang (NC State); Visiting Scholar: Weijun Wang (Auburn)] high performance fibers from polyes-
Industry interactions: none reported ter fiber extrusion and cellulose. He
Project Web Site Address: holds several patents in these areas.
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/broughton/m98a04.html F98-A4
john_cuculo@ncsu.edu
For further information: (919)-515-6556
1. Y. Ohta and H. Sugiyhama, Polymer Application, 38: 68 (1989).
2. T Nakajima, Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology, Woodhead Publishing
Yasser A. Gowayed, an Associate
Ltd, 172 (1994).
Professor at Auburn joined the fac-
3. T. Kunugi , T. Kawasumi and T. Ito, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 40:2101 (1990).
ulty in 1992, when he received a
4. Kavesh et al., U. S. Patent 4,413,110.
Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at
5. John A. Cuculo, Paul A. Tucker and Gao-Y. Chen, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.,
NC State. He also earned a M.S. in
Appl. Polym. Symp., 47:223 (1991).
materials engineering from the
6. Baojun Qian, Panpan Hu, Jianmin He, J. X. Zhao and Chengxun Wu,
American University (Cairo) in 1989
Polym. Eng. and Sci., 32: #17, (Sep 1992).
after an 8-year career in industry as a
structural designer and civil
engineer. Yasser's research interests
include modeling and analysis of tex-
tile composites, image analysis, geo-
textiles and re-utilization of solid
wastes.
F94-A8, F95-A24*, I95-A11, F98-A4,
I96-A9
ygowayed@eng.auburn.edu
(334)-844-5496
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~ygowayed

2 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Photoadaptive Fibers for Textile Materials
M98-A10
German Mills, Chemistry, leader; Lewis Slaten, Consumer We are developing photoadaptive fibers
Affairs, Roy Broughton, Textile Engineering (Auburn) that reversibly change their optical,
Adaptive systems that exhibit desirable and predictable heat reflectivity and electrical
reversible alterations of their properties in response to external properties when exposed to
stimuli are very attractive, and are usually called "smart" sys- high intensity visible light.
tems. Important classes of responsive systems are those that
are photoadaptive, that is, systems experiencing reversible [Other Contributors: Graduate Students: G. Gaddy, Kelly
changes upon exposure to light. A simple example are photo- Malone]
Industry interactions: 4
chromic glasses, where photoreduction of silver halides yields
Project Web Site Addresses:
silver particles that decay in a dark reaction with Cu2+ ions to www.auburn.edu/~slatebl/reportitf.html
reform the starting silver halides. www.auburn.edu/~gaddyga
We are developing photoadaptive fibers which undergo For further information: nothing reported
photo induced reversible changes in their optical, heat reflec- German Mills, an Associate Professor
tivity and electrical properties. Potential applications for these of Chemistry at Auburn since 1995,
joined the faculty in 1989. He earned
fibers include shielding of electromagnetic radiation and selec- a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from
tive reflection of high intensity infrared radiation. the Technical University of West Ber-
Since high concentrations of nanometer-sized silver and lin in 1985 and a MS in inorganic
chemistry from the University of
gold particles reflect infrared radiation they are used on pho- Chile in 1981. "Jimmy" has held
toadaptive fibers as active reflectors. These fibers should also postdoctoral positions at Caltech and
display improved charge transport by minimizing charge accu- Argonne National Lab. His research
mulation typically found in environments with high light inten- interests include synthesis and prop-
erties of nanometer-sized metal and
sity. semiconductor particles, "smart"
By generating these metal particles inside fibers under high materials and transformation of toxic
fluxes of photons, we can manipulate the electromagnetic chemicals.
F95-S24, C98-A17, M98-A10*
properties of flexible textiles, conditions requiring heat reflec- millsge@mail.auburn.edu
tion. Potential applications include enclosures for electromag- (334)-844-6974
netic radiation, protective garments for firefighters and cloth- http://www.auburn.edu/~winkekj
ing that limits exposure to high intensity sunlight. These Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of
"metallized" fibers can also, in principle, be used as recording Textile Engineering at Auburn since
media for 3D storage of optical data. For this purpose metal 1976, received his Ph.D. with concen-
trations in textile chemistry and fiber
crystallites would be generated as layers in sequential fashion and polymer science from NC State.
within structural anisotropies that are regularly spaced in the Before joining Auburn, Roy worked
fibers. in polyester research at Goodyear
Tire & Rubber. His research inter-
To verify our proposed biphotonic mechanism of metal par- ests include manufacture, utilization
ticle generation via free radical chain reactions, we are using and testing of fibers and nonwovens.
films of uniform thickness so we can determine photonic effi- M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10,
ciencies as a function of photon flux. F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11
royalb@eng.auburn.edu
To study the role of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) free radicals in (334)-844-5460
chain reductions of metal complexes, we are adding selected http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton
free radical scavengers to the fibers. Preliminary results indi- B. Lewis Slaten, an Associate Profes-
cate that silver particles present in the PVA films are sensitive sor at Auburn, joined the faculty in
toward oxidation upon exposure to peroxide solutions. Inter- 1974 after receiving a M.S. in organic
chemistry from University of Arkan-
estingly, particle formation again takes place when the treated sas and a Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
samples are exposed again to light, suggesting that reversible ing from Maryland. Previously, Lew
particle formation is achievable by incorporating mild oxi- was a chemist for Freeport Minerals
dants in the films. Stable organic peroxides are obvious can- and the National Bureau of Stan-
dards' Fire Technology division. His
didates as oxidizers; but we will also investigate a possible research interests include fabric test
attack of silver crystallites by molecular iodine, since it can methods, barrier textiles, protective
oxidize bulk silver in non-aqueous media. We will character- clothing, environmental chemistry
ize the oxidation reaction, expected to proceed much slower and chemistry of textile finishes.
slatebl@auburn.edu
than particle generation, by determining the activation energy F95-S24, M98-A10, C98-A17
as well as measuring oxidation rate constants in dry and wet (334)-844-1330
films in the absence and presence of light. http://www.auburn.edu/~slatebl

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 3


Intelligent, Stimuli-Sensitive H+
Fibers and Fabrics OH- Low crosslink H+
M98-A16 OH- density H+
OH- H+
OH H+
William K. Walsh, leader, Weiping Lin, OH-
H+

Gisela Buschle-Diller, Aliecia McClain (Auburn), OH- H+


H+
H+
Sam Hudson (NC State)
Stimuli sensitive polymers (SSP’s) that respond to their
environment are usually gels with low mechanical strength and H+
H+
OH- High crosslink
OH-
slow response times. If they could be incorporated on the sur-
OH- density H+ H+
faces of conventional textiles, the resulting coated structures OH- OH-
H+

should combine the mechanical properties of textiles with the


OH- H+ H+
environmental responsiveness of SSP’s. An added advantage
would be the greatly lowered response time associated with
the high surface areas common to all fibrous materials. Schematic representation of a poly(acrylated urethane)
and a chitosan semi-interpenetrating network
with low/high crosslinking densities.
We hope to develop new textiles with
surfaces coated with stimuli sensitive the gel during polymerization or be incorporated and trapped
in the gel as a semi-interpenetrating network (See Figure
polymers that combine above).
the mechanical properties of textiles
with environmental responsiveness. Cationic Systems With Chitosan
We are now studying UV cured cationic gel films with chi-
We are investigating SSP’s that have a unique capability to tosan as the primary polymer, a photoinitiator and a water-
change structure in response to small environmental changes, dispersible crosslinking oligomer. This system is an anionic
such as temperature, pH, salt, light, electrical field and stress polymer at high pH and a cationic polymer at low pH (See
(See Figure below). Possible applications are controlled-
delivery of functional substances (drugs, nutrients, herbicides,
etc.), temperature and moisture regulation, separation, commu-
nication, robotic muscles, sensors and quality control. Ulti- Fiber SSP
mately, we expect these studies to lead to an understanding of
Anionic
smart materials with “triggerable” microdomains capable of polymer
interacting with external agents.
Changes in temperature, pH, light, etc.
Cationic
polymer
SSP layers
Low High pH value
Fiber Fiber
Action of Fiber Coated with Cationic SSP
in Solutions of Different pH Values.
Swelling degress

Included Figure above). The crosslinking effect of the oligomer


compounds restricts swelling at higher pH levels (See Figure below).
Swelling and Deswelling of LMW Chitosan Gel in Different pH
Solutions

6000
5000-6000
5000
4000-5000
Temperature 4000 3000-4000

An SSP coated fiber swollen with water and an active substance. Swelling 3000 2000-3000

As the environment changes, SSP collapses dramatically and Rates(%) 1000-2000


2000
releases the active substance. 0-1000

1000

We are exploring several processes including the extrusion


2%

0
10%

of fibers with SSP’s and radiation-curing (UV, gamma ray) to 3


20%

5
7 8
30%

9
Amount of
synthesize SSP fibers. For example, fibers could be coated pH Values
10
Ebecryl(%)
with a solution of uncrosslinked SSP, crosslinking monomer
and a photoinitiator which when decomposed with UV would Swelling of UV cured films of chitosan with crosslinking oligomer
produce free radicals, initiating polymerization of the (Ebecryl) [based on the weight of the chitosan].
crosslinking monomer. The already formed SSP could link to

4 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


By varying the orientation and crystallinity in the as-spun Industry Interactions: 6 [Milliken, & Co., EMS Associates, Technical
Development Corporation, Patagonia, Sterling Fibers, Fusion Systems]
fiber, we obtained different distributions of crosslinking which
Project web site address:
will influence the swelling and collapse behavior of the fibers. http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/walsh/m98a16.html
For faster UV cure rates, we added N-vinyl pyrrolidone to the
For further information:
cationic system which decreased the maximum swelling at all 1. Abby Whittington, Andrew Hawkins, Gary Blackmon, Gisela Buschle-
but the lowest amounts of crosslinking oligomers, presumably Diller, Simuli-Sensitive Textile Materials; AATCC 1999 International
due to its increased accessibility. Conf. & Exhibition, October 12-15, Charlotte.
2. Misuhiro Shibayama & Toyoichi Tanaka, Volume Phase Transition and
We are now focusing on thermosensitive gel systems which Related Phenomena of Polymer Gels, Advances in Polymer Science, 109:1
can shrink effectively with an increase in ambient temperature. (1993).
[Contributing students: Changqing Chen, Andrew Hawkins, 3. Stevin H. Gehrke, Synthesis, Equilibrium Swelling, Kinetics, Permeability,
and Applications of Environmentally Responsive Gels, Advances in Poly-
Abby Whittington, Gary Blackmon (Auburn University); mer Science, .110:83 (1993).
Sheng Zhang (NCSU)] 4. F. L. Buchholz & A. T. Graham, Ed. Modern Superabsorbent Polymer
William K. Walsh, a Professor and Technology, Wiley VCH (1998).
Head of the Department of Textile 5. Y.C. Wei and S.M. Hudson, Binding of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to a
Engineering at Auburn since 1989, Polyelectrolyte Based on Chitosan Macromolecules, 26:4151 (1993).
received a Ph.D. in chemical engi- 6. Y.C. Wei, S.M. Hudson, J.M. Meyer and D.L. Kaplan, The Cross-Linking
neering at NC State in 1967. He then of Chitosan Fibers with Epichlorohydrin, J.Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem.
joined the NC State faculty, becoming Ed., 30:2187 (1992).
an Associate Dean in 1988. His 7. M. Logan, G. Cannon and C. McCormick, pH Responsive Microdomain
research interests include mechani- Formation in a De Novo Polypeptide. Biopoly, 41:521 (1997).
cal and surface properties of poly-
mers, esp. adhesive bonding of fab- Weiping Lin, on the research faculty
rics, wetting and wicking in porous of Textile Engineering at Auburn
media; electron beam and UV radia- since 1997, received a Ph.D. in fiber
tion polymerization and curing; and and polymer science from China Tex-
hydrophilic fiber finishes and mois- tile University (Shanghai) in 1990,
ture transport mechanisms for then became an Assistant Professor
improved clothing comfort. of Material Science at Zhongshan
C95-A8, C95-C14, C96-A1, M98-A16* University (Guangzhou, China). From
wwalsh@eng.auburn.edu 1994 to 1996 Weiping was a Postdoc-
(334)-844-5452 toral Research Fellow at California-
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Walsh Davis and Auburn. His research
Gisela Buschle-Diller, an Assistant interests include polymer synthesis,
Professor of Textile Engineering at fiber formation, surface modification,
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1995. stimuli-sensitive polymers, advanced
Gisela earned a Ph.D. in chemistry fibers and reclamation of textile
from the U. of Stuttgart (Germany) in waste.
1989 with postdoctoral work at U. of M98-A16
California, Davis, in textiles and lwp@eng.auburn.edu
clothing. She worked at Berlin's (334)-844-4327
Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Poly-
mer Science and Rathgen Research Aliecia R. McClain, an Assistant Pro-
Laboratories. Her research interests fessor of Textile Engineering at
include dyeing and finishing, espe- Auburn, joined the faculty in 1998
cially enzymatic processes, natural when she earned her Ph.D. in agricul-
fibers, environmental issues and the tural and environmental chemistry at
history of dyes and textile materials. UC-Davis. Aliecia also has a B.S. in
C96-A1*, M98-A16, C99-A7* chemistry from Benedict College (SC)
giselabd@eng.auburn.edu in 1985 and a M.S. in inorganic poly-
(334)-844-5468 mer chemistry from Clark-Atlanta
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~giselabd University in 1990. Her research inter-
ests includes polymer synthesis,
Samuel M. Hudson, an Associate Pro-
fiber and polymer science, and the
fessor at NC State, joined the faculty
use of chelating fibers and resins to
in 1987. He is also an Adjunct Assis-
treat effluents.
tant Professor in Art Conservation for
M98-A16
the University of Delaware. Sam
amcclain@eng.auburn.edu
received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer
(334)-844-5459
science at NC State in 1981 where-
upon he became a senior chemist for
DuPont before returning to NC State.
His research interests include the
development of "environmentally-
friendly" fibers, especially chitin and
chitosan, and micromechanics of
bone fracture.
M98-A16
sam_hudson@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6545
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/shudson.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 5


Chameleon Fibers: Dynamic Color Change characteristics, and therefore their color, under applied electri-
cal or magnetic stress.
From Tunable Molecular
Currently, we are working to increase the compatibility of
and Oligomeric Devices our new polymer chromophores, to optimize color change and
M98-C1
Richard V. Gregory, leader (TF&PS, Clemson) to find inexpensive methods of attaching chromophores to the
Timothy Hanks (Furman), surface of conducting polymers, especially polyaniline,
Robert J. Samuels (Chem Eng, Georgia Tech) polypyrrole, polythiophene and poly(ethylenedioxythiophene).
We are initially focusing on conducting polymers, since they
We are designing fibers that can quickly change their color,
are ideally suited for delivering large electric potentials to the
hue, depth of shade or optical transparency by application of
chromophore environment. We now have several potential
an electrical or magnetic field. Towards that end we are iden-
target monomers and oligomers in fiber and film and are
tifying, preparing and characterizing electroactive and magne-
N
Br Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 N N
1) KOH, H (CH2)4OH
CuI/(CH3CH2)2NH OH Br
+ 2) NaOH/Br2 CuCl/Et2NH/MeOH
H OH

N N O O
Dibutyltin dilaurate
(CH2)4OH
Butyl isocyanatoacetate
(CH2 )4 O (CH2)3CH3
N
8
H
toactive oligomeric molecules with unique abilities to change evaluating these unique materials for their degree and depth of
their absorption and/or reflection of electromagnetic radiation color change. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,
in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet frequency ranges. We contact angle analysis and atomic force microscopy force
will introduce these molecules with "tunable" properties into curve measurements, we have found that organic species can
polymers, then measure their optical properties under differing be covalently bound to the surface of these polymers in
electrical, magnetic and thermal stress. We already know that densely packed monolayers.
varying the electrical or magnetic field changes the visible [Other Contributors: Graduate Students Steve Hardaker,
radiation absorption and color of these materials, suggesting Mike Pepitone, Jun Wang, Huaidong Meng (Clemson);
applications in coatings, additives or stand alone fibers. Runqing Ou, Tao Liu (Georgia Tech); Post Doctoral: Xingwu
Wang (Clemson)]
We are designing fibers that can Industry interactions: none reported
Project Web Site Address:
quickly change their color, hue, http://www.furman.edu/~hanks/ntc
depth of shade or optical transparency
For further information: nothing reported
by application of Richard V. Gregory, a Professor and
an electrical or magnetic field. Director of the School of Textiles,
Fiber and Polymer Science at Clem-
We have now prepared a series of urethane-based diacety- son, joined the faculty in 1990. He
received his Ph.D. in physical chem-
lenes (See Figure) which are known to undergo a unique solid- istry at Clemson in 1984 and contin-
state photopolymerization to give highly colored, highly con- ued with postdoctoral work in poly-
jugated polymer crystals. These materials are solvotochromic, mer spectroscopy whereupon he
thermalchromic and mechanochromic. The presence of a long- joined the research staff at Milliken.
Dick is thrust leader of NSF Center
chained urethane on one or both sides of the diacetylene for Advanced Fibers and Films, and
increases the solubility of the polymer dramatically in organic on the editorial board of Macro-
solvents. Thus, we can blend polydiacetylenes with both con- molecular Materials and Engineering.
ventional textile polymers and certain piezoelectric materials, His research interests include the for-
mation, characterization and poten-
which results in a mechanical stress upon application of an tial industrial applications of conduc-
electric field. As the conjugated back bone of the polydiacety- tive polymers and the interaction of
lene is stressed, its color changes. These molecules form the ultraviolet radiation with polymers.
initial basis of our investigations into production of true cha- M95-C6*, M95-C4*, M98-C1*
richar6@clemson.clemson.edu
meleon fibers capable of changing their adsorption (864)-656-5961
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty

6 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Timothy Hanks, an Associate Profes- Robert J. Samuels, a Chemical Engi-
sor of Chemistry at Furman Univer- neering Professor at Georgia Tech
sity, joined the faculty in 1990. He since 1979, received a Ph.D. in poly-
earned a B.S. in chemistry from mer chemistry from University of
South Dakota School of Mines and Akron in 1961. During an 18 year
Technology in 1982 and a Ph.D. in career at Hercules, Robert was an
organic chemistry from Montana Adjunct Professor at the Universities
State in 1986. After postdoctoral of Delaware and Washington. His
research at Minnesota, Tim was a vis- research interests include rapid non-
iting assistant professor at Clemson. destructive characterization of ani-
His research interests include nano- sotropic polymers, deformation kinet-
porous solids, organometallic poly- ics of polymer systems, and predic-
mers for microelectronics and tion of advanced material behavior.
electro-responsive polymers for non- He is author of the book Structured
linear optics, catalysis and sensing Polymer Properties and the recipient
applications. of the 1999 International Research
M98-C1 Award of the Society of Plastics
hanks@furman.edu Engineers.
(864)-294-3373 M95-C4, M98-C1
http://www.furman.edu/~hanks/hanks.html robert.samuels@che.gatech.edu
(404)-894-2885

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 7


Biomimetic Manufacturing of Fibers
M98-C5 We are exploiting recombinant DNA
Michael S. Ellison, leader; Albert G. Abbott,
Gary Lickfield, William Marcotte, Florence Teulé,
and plant transgenic technologies
Sook Jeong, Manan Shah, Jihua Chen (Clemson) to create and produce
Biotechnology provides the tools to clone and express syn- novel protein polymers in
thetic protein fibers in simple organisms and to design these significant quantities for fiber spinning.
fibers with precisely engineered properties for specific appli- linked together to build repetitive gene units for expression
cations. We want to lay the foundation for development of studies of protein thought to be critical in fiber alignment. We
biomimetic protein fiber spinning by identifying the funda- have introduced one spidroin-2 gene construct to Pichia pas-
mental molecular biology of clonal production of fiber form- toris yeast and successfully extracted and purified the resulting
ing protein polymers by genetic expression in plants and also synthetic fiber protein for characterization and spinning (See
to understand the biology of arachnid silk production. Our Photos below). We also introduced a synthetic heteropolymer
approach is to exploit recombinant DNA technologies to cre- gene construct into yeast.
ate novel protein polymers and then, by expression using plant
transgenics, produce them in significant quantities. Plants
We are developing genes encoding a number of natural We are constructing plant transgenic vectors with homo-
structural protein domains that represent portions of fibrous polymer and heteropolymer gene constructs for introduction
proteins and are combining these domains into longer homo- into plants, concentrating our efforts on yeast and higher
polymer and heteropolymer tracts for synthetic protein fiber plants. We are making the transgene constructs for introduc-
production. We are also developing spinning technologies for ing polymer genes into appropriate plant hosts, such as pea-
biotechnologically produced protein fibers. nuts, tobacco and rice (an example being the putative peanut
seed specific omega 9 desaturase promoter we are characteriz-
Spider Silk ing for the transgenic expression of these genes in legumes).
Spidroin, the dragline silk of the spider Nephila clavipes, is
Since Invitro-
the archetype for study
gen’s Pichia pas-
of these fibers, being a
toris system was
strong, elastic, water-
shown by others1 to
proof, stretchable, bio-
give substantial
degradable, b-sheet
yields of recombi-
natural protein poly-
nant protein, we
mer. We are designing
have used it to
a wet spinning system
quickly verify that
inspired by the spider's
our constructs are
spinning apparatus
making the appro-
(See Figure) because
priate proteins.
mimicking this struc-
ture should be the best By expressing
route to successful pro- the gene in these
tein filament spinning. Our strategy is to study in-depth the plants we will have enough polymer to enable the investiga-
biology of spiders to develop unique fiber spinning technolo- tion of parameters which contribute to polymer spinnability,
gies by exploiting both nanotechnology and stimuli-responsive such as polymer molecular weight (protein length) and pri-
polymers. mary structure. We are also investigating the feasibility of
large-scale production of helical protein polymers through
Initially we cloned the amino acid containing portion of
expressing collagen genes in plants.
spidroin 1 and 2 genes which encode components of the dra-
Industry interactions: none reported
gline spider silk protein. We have used published sequences of
Project Web Site Address:
these genes to construct oligonucleotides which have been http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~ellisom/Biomimetic%20Fibers/index.htm

For Further Information


1. M. Xu, and R.V. Lewis, Structure of a protein superfiber: spider dragline
silk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87:7120 (1990).
2. M.B. Hinman and R.V. Lewis, Isolation of a clone encoding a second dra-
gline silk fibroin, J. Biol. Chem., 267 (27): 19320 (1992).
3. J.T. Prince, K.P. Mc Grath, C.M. Di Girolamo and D.L. Kaplan, Construc-
tion, cloning and expression of synthetic genes encoding spider dragline
silk, Biochem., 34:10879 (1995).
Western Blot analyses of synthetic fiber protein produced by 4. J.P. Anderson, J. Capello and D.C. Martin, Morphology and primary struc-
transformant Pichia pastoris at different times after the induction ture of a silk like protein polymer synthesized by genetically engineered
of protein synthesis: (left) spidroin-2 homopolymer; (right) Escherichia coli, Biopolymers, 34:1049 (1994).
5. S.R. Fahnestock and L.A. Bedzyk, Production of synthetic spider dragline
collagen-spidroin-2 heteropolymer. showing the presence of the
silk protein in Pichia pastoris, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 47:33 (1997).
copolymer protein secreted into the culture media.

8 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


6. Y. Fukushima, Genetically engineered synthesis of tandem repetitive Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate Pro-
polypeptides consisting of glycine-rich sequences of spider dragline silk, fessor in Textiles, Fiber & Polymer
Biopolymers, 45:269 (1998). Science at Clemson, joined the fac-
7. S. Arcidiacono, C. Mello, D. Kaplan, S. Cheley and H. Bayley, Purifica- ulty in 1986. He earned a Ph.D. there
tion and characterization of recombinant spider silk expressed in Escheri- in physical chemistry in 1983 and a
chia coli, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 49(1):31 (1998). B.S. in chemistry from Ursinus Col-
8. T. Wang, C.M. Deom and R.S. Hussey, Identification of a Meloidogyne lege in 1978. Gary's research inter-
incognita cuticle collagen gene and characterization of the developmental ests include molecular modeling,
expression of three collagen genes in parasitic stages, Mol. Biol. polymer surfaces and interfaces
Parasitol., 93:131 (1998). modification and characterization,
9. P.L. Tate, A molecular analysis of a stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desatu- wetting and adhesion.
rase cDNA from Arachis hypogaea L. and its use in amolecular systematic M95-S22, C97-C3*, M98-C5, C99-C3
study of the section Arachis nomina nuda, Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson, lgary@clemson.clemson.edu
(1994). (864)-656-5964
10.A. Kabbaj, Isolement des gènes régulés lors de la maturation des graines http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html
de tournesol Helianthus annuus L. et des désaturases chez deux variétés William R. Marcotte, Jr, an Associate
normales et à haute teneur en acide oléique, Ph. D. dissertation, Université Professor of Biological Sciences and
de Montpellier II, France (1996). Genetics at Clemson, joined the staff
11.F. Teulé, Etude de l'expression des D9 et D12 désaturases dans les in 1992. He received his B.S. in bio-
graines immatures de variétés de tournesol normales et à haute teneur en chemistry in 1980 from Virginia Poly-
acide oléique, Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies, Université de Montpellier tech and his Ph.D. in microbiology
II, France, (1996). from Virginia in 1986. He was a Visit-
12.F. Vollrath and D. P. Knight, Structure and function of the silk production ing Scientist at DuPont from 1986-9
pathway in the spider Nephila edulis, Int. J. Bio. Macro., 24:243 (1999). and a Research Associate at North
13.J. Kovoor, L'appareil séricigène dans les genres Nephila Leach et Nepil- Carolina from 1989-92. Bill’s
gengys Koch: Anatomie microscopique, Histochimie, Affinités avec research interests include molecular
d'autres Araneidae, Rev. Arachnol., 7:15 (1986) genetics and molecular physiology of
Michael S. Ellison, a Professor of gene and protein expression in
Textile and Polymer Science at Clem- plants.
son, joined the faculty in 1984. He M98-C5
received a Ph.D. in polymer fiber marcotw@clemson.edu
physics at the University of California (864)-656-0119
(Davis) in 1982. Mike's research http://cufp.clemson.edu/biosci/Faculty/marcotte.htm
interests include structure/property
relationships in melt extrusion of Sook Jeong, a Ph. D candidate in
fibers, tensile and non-tensile loading genetics at Clemson, expects to
during mechanical property testing of graduate in May 2000. She earned a
fibers, electrical properties of poly- M.S. in biochemistry from Clemson in
mers and application of chaos theory 1996. She also earned a pharmacy
to polymer physics. degree from Busan National Univer-
M94-C4*, M94-S2, M96-C1*, M98-C5*, sity (Korea) and worked as a pharma-
F98-C4* cist for four years.
ellisom@clemson.clemson.edu M98-C5
(864)-656-5966
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/ellison.html
Albert G. Abbott, Associate Professor
Florence Teulé, a Ph.D student in
of Biological Sciences at Clemson,
genetics at Clemson, earned a BS in
joined the faculty in 1984. He earned
plant biology and chemistry in 1995
a Ph.D. in cell and molecular biology
from from the University of Pau
from Brown University in 1980 and a
(France) and a D.E.A. Bases de la
B.S. in biological sciences from Univ.
production végétale in plant breeding
of Connecticut in 1976. He was a Fel-
at the University of Montpellier in
low at the Rockefeller Foundation's
France in 1996.
Plant Breeding Institute in Cambridge
M98-C5
(England). Bert's research interests
include basic gene structure and
function, improving plant products
through genetic manipulation and Jihua Chen, an M.S. student in textile,
genetic engineering to produce novel fiber and polymer science at Clem-
proteins. son since 1999, earned a B.S. in poly-
M98-C5 mer material from Beijing University
aalbert@clemson.edu of Aeronautics and Astronautics
(864)-656-3060 (China) in 1997, then continuing
graduate work there until 1999.
M98-C5
Manan Shah, an M.S. student in tex-
tile chemistry at Clemson, earned a
degree in petrochemical engineering
from Maharashtra Institute of Tech-
nology (Pune-India) in 1999.
M98-C5

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 9


Fundamental Investigation of the Formation
and Properties We are developing electrospinning
of Electrospun Fibers as a way to make novel synthetic fibers
M98-D1 with unusually small diameters
Steven B. Warner (UMassD), leader;
Gregory C. Rutledge (M.I.T.)
ranging from 50 to 500 nm.
We are developing electric field-driven fiber formation continuous removal of the non-woven fabric as a yarn. This
(“electrospinning”) as a technology for generating polymer unit also improves the economic viability of electrospinning
fibers with nanoscale diameters (“nanofibers”) and enhanced because it uses multiple spinnerets.
mechanical properties. The electrospinning process is based
on the application of a high electric field that generates suffi-
cient surface charge to overcome surface tension in a pendant
drop of a polymer fluid. The droplet deforms into a conical
shape and eventually, a fluid jet is ejected from the apex of the
cone (See Photos). The jet is accelerated towards a grounded
collector and charged solid fibers are deposited in the form of
a non-woven fabric. Instabilities induced in the spin line
probably play a major role in producing these fibers with
diameters ranging from 50 to 500 nm, several orders of magni-
tude smaller than fiber made by conventional extrusion tech-
niques. Electrospun nanofibers possess unique properties that
make them ideal candidates for applications such as mem-
branes and filters, biomedical devices and composite
reinforcements.

Rotor Electrospinner

The fibers spun to date are often birefringent, indicating


molecular orientation, but there is little quantitative informa-
tion on the degree of orientation attainable in such fibers. We
have characterized fiber sizes with electron microscopy and
are developing techniques to study morphology and orienta-
tion and to measure single fiber mechanical properties.
[Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Alexandre Buer,
An unperturbed droplet (left) Martine Grimler (UMassD), Michael Y. Shin (MIT); Visiting
that deforms into an electrohydrodynamic cone-jet Scientist: Samuel Ugbolue (UMassD)]
upon application of an electric field during electrospinning Outside interactions: 4 [University of Chicago, University of Akron,
To fully exploit the potential of the electrospinning process, University of Twente, U.S. Army Natick Labs]
Project Web Site Address:
we require improved control over the fiber formation process http://heavenly.mit.edu/~rutledge
and an improved means for evaluating the structure and prop- Steven B. Warner, a Professor and
erties of these novel fibers. As an intermediate but necessary Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass
step towards improved process control, we are developing a Dartmouth since 1994, earned a
quantitative process model which is based on a perturbation Sc..D. in polymer and material sci-
ence & engineering from M.I.T. in
analysis and the long wavelength instabilities indicated by our 1976. He then spent 12 years in
experiments. This combination of experiment and theory has industrial research at Hoechst-
been instrumental in allowing us to rationalize our experimen- Celanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5
tal observations with an understanding of the behavior of years on the faculty of Georgia Tech.
Steve is the author of the texts: The
charged fluid jets in electric fields, and to generate operating Science and Design of Engineering
guidelines for more efficient process development. Materials and Fiber Science. His
To date, the chaotic nature of the spinning process has lim- research interests include fibers sci-
ence, microstructure of nonwovens
ited electrospinning technology to the formation of non-woven
and fluid management in fibrous
fabrics. Recently, we developed a novel rotor electrospinning assemblies and properties.
unit to produce the first yarns (See Figure). This unit is capa- M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3,
ble of spinning from multiple spinnerets simultaneously and C97-G31, I99-D16
swarner@umassd.edu
the radial geometry minimizes electrostatic interactions (508)-999-8449
between threadlines, in particular charge repulsion between
jets. A rotating collector provides a mechanism for

10 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Gregory C. Rutledge an Associate
Professor of Chemical Engineering at
M.I.T. since 1991, earned a Ph.D. in
chemical engineering there in 1990.
He also holds a B.S. degree in chemi-
cal engineering from Virginia (1983).
Greg worked for the Dow Chemical
for 2 years and did postdoctoral
research at ETH (Zurich) and the Uni-
versity of Leeds (England). His
research interests include structure/
property relationships in polymer sci-
ence and engineering, statistical
mechanics and molecular simulation
of polymers, liquid crystal polymers
and polymer mechanics.
M98-D1
rutledge@mit.edu
(617)-253-0171

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 11


High Stress Elastic Materials platforms typically have too little “give” and must sustain high
M98-D3loads under large amplitude waves during stormy weather.
Julie Chen (Mech. Eng., UMass Lowell), leader; Another example might be a fishing net where an externally
Armand Lewis, Steven B. Warner applied stress is used to change the net’s mesh size.
(Textile Sciences, UMassD) Our model will consider overall stress-strain behavior at the
Braided textile structures do not rely on a matrix to transmit molecular level [chain unraveling (Irwin, 1993) and hydrogen
load to the fibers, as in textile composites. Instead, yarns bonding networks2 such as those that provide spider silk with
within a braid are able to its extraordinary
change orientation quite toughness] and on the
freely under increasing supermolecular level
tension until the “locking [crystal-crystal transitions
angle” is reached (See that can provide a high
Figure), at which point strain-to-fail or stress pla-
the structure exhibits a teau, as in wool and
rapid increase in stiffness. poly(butylene terephthal-
Previous composite mod- ate) (Warner, 1995)].
els, which rely heavily on A plot of the load vs.
a fixed fiber orientation Yarn cross-sections before (left) and after the locking angle is reached deflection in a braided rope
and volume fraction for shows an initial zero load
predicting mechanical properties, are therefore not valid for plateau and then a dramatic increase in load, the onset of lock-
braided textile structures where deformations can be large, ing (See Figure below). We believe this difference is caused
causing significant changes in textile architecture. Existing by a consolidation of the fibers within the strand, resulting in
models of rope and braided structures (e.g., Hsu 1984, Toney an increased resistance to further rotation and compaction.
1986, Naik 1994) generally assume that the structure does not
change appreciably during loading which is only appropriate Locking Angle
for structures undergoing small strains. Specimen - V01H4 Braid
Electromechanical Instron Model
2500

We are designing various linear textile


structures that are characterized 2000

by an anomalously large strain


Tensile Load (lbs.)

1500

that occurs just prior to failure, Test 1


giving the material 1000 Test 2
Test 3
an enormous level of toughness.
500

Because of these complexities, we are developing a gener-


alized model for braided and other linear textile structures so 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
we can better understand them and modify them to obtain
increased toughness. Our model will allow for large strains -500

and deformations in textile architecture, such as yarn orienta- Stroke in Tension (inches)

tion and compaction (local fiber volume fractions). We are


Our current model contains a manufacturing module that
constructing our model from interrelated building block mod-
can predict the initial braid configuration, based on manufac-
ules representing the fiber, yarn, strand, subcomponent and
turing parameters such as yarn size, mandrel diameter and
full structure levels for optimizing design of novel textile
number of carriers. To better understand the stress-strain
structures, such as braided ropes, that can be used for high
response near the locking region and the compaction of the
strain to failure, and high toughness, elastic rope structures for
yarns that occurs during loading, we developed a second mod-
marine applications.
ule to predict the point at which the slope of the load-
Many textile architectures, such as weaves, knits, braids, displacement curve starts to increase dramatically (the “lock-
are known to exhibit distinct deformation responses. To opti- ing angle”), as well as the stiffness of the post-locking region.
mize the design of structure with a desired stress-strain behav- This yarn interaction before and after the locking angle is criti-
iors we are developing a model with a combination of materi- cal because it drives the stiffness behavior of braided rope
als and geometric arrangement of the fibers. Because most structures. The factors influencing the point at which locking
structures exhibit a stiffening response when subjected to occurs are many, including the level of twist in the yarn, yarn
strain in the elastic regime, we chose to demonstrate the bene- size, number of yarns or carriers, coverage, braid angle, braid
fits of our predictive model by initially modeling very high type, mandrel diameter, and constituent properties. As one
toughness linear textile structures that are characterized by an would expect, locking occurs sooner in braids with larger
anonymously large strain that occurs just prior to failure. For strand widths and coverage. However, because of the combi-
example, stiff mooring line braided ropes for boats and oil-rig nation of parameter values, a smaller initial strand spacing

12 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


equates to a larger degree of shear deformation prior to Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile
Chemistry and Environmental Sci-
locking.
ence at UMass Dartmouth, joined the
We are also developing a finite element model of the yarn faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D. in
cross-sectional deformation behavior to incorporate this surface chemistry from Lehigh in
behavior into the linear textile structural model. We will ini- 1958 following a B.S. in textile chem-
istry from the New Bedford Textile
tially emphasize the compaction behavior that affects the Institute and an M.S. in chemistry
stress-strain response near the locking region and will fabri- from Oklahoma State. From 1959-88,
cate and test a range of materials and hybrid structures to vali- Armand was in research at American
date the model. Cyanamid, Lord Corp. and Kendall.
His research interests include adhe-
Our ultimate goal is to design a user friendly computer sion science, flock material and proc-
based design tool for predicting the global mechanical proper- esses, composite materials and the
ties of a braided textile structure, such as stress-strain fibrous wiping of surfaces by non-
woven fabrics.
behavior, stiffness and strength. M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4
[Contributing Graduate Student: Robert A. DaSilva (UMass alewis@umassd.edu
Lowell)] (508)-999-8452
Industry Interactions: 1 [New England Ropes]
Steven B. Warner, a Professor and
Project Web Site Address: none reported
Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass
http://m98d3uml.cjb.net
Dartmouth since 1994, earned a
For Further Information Sc..D. in polymer and material sci-
1. R.S. Irwin, Chain Folding in Thermotropic Polyesters, Macromolecules, ence & engineering from M.I.T. in
26, 7125-7133 (1993). 1976. He then spent 12 years in
2. S.B. Warner, Structure and Properties of Spider Silk, AATCC Internat. industrial research at Hoechst-
Conf., 15-18 (Sept, 1996). Celanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5
3. S.B. Warner, Fiber Science, Prentice-Hall (1995). years on the faculty of Georgia Tech.
4. M. Seo, H.C. Wu, J. Chen, C.S. Toomey, and S. Backer, Wear and Fatigue Steve is the author of the texts: The
of Nylon and Polyester Mooring Lines, Textile Research Journal, 67 467 Science and Design of Engineering
(1997). Materials and Fiber Science. His
5. T.M. McBride and J. Chen, Unit-cell geometry in plain-weave fabrics dur- research interests include fibers sci-
ing shear deformations, Composites Science and Technology, 57 345 ence, microstructure of nonwovens
(1997). and fluid management in fibrous
assemblies and properties.
Julie Chen, Associate Professor of M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3,
Mechanical Engineering and Co- C97-G31, I99-D16
Director of the Advanced Composite swarner@umassd.edu
Materials and Textile Research Labo- (508)-999-8449
ratory at UMass Lowell since 1997,
earned a Ph.D. from MIT in mechani-
cal engineering in 1991, then became
Assistant Professor, Aerospace and
Mechanical Engineering at Boston
University until 1997. Julie’s research
interests include mechanical behav-
ior and deformation of fiber struc-
tures, fiber assemblies and compos-
ite materials.
M98-D3
julie_chen@uml.edu
(978)-934-2992
http://m-5.uml.edu/chen

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 13


Draw Induced Morphology and Fiber
Architecture By studying how the incremental draw
M98-G5 process effects fiber physical properties,
Karl I. Jacob, leader (Georgia Tech);
we are identifying optimum process
Steve Bechtel (Ohio State), David Salem (TRI)
conditions to maximize fiber properties.
Tensile and other mechanical properties of polymeric fibers
can be enhanced to levels approaching theoretical values for a wide range. We are looking for the possibility that this may
fully oriented molecules by using a modified multistage draw- lead to new structures and unusual properties. To study the
ing process without recourse to gel-spinning techniques. How- evolution of morphology we are using online (synchrotron)
ever, the success of the draw process depends on the and off-line X-ray, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and
temperature-draw sequence the fibers will be subjected to dur- intrinsic fluorescence techniques.
ing the process. But temperature-draw sequences have
been determined on an empirical trial and error basis with
little regard to the underlying thermodynamics. By com-
bining morphological molecular models and continuum
models with experimental results we are studying how to
optimize the incremental draw process to maximize fiber
physical properties. Towards that end we developed a
macroscopic theory for the cold drawing process (on roll-
ers) and developed a new constitutive relationship by
applying plasticity theory for the hot drawing process.
To more fully understand the complex interactions of A two stage draw process: x’s at of entrance or exit of fibers
fiber rheological properties with drawing conditions, we are from the rollers, y’s at beginning or end of draw (slip).
taking the various approaches enumerated below:
Current Developments
Continuum Rheology Approach We are studying the deformation of a flexible fiber in con-
We are deriving dominant continuum thermodynamic quan- tact with a roll driven at a specified angular velocity, in which
tities for each step of multistage fiber drawing processes by the fiber is allowed to slip and accelerate at ambient tempera-
incorporating the work done by external forces, heat supplied, ture. This corresponds to the problem of cold drawing, where
heat absorbed due to crystal melting, heat evolved due to crys- we showed that the draw occurs only on the rollers. We
tallization and kinetic energy of the deforming fiber. Our approached the problem by first formulating the equations of
model will contain internal structure representations to reflect motion for two possible cases of a deformable fiber on a roll,
the evolution of morphology during drawing (noncrystalline with and without fiber slippage on the rollers. We obtain
and crystalline orientation, crystallization etc.). We have also results that are independent of the relation between tension in
developed a constitutive model for a fiber undergoing draw the fiber and its deformation, i.e. they are valid for all fibers.
using a novel plasticity approach, which can take unloading One such result is that in the steady case the tension in the
into account. In these models parameters can be changed to fiber must be greater than the product of its mass flow rate and
permit simulations of the effects of processing conditions on speed. If not, the roll would have to pull on the fiber to keep it
fiber structure and properties, and identification of the best in contact and accelerating in a circular path. The roll cannot
process conditions for producing fibers with specific mechani- do this, and the insufficiently-tensioned fiber will fly off the
cal properties. roll. We also found that the normal force per unit length and
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Approach the friction force per unit length on the fiber are monotonically
Fiber forming processes take place under conditions far increasing with arc length along the direction of roll rotation
from thermodynamic equilibrium, and it is reasonable to ques- when the fiber is moving faster than the roll surface, and
tion whether classical thermodynamics are applicable. We are monotonically decreasing when the fiber is moving slower
examining Lindenmeyer's formulation of “truly dynamic” ther- than the roll surface.
modynamics and their implications for fiber drawing. In this For hot drawing, we have developed a constitutive model
formulation, the rate of energy flow, not the energy per se, based on plasticity theory to account for the stress–strain
plays the determining role in the thermodynamics, implying behavior of the fiber. In this theory there are two stress free
that fluctuating energy conditions encourage the evolution of states, one before drawing and one after the complete drawing.
more and more complex structures by subdividing into sys- Thus we characterized the drawing kinetics between two stress
tems and subsystems that minimize the dissipation of energy. free states using this unique theory that we developed for the
fiber drawing process. We have also analyzed a two stage
Experimental Approach
To refine the modeling efforts we are employing a uniquely drawing process for various combinations of draw in the first
flexible incremental drawing process where the fiber is drawn and second draw stages and various temperature combinations
in many small increments permitting the imposition of numer- in selected regions. As the continuum models for fiber draw-
ous, rapid, controlled energy fluctuations; for example, the ing are already developed, we have been attempting to match
temperature from increment to increment could be varied over the macroscopic results with microscopic morphology

14 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


development. While we have already developed molecular Stephen E. Bechtel, Professor and
Graduate Studies Chair at Ohio State,
models to characterize the development of molecular orienta-
joined the faculty in 1983 upon earn-
tion during drawing, we are now identifying the temperature- ing a Ph.D. in mechanical engineer-
time combination of each drawing step that can impart the ing at UCal-Berkeley. He also holds a
maximum orientation, to maximize the net molecular orienta- B.S. in engineering science from
Michigan in 1979, Steve's research
tion in the drawn fiber. Currently we are connecting the
interests include computer modeling
molecular and macroscopic models, along with experimental of industrial polymer processing,
analysis of polyester drawing to derive a unified theory for a continuum mechanics, viscoelastic
fiber drawing process. We are incorporating thermodynamic fluid flow, free surface flows and
instability mechanisms characteriza-
effects, as well as kinetic effects, in our formulations. tion of industrial and agricultural
[Contributing Graduate Student: Hai Dong, Qiang Hu (Geor- materials.
gia Tech); Sanjay Vohra (OhioSt)] Industry Interactions: 89 M98-G5
Industrial interactions: none reported bechtel@seb1.eng.ohio-state.edu
Project Web Site Address: (614)-292-6570
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob-resabs.html David Salem, Director of Research at
For Further Information: nothing reported TRI/Princeton and member of NTC’s
TAC committee, joined them in 1983
Karl I. Jacob, Assistant Professor in
after earning his Ph.D. in polymer
Textile and Fiber Engineering at
and fiber physics from the University
Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in
of Manchester Institute of Science
1995 after 6 years in mechanics of
and Technology. From 1986-88, he
composites and molecular modeling
was a research physicist at Rhone-
of polymers with Dacron* Research
Poulenc in France. David received
and Central Research & Development
the Fiber Society's Award for Distin-
at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in
guished Achievement in Fiber Sci-
applied mechanics from Ohio State in
ence in 1996. His research interests
1985 and a B.S. in civil engineering in
include polymer crystallization,
1978 from University of Kerala (India).
microstructure characterization of
Karl's research interests include
polymers and structure formation
polymer solidification, flow induced
during polymer processing.
morphological instabilities, molecular
M98-G5
modeling and mechanics.
dsalem@triprinceton.org;
M96-G19*, M98-G5*, M98-G8*
(609)-924-3150x35
karl.jacob@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-2541
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob.html

Top Figures: A single chain before and after undergoing draw


Bottom Figures: A polymer sample undergoing draw
left: isotropic sample, right: drawn sample

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 15


Nano-Machines: hooks and their rotation must be achieved by applying a mag-
Molecular Spinnerets for Polymeric Fibers netic or electromagnetic field. The discotics must also be
M-98-G8 designed and positioned so they can attract and pull certain
Karl I. Jacob, leader; Malcolm Polk (Georgia Tech) polymer molecules in the prescribed sequence.
The current fiber spinning process is an energy intensive Monomer &/or
operation that requires large spinning machines and other sup- Selective Fiber Transport Prepolymer
port systems. The resulting fiber structure and geometry can
Microporous
be controlled only to an extent by adjusting process Polymeric Membrane
conditions. Our objective is to design and synthesize molecu-
lar spinning machines that are shaped in the form of mem- Solvent Phase with
branes. Recent developments in synthesis of large ring shaped Liquid Crystals
molecules (discotics) makes it possible to design a membrane Fine Fibers in
with a large number of discotics connected together which can Quench
rotate in a magnetic field. The discotics within these mem- Schematic representation of polymerization and spinning using
branes have to be custom designed for each polymer fiber and nano-technology
for each fiber geometry and structure desired.
Using state-of-the-art theoretical, computational and experi- Liquid Crystals
mental tools we are investigating how to design these material
spinning machines to produce fibers with precise control of
structure and geometry, hence properties. The drawing step
will be unnecessary with this system, since the final required
fiber structure is already formed within the molecular
Microporous
machines. Our ultimate objective in this investigation is to Polymeric
combine polymerization and spinning into one on-line Membrane
operation.
We are developing Solvent Phase
nano-material spinning machines Schematic representation of ultra-fine fiber production
to produce custom designed fibers. with discotics of increasing sizes

Computational Approaches
Molecular interactions are the basic building blocks of The structure and location of the discotics in the membrane
nano-technology which has been increasingly used in micro- are the key to success and each specific polymer system must
electronics to design atomic scale gears, rods and bearings. have its own uniquely designed discotic. To accomplish this
The basic idea behind nano-machines has been to tailor a extremely complex task, we are applying molecular modeling
material to function like a machine. The nano-spinning to design and position the discotics. Such "virtual" machine
"machine" we envision consists of membrane containing dis- designs can be done on a computer with good precision. Dis-
cotics (See Figures below) positioned at designed locations. cotics must spin molecular assemblies using non-bonded inter-
As discotics are made to rotate in a synchronized fashion, they actions with the polymer molecules. Using molecular dynam-
will pull polymer molecules supplied at the top surface of the ics, we are attempting to simulate these interactions. Our
membrane, organize and oriented with the required structure, objective is to redesign the chemical compositions of the dis-
and release fiber at the bottom of the surface. To achieve this cotics to improve specific interactions with the polymers, and
synchronization, discotics must be connected by molecular to specify the location of discotics where the spun polymer

Discotic Molecules for Spinning Machines

16 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


molecules will attain their desired structure. We are currently fashion under a magnetic field. IBM Researchers have visual-
investigating and identifying possible molecular interactions ized a single-molecule rotor rotating inside of a supramolecu-
that can result in a stable material based spinning machine lar bearing by using a scanning tunneling microscope. Since a
consisting of discotic molecules. We are also applying a con- suitable metallic atom on the molecule might help the rotation
tinuum approach to nanostructures1 to study the rotational of discotics in the magnetic field, we are currently studying
characteristics of discotic rotations. the synthesis of columnar polymeric phthalocyanines which
contain metals such as copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel and lead.
Synthetic Studies
We have synthesized our first candidate discotic molecule [Contributing Graduate Student: Hang Shi (Georgia Tech)]
which is based on taper-shaped monoesters of oligo(ethylene Industry Interactions: 51
Other Interactions Outside NTC: 8 [Oak Ridge National Lab]
oxide) with tris(p-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid poly- Project Web Site Address:
methacrylates. These systems form tubular supramolecular http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob-resabs.html
architectures involving a columnar mesophase. They also self- For Further Information
assemble to form almost identical supramolecular tubular 1. K. Sohlberg, B. G. Sumpter, R. E. Tuzun, D. W. Noid, Nanotechnology,
architectures because of the presence of the tapered exo- 9:30 (1998).
receptors attached to the polymethacrylate backbones. Exo-
Karl I. Jacob, Assistant Professor in
molecular recognition generated by the similar sized and Textile and Fiber Engineering at
shaped surfaces results in spontaneous self-organization to Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in
form cylindrical-shaped assemblages remarkably similar in 1995 after 6 years in mechanics of
composites and molecular modeling
shape to molecular rotors. 3,4,5-Tris(p-alkyloxybenzyloxy)
of polymers with Dacron* Research
benzoic acids are flat, triangular-shaped molecules which self- and Central Research & Development
assemble like slices in a pie to form columnar mesophases. at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in
To synthesize these taper shaped monoesters we first applied mechanics from Ohio State in
1985 and a B.S. in civil engineering in
reacted the methyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoic acid with 1978 from University of Kerala (India).
p-dodecyloxybenzyl chloride (but have not yet isolated the Karl's research interests include
product); then we will hydolyze it to form tris(p-dodecyloxy- polymer solidification, flow induced
benzyloxy)benzoic acid which is then reacted with ethylene morphological instabilities, molecular
modeling and mechanics.
glycol, then methacryoloyl chloride to form 2-meth- M96-G19*, M98-G5*, M98-G8*
acryloyloxyethyl-3,4,5-tris(p-dodecyl-oxybenzyloxy)benzoate karl.jacob@tfe.gatech.edu
which undergoes a free radical polymerization to spontane- (404)-894-2541
ously form enantiotropic hexagonal columnar mesophase as http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob.html
confirmed by X-ray scattering experiments. The column radii Malcolm Polk, a Professor of Textile
of the self-assembled tubular structures are related to the num- and Polymer Chemistry at Georgia
ber of oxyethylene segments present in a family of columnar Tech, joined the faculty in 1985. He
systems prepared previously. Using 4,4’-azobiscyanovaleric received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry
from the University of Pennsylvania
acid as a free radical initiator and dithiodigycolic acid as a in 1964. After a postdoctoral at the
chain transfer agent adds carboxylic acid end group sites for Univ. of California (Davis), he worked
hydrogen bonding. at DuPont until 1972, when he
became Associate Professor at
We are now synthesizing a deuterated version of the first
Atlanta University. Malcolm's
candidate discotic molecule for 2D solid-state NMR analysis research interests include polymer
so we can obtain solid-echo 2H-NMR data to characterize synthesis and characterization; depo-
rotation about the long axis of the polymer. In addition we lymerization; liquid crystalline poly-
mers; high temperature resistant
have synthesized the first bowlic side-chain polymer by react- polymers and molecular modeling of
ing a bowl-shaped central core (2,3,7,8,12,13-hexa-substituted polymers.
10,15-dihydro-5H-tribenzo[a,d,g]cyclononene acid chloride) M95-S22, M98-G8
with a copolymer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(methyl- malcolm.polk@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-2535 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/polk/polk.html
siloxane) and hexachloroplatinic acid. Initial NMR studies
indicate that the polymer might rotate in a synchronized

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 17


Evaluating Fluid Flow through Fabrics material varies linearly with the velocity of the fluid flow.
M98-P2 Conversely, nonlaminar (i.e. turbulent) flow does not result in
Matthew W. Dunn (PhiladelphiaU) a straight line fit with velocity, but instead varies with the
Since many methods to specifically measure the flow of flu- velocity squared.
ids through textile materials (permeability) have inherent limi-
tations (due to speed contraints or confinement to the turbulent Water Flow Rate vs Pressure Drop (Laminar Flow)
flow range), we have developed a new device which gives
very reproducible results with excellent exhibition of laminar 0.30 y = 0.1144
2
R = 0.9633

flow. Fluid flow through a porous membrane can be described


y = 0.0584 y = 0.0081
by the relationship 0.25 2
R = 0.9953 2
R = 0.9992

B =µtV/∆P where 0.20

µ = the viscosity of the fluid, 0.15

t = the thickness of the membrane,


V = the velocity of the fluid 0.10

∆P = the pressure drop across the membrane1,2


Plain Weav

0.05 Twill Wea


Satin Weav
B = the permeability of the membrane, which depends on the
type of porous media and the pore geometry. 0.00
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Pressure Drop, dP (KPa)

We are building a model for non- Acquired Permeability Data for Fabric Series
Newtonian fluid flow through fabrics.
We are now using elevated levels of fluid velocity to push
Assuming the void content in a porous media is a primary the limits of “laminar” flow. As velocity increases, we expect
factor in permeability, the Kozeny-Carman equation was the materials to show increasingly turbulent behavior. We
developed to provide a description of fluid flow based on fil- will then develop bicomponent models of flow for the exhib-
tration media properties.3 MacGregor4 extended the Kozeny- ited permeability.
Carman equation for a textile assembly to model the flow of [Other Contributors: none reported]
dyes through textile yarn packages and to predict permeability Industry Interactions: none reported
based on constituent fabric properties. Project Web Site Address:
http://spike.philacol.edu/perm/
We developed a novel tester (See Schematic) to evaluate For Further Information: nothing reported
the fluid permeability of a fabric. Based on Joule-Thomson 1. H. Darcy, Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, Paris, 1956.
2. J. Daily and D. Harleman, Fluid Dynamics, Addison-Wesley, Reading,
experiments (changing gas temperature as volume is varied), Mass., 1966, pp. 180-184.
we designed the tester to use a constant volume of fluid in an 3. A. Scheidegger, The Physics of Flow Through Porous Media, revised ed.,
enclosed chamber while the pressure drop across a fabric is University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1960.
measured at controlled flow. This constant volume approach 4. R. McGregor, Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, Vol. 81,
October 1965, pp. 429-438.
should lead to permeability values untainted by turbulence.
Matthew W. Dunn, a Research Assis-
tant Professor in Textile Engineering
at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in
1998 after serving as Assistant Direc-
tor of Research at Fiber Concepts,
Inc. Matt received his B.S. in 1995 in
textile materials science from NC
State and an M.S. in 1997 in textile
engineering from PhiladelphiaU and
is currently completing his Ph.D. in
materials engineering at Drexel.
Matt's research interests include
composite preform manufacturing
and design and permeability model-
Schematic of Permeability Testing Device ing of textiles.
Testing trials have yielded very reproducible results (with C98-P1*
coefficient of variations below 2%) and the constant volume mdunn@fibers.texsci.edu
(215)-951-2683
design has shown a high correlation to laminar flow (See Fig-
http://fibers.texsci.edu/html/matt.html
ure). Laminar flow is evident in materials when the relation-
ship of the pressure drop caused by forcing a fluid through the

18 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


New Approaches for Biotechnological out a lysozyme-based procedure for cell lysis, and have used it
Production of Polyesters successfully with a polyester-producing strain of B. cepacia.
M99-G11 [Lysozyme is itself an enzyme, which cleaves the polysaccha-
Sheldon W. May, leader (Chem & Biochem, Georgia ride chain in bacterial cell walls].
Tech), Roy Broughton, Jr (Auburn) Enzymatic production of polyesters represents a very good
It has been known since 1926 that certain polyesters are prototype of such biologically-based processes, and thus suc-
enzymatically synthesized and intracellularly deposited in cess in our project would lay the groundwork for applying bio-
granules by many technological
microorganisms. Now approaches to the pro-
as biotechnology is duction of a variety of
increasingly incorpo- new materials. We
rated into many indus- regard this system as a
trial processes, there is prototype for the appli-
a need to explore its use cation of biocatalysis to
in the manufacture of the production of a vari-
new fibrous textile ety of new materials in
materials with novel the future.
functionality. Recog- [Contributing Graduate
nized as world leaders Students: Jennifer Over-
in the enzymology of cast, Jeremy Thompson,
oxygenases, we have Michelle Woznichak]
over 20 years experi-
ence in biocatalysis and
enzyme technology.
We believe that the
textiles of the future
Industry Interactions: none reported
will include new materials produced using advanced Project Web Site Address:
biologically-based approaches. Therefore, we believe we are http://www.chemistry.gatech.edu/faculty/may/biotechnolpolymers.html
helping to lay the groundwork necessary for applying biotech- Sheldon W. May, Associate Director,
nological approaches to the production of a variety of new Institute for Bioengineering and Bio-
materials. science, and Regents' Professor of
Chemistry & Biochemistry at Georgia
Tech, earned a B.S. in 1966 from
We are using enzyme technology Roosevelt Univ. and a Ph.D. in chem-
istry from Univ. of Chicago in 1970.
to explore the enhanced control of a Then he joined Exxon, where he was
cell-free process to produce a founding member of the first indus-
trial biotechnology group in the U.S.
polyesters with novel functionality. Sheldon is editor of Enzyme and
Biotechnology has the potential of enabling a significant Microbial Technology, and of the Bio-
chemical Engineering section of Cur-
enhancement of control and specificity in polymer synthesis rent Opinion in Biotechnology. His
which is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve in chemical research interests include enzyme
systems. We are focusing on the enzyme technology neces- technology and applications of bio-
sary for achieving polyester synthesis outside the cell, since technology in materials Science.
M97-G2*, M99-G11*
this overcomes the severe limitations imposed on precursor sheldon.may@chemistry.gatech.edu
monomers by cell permeability; and cell toxicity is not an (404)-894-4052
issue. Among the attractive properties of these materials are
their high biodegradability and their immunological compati- Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of
Textile Engineering at Auburn since
bility with human tissue. 1976, received his Ph.D. with concen-
We now have in hand three cloned E. coli strains which trations in textile chemistry and fiber
over-express the ketothiolase (phbA), reductase (phbB) and and polymer science from NC State.
Before joining Auburn, Roy worked
polymerase (phbC) enzymes whose sequential action produces in polyester research at Goodyear
polyesters (See Figure). Recognizing that developing method- Tire & Rubber. His research inter-
ology for cell lysis which does not destroy a given enzyme ests include manufacture, utilization
system of interest is always a problematical issue in biotech- and testing of fibers and nonwovens.
M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10,
nology, we have also developed a very promising cell lysis F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11
protocol which works well with polyester-producing bacteria. royalb@eng.auburn.edu
Briefly, after many unsuccessful attempts to utilize sonication (334)-844-5460
(both continuous and pulsed) and hypo-osmolality, we worked http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 19


Fabrication
Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of fibrous structures, including yarns, textiles,
garments, nonwovens, carpets, coated fabrics, papers, preforms, etc.

Development and Experimental Validation research focuses on models for specific textile processes that
of Nonlinear Models for involve rotating balloons such as:
High-Speed Yarn Transport Systems • unwinding from cylindrical packages, as in texturing
F97-C5 • unwinding from conical packages, as in warping and
Bhuvenesh C. Goswami, leader; weaving
Christopher D. Rahn (Clemson); • ring twisting and winding, as in ring spinning or ply-twisting
Subhash K. Batra, Tushar K. Ghosh, • two-for-one twisting.
William Oxenham (NC State), The computer models will promote understanding of complex
W. Barrie Fraser (Univ. of Sydney, Australia) process dynamics and can be used to design processes that
High-speed movement of yarns to and from packages is provide low, uniform tension at high speed. This maximizes
common to many textile processes. In both winding and the process efficiency by minimizing yarn breaks and
unwinding the inertial forces tend to create an enveloping maximizing throughput.
surface called a balloon. We pioneered development of
Unwinding Models
computer models for high speed yarn transport systems. In We will be incorporating some important and practical
ring spinning and twisting, for example, we developed models aspects of unwinding into our recently developed inextensible
that predict balloon shapes and tension including the effects of yarn model. Our analysis will include yarn elastic
control rings. These models show instabilities in the process deformation, germane to the textured yarn industry. We will
that could result in yarn breakage. Similar models have been also investigate tension and balloon shape variation due to the
developed for yarn unwinding systems. We have only wind angle change and yarn sliding at the edge of a package.
recently begun experimental validation of the ring spinning Using nonlinear simulations, we plan to predict a fluttering
results and design of an unwinding test stand. dynamic balloon instability, discovered in our earlier research,
We are developing nonlinear models that which can lead to large, rapid tension variations. Finally,
predict the tension and balloon shape these model enhancements will be incorporated into the
process design software.
of yarns undergoing
high speed translation
translation and rotation. Unwinding Experiments
We have constructed a new unwinding test stand consisting
In this project we will develop and experimentally validate of a Reiter yarn transport machine and tension head, a balloon
nonlinear models for high-speed yarn transport systems. The rotation sensor, strobes, a video camera and a PC. The Reiter
machine pulls the yarn from the package at up
to 2000 m/min and measures the real-time
tension. The PC reads the tension and balloon
rotation synch signals, captures 3D strobed
balloon images and displays the results. An
easy to use, graphical user interface allows the
operator to change balloon capture settings and
export the image and tension data (See Figure).
This new system will enable in-depth study of
the unwinding process and extensive verifica-
tion and improvement of the unwinding
models.
Ring Spinning
We will be determining the best ways to
measure the speed, shape and tension of a ring
spinning yarn balloon. The data obtained from
these measurements will be used to verify the
theoretical model and clearly define unstable
operating conditions. This could ultimately be
used as the basis of a control system to
maximize the production capabilities of the
ring frame.

20 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


[Contributing Graduate Students: Xiaofeng Ma, Josephine W. Barrie Fraser, a Senior Lecturer in
the School of Mathematics and
Harsha Punitha (NC State), Ming Keung, M. Loffler, Rajiv
Statistics at the University of Sidney
Sharma, Fang Zhu (Clemson); Undergraduates: Matthias (Australia), joined the faculty in 1965.
Kloeck, Ian Paradis (Clemson)] He received a Ph.D. in applied
Industry Interactions: 4 [DuPont, Rieter, Glen Raven, Milliken] physics from Harvard in 1965 and an
Other Interactions Outside NTC: 7 [U. of Michigan, Ohio State] M.E. in civil engineering from the
Project Web Site Address: University of New Zealand in 1961. In
1990 Barrie was a Visiting Scholar at
NEED THIS
NC State. His research interests
For Further Information include mathematical modeling,
1. F. Zhu, R. Sharma and C. D. Rahn, "Steady State Response and Stability dynamics of moving threadlines,
of Ballooning Strings in Air International Journal of Nonlinear theory of ring spinning and transfor-
Mechanics, 33:33 (1998). mation toughening of ceramics.
2. F. Zhu, Nonlinear Dynamics of Rotating Elastic Strings with Fluid Drag F94-S9, F97-C5
Ph.D. Thesis, Clemson (Aug 1998). barrief@maths.usyd.edu.au
3. R. Sharma and C. Rahn An Experimental Study of Ballooning Yarn with a
Control Ring Journal of the Textile Institute, Part1: Fibre Science and Tushar K. Ghosh, an Associate
Textile Technology, 89:621 (1998). Professor in Textile and Apparel
4. J. Clark, W. Fraser, R. Sharma and C. Rahn, The Dynamic Response of a Management at NC State, joined the
Ballooning Yarn: Theory and Experiment Proceedings of the Royal faculty in 1988 after receiving a Ph.D.
Society London, (accepted, Feb 1998). there in fiber and polymer science.
5. X. Kong, C. Rahn and B. Goswami, Steady State Unwinding of Yarn from Earlier he was a scientist at the Jute
Cylindrical Packages, Textile Research Journal, 69:292 (1999) Technological Research Laboratories
6. J. Clark, W. Fraser, R. Sharma and C. Rahn, The dynamic response of a in Calcutta (India). Tushar's research
ballooning yarn: theory and experiment, Proceedings of the Royal interests include mechanics of
Society of London, Series A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering fibrous assemblies, design and
Sciences, 454:2767 (1998). analysis of industrial textiles, dynam-
7. R. Wu, J. Yu, C. Rahn and B. Goswami, Measurement of Yarn/Package ics of textile processes and technol-
Friction During Over-end Unwinding, Textile Research Journal, 70:321 ogy of fabric formation.
(2000). F94-A8, F94-S9*, F97-C5, I96-A9
tushar_ghosh@ncsu.edu
Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of (919)-515-6568
Textile and Polymer Science at http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984.
He received his Ph.D. in textile
William Oxenham has been an
technology from Manchester
Associate Professor at NC State
(England) in 1966 and a M.S. in
since 1992 after having lectured at
textiles from Bombay University
the University of Leeds (England)
(India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past
since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974.
president of The Fiber Society. and a
Bill's research interests center in the
Fellow of the American Society of
area of yarn manufacture and include
Mechanical Engineers. His research
fiber property measurement to
interests include dynamics of fiber
control product and process quality
processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile
during spinning.
structures for composites and fiber,
F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5,
yarn and fabric structural mechanics.
F99-S6*, I99-S10
M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9,
woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu
F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15
(919)-515-6578
gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
(864)-656-5957
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty
Christopher D. Rahn, an Associate
Subhash K. Batra, a Professor in Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Textile and Apparel Management and at Clemson since 1992 earned a Ph.D.
in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and degree in mechanical engineering
Science at NC State and Director of from the University of California,
the Nonwovens Cooperative Berkeley. He also spent several
Research Center, received a Ph.D. in years as a research and development
mechanics at Rensselaer Polytechnic engineer at Space Systems, LORAL.
in 1966 and a S.M. in management Chris's research interests include the
from M.I.T. in 1977 when he joined modeling, dynamic analysis and
the faculty at NC State. Subhash was control of nonlinear flexible systems,
also a senior scientist at Battelle and including fiber, fabric and paper
a supervisor at the Ahmedabad New handling machinery.
Cotton Mill in India. His research F94-S9, F95-S20, F97-C5, F98-S4
interests include mechanical behav- rchrist@clemson.clemson.edu
ior of fibrous and textile materials (864)-656-5621
and textile processing technology. http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Rahn.html
M94-S2*, F97-C5
subhash_batra@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6555
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 21


Scientific Study of Flock Materials
and the Flocking Process 55
F97-D1 50

REFLECTANCE (%)
Yong K. Kim, leader; Armand F. Lewis 45
(UMassD) 40
35
The majority of flocking involves the application of finely 30
cut fibers to adhesive coated surfaces. Flock fibers are usually 25
applied to these surfaces either mechanically, electrostatically 20
15
or by a combination of both techniques. Mechanical flocking
10
can be windblown or ”beater-bar” while electrostatic flocking 5
sometimes incorporates a pneumatic process to propel fibers 0
toward a surface in a windstream, allowing flocking of 400 460 520 580 640 700
contoured shapes.
WAVELENGTH (NM)
We are developing a fundamental
understanding of flock materials Relationship between reflectance and wavelength for CI
and flocking processes. Acid Blue dyed-fabric (top), dyed-flock (middle) and dyed-
flocked fabric (bottom)
Both natural and synthetic flock materials are applied to
many different surfaces, resulting in end products ranging [Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Cindy (Yue-Jun) Hou,
from retail consumer goods to high-technology military appli- Francis V. Pottakarian, Young-Sil Kim; Undergraduate
cations. Flocked finishes impart friction modification, heat Students: Jacob Knowels, Justin Sylvia]
insulation and thermal stability, transitionless power transmis- Industry Interactions: 3 [OEM/Erie, Erie PA; Claremont Flock,
Claremont NH; Spectro Coating, Leominster MA]
sion, liquid retention or dispersal, buffing, polishing, cushion- Project Web Site Address:
ing and a decorative, tactile and visual appeal. Even though http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/research.html
flocking technology has existed for a long time, the mecha- For Further Information: none reported
nisms of process and fiber application are not fully Yong K. Kim, a Professor of Textile
understood. Sciences at UMass Dartmouth, joined
Earlier we developed an equation to describe flock motion the faculty in 1981 when he earned a
Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science
trajectory and found that about 60% is the optimum relative from NC State. He holds a BS and
humidity for processing nylon 6/6 flock fibers. Now we are M.S. in textile engineering from Seoul
establishing measurement and interpretation criteria for color National University (Korea) in 1974.
matching between woven fabrics and flocked substrates. To Yong’s research interests include
textile process design and manufac-
compare the different types of textures, such as nylon fabric, turing systems, mechanics of fibrous
nylon (bulk) flock fibers and nylon flocked fabric, we needed structures and composite materials.
to quantify the various parameters which affect surface reflec- F97-D1*, F98-D4
tance. Since flocked fabrics at different angles give inconsis- ykim@umassd.edu
(508)-999-8452
tent reflectance values, we measured reflectance at all eight
viewing orientations. We chose an 80% porosity for bulk Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile
flock fiber reflectance measurements because we found only Chemistry and Environmental
marginal reflectance increases as fabric porosity decreased. Science at UMass Dartmouth, joined
the faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D.
For a given dye concentration, the reflectance of dyed- in surface chemistry from Lehigh in
fabric, dyed-flock and dyed-flocked fabric are at different 1958 following a B.S. in textile
levels, but the curves run parallel to each other (See Figure). chemistry from the New Bedford
The flocked fabrics show a steady rise in reflectance as % dye Textile Institute and an M.S. in
chemistry from Oklahoma State.
increases in lighter shades, but then reflectance remains From 1959-88, Armand was in
constant for darker shades. research at American Cyanamid,
Lord Corp. and Kendall. His research
interests include adhesion science,
flock material and processes,
composite materials and the fibrous
wiping of surfaces by nonwoven
fabrics.
M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4
alewis@umassd.edu
(508)-999-8452

22 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Improved Fiber Hydroentanglement Transfer, R. M. Manglik and A. D. Kraus, editors, Begell House, New
York, 307 (1996)
Using Pulsed Elliptical Jets 4. E. C. Mladin and D. A. Zumbrunnen, "Local Convective Heat Transfer to
F98-C4 Submerged Pulsating Jets, International Journal of Heat and Mass Trans-
Michael Ellison, leader; David Zumbrunnen, fer, 40:3305 (1997)
Bhuvenesh Goswami, Edward Vaughn, Patricia 5. H. S. Sheriff and D. A. Zumbrunnen, Local and Instantaneous Heat
Transfer Characteristics of Arrays of Pulsating Jets, Journal of Heat
Schempp, Yuqi Bao (Clemson) Transfer (1999, in press).
Hydroentanglement is a generic term for a nonwoven fabric Michael S. Ellison, a Professor of
production process that can be used for bonding, laminating, Textile and Polymer Science at
and/or surface texturing. The mechanism involves rearranging Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984.
fibers by using hydrodynamic forces from impinging water-jet He received a Ph.D. in polymer fiber
physics at the University of California
flows. Hydroentangled nonwovens are used as coating (Davis) in 1982. Mike's research
substrates, interlinings, technical wipes, medical devices, interests include structure/property
apparel, home textiles and fiber reinforced composites. relationships in melt extrusion of
fibers, tensile and non-tensile loading
Pulsing an impinging jet flow during mechanical property testing of
through elliptical holes fibers, electrical properties of
polymers and application of chaos
improves hydroentanglement and theory to polymer physics.
fabric strength in nonwovens. M94-C4*, M94-S2, M96-C1*, M98-C5*,
F98-C4*
We have recently shown that momentum and heat transfer ellisom@clemson.clemson.edu
can be significantly increased if the impinging jet flows are (864)-656-5966
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/ellison.html
pulsed. A pulsating water jet flow emerging from an elliptic
hole forms a rotating helical structure in the free surface, Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of
thereby imparting a strong twisting action. The elliptical Textile and Polymer Science at
nozzle by itself may even result in a slightly stronger fabric Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984.
vis-à-vis a circular nozzle. Using both pulsations and elliptic He received his Ph.D. in textile
technology from Manchester
free surfaces in impinging jet flows should be an effective (England) in 1966 and a M.S. in
means to improve fiber entanglement. A higher degree of textiles from Bombay University
entanglement should result in higher fabric strength, since (India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past
more fibers will be in surface contact with one another, thus president of The Fiber Society. and a
Fellow of the American Society of
resulting in a greater frictional resistance. Pulsations might Mechanical Engineers. His research
also be used to impart unique patterns in nonwoven fabrics interests include dynamics of fiber
since jet-to-jet interactions can be altered by changing pulsa- processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile
tion frequency and amplitude. structures for composites and fiber,
yarn and fabric structural mechanics.
Initial results (with 3.5 oz/yd2 polyester staple nonwoven M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9,
fabrics) imply that as pulsation rates increase from 100 to 600 F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15
pulses per minute, fabric breaking strength increases, suggest- gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu
(864)-656-5957
ing that pulsation enhances fiber entanglement in the web. http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/goswami.html
We are conducting two parallel studies. One is to use Edward A. Vaughn, a Professor of
energy efficient hydroentanglement methods to enhance the Textiles at Clemson, joined the
filtration/insulation properties of needled fabrics that have faculty in 1966. He received a Ph.D.
from the University of Manchester in
been augmented with splittable conjugate fiber structures. The 1969, an MS from the Institute of
other is to study the effects of nozzle geometry and pulsation Textile Technology in 1964, and a BS
levels on the physical properties of hydroentangled fabric. in physics and math from Lynchburg
Other Interactions Outside NTC: 4 [Perfojet (ICBT), Fleissner, College in 1962. Ed is past president
Chicopee (PGI), Polymers and Derivatives of Mexico] of the National Council for Textile
Project Web Site Address: none reported Education and the Textile Quality
Control Association. His research
interests include fiber processing
For Further Information dynamics, fabric formation mechan-
1. M. Ghandi, MS Thesis, Clemson (1992) ics, and materials analysis.
2. H. S. Sheriff and D. A. Zumbrunnen, Effect of Flow Pulsations on the F98-C4
Cooling Effectiveness of an Impinging Water Jet, Journal of Heat Trans- vedward@clemson.edu
fer, 116:886 (1994) (864)-656-5965
3. D. A. Zumbrunnen, Convective Heat Transfer Modifications Due to Flow http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/vaughn.html
Pulsations in Impinging Jets Process, Enhanced, and Multiphase Heat

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 23


David A. Zumbrunnen, a Professor of Patrica Schempp, a MS candidate in
Mechanical Engineering and supervi- Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science
sor of the Laboratory for Materials at Clemson, earned a BS (correct
Processing and Industrial Mixing at degree??) in textile technology
Clemson, joined the faculty in 1988 (when?) from Philadelphia College of
upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical Textiles and Science and is currently
engineering from Purdue. Dave a Sirrine Fellow.
received a Presidential Faculty Fellow
Award from The White House in 1992 Yuqi Bao a MS candidate in Textiles,
for excellence in scientific research Fiber and Polymer Science at
and teaching. His research interests Clemson, earned a textile engineer-
include melt-processing and chaotic ing degree (which one??) in 1994 at
mixing to yield in-situ structured North-West Institute of Textile
materials, and unsteady convective Science and Technology (China) then
heat and mass transfer. worked as a textile engineer for four
M96-C1, F98-G15 years.
david.zumbrunnen@ces.clemson.edu
(864)-656-5625
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Zumbrunnen.html

24 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Ultra-thick Cross Section pre-catalyzed composites, especially toward the center where
the temperatures are highest. We are also trying to reduce
Fiber Reinforced Composites
F98-D4 catalyst consumption by studying other composites where
Yong K. Kim, Leader; Armand F. Lewis, Alex Fowler pre-catalyzed fabric is only used in every other ply.
(UMassD) [Contributing Graduate Student: Jonathan Reuss (Mech. Eng)]
Complex textile structures, such as two and three dimen- Industry Interactions: 2 [Foster-Miller, Waltham MA; Fiber Spar
Inc., Wareham MA
sional woven fabrics and braided structures, offer the potential Other Interactions Outside NTC: 3 [Drexel, NSF]
to produce net shape preforms continuously, as well as Project Web Site Address:
provide a product form with improved damage tolerance and http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/research.html
impact resistance at low cost. When used with resin transfer For Further Information: none reported
molding, these technologies also offer lower cost organic Yong K. Kim, a Professor of Textile
polymer engineering composites for marine applications (e.g. Sciences at UMass Dartmouth, joined
ship hulls, submersible structural members) and construction the faculty in 1981 when he earned a
engineering structures. When thick cross section (2 to 8 cm) Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science
from NC State. He holds a BS and
fiber reinforced organic polymer engineering composite M.S. in textile engineering from Seoul
shapes are cured, however, a reaction exotherm occurs that National University (Korea) in 1974.
can lead to uneven curing, uneven mass shrinkage and Yong’s research interests include
improper consolidation of the fiber/resin composite media. textile process design and manufac-
turing systems, mechanics of fibrous
Furthermore, if the exotherm is too high, thermal degradation structures and composite materials.
of the matrix material can occur resulting in potentially F97-D1*, F98-D4
hazardous processing conditions. ykim@umassd.edu
(508)-999-8452
We are examining the fundamental
fiber and resin material parameters Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile
Chemistry and Environmental
that are important in the manufacture Science at UMass Dartmouth, joined
of thick cross-section composites. the faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D.
in surface chemistry from Lehigh in
We are examining the fundamentally important fiber and 1958 following a B.S. in textile
resin material parameters in the manufacture of thick cross- chemistry from the New Bedford
section composites. We are also developing a new method to Textile Institute and an M.S. in
chemistry from Oklahoma State.
manufacture polyester based thick cross section composites by From 1959-88, Armand was in
using glass fabric pre-catalyzed with benzoyl peroxide. We research at American Cyanamid,
believe that by applying the catalyst to the fabric rather than Lord Corp. and Kendall. His research
mixing it with the resin we can control and slow down the interests include adhesion science,
flock material and processes,
reaction, thus reduce the exotherm. composite materials and the fibrous
wiping of surfaces by nonwoven
200
fabrics.
Temperature (C)

160 Patially pre- M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4


catalyzed alewis@umassd.edu
120 (508)-999-8452
Fully pre-
80 catalyzed Alex Fowler, an Assistant Professor
40 Catalyst/resin of Mechanical Engineering at
mixed UMassD since 1994 after earning a
0 Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from
0 50 100 Duke. and a B.A. in philosophy in
1987 from Weslyan University. Alex’s
Time (min) research interests include heat trans-
fer with specific applications involv-
Center temperatures for three composites
ing porous media, computational
Thermal profiles of 120-ply composites of fully and fluid dynamics, multiphase systems
partially pre-catalyzed fabrics show that they reach much and bioengineering.
lower maximum temperatures (120oC) than mixed F98-D4
afowler@umassd.edu
catalyst/resin composites (160oC - See Graph). Initial (508)-999-8542
mechanical results show higher tensile strengths in the

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 25


Analysis of Fiber-Particle-Airflow drawframes and the yarn-spinning machine (see Figure). The
elimination of the drawing processes makes it necessary for
Interaction and Its Application
the card to provide better web uniformity, fiber alignment and
to the Development of straightening. We have tested the use of a monitoring device
a Novel Card-Spinning System for web uniformity measurement and the results are encourag-
F98-G15
Youjiang Wang, leader; Wallace W. Carr, Fred L. ing. The web will be divided into multiple ribbons and trans-
ported to the spinning heads. We are designing novel yarn
Cook, J. Lewis Dorrity, Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru,
spinning devices and have built a prototype. Our primary
Mary Lynn Realff (Georgia Tech), Bhuvenesh C.
industry partner, American Truetzschler, has donated a
Goswami, David A. Zumbrunnen (Clemson) carding machine equipped with a bale opener and a chute feed
Staple yarn manufacturing involves four essential opera- system. We are in the process of designing and then fabricat-
tions: fiber separation, parallelization, attenuation, and ing prototype web monitoring, splitting and transport devices
consolidation. Currently, about 10 machines, in sequence, are to be installed on the card.
needed for these tasks. We are developing the fundamental [Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Shumin Zheng, Fan
knowledge base that can lead to more efficient machines, Zhao, Jen-te Yu, Hua Huang (Georgia Tech); Kai Liu, Mike
shortened production lines, and novel processes. Our tasks Wolf (Clemson); Undergraduate students: Jimmy Chowdhury,
include analyzing the motion dynamics of fiber clumps and Mandy Kratus (Georgia Tech) Research Scientist: Xi Chen
other particles in an airflow field, and developing a single-step (Georgia Tech)]
process to convert fiber batt directly into yarns. Industry Interactions: 20 [American Truetzschler, BP Amoco,
Russell, Rieter, Avondale, Delta Woodside]
We are developing the knowledge base Other Interactions Outside NTC: 10
that can lead to more efficient machines, Project Web Site Address:
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/wang/CardSpin/index.htm
shortened production lines
For Further Information: none reported
and novel processes
Youjiang Wang, an Associate Profes-
to convert fiber batt directly into yarns. sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering
Fiber opening, cleaning and transport in the opening and at Georgia Tech, received his BS in
cleaning processes are achieved through interactions among textile engineering from China Textile
University and MS and Ph.D. in
airflow, inertia forces, gravity, fiber/particle configurations, mechanical engineering from MIT.
barrier arrangements (mote knives, grid bars, plates, etc.), Youjiang is the Associate Technical
beating actions, carding actions, among others. To better Editor on Textiles for the Journal of
understand the opening-cleaning process we are employing Manufacturing Science & Technology
in textiles. His research interests
computational fluid dynamics, experimental analysis and fluid include textile processes, mechanics,
flow visualization using high-speed videography. composites and advanced construc-
We are also developing a novel card-spinning process by tion materials.
F94-A8, F98-G15*, F98-S9
incorporating multiple spinning heads on the carding machine youjiang.wang@tfe.gatech.edu
itself. This single machine will replace the card, two (404)-894-7551

Drafting Unit

Staple-Fiber-Roll

Spinning Nozzle
Channel

Nozzle-Holder
&Air-supplier Suction -Tube
Feed Roll Cylinder Doffer

Yarn-Winder

Carding Machine Spinning Unit

Schematic of Process Line Under Development

26 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Profes- M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9,
sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15
at Georgia Tech since 1980, received gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu
a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering (864)-656-5957
from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/goswami.html
joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a
senior research engineer at Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru, a
Monsanto. His research interests Research Scientist in Textile and
include thermal sciences in industrial Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech,
fiber and textile processes (particu- joined the staff in 1988 from the staff
larly radio frequency, microwave, of NC State. He received a Ph.D. in
ultrasound and infrared), electropho- textile engineering in 1981 from the
tographic printing of textiles and Indian Institute of Technology (New
polymer properties and structure. Delhi) and an MS in applied statistics
C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11, from Georgia State in 1995. Krishna
C98-G30*, C99-G8* was on the Textile Technology faculty
wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu at the University of Madras (India) in
(404)-894-2538 1984-5. His research interests
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html include spun yarn structure-property
relationships, Kawabata methodol-
Fred L. Cook, a Professor and Direc- ogy and computer modeling of
tor of the School of Textile & Fiber manufacturing processes.
Engineering at Georgia Tech, has C96-A1, F98-G15, C99-A7
been on the faculty since he received krishna.parachuru@tfe.gatech.edu
a Ph.D. there in organic-polymer (404)-894-0029
chemistry in 1975 after being a http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/krishna/krishna.html
polymer research chemist at DuPont.
He is a consulting chemical editor of Mary Lynn Realff, an Associate
Textile World magazine, and vice- Professor in Textile and Fiber
president of the National Council for Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined
Textile Education. Fred's research the faculty in 1992 upon receiving a
interests include textile/polymer Ph.D. in mechanical engineering and
chemistry, sustainable textile chemi- in polymer science and technology
cal application processes and carbon from MIT. She earned a B.Eng. in
fibers. textile engineering from Georgia
F98-G15 Tech in 1987. Mary Lynn's research
fred.cook@tfe.gatech.edu interests include design of textile
(404)-894-2536 structures, investigation and model-
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/cook/cook.html ing of the mechanical behavior of
textile structures, image processing
J. Lewis Dorrity, an Associate Profes- and modeling and design of textile
sor of Textile & Fiber Engineering at processes.
Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in I95-G7*, I97-S10, F98-G15
1988. He received a MS in electrical marylynn.realff@tfe.gatech.edu
engineering at the Air Force Institute (404)-894-2496
of Technology in 1965, then served 6 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/realff/realff.html
years in the U.S. Air Force, leaving as
a Captain. Lew then earned a Ph.D. David A. Zumbrunnen, a Professor of
in electrical engineering from Mechanical Engineering and supervi-
Clemson in 1973 and spent 15 years sor of the Laboratory for Materials
at Greenwood Mills rising to vice- Processing and Industrial Mixing at
president of Research and Quality. Clemson, joined the faculty in 1988
His research interests concentrate on upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical
instrumentation and control of textile engineering from Purdue. Dave
processes. received a Presidential Faculty Fellow
I94-G2*, I94-S4, F98-G15 Award from The White House in 1992
lew.dorrity@tfe.gatech.edu for excellence in scientific research
(404)-853-9076 and teaching. His research interests
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/dorrity/dorrity.html include melt-processing and chaotic
mixing to yield in-situ structured
Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of materials, and unsteady convective
Textile and Polymer Science at heat and mass transfer.
Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. M96-C1, F98-G15
He received his Ph.D. in textile david.zumbrunnen@ces.clemson.edu
technology from Manchester (864)-656-5625
(England) in 1966 and a M.S. in http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Zumbrunnen.html
textiles from Bombay University
(India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past
president of The Fiber Society. and a
Fellow of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers. His research
interests include dynamics of fiber
processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile
structures for composites and fiber,
yarn and fabric structural mechanics.

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 27


Scale Sensitive Modeling of Ductile Braided
Composites
F98-P1
Christopher M. Pastore (PhilaU) , Frank Ko (Drexel)
Replacement of steel reinforcement in concrete structures
with more corrosion resistant substitutes, such as composites,
is rapidly becoming a more economical option for
construction facilities worldwide. In general, composites have
high strength, a range of moduli and low ultimate tensile
strains compared to steel. The stress-strain behavior of all of
these fiber systems is linear up to failure, which makes it
impossible to have significant hysteretic behavior. In spite of Schematic illustration of Braidtrusion process (right to left)
their superior light weight, corrosion resistance and Graph). The definite yield strength is achieved by the hybridi-
non-magnetic properties, the lack of material ductility and zation process, and it’s a manifestation of the fracture of the
energy absorbing capabilities is a severe limitation of all these fibers with the lowest failure strain. The apparent ductility is
fiber systems if they are to be considered for earthquake resis- associated with resin cracking at the interlacing points of the
tant applications. aramid braiding yarns and some continuing reinforcement
We are developing an analytical model of effect of the failed carbon yarns behaving like short fiber
ductile braided composites that describes composites. We are now accounting for this behavior in
static and dynamic load response further developments of our predictive model.
for such uses
uses as 350

S-1 S-2
rebars to reinforce
reinforce concrete.
concrete. 300
S-4
S-5
S-3
Predicted

In order to achieve ductility in reinforced concrete struc- 250

tures without using conventional steel rebars, we introduced a 200


new design methodology to identify suitable composite
150
materials that mimic the stress-strain characteristics of steel.
By judicious selection of fiber materials and fiber architecture 100

for the braid sleeve and the core structure, we can tailor the
50
load-deformation behavior of the braided fibrous assembly.
 0
For this research the sleeve is a tough aramid (Kevlar ) and 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
Strain (%)
the core structure is a high modulus carbon to provide the Comparison of experimental and theoretical stress-strain
initial resistance to deformation. To simulate the surface response for 5 mm hybrid braided rebars.
characteristics of current steel rebars, a rib is built into the [Contributing Graduate Student: Hoa Lam, (Drexel); Under-
sleeve structure during the braiding process. by making one of graduate students: George Papadopolis, Cindy Colluci, Jason
the yarn bundles about five times larger than the others. The Lyons (PhilaU); Research Associates: Moishe Garfinkle,
rib created by this large bundle (See Photo) is used to improve Eileen Armstrong-Carroll (PhilaU)]
mechanical bonding between the resulting composite rebar Industry Interactions: 5 [Amoco, DuPont, Shell,Fiber Concepts,
and the concrete. In pull-out tests, the average bond strength Inc.; Albany International]
of these bars is similar to deformed steel bars of similar Other Interactions Outside NTC: 3 [Drexel, NSF]
Project Web Site Address:
diameter. http://fibers.texsci.edu/F98P01
For Further Information: none reported
Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate
Professor of Textile Engineering and
Technology and Director of Research
of the School of Textiles and Materi-
als Technology at Philadelphia
University, joined the faculty in 1995.
Micrograph of typical hybrid rebar with surface rib yarns Previously he was on the Textile
Materials Science faculty at NC State
Our process, called “Braidtrusion” (See Schematic), takes
and the Materials Engineering faculty
the braided fabric through a forming ring, then runs the braid at Drexel University. Chris holds a
through an infusion zone wherein epoxy resin is dripped onto B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a
the fell of the cloth. The wet fabric is then run through a Ph.D. in materials engineering from
Drexel in 1988. His research inter-
heated chamber to cure the resin.
ests include modeling of fabric and
Tensile Response composite structures.
The monotonic stress-strain behavior of the composite F98-P1*, I99-P1*
cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu
rebars shows high initial modulus as well as a ductile failure (215)-951-2683
mode characterized by a bi-linear stress-strain curve (See http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html

28 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Frank K. Ko, a Professor in Materials
Engineering and Director of the
Fibrous Materials Research Center at
Drexel, joined the faculty in 1984 after
8 years at PhiladelphiaU. He earned
a Ph.D. in textile engineering at
Georgia Tech in 1977. Frank is a
SAMPE fellow and recipient of the
Fiber Society distinguished achieve-
ment award. His research interests
include advanced textile structural
composites, mechanics of fibrous
structures, fiber viscoelasticity,
biomedical and industrial textiles,
and nanofibers and nanocomposite
technology.
F98-P1
fko@coe.drexel.edu
(215)-895-1640
http://fmrc.coe.drexel.edu/fmrc_director.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 29


Automated Three Dimensional We are developing
developing efficient and optimal
Fabric Part Handling fabric part handling technolo
technologies
logies
F98-S4
Jeffrey W. Eischen (MAE, NC State), leader; for automated processes.
Timothy G. Clapp (TE, NC State);
Our key questions and challenges are:
Frank Paul, Christopher D. Rahn (ME, Clemson),
• Can computer-aided-engineering techniques commonly used
Darren Dawson (ECE, Clemson)
in the automotive and aerospace industries be applied to the
We are combining computer-aided-engineering methods design and development of fabric handling equipment?
with practical control strategies to develop precise, efficient • Can machinery be designed to accommodate multiple part
and optimal fabric part handling technologies. We are focused configurations (shape, thickness, etc.) and material proper-
on mechatronic design concepts for assembly processes such ties (weight, stiffness,
as: folding, joining, etc.)?
placing and locating that
We will simplify advanced
take into account
3D modeling of fabric
variability in fabric
drape and manipulation
material properties such
using the finite element
as weight and stiffness.
method for the design of
Handling maneuvers
fabric handling control
such as pick and place
systems. We will investi-
are the primary focus,
gate controls that stabilize
with design variables
the fabric motion and allow
being location and
accurate handling with
number of gripper points Robot Gripper and Optimal Gripper Points for Square Fabric Part minimum wrinkling.
and fabric material
properties. Potential applications for this technology are 3D Computer Simulation
automated airbag assembly, automated apparel manufacturing We developed a computer simulation tool that allows
and automated assembly of automotive interior systems such modeling of various fabric manipulation processes that occur
as seats, carpets and headliners and also includes 3D fabric during manufacturing. Fabric parts are modeled as very flexi-
processes such as shape pressing and sewing. ble elastic surfaces that can accommodate stretching, bending
and shear with the governing equilibrium equations solved by
QNX Real-Time Operating System using either a finite element or a particle system approach.
Windows NT The nonlinear moment curvature response is measured directly
Task Level Program with the Kawabata test system, or with a simpler drape test.
QNX/QRobot port of the ARCL Robot Control We assumed that our robot and gripper would have the
Robot Simulator Library capability to grab a fabric part at four locations (See Figure).
Joint Level Force/Torque Our simulation identifies the optimal gripper point locations
Control Client Sensor Client (for a square part) that result in the minimal deflection and
strain energy in the part. The points where the colored lines
converge are the optimal gripper points.
Joint Level Control
Hardware Implementation
I/O Board Client Air bag manufacturing includes picking up air bag parts of
different shapes and putting them on stacks. Currently,
workers do this operation by hand, which is labor intensive,
Force/Torque Sensor
MultiQ Server
Server
time consuming and expensive. Automatic fabric handling
solutions require advanced robot control systems that operate
different tools and sensors (See Schematic). We extended the
MultiQ Board FT I/O Board QRobot joint level control to a complete robot control system
using the QNX Real-Time Operating System to run the
software tasks. QRobot is a purely PC based system that
integrates the following components:
Air Air Force/ • A joint level control and a trajectory generator with a high
Valve Valve Torque
Sensor
level programming interface for Puma manipulators.
• A 3D OpenGL-based hardware-accelerated robot simulator.
Tool
Gripper
Changer • Interfacing of different sensors.
Puma 560
Manipulator
• Control of different robotic end-effectors.
The entirely PC-based system is cost-effective, because the
Overview of the Robot Control System advanced technology is less expensive and has a simpler

30 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


architecture, is more flexible and has many widely-known,
Timothy G. Clapp, a Professor at NC
powerful software applications and interface boards.
State, joined the faculty in 1985 after
[Other Contributors: Graduate students: Srinivas Lankalapalli receiving a B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in
(Mechanical Engineering - NC State), Nick Costescu, Markus mechanical engineering from NC
State. Tim's research interests
Loffler, Elango Sundaraman, Erkan Zergeroglu (Mechani- include apparel automation and
cal Engineering - Clemson); Visiting Scholar: Roberto Bigli- automated material handling.
ani (Polytecnico di Torino, Italy)] I94-S4*, F95-S20, F98-S4
Industry Interactions: 3 [American Bag Corporation (Milliken), timothy_clapp@ncsu.edu
BF Goodrich, Ford Motor Company, Southpeak Design] (919)-515-6566
Project Web Site Address: http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/tclapp.html
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/F98-S04/
Darren M. Dawson, a Professor in
For Further Information Electrical and Computer Engineering
1. Finite-Element Modeling and Control of Flexible Fabric Parts, IEEE
and the Center for Advanced Manu-
Computer Graphics and Applications, Special Issue on Computer Graph-
facturing at Clemson, joined the
ics in Textiles and Apparel, 16:71
faculty in 1990 when he received a
2. Optimum Manipulation Strategies for Limp Fabric Materials, with W.
Ph.D. in electrical engineering from
Clifton, Proceedings of the Fifth Pan American Congress of Applied
Georgia Tech. After receiving a B.S.
Mechanics Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan. 1997.
in 1984 he was a control engineer at
3. W. Clifton, Optimum Fabric Trajectories for Edge Position and Control,
Westinghouse until 1987. Darren’s
MS Thesis, NC State, (1996)
research interests include nonlinear
4. S. Mast, Iterative Techniques for Control of Fabric Manipulations, MS
based robust, adaptive and learning
Thesis, Clemson (1997)
control for electromechanical sys-
5. S. Shenoy, Neural Adaptive Position Control of Fabric on a Frictional
tems including robot manipulators,
Surface, MS Thesis, Clemson (1997)
motor drives, magnetic bearings,
6. S. Shenoy and C. Rahn, Neural Adaptive Control for Positioning Fabric
flexible cables, flexible beams and
on a Frictional Surface, ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and
high-speed transport systems.
Engineering, (accepted, Dec 1997).
F98-S4
7. Drape Modeling of Cloth, Short Course notes for the 1998 SIGGRAPH
ddawson@ces.clemson.edu
Computer Graphics Conference, Course 31- Cloth and Clothing in
(864)-656-5924
Computer Graphics (1998).
http://ece.clemson.edu/crb/index.htm
8. S. Mast, C. D. Rahn and F. Paul, Iterative Techniques for Fabric Position
Control During Folding; Proceedings of the 35th Annula Society of Frank W. Paul, the Quattlebaum
Engineering Science Conference-SES98, Pullman WA (1998) (invited) Professor of Mechanical Engineering
9. S. Mast, C. D. Rahn and F. Paul, Computer Modeling of Fabric Drape, at Clemson and Director of the
Proceedings of the 35th Annual Society of Engineering Science Confer- Center for Advanced Manufacturing,
ence, Pullman WA (1998) (invited). joined the faculty in 1977. He
10.R. Bigliani, Continuum Versus Particle Representations, chapter in received a Ph.D. in mechanical
upcoming book Cloth Modeling and Animation, to be published by A. K. engineering from Lehigh in 1968 and
Peters, 2000 (invited). an M.S. from Penn State in 1964.
11.R. Bigliani, Collision Detection in Cloth Modeling, chapter in upcoming Frank has served on the faculties of
book Cloth Modeling and Animation, to be published by A. K. Peters, Carnegie-Mellon and Lehigh and on
2000 (invited). the technical staffs of Hamilton
12.C. Kopp, The Measurement of Deformations of Limp Fabrics for Material Standard Division, United Technolo-
Handling, M.S. Thesis, Clemson (Dec 1998). gies. His research interests include
13.N. Costescu, M. Loffler, E. Zergeroglu and D. Dawson, QRobot - A Multi- process control, robotic automation,
tasking PC Based Robot Control System, Microcomputer Applications machine design and sensors.
Journal Special Issue on Robotics, 18:13 (1999). F95-S20, F98-S4
14.C. Kopp, C. Rahn and F. Paul, The Measurement of Deformations of frank.paul@ces.clemson.edu
Limp Fabrics for Material Handling, Textile Research Journal, (accepted (864)-656-3291
August 1999). http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Paul.html
Jeffrey W. Eischen, an Associate
Professor of Mechanical and Christopher D. Rahn, an Associate
Aerospace Engineering at NC State Professor of Mechanical Engineering
since 1986, received a Ph.D. in at Clemson since 1992 earned a Ph.D.
Applied Mechanics from Stanford degree in mechanical engineering
University. Jeff has been involved from the University of California,
with the College of Textiles in inter- Berkeley. He also spent several
disciplinary research for several years as a research and development
years. His research interests include engineer at Space Systems, LORAL.
finite element numerical analysis of Chris's research interests include the
fabric drape and manipulation, modeling, dynamic analysis and
dynamics and control of flexible control of nonlinear flexible systems,
mechanisms and stress analysis in including fiber, fabric and paper
layered microelectronic media. handling machinery.
F95-S20*, F98-S4* F94-S9, F95-S20, F97-C5, F98-S4
eischen@eos.ncsu.edu rchrist@clemson.clemson.edu
(919)-515-5263 (864)-656-5621
http://www.mae.ncsu.edu/faculty/faculty.html http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Rahn.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 31


A Novel Approach for When cotton and polyester rovings with different twist levels
and gage lengths were treated with dry lubricant under various
Measurement of Fiber-on-Fiber Friction
F98-S9 loading conditions, their static friction increased while their
Yiping Qiu, Leader (NC State), leader; Youjiang Wang dynamic energy loss decreased (See Figure). The dry lubri-
(Georgia Tech), John Z. Mi (Cotton Inc.) cant possibly bonds the fibers together reducing the inter-fiber
In many textile processes, the movement of fibrous material friction. This indicates that the dynamic energy loss is sensi-
is largely determined by the frictional forces which result from tive to treatment of fiber surface and thus can be used to
constant flow and fluctuation of materials, both among fibers measure the effect of fiber, yarn or fabric treatment.
and between fibers and machine parts. As processing speed [Contributing Graduate Students: Michael A. Laton (Georgia
increases, time dependence becomes more significant. Under- Tech); Chuyang Zhang (NC State)]
standing fiber friction behavior under these dynamic loads Industry Interactions: 2
should lead to improved manufacturing processes with Other Interactions Outside NTC: 2
increased quality and efficiency. Project Web Site Address: none reported
NEED THIS
We are investigating the friction
For Further Information
behavior of fibers and energy dissipation
Yiping Qiu, an Assistant Professor at
under dynamic loading conditions. NC State since 1996 received a B.
Engr. in textile engineering at Zheji-
ang Institute of Silk Technology
Fiber-on-fiber friction is very important because it holds the (China), a M.S. in textile science at
fibers in a staple yarn together and also determines fabric Auburn and a Ph.D. in fiber science
at Cornell. Yiping 's research inter-
properties, such as tensile strength, bending, shear and drape. ests include fabrication and charac-
While previous research mostly focused on the friction coeffi- terization of fiber reinforced
cient under a tensile or a compressive loading condition, we composites, modification and analy-
are formulating a theoretical model based on fiber-on-fiber sis of fiber matrix interfaces,
mechanics of fibrous structures and
friction in a fibrous structure. moisture vapor transfer in fibrous
In a structure two types of energy loss are present, namely structures.
frictional energy loss due to inter-fiber friction and that due to F98-S9*, C99-S9
yiping_qiu@ncsu.edu
intermolecular friction. We are developing a test where the (919)-515-9426
fiber strand or a fabric is subjected to cyclic loads. We are Zhong-Xing Mi, Manager, Fabric
analyzing our results using cross-correlation and other Development at Cotton, Inc. joined
advanced data analysis techniques. This new method will the staff in 1995 from being a
allow us to evaluate the change in fiber-on-fiber friction due to Research Associate at the Nonwov-
ens Cooperative Research Center at
variation of fiber surface properties, moisture content, NC State. He received a Ph.D. in
temperature, fiber linear density and fiber mechanical proper- textile physics in 1983 at the Univ. of
ties. We are also working on a theoretical model to character- Manchester (England) whereupon he
ize inter-fiber friction considering the effect of various became Associate Professor and
Deputy Head of the No. 1 Textile
environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature Engineering Dept. at China Textile
and loading frequency. University (Shanghai). Earlier he was
Intermolecular frictional energy loss is much smaller than Technical Director for the Guangxi
(China) Textile Mill. He is on NTC’s
inter-fiber frictional energy loss, but may not be negligible. TAC committee. John's research
P o l y es te r R o v ing , D M A t e st W it h a nd W i th ou t D r y L ub interests include fiber-reinforced
10 Hz
composites and textile physics.
0 .18
F98-S9
jmi@cottoninc.com
0 .17
Pla in P oly R ov in g (919)-510-6134
0 .16 Po ly w / D r y L u b Youjiang Wang, an Associate Profes-
sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering
0 .15
at Georgia Tech, received his BS in
textile engineering from China Textile
0 .14
University and MS and Ph.D. in
mechanical engineering from MIT.
T an δ

0 .13 P la in Ro vin g
Youjiang is the Associate Technical
0 .12 Editor on Textiles for the Journal of
Manufacturing Science & Technology
0 .11 in textiles. His research interests
include textile processes, mechanics,
0.1
composites and advanced construc-
D ry L ub ric ated tion materials.
0 .09 R ov in g
F94-A8, F98-G15*, F98-S9
0 .08
youjiang.wang@tfe.gatech.edu
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (404)-894-7551
T im e [m in ]

32 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Micromachine Based
Fabric Formation Systems
F98-S12
George Hodge, leader; William Oxenham,
Abdelfattah Seyam, Paul Franzon (NC State)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging
high technology that has proven to be very successful in
several industries such as medical (blood pressure monitors
that can be placed within the heart, and biosensors for measur-
ing carbon dioxide and oxygen content in blood), automotive
Signal non filtered, plain weave
(sensors for air bags) and the ink jet industry. It is now possi-
ble to design equipment with mechanisms that are smaller than Now we are integrating the amplifier to the sensor, applying
the diameter of fibers, and their low cost (polysilicon batch) digital filters, optimizing yarn guiding and evaluating yarn
give them a strong advantage. abrasion. Later, we will build an array of smart sensors and
Micromachines are the merging of sensors, actuators and implement MEMS technology in industry for large scale
electronics onto the same silicon substrate. The sensors experiments.
provide the information about the environment based on [Contributing Graduate Students (NC State): Severine Gahide
electrical, physical, chemical or biological measurements; the (Textile Technology and Management), Jeremy Palmer
electronics process the information derived form the sensors (Mechanical Engineering), Karthik Sekar (Electrical and
and provide a decision making capability for the system based Computer Engineering)]
on the information; the actuators respond to control signals Industry Interactions: 3 (Precision Fabrics).
from the electronics and manipulate the system or environment Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/F98-S12
for a desired outcome, purpose or feedback.
For Further Information
1. Hodge, ISA Textile Conference June 1997
We are developing fundamentally new 2. Publication accepted at the 80th World Textile Conference, in Manchester
approaches for processing fibers into (England), April 2000.
textile structures using
George L. Hodge is an Associate
microelectromechanical systems Professor in Textile and Apparel
technology. Technology and Management at NC
State where he received a Ph.D. in
We are developing fundamentally new approaches for industrial engineering in 1990. He
processing fibers into textile structures using microelectrome- previously held engineering
positions with Ohio State Univ. and
chanical systems technology. Initially we identified possible Carolina Power & Light. His research
applications of MEMS technology in spinning, weaving, interests include economic analysis,
knitting, fiber formation, dyeing and finishing and multi-attribute decision analysis,
expert systems, technology manage-
nonwovens.1
ment, systems modeling and
Based on a perceived real need and large potential market computer integrated manufacturing.
for a successful device, we have concentrated our efforts to F98-S12, I96-S15, I99-S10*
developing a MEMS based detection system to monitor warp george_hodge@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6579
tension and end breaks in a Jacquard weaving machine (See http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
Photo). Preliminary results from a stain gage sensor and an
amplifier installed on a weaving machine yield a signal that Paul D. Franzon is a Professor of
shows a weaving pattern effect (See Figure) Electrical and Computer Engineering
and Director of the Engineering
Research Laboratory at NC State
University. He received his Ph.D. in
Electrical Engineering from the
University of Adelaide, Australia in
1989. He joined NC State in 1989
after working for AT&T Bell Laborato-
ries, Australian Defense Science and
Technology Organization, and
Communica Pty. Ltd. His research
interests include developing novel
integrated systems incorporating
MEMS (micromachines), silicon ICs
and advanced packaging.
(919)-515-7351
paulf@eos.ncsu.edu
http://www.ece.ncsu.edu/erl/faculty/paulf.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 33


William Oxenham has been an Abdelfattah M. Seyam, an Associate
Associate Professor at NC State Professor in Textile and Apparel
since 1992 after having lectured at Management at NC State since 1991
the University of Leeds (England) and Associate Director of Technol-
since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974. ogy Transfer in the Nonwoven Coop-
Bill's research interests center in the erative Research Center, earned an
area of yarn manufacture and include M.S. degree in textile engineering in
fiber property measurement to 1978 from Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)
control product and process quality and a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer
during spinning. science from NC State in 1985. He
F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5, then held research positions at
F99-S6*, I99-S10 Burlington Ind. and Valdese Textiles.
woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu Abdelfattah's research interests
(919)-515-6578 include mechanics of woven fabrics
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facre and technologies for apparel automa-
sstaff/facstaff_frame.htm tion and web forming.
F98-S12
a_seyam@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6583

34 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Characterization of Air-Yarn Interface in Sabit Adanur, a Professor in Textile
Engineering at Auburn since 1992,
Air-Jet Weaving received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer
F99-A10 science in 1989 and a M.S. in textile
Sabit Adanur, Sayavur Bakhtiyarov, David Beale, engineering in 1985 from NC State
Anwar Ahmed (Auburn) and a B.S. in mechanical engineering
in 1982 from Istanbul Technical
We are developing a model to better understand fiber and University in Turkey. Before coming
yarn motion dynamics in air-jet weaving with a focus on yarn to Auburn, Sabit was a product and
transportation and low energy losses. We will build a comput- process development manager for
Asten Forming Fabrics (Appleton WI).
erized air-jet weaving loom simulator system and develop a His research interests include indus-
database to predict the performance of filling yarns. Our trial textiles, composites, computer-
system should shorten fabric development time and reduce aided design and manufacturing.
cost in manufacturing of air-jet woven fabrics. F94-A8*, F95-A24, I96-A9*, F99-A10*,
I00-A6
We are developing a model sadanur@eng.auburn.edu
to better understand (334)-844-5497
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~sadanur/
fiber and yarn motion dynamics
in air-jet weaving. Anwar Ahmed an Associate Profes-
sor and Director of the Wind Tunnel
While we are building our simulator we are theoretically and Aerodynamics Lab at Auburn,
analyzing air flow through the guide, which is more complex earned a B.Sc. in mechanical
than liquid flow because of the dependency of specific weight engineering from Peshawar Univ.
(Pakistan) in 1976 and a Ph.D. in
on pressure changes. The basic equations for simulating aerospace engineering from Wichita
pressure drop for the flow of air through tubes are based on State in 1985. Since then Anwar
the steady-state energy balance and the differential form of the taught at Tuskegee Univ and Texas
A&M and was Associate Director of
Bernoulli equation.
Aerospace at Southern Univ. His
For the flow of air in a straight guide, the pressure drop for research interests include aero-
a given mass flow rate is complicated because gas densities optics of airborne lasers, flow insta-
vary significantly as air undergoes thermodynamic changes bilities in jets, wakes and boundary
layers, vortex dominated flows, circu-
with pressure changes. Therefore, for significant pressure lar shear layers and free vortex
drops, both the velocity and the density of the air change dynamics.
significantly. Hence, to apply the Bernoulli equation properly F99-A10
and develop expressions to predict a pressure drop, we must aahmed@eng.auburn.edu
(334)-844-6817
know the relationship between air pressure and density. The http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~aahmed
pressure drop will depend on the type of flow existing in the
guide. The flow will usually exist between adiabatic and Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, a Senior
isothermal conditions. For short lines, such as guides, the air Research Fellow in the Space Power
Institute at Auburn, joined the staff in
flow can be considered adiabatic as there is little heat trans- 1995. Sayavur earned a Sc.D. from
ferred to or from the line, but for long operation times the flow the Azerbaijan Inst. of Math. & Appl.
will approach isothermal. Mech. in 1992 and a Ph.D. from the
Azerbaijan Institute of Thermophys-
[Contributing Graduate Student: Mevlut Tascan] ics in 1978, all mechanical engineer-
Industry Interactions: none reported ing. He also holds a B.Sc. from
Project Web Site Address: Azerbaijan Inst. Of Oil & Chemistry in
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/adanur/f99a10.html 1971. His research interests are
rheology of composites and
For Further Information: none reported
polymers, fluid and gas dynamics.
F99-A10
sayavurb@eng.auburn.edu
(334)-844-6198

David G. Beale, an Associate Profes-


sor in Mechanical Engineering at
Auburn, received a Ph.D. in mechani-
cal engineering from Michigan.
David’s research interests include
dynamics, control and design of
mechanisms and mechanical
systems.
F99-A10
dbeale@eng.auburn.edu
(334)-844-3336
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/users/dbeale

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 35


Developing Fundamental Measures of Yehia E. El Mogahzy, an Associate
Professor of Textile Engineering at
Cotton Multi-Component Blending Auburn, joined the faculty in 1986
Performance when he received a Ph.D. in fiber and
polymer science from NC State. He
F99-A13
Yehia El Mogahzy, leader (Auburn); also holds a M.S. in textile engineer-
ing from Alexandria University
Subhas Ghosh (ITT), Mohamed Mahrous (UNO) (Cairo). Yehia's research interests
To develop reliable measures of multi-component blending, include statistical analysis, quality
control, fiber-to-yarn engineering and
we are analyzing the transient nature of variability and physical/mechanical properties of
variability conservation laws. Our discovery of the blending fibers, yarns and fabrics.
propensity index has led to industrial on-site blending trials. I95-A11, F96-A3, F99-A13*
yehiae@eng.auburn.edu
To develop reliable measures of (334)-844-5463
multi-component blending, http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~yehiae/welcome.html

we are
are analy
analyzing
zing the transient nature of Subhas Ghosh, a Professor and
variability and Director of Research at ITT, joined
the faculty in 1976. He earned a B.S.
variability conservation laws. in textile technology in 1967 from
This index basically confirmed what is already known (fiber Calcutta University and a M.S. and
Ph.D. in fiber science in 1994 from
blending performance depends on the fiber surface, resiliency the University of Manchester (ENG).
and compatibility). However, our index provides for the first He was also a Quality Control Direc-
time a quantitative measure of multi-component blending tor at National Spinning Company
which industry can use to establish reference values and deter- (North Carolina). Subhas’ research
interests include near infrared
mine the optimum mix. To examine the impact of mixing on spectroscopy, textile material charac-
yarn quality we are focusing our study on cotton/polyester terization, polymer recycling, and
blends. filament processing.
F99-A13
[Contributing Graduate Student: Weiping Du (Auburn)] (804)-296-5511
Industry Interactions: none reported subhasg@itt.edu
Project Web Site Address: none reported

Mohamed Mahrous, a Professor of


For Further Information Applied Mathematics at the Univ. of
1. The Impact of Short Fibers on Yarn Quality and Blending Performance-
Cotton Beltwide Conference, January 2000. New Orleans since 1973, earned two
Ph.D. degrees from Iowa State in
1966: mathematics (numerical analy-
sis) and engineering mechanics.
Mohamed was a consultant to LSU
Medical Center 1976-1995 on inner
ear physiology and nerve transmis-
sion. His research interests include
mathematical modeling, (e.g. simulat-
ing artificial organ mechanisms,
plasmas in the sun's atmosphere,
and characterizing human organ
functions) and modeling non-parame-
tric variables.
F99-A13
mmahrous@math.uno.edu
(504)-394-0078

36 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Sensory (Kansei) Engineering Brain Wave Measurement
To ensure that we acquire state-of-the-art expertise in brain
of Aesthetics in Textile Fabrics wave measurement techniques pertinent to sensory engineer-
F99-S2
Roger L. Barker, leader, Moon W. Suh, ing, including the Emotion Spectrum Analysis Method
Marian G. McCord, Jae L. Woo, Itzhak Shalev, (ESAM), we have established a working relationship with the
H. B. Kim (NC State) Brain Function Labroatory in Kawasaki (Japan). Its president,
Toshimitsu Musha, a foremost Japanese expert on 1/f fluctua-
Sensory engineering is an emerging interdisciplinary field
tions developed ESAM which attempts to quantify human
which attempts to causally relate human sensory perception
emotional response such as the stress, relaxation, sadness and
and psycho-physiological response to technological features in
joy by analyzing the output from scalp electrodes (See
consumer products. Our aim is to use sensory engineering to
Photos). We are now exploring the usefulness of ESAM as a
devise systematic ways to tailor textile products in response to
means of characterizing human response to textile aesthetics.
empirically identified consumer preferences.
We are exploring the use of sensory
engineering to design textile products
with maximum consumer appeal.
While Sensory engineering was born as Kansei engineering
in Japan, U.S. scientists (Mandlebrot, Voss, et. al.) pioneered
work leading to the discovery that stimuli which appear to
engender pleasure and harmony in humans fluctuate in a
pattern reciprocal to their frequency, i.e., 1/f. This pattern is
similar to the brain alpha waves of a comfortable and content Participant wearing cap with electrodes and display of
individual. The Japanese (Musha and others) then refined the emotional response to stimuli, such as music
1/f phenomenon to use in their new established Kansei
[Other Contributors: none reported]
engineering as the first and systematic means to screen,
Industry Interactions: none reported
identify and implement desirable Kansei features in design and Project Web Site Address:
products. Later they fine-tuned it to extensively document http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/F99-s2
fluctuation patterns and rhythms that exist both naturally and
For Further Information: nothing reported
in works of art. Our immediate challenge in translating the 1/f
concept into the design and production of textiles is that it is a Roger L. Barker, a Professor and
necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a stimulus to be Director of the Center for Research
on Textile Protection and Comfort at
attractive or pleasant to humans. NC State, joined the faculty in 1981
after having served on the faculties
Visual Measurement System of Cornell and Clemson. He received
We now have a measurement system capable of converting a M.S. in physics from Tennessee in
optical patterns of planar test objects into a spectrogram with a 1969 and a Ph.D. in textile and
log-log plot (See Figure). This helps us to assess the extent of polymer science from Clemson in
conformance to the 1/f relationship, and also enables us to 1978. Roger's research interests
include textile comfort and protective
objectively evaluate purportedly sensory-engineered textile materials.
products now in the Japanese market. F95-S24*, I98-S8*, F99-S2*
roger_barker@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6577
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/rbarker.html

Hyung Bum Kim, a Visiting Scholar


and measurement and control
specialist at NC State since 1997,
earned an M.S. in textile engineering
in 1996 and a M.S. in measurement &
control in 1993 from Kyunghee Univ.
(Korea) and a B.S. in electronics in
1986 from Sung Kyun Kwan Univ.
(Korea). Hyung Bum was in R&D on
Industry Automation for Samsung
and a Research Officer at KITECH
and KyungHee Univ. His research
interests include signal processing,
fabric visualization and instrument
design for yarns and nonwovens.
F99-S2
Spectrograms (below) showing “1/f - like” patterns for hbkim@tx.ncsu.edu
optically scanned 2-dimensional images (above) (919)-515-6580

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 37


Marian Gayle McCord, an Assistant Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile
Professor at NC State since 1994 and Apparel Management and of
when she received a Ph.D. in textiles Statistics at NC State, joined the
and polymer science at Clemson, faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career
also earned a Sc.B. in biomedical at Burlington Ind. as a statistician
engineering at Brown and a M.S. in and operations research analyst. He
bioengineering at Clemson. Marian's earned a B.S. in textile engineering
research interests include torsional from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in
properties in high performance 1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC
fibers, barrier fabrics and comfort of State in 1969. Moon's research inter-
textile materials. ests include statistical and probabil-
M94-C4, F95-S24, I98-S8, C99-S9*, istic modeling of textile processes
F99-S2 and products, quality control
marian_mccord@]ncsu.edu methods, apparel business informa-
(919)-515-6571 tion systems, biostatistics and statis-
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/mmccord.html tical failure models.
I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2
moon_suh@ncsu.edu
Itzhak Shalev, Visiting Associate (919)-515-6580
Professor in Textile Engineering, http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
Chemistry and Science at NC State
since 1991, is also CEO of Arpal Jae L. Woo, a Visiting Research
Engineering Ltd. Itzhak earned a B.S. Professor in textiles at NC State
in textile chemistry from Shenkar since 1994, earned a B.S. in textile
College (Israel) in 1980 and a Ph.D. in engineering at Seoul National Univ.
fiber and polymer science at NC State (Korea) where he taught textile
in 1984. He served as Head of the engineering and process statistics, a
Textile Chemistry Dept. at Shenkar S.M. at MIT and a Ph.D. at Univ. of
College from 1994-98. Itzhak's New South Wales (Australia) where
research interests include protective he taught machine dynamics,
barrier textiles, clothing comfort, random vibrations, experimental
finishing technology and computer engineering in 1975-85. Jae’s
aided instruction. research interests include cotton and
F95-S24, I98-S8, F99-S2 wool fiber testing, on-line measure-
itzhak_shalev@ncsu.edu ments in textile processes, statistical
(919)-515-6550 process control, textile mechanisms
http://www.shalev.net and variations analysis.
I95-A11, I97-S1, F99-S2
jae_woo@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6580

38 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Fiber Motion and Yarn Forming
in High Speed Air Flow
F99-S6
William Oxenham, leader (NC State);
Memis Acar (Loughborough),
Arindam Basu (South India TRA)
We are developing models to elucidate the behavior of fiber
in high speed airflows. Our main focus is to fundamentally
understand the interaction of fiber with high-speed airflows,
then to establish suitable models which could be used to
optimize the use of air in fiber/filament manipulations.
However, we must first develop an in-depth understanding in Software Images from CFD-ACE depicting
increasing velocities of airflow (left) and
both the air texturing and vortex spinning processes. In air
a solid model of the fiber to be modeled.
texturing the airflow dynamics are relatively simple, since the
air stream is used primarily to bend the filaments; however, [Contributing Graduate Students: Guldemet Basal, Yiyun Cai,
any finish and/or water on the yarn prior to passing into the air Nikhil Dani (NC State)]
stream will influence the efficiency of the texturing process. Industry Interactions: none reported
We are also examining the role of fiber properties on the Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/F99-S06
texturing process, including "high modulus" fibers, to repre-
sent an extreme case to be validated by the model. For Further Information: nothing reported
We are developing models William Oxenham has been an
Associate Professor at NC State
to elucidate the behavior of fibers since 1992 after having lectured at
in high speed air streams. the University of Leeds (England)
since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974.
In vortex spinning, which is being hailed as the future Bill's research interests center in the
area of yarn manufacture and include
technology for short staple spinning, air is used not only to fiber property measurement to
transport and maintain the integrity of the fiber assembly, but control product and process quality
to impart false twist to the structure and to generate a two-part during spinning.
structure consisting of a core of parallel fibers wrapped with F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5,
F99-S6*, I99-S10
an outer sheath (See Photos). The airflow dynamics in this woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu
process are more complex than air jet texturing. (919)-515-6578
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Memis Acar, a visiting research


scholar at NC State, has been a
Lecturer (1986) and Senior Lecturer
(1991) in Mechanical Engineering at
Loughborough University (Leicester-
shire UK) where he earned a PhD in
mechanical engineering in 1984. He
earned a MSc in textile technology in
1979 from Univ. of Manchester.
Scanning Electron Microscope Images Memis' research interests include
of Vortex Yarn Structures air-jets for texturing and mingling,
water jets for hydroentanglement,
Since it is necessary to establish idealized models of yarns hydroentangled nonwovens, design
and fibers, we have chosen the CFD-ACE modeling and of textile machinery, mechatronics in
software package to model fiber motion in high-speed airflows textile industries and yarn imaging.
F98-S12, F99-S6
(See CFD-ACE Images). We will use the output from these macar@unity.ncsu.edu
idealized models to establish more efficient parameters for (919)-515-6449
commercial processes. m.acar@lboro.ac.uk, +44 1509 223218
We will be
• conducting an analysis of the high-speed airflow patterns
acting on a fiber
• establishing the model of fiber motion (such a model could
be used to optimize how air is used to twist fibers into yarn)

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 39


Arindam Basu, the Assistant Director
of The South India Textile Research
Association, Coimbatore, earned a
Ph.D. in textile engineering from
Univ. of Leeds in 1991, a Bachelor's
in 1983 in textile technology from
Univ. of Calcutta and a Diploma in
business and industrial management
from Datamatics Institute (Bombay).
He was a supervisor for West Bengal
Co-operative spinning mills from
1986-1997 and then Deputy manager
for Indian Rayon and Industries
Limited.
F99-S6
sitra@md2.vsnl.net.in
+91-422-574367 (India)

40 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Chemical Processes
Research in dyeing, finishing and waste reduction in textile processes.

Investigation of literature values and the Young’s modulus is very close to that
of normal viscose rayon. Thus, the procedures for producing
Flexible Crosslinking Systems for
model structures are reasonable, and we will use them to
the Retention of Mechanical Strength generate models for further simulations.
and Abrasion Resistance Average mechanical properties of amorphous cellulose models:
in Durable Press Cotton Fabrics Young’s Bulk Compress Shear Poisson’s
C97-C3 modulus modulus -ibility modulus ratio
Gary C. Lickfield, leader (Clemson); GPa GPa GPa GPa
Charles Q. Yang (University of Georgia) 9.7 5.4 0.18 4.0 0.2
Severe tensile strength loss has been the major disadvantage
for durable press finished 100% cotton fabrics. The loss of 1
tensile strength in resin finished cotton has been attributed to 0.9
two main factors: reduction in the degree of polymerization of 0.8
the cellulose due to acid degradation under high temperature 0.7
curing conditions; and formation of the network polymer

stress (GPa)
0.6
itself. The latter is related to the rigidity of the crosslinks
0.5
formed. To develop a fundamental understanding of the
0.4
mechanism of tensile strength loss in crosslinked cotton
fabrics, we are investigating the relationship between the 0.3
strength loss due to crosslinking and the molecular structure of 0.2
the crosslinking agent. 0.1
0
We are investigating the relationship -0.1 0 5 10
strain (%)
15 20

between the loss of mechanical strength in Average stress-strain diagram for amorphous cellulose 3D
durable press finished cotton fabrics and model structures using molecular mechanics calculations.
the molecular structure From these initial amorphous cellulose 3D models we
of the crosslinking agent. generated stress-strain data (See Graph) by calculating the
internal stress within the periodic cell due to an applied strain
along one axis of the cell. These data represent the average of
Studies presented earlier focused on the response of single each direction and each amorphous structure. Interesting, these
crosslink model structures and single polymeric chain models amorphous cells appear to deform elastically up to an applied
to an applied strain, providing such information as molecular strain of approximately 5-8%, above which there appears to be
extensibility and ultimate modulus. We are now extending plastic deformation and chain slippage. We are currently
that stress-strain work to three dimensional model structures to investigating the affect that water content and crosslink density
better understand the influence of intermolecular interactions has on these predicted mechanical properties.
on the extension and elastic recovery potential of crosslink
[Other Contributors: Graduate Student: Wei Chen (Clemson)]
structures in cellulosic models, specifically for amorphous
Research Scientists: Zhiping Mao, Lei Quian (Georgia)]
cellulosic structures.
Industry Interactions: 4 [Calloway Chemical, FMC Corp.,
Under periodic boundary conditions using Monte Carlo Sequa, Oxford Intl.]
Project Web Site Address: none reported
methods we generated amorphous cells consisting of cellulose
chains with a degree of polymerization of forty. These
For Further Information
amorphous cells were relaxed and optimized using a combina- 1. I. Kang, C. Q. Yang, W. Wei, and G. C. Lickfield, The Mechani-
tion of molecular mechanics minimization and molecular cal Strength of the Cotton Fabrics Crosslinked by Polycarbox-
dynamics, first at high temperature (1000 K), then at room ylic Acids: Part I. Acid Degradation and Crosslinking of
temperature (300 K). The fully optimized structures had an Cellulose, Textile Res. J. 68:856 (1998).
2. W. Wei, C. Q. Yang and G. C. Lickfield, The Mechanical
average density (1.42 g/cc) very close to literature values and Strength of Durable Press Finished Cotton Fabrics: Part II.
a minimal internal stress indicating that the models are fully Effects of the Catalysts Used for DMDHEU, submitted to Textile
relaxed. Res. J.
3. W. Wei, C. Q. Yang and G. C. Lickfield, Mechanical Strength of
The average Hildebrand solubility parameter, which can Durable Press Finished Cotton Fabric: Part III. Comparison of
sometimes be used as a rough indicator of mechanical proper- Crosslinking Agents with Different Molecular Structures and
ties of the polymer, was comparable with the experiment Reactivity, submitted to Textile Res. J.
values. Calculated mechanical properties are very close to

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 41


4. C. Q. Yang, Characterizing the Ester Cross-Linkages of Cotton Charles Q. Yang, a Professor in the
Cellulose With FT-IR Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Textile Res. Dept. of Textiles at Georgia since
J. 61:298 (1991). 1995, joined the faculty in 1990 after
5. C. Q. Yang and G. Bakshi, Quantitative Analysis of the Nonfor- an assistant professorship in
maldehyde Durable Press Finish on Cotton Fabric: Acid-base Chemistry at Marshall University
Titration and Infrared Spectroscopy, Textile Res. J. 66:377 (WV). Charles earned a Ph.D. in
(1996). analytical chemistry from Kansas
6. C. Q. Yang L. Xu, S. Li, and Y. Jiang, Nonformaldehyde State in 1987, an M.S. in polymer
Durable Press Finishing of Cotton Fabrics by Combining chemistry in 1981 from Nanjing
Polymers of Maleic Acid with Citric Acid, Textile Res. J. 68:457 University (China) and a B.S. in
(1998). chemistry from Peking University in
7. C. Q. Yang and X. Wang Formation of the Cyclic Anhydride 1969. His research interests include
Intermediates and Esterification of Cotton Cellulose by Multi- chemical modifications and analyses
functional carboxylic Acids: An Infrared Spectroscopy Study, of textile fibers, fabrics and
Textile Res. J. 66:595 (1996). polymeric materials and nonformal-
8. C. Q. Yang, X. Wang and I. Kang, Nonformaldehyde Durable dehyde durable press finishing of
Press Finishing of Cotton Fabrics by the Combination of cotton fabrics.
Polymers of Maleic Acid and Citric Acid: Part I. Ester C97-C3
Crosslinking Cotton Fabric by the Polymers of Maleic Acid and cyang@hestia.fcs.uga.edu
Citric Acid, Textile Res. J. 67:334 (1997) (706)542-4912

Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate


Professor in Textiles, Fiber &
Polymer Science at Clemson, joined
the faculty in 1986. He earned a
Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in
1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from
Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's
research interests include molecular
modeling, polymer surfaces and
interfaces modification and charac-
terization, wetting and adhesion.
M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3
lgary@clemson.clemson.edu
(864)-656-5964
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html

42 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Fundamentals of pores in the yarns and less liquid was available for the
transverse flow to the top and bottom layers.
Moisture Transport in Textiles:
2. In type 1 structures, the flow front advanced fastest in the
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies structure consisting of 186 denier, 36 filament yarn
C97-G31
Haskell Beckham, leader; Wallace Carr, Johannes Leisen (186/36). This structure had the largest hydraulic radius
(Georgia Tech), Steven B. Warner (UMassD) (largest pore size), the lowest capillary pressure and the
If we can fundamentally understand and quantify moisture highest permeability in both principal directions. The
transport in textile structures, new drying processes and novel advancement of the flow front was slowest in the structure
and improved textile materials for fluid management can be consisting of 1500/384 yarn which had the smallest hydrau-
developed. To design textile materials with specific functional lic radius, the highest capillary pressure and the lowest
properties (e.g. moisture absorption or transport), we must permeability in the principal directions.
first establish the relationship between these properties and the 3. In type 1 structures, although a high uniaxial in-plane
structure of the fibrous substrate. Methods such as optical orientation was provided with parallel continuous filaments,
microscopy and porosimetry have been used1,2 in order to flow anisotropy was not as high as expected, but was higher
obtain structural information of fibrous materials. However, in the middle layer than in the top or bottom layer.
To explain the flow behavior in type 1 structures we used
We seek to fundamentally understand the model that Montgomery et al. developed to quantify the
directional in-plane permeabilities of geotextiles1 in a new way
moisture transport in fibrous assemblies to to predict the flow front. The predicted flow front using this
improve drying processes and model was within 20% of the experimental values (See
fluid management in textile structures. Graph).
Flow Front vs Time in the Principal Directions for
these methods are destructive if a sample must be cut to obtain
information about interior regions. An alternative approach is Flow Front vs Time
to investigate fluid distributions within materials noninva-
0.06
sively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.3 0.05
predicted (direction 1)
distance (m)

Additional advantages include the measurement of MRI 0.04


experimental (direction 1)
properties relative to various physicochemical properties of 0.03
predicted (direction 2)
0.02
the fluids: translational and rotational motions, viscosity or 0.01
experimental (direction 2)

temperature.4 We are using MRI to visualize 3D spatial 0


moisture distributions within these opaque fibrous textile 0 50 100 150 200
time (sec)
structures and to measure pore structure and moisture
movement (both vertical and horizontal) during loading and/or Uniaxially-oriented 1500 Denier Filament Polyester Yarns
drying.
Hence, when the three structural variables - porosity,
Design, Manufacture and Modeling of in-plane directional permeabilities and pore size (from which
Anisotropic Fibrous Assemblies capillary pressure can be determined) - and properties of the
To enhance the fluid flow in a desired direction we spreading liquid are known, we can predict the in-plane flow
designed, constructed and tested two multilayer fibrous struc- front for the structure.
tures of different anisotropic wicking properties where fiber [Other Contributors: none reported]
orientation is in one direction. Industry Interactions: 5 [Engineered Yarns of America,
Timberland, Kimberly-Clark, Milliken, Queen Carpet]
• Type 1 structures transport liquid as fast as possible in one
Project Web Site Address:
direction with minimal wicking in any other direction. Here http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham/C97-G31
parallel-laid continuous filament yarns maximize the For Further Information
in-plane orientation. 1. S. M. Montgomery, K. L. Adams, M. Rebenfeld, Geotextiles and
• Type 2 structures transport liquid through the surface plane Geomembranes 7:275 (1988).
2. E. Coskuntuna, MS thesis, Textile Sciences Department, UMass
with minimal wicking in the surface plane. Here flocked Dartmouth (Mar 2000).
fibers maximize the orientation perpendicular to the surface 3. J. Leisen, L. Hou, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr, Observation of
plane. the Water Distribution during Drying of Textiles in Spatially
Resolved Magnetic Resonance: Methods, Materials, Medicine,
We built models to explain and predict these observed flow Biology, Rheology, Geology, Ecology, Hardware, edited by P.
behaviors. Our conclusions from this study are: Blümler, B. Blümich, R. Botto and E. Fukushima, Wiley-VCH,
1. In a three-layer type 1 structure, flow was fastest in the Weinheim, 265 (1998).
4. J. Leisen, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr, S. Warner, J. Good
middle layer, which consisted of parallel-laid continuous Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Water Ingress and Distribution
filament yarns. Transverse flow from the middle to the in Fluorochemical-Finished Polyester Cut-Pile Carpet, Textile
outer layers was not fast enough to keep the flow front Chemist and Colorist 31:21 (1998)
uniform among the layers. As liquid advanced along the 5. J. Leisen, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr, Observation of Drying
Processes in Textiles by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy, 39th
yarns in the middle layer, liquid was retained in the smaller Experimental NMR Conference; Pacific Grove CA; (March
1998)

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 43


6. H. W. Beckham, Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluids in Johannes Leisen, a research scien-
Engineered Fibrous Substrates DuPont; Chattanooga, TN (Sep tist at Georgia Tech since 1997,
1997) received a PhD in chemistry from
7. J. Leisen, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr Observation of Water Johannes Gutenberg University in
Distribution and Diffusion during the Drying Process in Textiles 1994 for research conducted at the
4th Int Conf on Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and Max Planck Institute for Polymer
Macroscopy; Albuquerque (Sep 1997) Research (Mainz). He then did
8. H. W. Beckham, J Leisen, WW Carr, Magnetic Resonance research at Fraunhofer Institute for
Imaging of Water Distribution in Carpet, AATCC Int Conf & Biomedical Research in St. Ingbert
Exhibition. Book of Papers (1997) (Germany). Hanno’s research inter-
9. H. W. Beckham, Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Water Distri- ests include polymer characterization
bution in Carpet: Drying Studies, AATCC Int Conf & using NMR spectroscopy and devel-
Exhibition, Atlanta (Sep 1997) opment and application of spatially
resolved NMR techniques in textile
Haskell Beckham, an Associate sciences.
Professor at Georgia Tech, joined the C97-G31
faculty in 1993. He received a B.S. in johannes.leisen@textiles.gatech.edu
textile chemistry at Auburn and a (404)-894-9241
Ph.D. in polymer science at M.I.T. in
1991 whereupon he served a 2-year Steven B. Warner, a Professor and
postdoctoral internship at the Max Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass
Planck-Institute (Mainz). His research Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D.
interests include polymer and textile in polymer and material science &
chemistry, synthesis and properties engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He
of functionalized polymers and solid then spent 12 years in industrial
state NMR investigations of polymer research at Hoechst-Celanese and
molecular structure, order and Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the
dynamics. faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the
M95-G8, C95-G2, C95-G13*, C97-G11* author of the texts: The Science and
haskell.beckham@tfe.gatech.edu Design of Engineering Materials and
(404)-894-4198 Fiber Science. His research interests
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham include fibers science, microstruc-
ture of nonwovens and fluid manage-
Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Profes- ment in fibrous assemblies and
sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering properties.
at Georgia Tech since 1980, received M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3,
a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering C97-G31, I99-D16
from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before swarner@umassd.edu
joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a (508)-999-8449
senior research engineer at
Monsanto. His research interests
include thermal sciences in industrial
fiber and textile processes (particu-
larly radio frequency, microwave,
ultrasound and infrared), electro-
photographic printing of textiles and
polymer properties and structure.
C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11,
C98-G30*, C99-G8*
wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-2538
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html

44 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Textiles Having the Ability to Deliver powders to a variety of textiles materials, nonwovens and
other polymer surfaces (See Photo), and have incorporated
Reactive Chemical Species
C98-A17 antimicrobial pigments into polypropylene fibers during extru-
Roy M Broughton, Jr. (TE, Auburn), leader; Dave Worley, sion. We are also determining how much N-halamine is
German Mills, B. Lewis Slaten, required on a textile surface for antimicrobial activity and
Christine Sundermann (Auburn), whether such activity requires the actual release of halogen to
Gang Sun (UC Davis), Steve Michielsen (Georgia Tech) work.
The use of textiles to support and dose active chemical Thus far, We have incorporated antimicrobials with a
species is as old as the application of an ointment to a gauze textile substrate by:
for covering a wound. The chemical species should have a • Surface reaction between functional groups (conventional
long active lifetime; or if exhausted quickly, should be easily chemistry)
and quickly regenerated. Initially we are using chemical wet • High energy grafting processes – photo and plasma (e.g.
finishing and polymer grafting technologies to incorporate poly(acrylic acid) grafted to the surface of nylon 6,6 films)
chemically reactive moieties onto fibers and fabrics to achieve
• During fiber extrusion
antibacterial or antifungal effects or even chemical reactions.
• Powder adherence to the fiber surface using a binder or
To be effective such antimicrobial materials released from the
adhesive
fiber should be safe and must retain their biocidal activity in
laundering and extended use, either because the activity is • Dye absorption techniques (ion exchange etc.)
durable functionality or regenerable (See Figure).
We are dev
developing
eloping textiles
that deliver reactive chemical species,
especially those with extensive
antimicrobial
antimicrobial activity.
Some mechanisms suggested for biocidal action are: disrup-
tion of the cell wall, protein denaturing, interference with
enzymes, crosslinking of protein, chemical oxidation and Micrograph of antimicrobial powder coated on polymer
binding or reaction at particular sites on the protein. A reason- surface
able hypothesis is that those materials, which react with To test antimicrobial effectiveness we are using either a
proteins and enzymes, must be released from a biocidal fiber filtration or a modified AATCC fabric test. In the filtration
and penetrate the cell, while the membrane disrupters and test contaminated water is recirculated through a filter contain-
perhaps oxidants may work acceptably from outside the ing the antimicrobial textile and the contact time to kill bacte-
microbe. ria is measured by plating a sample periodically during the
We are developing textiles that deliver reactive chemical time of recirculation. The N-halamines are particularly fast
species, especially those with extensive antimicrobial activity. acting in this test. The modified AATCC fabric test, used
We expect to deliver antimi- where the fabric is not
crobial activity similar to hygroscopic, involves
how catalysts are delivered sandwiching a small
in chemical synthesis and sample of contaminated
how reactants are used to liquid between layers of
remove pollutants from air fabric or film containing
or water and to produce biocompatible materials. the antimicrobial.
Our work has concentrated on the use of N-halamine We can now measure the surface conductivity as a function
compounds and quaternary ammonium compounds for incor- of frequency (0.01 – 100,000 Hz) which will allow us to deter-
porating biocidal activity onto fibers. Certain N-halamine mine the mobility of the surface grafted chain. We believe that
compounds are stable but release a small amount of free the optimum polymeric antimicrobial will have to be able to
halogen in response to a challenge from a microorganism. conform to the cell surface and thus require (as yet unknown)
These compounds have been used as biocidal compounds for surface mobility.
cleaning swimming pools, and producing potable water from [Contributing Graduate Student: Unchin Cho, Shi Wei Huang
contaminated sources. Our goal is to develop ways of attach- (Auburn); Shuying Yang (Georgia Tech); Post-doctoral
ing the functional group to textile materials, thereby rendering Fellows: Jian Lin (Auburn), Yuyu Sun (UC Davis)]
them antimicrobial. To date we have used conventional Industry Interactions: 20
chemistry to bond N-halamines to several kinds of fiber Project Web Site Address:
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/broughton/c98a17.html
(including aramids, nylon, melamine and cellulose) to form
effective antimicrobials. We have also bonded antimicrobial For Further Information: nothing reported

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 45


Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of B. Lewis Slaten, an Associate Profes-
Textile Engineering at Auburn since sor at Auburn, joined the faculty in
1976, received his Ph.D. with concen- 1974 after receiving a M.S. in organic
trations in textile chemistry and fiber chemistry from University of Arkan-
and polymer science from NC State. sas and a Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
Before joining Auburn, Roy worked ing from Maryland. Previously, Lew
in polyester research at Goodyear was a chemist for Freeport Minerals
Tire & Rubber. His research inter- and the National Bureau of
ests include manufacture, utilization Standards' Fire Technology division.
and testing of fibers and nonwovens. His research interests include fabric
M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10, test methods, barrier textiles, protec-
F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11 tive clothing, environmental chemis-
royalb@eng.auburn.edu try and chemistry of textile finishes.
(334)-844-5460 slatebl@auburn.edu
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton F95-S24, M98-A10, C98-A17
(334)-844-1330
Stephen Michielsen, an Associate http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/slaten.html
Professor in Textile and Fiber
Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined Gang Sun, an Assistant Professor in
the faculty in 1995. He has a B.S. in Textiles and Clothing at University of
chemistry from S.U.N.Y. and earned a California, Davis since 1995, received
Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the a Ph.D. in organic/ polymer chemistry
University of Chicago in 1979 and did from Auburn in 1994. He also
postdoctoral research at Stanford received an M.S. in 1984 in textile
whereupon he spent 15 years at chemical engineering from China
DuPont in their polymer and fiber Textile University (Shanghai). His
research departments. Steve's research interests include functional
research interests include fiber modifications of polymers and
surface modification, fiber strength, textiles, development of biological
thermomechanical properties of and chemical protective materials,
fibers and polymers, fiber/polymer evaluation of functional properties of
physics and polymer blends. textiles and polymers, and utilization
C98-A17, C99-S4 of agricultural wastes in textile
stephen.michielsen@tfe.gatech.edu processing.
(404)-894-6345 C98-A17
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/michielsen/michielsen.html gysun@ucdavis.edu
(530)-752-0840
German Mills, an Associate Professor Christine A. Sundermann, a Profes-
of Chemistry at Auburn since 1995, sor of Zoology & Wildlife Science at
joined the faculty in 1989. He earned Auburn, joined the faculty in 1984.
a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from She earned a Ph.D. in zoology from
the Technical University of West University of Georgia in 1983 and a
Berlin in 1985 and a MS in inorganic B.S. from Iowa State in biology in
chemistry from the University of 1977. Christine’s research interests
Chile in 1981. "Jimmy" has held include inactivation of Giardia and
postdoctoral positions at Caltech and other parasitic protozoa in potable
Argonne National Lab. His research water; in vivo and in vitro develop-
interests include synthesis and ment of Toxoplasma gondii and its
properties of nanometer-sized metal detection; hormone receptors in
and semiconductor particles, "smart" ciliated protozoa.
materials and transformation of toxic C98-A17
chemicals. sundeca@mail.auburn.edu
F95-S24, C98-A17, M98-A10* (334)-844-3929
millsge@mail.auburn.edu S. D. Worley, a Professor of Chemis-
(334)-844-6974 try at Auburn, joined the faculty in
http://www.auburn.edu/~winkekj/group.html 1974 after being at Johnson Space-
craft Center, Cleveland State Univ.
and the Office of Naval Research. He
earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from
Texas in 1969. Dave’s research inter-
ests include synthesis and testing of
new biocidal polymers for numerous
applications such as coatings.
C98-A17
worlesd@mail.auburn.edu
(334)-844 4043

46 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Finish Film Stability 2. The amplitude of the waves increases
3. The film ruptures and a regular array of droplets is formed
and Its Relevance to
4. Smaller droplets may form between larger ones
Slinging of Spin Finish on a Spinline 5. Neighboring droplets may coalesce and the string of
C98-P2
Y. K. Kamath, leader; Xuemin Chen, droplets loses its regularity
Alexander V. Neimark (TRI/Princeton)
Textile fibers and yarns are treated with spin finishes that
act as lubricants and anti-static agents during melt spinning.
As the finish is applied it will first form liquid films on the
fibers and then break up into droplets due to film instability
caused by capillary forces. These droplets may detach from
the yarn because of yarn vibration during spinning or centrifu-
gal forces at the winder, creating an undesirable condition
known as "slinging". A better understanding of the factors that
influence finish film stability, droplet formation and slinging

We are investigating the stability of finish


films on fibers and how finish droplets
detach from vibrating yarns.

tendency should lead to improved finish formulations. We


developed thermodynamic and hydrodynamic models to
predict the stability of liquid films on static and moving fibers.
We have used a PC-based imaging system to observe the Finish film breakup and droplet formation on
Nylon (left) and Teflon (right) fibers.
breakup of finish films and the formation of droplets on fibers
and have observed the detachment of finish droplets from Film breakup on a Teflon fiber takes place at a much faster
vibrating yarns. rate than that on a nylon fiber (See Photos above). In addition,
the tendency of neighboring droplets to coalesce is virtually
Stability of Finish Films on Fibers nonexistent for Teflon fibers compared to nylon fibers. The
The stability of a uniform liquid film on a fiber depends
droplets on Teflon fibers tend to be regularly spaced, while
upon capillary forces which act to thin and break the film and
the droplets on nylon fibers tend to coalesce, resulting in
upon interfacial adhesion which acts to keep the film in place.
uneven spacing between the droplets. These observations can
Our modeling work shows that for a given liquid-fiber system
be attributed to the higher surface energy of nylon and the
there exits for a stable film an upper limit of thickness, known
stronger adhesion between the finish liquid and nylon fibers.
as the critical thickness, over which the film is thermodynami-
cally unstable and will break up into droplets. The critical Detachment of Finish Droplets from Vibrating Yarns
thickness is a function of fiber radius, liquid surface tension, Detachment of finish droplets
and liquid-fiber adhesion (See Graph). Viscosity does not was observed when the yarn
affect the conditions of finish film stability, but it determines vibrated at moderate frequencies
the rates of film breakup. (20-30 Hz) with relatively high
450 amplitudes (see photo at right).
400 Smaller droplets remained on the
Film Thickness (nm)

350 yarn after the detachment of


300 larger droplets. Further detailed
250 studies are required, including
200 modeling work, to understand the
150 detachment mechanisms.
100
Some of the factors that determine the tendency of a liquid
50
droplet to detach from a vibrating yarn are:
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
• Inertia forces acting on the droplets when the yarn vibrates
Fiber Radius (µm)
• Frequency and amplitude of the vibration
• Droplet size
Critical thickness of thermodynamically stable films.
vs. fiber radius • Interfacial adhesion between the liquid and the yarn
The breakup of liquid films proceeds in the following • Area of contact between the droplet and the yarn
stages: • Intermolecular cohesion within the liquid
1. Ripples in the form of stationary waves appear in the film • Density and viscosity of the liquid

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 47


• Surface tension of the liquid Xuemin Chen, a Staff Scientist at
TRI/Princeton, joined TRI in 1999. He
[Other Contributor: Konstantin G. Kornev] earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry
from Brigham Young Univ. in 1991
Industry Interactions: none reported and an M.S. from Nankai University
Project Web Site Address: (China) in 1985. Before joining TRI,
http://fibers.texsci.edu/C98P02 Xuemin was a postdoctoral fellow
and research associate at Brigham
For Further Information Young. His research interests include
1. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 34:145 (1879) interactions of liquids with fibrous
2. S. L. Goren, J. Fluid Mech., 12:309 (1962). materials, distribution and stability of
3. M. Johnson, R. D. Kamm, L. W. Ho, A. Shapiro and T. J. Pec, J finish films on fibers and yarns, and
Fluid Mech., 233, 141 (1991). chemical instrumentation.
4. A. L. Yarin, A. Oron and P. Roseneau, Phys. Fluids A 5:91 C98-P2
(1993). xchen@triprinceton.org
5. A. Neimark, Private Communication (1998). (609)-430-4836

Y. K. Kamath, a Director of Research Alexander V. Neimark, a Principal


at TRI/Princeton and an Adjunct Scientist at TRI/Princeton since 1996,
Professor at PhiladelphiaU, joined earned an M.S. in mechanical
TRI in 1972. He earned a Ph.D. in engineering in 1973, a Ph.D. in
physical and organic chemistry from chemical engineering in 1977 and a
Univ. of Connecticut in 1973, a M.S. D.Sc. in physical chemistry in 1988
in plastic Technology and a B.S. in from Moscow State Univ. (Russia). He
chemistry and physics from Bombay was then a Research Professor in
Univ. (India) in 1959. His research Physics at the Russian Academy of
interests include polymer colloids, Science then to the faculty of Yale’s
polymerization kinetics, fiber and Chemical Engineering Dept. 1994-96.
fiber surface chemistry, interfacial Alex’s research interests include
interactions, fiber transport, fiber interfacial phenomena and porous
finishes and fiber, yarn and fabric materials engineering, from molecu-
mechanical properties. lar level theories of nanocapillarity to
C98-P2 macroscopic models of fluid flow and
ykamath@triprinceton.org sorption in porous media and fiber
(609)-430-4820 systems.
C98-P2
aneimark@triprinceton.org
(609)-430-4818
http://www.triprinceton.org/aneimark

48 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Delivery of Textile Additives ability to dye nylon from the inside out, to fabricate antibiotic,
bioabsorbable sutures from poly (L-lactic acid) fibers and to
with Inclusion Compounds
C98-S1 deliver a normally-liquid flame retardant in a solid form that
Alan Tonelli, leader; Peter Hauser (NC State) only retards burning when the embedded PET films are
Many textile products rely on additives to enhance their exposed to flames. Incorporated into a CD-IC, nonoxynol-9, a
performance. These additives are commonly applied to fabric surfactant and the most widely used, normally liquid spermi-
by padding from an additive bath. Depending on the additive cide, can now be delivered to fibers and films via its CD-IC
and the fibers in the fabric, it crystals, thereby producing, for example, spermicidal fabrics
is often difficult to deliver and/or condoms. In addition, it appears that we may have
the additive to the fabric in successfully incorporated silk (Bombyx mori) into a CD-IC, so
sufficient quantity or with we may be able to fabricate silk-synthetic polymer composites
sufficient fastness to achieve through coalescence of the silk from its CD-IC crystals into
long-term additive function. the synthetic carrier polymer.
If, instead, the additive is
delivered in the form of an
inclusion compound with a We are embedding textile additives into
cyclodextrin (See Figure at polymer and fibers during spinning.
left), then it could be embed-
ded in a fiber during We have had preliminary discussions with major manufac-
A cyclodextrin spinning, achieving a more turers of flame retardants, sutures and medical polymers,
effective delivery and a durable shelf-life of the additive. In drugs, food packaging, fibers and nylon and polyester webbing
addition, delivery via such cyclodextrin inclusion compounds used in safety harnesses. Webbing fibers containing CD-ICs
(CD-ICs) may permit an on-demand release of the additive. upon abrasion or threshold exposures of UV radiation, could
For example, perspiration permeating a garment during active release guest additives that might indicate when to replace a
exercise might disrupt the embedded, additive-CD-IC crystals safety harness.
releasing the additive, which could be a deodorant or a For Further Information: nothing reported
biocide. It might even be possible for fabric whose fibers Industry Interactions: 10
contain embedded, water repellant-CD-IC crystals to confer Project Web Site Address: none reported
water repellency on-demand when worn in the rain.
For Further Information
1. L.Huang and A. E. Tonelli, J. Macrmol. Sci., Revs. Macromol
Chem . Phys., 38(4), 781, 1998.
2. A.E. Tonelli, Polym. International., 43, 295, 1997.
3. L.Huang, H. Taylor, M. Gerber, P. Orndorff, J. Horton and A. E.
Tonelli, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 74 (1999)
4. L. Huang and A. E. Tonelli, Chap. 10, p.131 in Intelligent
Materials for Controlled Release, S. M. Dinh, J. D. DeNuzzio
and A. R. Comfort, Eds., American Chemical Society Sympo-
sium Series #728, Washington DC (1999).

Alan Tonelli, the KoSa Professor of


Polymer Science at NC State, joined
the faculty in 1991 after a 23-year
career at AT&T's Bell Labs. He
When an additive is delivered in the form of its CD-IC earned a B.S. in chemical engineer-
crystals (See Figure above), it is protected from the environ- ing from Kansas in 1964 and a Ph.D.
ment encountered both during and after embedding into the in chemistry from Stanford in 1968.
Alan is a Fellow of the American
carrier polymer fibers. It becomes active only after exposure
Physical Society and author of “NMR
to conditions which disrupt the additive-CD-IC crystals. In Spectroscopy and Polymer Micro-
addition to protecting the guest additive, the CD-IC provides structure The Conformational
some control over when and how the additive is delivered and Connection" and "Polymers from the
Inside Out: An Introduction to Macro-
over the physical nature of the additive itself.
molecules." His research interests
We are in the early stages of exploring the potential benefits include conformational characteris-
of delivering textile additives and auxillaries by this technol- tics, microstructures, NMR spectros-
copy and physical properties of
ogy, but our recent success in forming CD-ICs with dyes, polymers.
antibiotics, flame retardants, spermicides and a variety of C95-S7, C98-S1*, C99-S4*
polymers provides further opportunities to tailor and control alan_tonelli@ncsu.edu
the release of these guests to achieve textile products with (919)-515-6588
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/tonelli.html
enhanced properties. We have already demonstrated the

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 49


Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Profes-
sor of Textile Chemistry at NC State,
joined the faculty in 1997 after a
23-year industrial research career
with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler
Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a
Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC
State. Peter's research interests
include high performance chemical
finishes for enhanced value textiles,
indigo dyeing and denim garment
wet processing, mathematical model-
ing of textile wet processes and new
textile processes to reduce costs,
energy usage and pollution associ-
ated with textile wet processing.
C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9
peter_hauser@ncsu.edu
(919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.html

50 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Simultaneous Dyeing and Finishing Cl Cl
C98-S4
N N N N
Harold S. Freeman, leader, Peter Hauser (NC State) H H
OH N N Cl OH N
We are developing ways to combine the dyeing and finish- N NH2
NH4OH
ing steps of textile wet processing by designing textile dyes
capable of imparting finishing affects, as well as color, to NaO3S SO3Na NaO3S SO3Na
textile fibers. To demonstrate the potential of this new
technology, we are initially emphasizing the design and N2 Cl

synthesis of dyes that impart water-repellent properties to


cotton and PET fabrics. SO3 Na
Cl

We are developing ways N N


to combine dyeing and finishing H
OH N N NH2
in textile wet processing. NaO3S N N

(CF 3(CF2)nCO)2O
n = 0 ,1 NaO3S SO3Na
Reactive Dyes
We recently prepared water-repellent reactive dyes 1 and 2 Cl
(See Figure below), which give water repellency on mercer-
Cl N N
H O
OH N N NHC(CF2)nCF3
N N NaO3S N N
R H
OH N N NH NaO3S SO3Na
N N
Synthesis of a fluoroacyl-containing reactive dye
SO3Na
media. To circumvent this problem, we designed type 5 dyes
NaO3S SO3Na (See Scheme below), which would be much less prone to acid-
induced cleavage. We have already synthesized the tosylate
1 R = C12H25 (A) and coupler (B) precursors.
2 R = C14H29 (Pyridine)
ized cotton but not on unmercerized cotton, because of N + TsCl N
expected low fixation on the latter type substrate. The best -10 to -20°C
water repellency we obtained (80 in AATCC 22-1989) was OH OTs
A
with type 3 dyes containing a second hydrophobic group (See
Figure); however, the low water solubility of these dyes limits CH3(CH2)11NH2
their application to the pad-dry-cure process. 65-70°C
Cl (CH3CN)

N N
H29C14 H N
OH N N NHC12H25
N N B NH(CH2)11CH3
Ar N N
NaO3S SO3Na

3
Our most recent studies involve the synthesis of reactive
dyes containing a perfluoroacyl group (See 3-step sequence in
Scheme at top right). Ar N
N N
Disperse Dyes
Earlier we prepared a series of water-repellent disperse NH(CH2)11CH3
5
dyes (See Insert) in which the Ar-group included substituted
benzenes and heteroaromatic O R [Contributing Graduate Students: Monthon Nakpathom, Xin
N N Chen (NC State)]
systems and the R-group
Ar N O Industry Interactions: none reported
included alkyl and perfluoroal-
Project Web Site Address:
kyl chains. Such dyes, however, http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/C98-S04
lost the acyl group during dye application, even in weakly acid
For Further Information: nothing reported

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 51


Harold S. Freeman, a Professor of Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Profes-
Dyestuff Chemistry at NC State, sor of Textile Chemistry at NC State,
joined the faculty in 1982. He joined the faculty in 1997 after a
received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry 23-year industrial research career
from NC State in 1981 while working with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler
as an organic chemist at Burroughs- Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a
Wellcome. Harold's research inter- Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC
ests include synthetic pigment and State. Peter's research interests
dyestuff chemistry, especially include high performance chemical
computer-aided design, purification, finishes for enhanced value textiles,
photodegradation, environmental indigo dyeing and denim garment
interactions and instrumental wet processing, mathematical model-
analysis. ing of textile wet processes and new
M95-S22*, C98-S4*, C99-A7 textile processes to reduce costs,
harold_freeman@ncsu.edu energy usage and pollution associ-
(919)-515-6552 ated with textile wet processing.
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/hfreeman.html C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9
peter_hauser@ncsu.edu
(919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.html

52 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Environmentally Benign Preparatory absorbency and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the
degree of polymerization did not decrease if suitable enzymes
Processes – Introducing a Closed-Loop
were used for biopreparation; whereas, in conventional wet
System processes, the degree of polymerization decreases considera-
C99-A7
Gisela Buschle-Diller (Auburn) leader bly, lowering tensile strength.
Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru (Georgia Tech) In future research we plan to improve the hydrogen perox-
Harold Freeman (NC State), S. H. Zeronian (UC Davis) ide activation by enzymatic means so that bleaching can take
In conventional textile preparatory processes, strongly place in one step and are currently relating the hand and
alkaline conditions are used to remove the noncellulosic comfort properties of our products (Kawabata) with process
impurities of cotton. Consequently high amounts of rinse variables.
water are necessary, making the process expensive. We are [Contributing Graduate Students: Xiang Dong Yang (Auburn),
developing a novel closed-loop process that combines desiz- Maria Inglesby (UC Davis)]
ing, scouring and bleaching using only nontoxic environmen-
Industry Interactions: 10
tally friendly enzymes. Project Web Site Address:
Using nontoxic environmentally-friendly http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/diller/c99a07.html

enzymes, we are developing For Further Information


a closed-loop process, 1. G. Buschle-Diller, X.D. Yang, Enzymes for Bleaching of Cotton,
219th Amer. Chem. Soc. National Meeting, San Francisco CA
including reuse of treatment effluent, (Mar 2000).
to desize, scour and bleach cotton. 2. M.K. Inglesby, S.H. Zeronian, T. Elder, G. Buschle-Diller, Inter-
action of Direct Dyes with Cellulose Substrates Utilizing
Molecular Modeling, 219th Amer. Chem. Soc. National Meeting,
Glucose produced during scouring and desizing can be San Francisco CA (Mar 2000).
converted into hydrogen peroxide for bleaching by glucose 3. M.K. Traore, G. Buschle-Diller, Environmentally Friendly
oxidase enzymes. This makes it possible to reuse the treat- Scouring Processes, Am. Assoc. Text. Chem. Color., 1999 Inter.
ment bath. The enzymes are selected based on compatibility in Conf., Charlotte, NC, (Oct 1999).
4. G. Buschle-Diller, M.K. Traore, X.D. Yang, Bioscouring and
their active pH and temperature ranges. Treatment tempera- Biobleaching of Cotton, Int. Conf. Adv. Fiber Materials, Ueda,
tures are 40-50°C and thus much lower than in conventional Japan (Oct 1999) (invited).
preparatory processes. The advantages of less water usage, 5. G. Buschle-Diller, M.K. Traore, X.H. Shi, H.Hou, Recent
Aspects of Enzyme Treatment of Cotton Fabric as Eco-Friendly
lower energy consumption and less fiber damage make this Textile Processing, 5th Asian Textile Conference, Kyoto, Japan
process extremely attractive. (Sep 1999) (invited).
In the first approach we developed enzymatic processes 6. M.K. Inglesby, S.H. Zeronian, G. Buschle-Diller, K. Weisz,
Dyes as Structural Probes of Cellulose Fine-Structure Modifica-
separately for each of the wet processing steps. For the desiz- tions, 218th Amer. Chem. Soc. National Meeting, New Orleans
ing process we were using amyloglucosidases since these LA (Aug 1999).
enzymes produce the most glucose from starch and starch 7. G. Buschle-Diller, Enzymatic Wet Processing for Cotton Fabric,
derivatives. For bioscouring we investigated pectinases from USDA Forest Products Laboratory, Madison WI (Jul 1999).
different organisms and studied the effect of additional Gisela Buschle-Diller, an Assistant
enzymes for added benefits. Cellulase in small concentrations, Professor of Textile Engineering at
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1995.
for example, adds softness to the scoured products, but lowers Gisela earned a Ph.D. in chemistry
their tensile strength. We have now combined the treatment from the U. of Stuttgart (Germany) in
baths of both the desizing and bioscouring steps which, 1989 with postdoctoral work at U. of
because they now contain considerable amounts of glucose, California, Davis, in textiles and
clothing. She worked at Berlin's
can be used for enzymatic hydrogen peroxide production by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied
glucose oxidase. Polymer Science and Rathgen
Research Laboratories. Her research
In the next step, we developed an effective combined desiz-
interests include dyeing and
ing and bioscouring procedure which generated sufficient finishing, especially enzymatic
glucose. So far we are bleaching in two stages processes, natural fibers, environ-
1. Hydrogen peroxide is enzymatically generated. mental issues and the history of dyes
and textile materials.
2. pH and temperature are increased and the fabric bleached C96-A1*, M98-A16, C99-A7*
with the available hydrogen peroxide. giselabd@eng.auburn.edu
With this process we are able to reach the same product white- (334)-844-5468
ness index of 72 as with the conventional hydrogen peroxide http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~giselabd
process, and the treated cotton goods show excellent water

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 53


Harold S. Freeman, a Professor of S. Haig Zeronian, a Professor Emeri-
Dyestuff Chemistry at NC State, tus at U.C. Davis, earned an M.S. in
joined the faculty in 1982. He textile chemistry in 1955 and a Ph.D.
received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in cellulose chemistry in 1962 from
from NC State in 1981 while working Manchester University, England. He
as an organic chemist at Burroughs- was honored with a D.Sc. from there
Wellcome. Harold's research inter- in 1983 for contributions to polymer
ests include synthetic pigment and and fiber science. Haig is a Fellow of
dyestuff chemistry, especially the Textile Institute and has received
computer-aided design, purification, the American Chemical Society's
photodegradation, environmental Anselme Payen Award for advances
interactions and instrumental in cellulosic science and technology.
analysis. He is on the editorial board for Cellu-
M95-S22*, C98-S4*, C99-A7 lose. His research interests include
harold_freeman@ncsu.edu cellulose-water interactions, base
(919)-515-6552 hydrolysis of polyester, cellulose
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/hfreeman.html oxidation, bleaching and
degradation.
Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru, a C99-A7
Research Scientist in Textile and shzeronian@ucdavis.edu
Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, (530)-752-6560
joined the staff in 1988 from the staff
of NC State. He received a Ph.D. in
textile engineering in 1981 from the
Indian Institute of Technology (New
Delhi) and an MS in applied statistics
from Georgia State in 1995. Krishna
was on the Textile Technology faculty
at the University of Madras (India) in
1984-5. His research interests
include spun yarn structure-property
relationships, Kawabata methodol-
ogy and computer modeling of
manufacturing processes.
C96-A1, F98-G15, C99-A7
krishna.parachuru@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-0029
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/krishna/krishna.html

54 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Chemistry and Transport in Super and in fiber and film form, easily Wetting of Modified
cleaned, very sensitive to small Supercritical CO2
Sub-Critical Fluids
C99-C3 changes in surface energy and Treated Glass Plate o
Michael J. Drews, leader; Gary C. Lickfield (Clemson), similar in chemical functionality to Surface Showing a 79
Contact Angle with
David Hinks (NC State) cellulose. Also, liquids do not Water.
Super and sub-critical fluids (SCF) as a process media easily diffuse into glass fiber or
possess many desirable properties for solution based fiber fibrillar interstitial spaces. Moreo-
processing, such as low surface tensions that can facilitate ver, treatment in SC CO2 signifi-
penetration into micro-porous materials under highly cantly alters the model glass
controlled pressure, temperature and agitation conditions. surface from wetting to
Solvents like carbon dioxide (CO2), ethylene and ethane are non-wetting (See contact angle in
particularly useful as their critical temperatures (31oC, 9.3oC photo). We will also use surface
and 32.2oC, respectively) are near ambient. Water, on the chemistry and modeling to select
other hand, has an extremely high critical temperature the initial chemical structures for
(374.2oC) owing to its high polarity and intermolecular hydro- additional surface modification
gen bonding. Supercritical carbon dioxide is the solvent of experiments.
choice for this work for the following reasons: Fiber-reactive compounds
• Dyeing in CO2 has been demonstrated. In our research we are emphasizing the design and synthesis
• CO2 is nonflammable and environmentally acceptable. of functional groups which can react covalently with specific
• CO2 is inexpensive and can be recycled efficiently. sites in or on substrates such as polyamide, cellulosic or wool
• Reactions in CO2 can occur without hydrolysis of functional fibers in SC CO2. For nucleophilic addition or substitution
groups because of the low water environment. reactions in an aqueous environment in all fiber-reactive
compounds there is a competing reaction whereby hydrolyzed
However, many questions concerning solubility and trans-
bi-products are produced that remain unreacted with the fiber.
port of solutes in a SCF process remain unanswered, as well as
This competing effect means that almost all aqueous based
the role of the interface between the substrate and the fluid.
fiber-reactive processes are inefficient, produce enormous
Also SC CO2 has extremely low polarity and is unable to
effluent issues and are therefore expensive. A mechanism of
solubilize common ionic species used in the textile industry.
efficiently reacting compounds with fibers that does not
Therefore, we are conducting fundamental research to increase
involve competing side reactions is highly desirable. There-
our understanding of the interactions at the SCF-substrate
fore, one goal of this research is to provide, for the first time,
interface and then to incorporate suitable functional groups to
an efficient SCF process that provides covalent bond forma-
develop novel applications and compounds. Potential applica-
tion between a fiber and a reactive compound in which the
tions include fiber-reactive dyes, flame retardants, water-
reaction is driven to completion, due to the exclusion, or near
repellency and durable press and antimicrobial finishes.
exclusion, of protic solvents such as water.
We have now synthesized and characterized the first target
We are studying the solubility and compound, a non-ionic, vinylsulfone dye (See Scheme). Based
transport of dyes and chemicals in super- on the initial dyeings of nylon-6 carpet samples in SC CO2, we
and sub-critical fluids and their conclude that the vinylsulfone acts primarily as a disperse dye
with very little of the dye covalently bonded to the fiber. We
interactions with textile substrates.
are now synthesizing a non-reactive analog of this dye, where
the vinyl group is replaced with a –CH2CH3 group. While
We are identifying functional groups that could form H O
O 2M NaOH H
covalent bonds with substrates possessing reactive nucleo- HO3SCH 2CH 2 S NH2 C C S NH 2
philic groups such as polyamide, cellulosic and protein fibers. O pH 11 25 C
0
H O
Since one of the major impediments to widespread adoption
of SC CO2 are the solubility limitations it imposes, we are 0
NaNO2 0-3 C
developing structure-activity relationships for modeling its HCl
solubility characteristics. Furthermore, our research to date
has shown that solubility limitations impede the covalent bond
formation of certain nucleophilic addition reactions, indicating H O
H +
that a catalyst or suitable co-solvent may be required for Et C C S N N Cl
-

optimized covalent bond formation. N H O


Et
Fiber-Solvent Interface
Our objective is to combine reactive compound synthesis
Et
with surface interaction studies into the nature of the substrate H H O N N
fluid interface. We chose glass as a simple model surface for C C S N Et
surface interaction studies because glass is uniform, available H O

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 55


ensuring nonreactivity, the ethyl group does not significantly David Hinks, an Assistant Professor
at NC State, joined the faculty in 1993
change the molecular weight of the dyes and will only slightly
as a research associate upon earning
increase the hydrophobicity. a Ph.D. in organic dye chemistry
[Other Contributors: Graduate Students: S. Alavi (Clemson), from Leeds (U.K.) where he had
earlier received a Bachelors in colour
Qinglin Che (NC State); Undergraduate Student: E. Richard- chemistry. David’s research interests
son (Clemson); Summer Research Student: R. Clontz (Gover- include computer-aided colorant
nor's School for Science and Mathematics); Technical Person- design, synthesis and application of
nel: K. Ivey, B. Leggett (Clemson)] dyes and pigments and functional
chemistry in supercritical fluids.
Industry Interactions: 6 M95-S22, C99-C3
Project Web Site Address: david_hinks@tx.ncsu.edu
www.ces.clemson.edu/ntc (919)-515-6554
For Further Information http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hinks.html
1. M. J. Drews, M. Barr and M. Williams, “A Kinetic Study of the
SCWO of a Sulfonated Lignin Waste Stream,” Proceedings of Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate
the 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, ISSF Professor in Textiles, Fiber &
2000, Atlanta, Ga, April, 2000. Polymer Science at Clemson, joined
2. M. J. Drews, M. Williams and M. Barr, “The Corrosion of the faculty in 1986. He earned a
Sol-Gel Coated Type 316SS in Chlorinated SC Water,” Proceed- Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in
ings of the 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, 1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from
ISSF 2000, Atlanta, Ga, April, 2000. Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's
research interests include molecular
Michael J. Drews, a Professor of modeling, polymer surfaces and
Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Sciences interfaces modification and charac-
at Clemson, joined the faculty in terization, wetting and adhesion.
1974. He is the co-director of M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3
Clemson's Center for Advanced lgary@clemson.clemson.edu
Engineering Fibers and Their (864)-656-5964
Composites. He received a Ph.D. in http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html
physical chemistry from the Univ. of
North Texas in 1971 following a B.S.
in chemistry from the Univ. of
Wisconsin. Mike's research interests
include instrumental methods to
characterize polymers, supercritical
fluids and fiber reinforced compos-
ites for biomaterials.
M94-C4, F94-C2*, M95-S22, C95-C3*,
C99-C3*
dmichae@clemson.clemson.edu
(864)656-5955

56 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Textile Ink Jet Performance and Print We are developing
Quality Fundamentals a fundamental understanding
C99-G8
Wallace W. Carr, leader, Jeffrey F. Morris, of ink flow, droplet formation and
F. Joseph Schork, Wayne C. Tincher (Georgia Tech); droplet/substrate interactions
JunYong Zhu (Inst. Paper Sci & Tech) in digital ink jet printing.
Ink jet printing is becoming an important technology for
printing textiles; however, hardware reliability (e.g., clogged 2. Suspension Flow
nozzles) and speed limitations are technical barriers that limit Using flow visualization coupled with stress measurements,
its use primarily to generation of samples. Textile ink jet we are conducting both experimental studies and computa-
systems currently employ two-phase inks or require specially tional simulations to better understand suspension flow in
prepared fabrics; yet little is known about how two-phase ink nozzle entry contractions and in fine capillary nozzles. These
droplets are formed or how fabric should best be prepared for studies will give us velocity and microstructural information,
ink jet printing. Properties of ink formulations used for ink jet which we will combine with pressure and shear stress
printing, such as viscos- measurements.
ity and surface tension, 3. Droplet Formation
are quite different from Using high-magnifi-
those used in traditional cation imaging and high-
textile printing systems. speed video we are
We are developing the examining how different
fundamental under- particulate suspensions
standing of ink flow, effect the droplet-
droplet formation and formation process (See
droplet-substrate inter- Figure), especially on jet
actions in digital ink jet instability and droplet
printing needed to pinch-off. We will study
design new systems. particulate suspensions by
Initially we are modeling the physical
studying the flow properties of ink flow
behavior of actual through geometrically
pigment-laden inks similar nozzles and break up by mechanical perturbation at the
presently used in textile orifice. Critical issues are regularity of droplet formation and
ink jet printing to pigment loading.
identify the basic characteristics of the droplet breakup and 4. Droplet Impingement and Interaction with Textiles
impingement process in current ink jet printing. For flow We are investigating the interactions of single ink droplets
visualization we will formulate transparent model inks utiliz- with textile printing substrates and how that effects image
ing well-characterized polymeric particles. The primary formation. By paying attention to the role of surface proper-
variables in the nozzle flow and droplet formation studies are ties on image formation, we expect to develop a better funda-
particle loading, the ratio of nozzle diameter to particle radius mental understanding of the factors affecting printing quality.
and flow rate. For the impingement studies, we will investi- By conducting parametric studies, we will correlate our results
gate the role of these properties on drying time and substrate with droplet size, velocity, ink properties and textile surface
penetration for various fabric constructions and finishes. properties.
Our research to determine the key factors affecting printing [Other Contributors (Georgia Tech): Graduate Students:
quality is divided into the following four tasks: Heungsup Park, Roy J. Furbank, Ryan M. Miller; Under-
1. Model Ink Properties graduate Students: Sean Kerrigan]
Using novel latex particles from miniemulsion polymeriza- Industry Interactions: 3 [The Sawgrass Co., Milliken Research,
tion, we are generating latex particle dispersions with very Abbott Laboratories]
narrow particle size distributions and controlled average parti- Project Web Site Address:
cle sizes. We will blend these dispersions into model systems http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/ntcproject.htm
to study the effect of particle size distribution and particle For Further Information
loading on rheology. 1. W.W. Carr, J.F. Morris, F.J. Schork, W.C. Tincher, and J.Y. Zhu
Textile Ink Jet Performance, Techtextil, North America Sympo-
sium, Atlanta GA (March 2000).

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 57


Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Profes- Wayne C. Tincher served for five
sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering years as the Research Director of the
at Georgia Tech since 1980, received Apparel Manufacturing Technology
a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering Center and is currently NTC Site
from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before Director and a Professor in Textile
joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a and Fiber Engineering at Georgia
senior research engineer at Tech. He received a Ph.D. in physical
Monsanto. His research interests chemistry at Vanderbilt. Before
include thermal sciences in industrial coming to Georgia Tech in 1971,
fiber and textile processes (particu- Wayne led fundamental research at
larly radio frequency, microwave, Monsanto on polymer and fiber
ultrasound and infrared), electro- structure-property relationships. His
photographic printing of textiles and research interests include textile,
polymer properties and structure. carpet and apparel manufacturing
C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11, technologies.
C98-G30*, C99-G8* C95-G1, C96-G2, C98-G30, C99-G8
wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu wayne.tincher@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-2538 (404)-894-2197
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/tincher/tincher.html

Jeffrey F. Morris, an Assistant JunYong Zhu, an Associate Profes-


Professor of chemical engineering at sor at the Institute of Paper Science
Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in and Technology (IPST), joined IPST
1995 after obtaining a Ph.D. in in 1993. Previously, he was a
ChemE. at Caltech and spending a Research Scientist at a high technol-
year with Shell Research in Amster- ogy firm in Sunnyvale California.
dam. Jeff also earned a B.Ch.E. in JunYong’s research interests include
1989 from Georgia Tech. In 1999 he ink jet printing, ink droplet formation,
was a Visiting Professor at the laser based instrumentation for
Universite de Provence in Marseille droplet characterization and drop and
(France). His research interests printing medium interaction.
include suspensions and colloids C99-G8
especially modeling their flow behav- junyong.zhu@ipst.edu
ior. (404)-894-5310
C98-G30, C99-G8
jeff.morris@che.gatech.edu
(404)-894-5134
http://www.chemse.gatech.edu/people/jfm.html

F. Joseph Schork, a Professor and


Associate Chair of Chemical
Engineering at Georgia Tech, earned
a Ph.D. in chemical engineering in
1981 from Wisconsin. He also has a
B.S. in 1973 and an M.S. in 1974 from
University of Louisville whereupon
he worked for DuPont until 1977.
Joe’s research interests include the
dynamics and control of reacting
systems, esp. development of mathe-
matical models, on-line sensors,
digital control schemes, and novel
reactor configurations for polymeri-
zation, and other reaction systems.
C99-G8
joseph.schork@che.gatech.edu
(404)-894-8470
http://www.chemse.gatech.edu:80/people/fjs.html

58 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Optimizing Dye Process Control Through
We are optimizing
Improved Modeling
C99-S2 our batch dyeing process model
Brent Smith, leader; Keith Beck, to improve dye process control strategies.
Warren Jasper, Gordon Lee (NC State)
Variable-structure controllers have many desirable features reliable and lower cost. Triethanolamine - FeSO4 - caustic
for dealing with complex non-linear process behavior like was the best solvent system we evaluated.
dyeing systems. This technique, which is broadly applicable to [Contributing Graduate Students: Sara Draper, Michelle
complex processes (not just dyeing), is similar to neural nets Wallace, Wei Huang, Richa Joshi, Jay Merritt (NC State)]
in that the controller is self-learning. The method is also well- Industry Interactions: none reported
supported by available resources, such as PC-type computers
Project Web Site Address: none reported
and our innovative sequential injection analysis (SIA) and
flow injection analysis (FIA) analytical systems. Our real-time
For Further Information - nothing reported
monitoring of dyeing processes by SIA has most of the advan-
tages of FIA, including a large dynamic range, ability to C. Brent Smith, a Professor of Textile
handle insoluble dyes, avoidance of interactions such as pH or Engineering at NC State, joined the
salt sensitivity of dyes, low cost, high speed, accuracy, faculty in 1983. He received a Ph.D.
in chemical physics from the Univer-
simplicity and portability. SIA also overcomes some of the sity of Florida in 1966. Since then,
limitations of FIA because it requires less equipment mainte- Brent held various research positions
nance and a smaller sample size without sacrificing accuracy. in United Merchants and Manufactur-
ers, West Point Pepperell and Cotton
Our new self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode controller Incorporated. his research interests
(SOFSMC) integrates classical sliding mode control with include pollution control by source
adaptive and fuzzy control approaches. We previously evalu- reduction, mathematical modeling
and real-time data for process
ated many models including dimensionless parametric diffu-
control, coloration and color
sion and Langmuir process models, as well as non-parametric perception.
controllers which included rule-based, self learning, neural C95-S4, C99-S2*
nets, fuzzy logic, adaptive, real time and closed loop features. brent_smith@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6548
We developed non-parametric control systems because http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/bsmith.html
parameters values are often uncertain or proprietary, and thus
are unknown to the dyer. These parameters include dye Keith R. Beck, a Professor of Textile
Chemistry at NC State, received his
molecular weight, active concentration, diffusion coefficient, Ph.D. in chemistry from Purdue in
affinity, reaction rate constant, fiber size, shape, concentration 1970. Before joining NC State in
of dye sites, dye-dye interactions and degree of sulfonation, as 1986, Keith was on the faculty of
well as uncontrollable factors such as fabric, water, utilities, Elmhurst College and Purdue. His
research interests include durable
steam, misweighings, etc. press finishing, near infrared
Along the same lines, we are beginning to develop other spectroscopy, carbon dioxide as an
methods for dealing with uncertainty or incomplete knowledge analytical and processing fluid, flow
injection analysis and other spectro-
in dye systems. Our work includes installation of a scopic methods for dyebath
computer/dyeing machine interface, and the use of a two-dye monitoring.
Langmuir process simulation model along with the SOFSMC C95-S4, C99-S2
keith_beck@ncsu.edu
method. We are now identifying key dyeing process parame-
(919)-515-6558
ters for development of this control method. http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/beck.htm
For dosing control, we have successfully controlled shade Warren J. Jasper, an Assistant
buildup of 3-dye mixtures; so they are exhausted in a Professor in Textile Engineering at
pre-determined ratio at all times during the dyeing process, NC State, joined the faculty after
thus maintaining perfect on-tone shade buildup and facilitating receiving a Ph.D. in aeronautics and
astronautics from Stanford in 1991.
dyebath reuses. Significant advantages from this method Upon receiving his B.S. and M.S.
include outstanding shade repeatability (avoiding blocking from M.I.T. in 1983, Warren joined the
effects and tippy dyeing appearance), better color matching, technical staff at Hughes Aircraft's
easier dyebath reuse, simplification of dye recipes and consis- Space and Communications Group.
His research interests include
tent optimized dyeing technique. automated manufacturing and real-
For indigo dye monitoring, we used FIA to measure indigo time data acquisition and control of
textile processes.
concentration and evaluated four chemical solvent analysis I94-G2, C95-S4, I97-S1, C99-S2
systems. Our FIA is as accurate as titrimetric determinations, warren_jasper@ncsu.edu
but operates about 4 times faster and is automated, more (919)-515-6565
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/wjasper.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 59


Gordon K. L. Lee is a Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering Profes-
sor at NC State . He received a Ph.D.
in control systems from University of
Connecticut in 1978; then, thru 1989
was on the Electrical Engineering
faculty at Colorado State University
where he served as the Director for
Robotic Studies. Gordon is Presi-
dent of the International Society for
Computers and Their Applications.
His research interests include real-
time control and adaptive learning
systems, especially when applied to
robotics and dyeing processes.
C95-S4, C99-S2
glee@eos.ncsu.edu
(919)-515-5292

60 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Fundamental Dye Diffusion and dye across the fiber, but these same profiles can also be estab-
Surface Treatment of Fibers lished in the application bath from 1µm above down to the
C99-S4 fiber surface. From time- and processing-dependent LSCM
Alan Tonelli, leader (NC State), Stephen Michielsen, observations of dyed and/or finished fibers we expect to
Mohan Srinivasarao (Georgia Tech), J. Richard Aspland answer such questions like
(Clemson), Paul Russo (Louisiana State) • In a fiber that is dyed to less than full saturation concentra-
Fabric streaking, especially dye streaks, have long troubled tion, is the dye redistributed later; e.g. after removal from
the textile industry. Not only is the quantity of dye or finish the dye bath or during other processes like laundering?
on a fabric important to its appearance, but also its precise • Does all the dye in a fiber dyed to complete saturation
location and distribution on or in the constituent fibers. To remain in the fiber after further processing or even over a
develop practical solutions for eliminating dye streaks, we long period of use?
must learn about the molecular details of dye diffusion into the
If fibers with dye initially confined to a relatively thin outer
fibers and about the surface treatment applied to fibers. Both
skin because of short dye times are reintroduced into the bath
processes can effect the final fabric appearance. Laser
where the dye has been removed, the dye will diffuse and
scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), fluorescence micros-
redistribute until the dye concentration is uniform. Linked
copy and microspectrophotometric reflectometry provide
with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)
probes for investigating the molecular-level details of both the
observations, which yield the diffusion coefficients of dyes in
dyeing and finishing processes. We have pioneered the obser-
the absence of a concentration gradient, we may compare the
vation of fibers by LSCM, and have confirmed that its obser-
movement of dyes in fibers in the presence of and without a
vations of dye diffusion in fibers are in accord with those
dye concentration gradient. We intend to build another FRAP
obtained from traditional macroscopic dye bath measurements.
instrument that will measure diffusion coefficients of dye
To minimize dye streaks, we are studying molecules in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the
fiber axis. This will enable us to better understand the dynam-
dye diffusion in and surface treatment of ics of the dye molecules in the fiber. Our ability to measure
fibers using laser scanning confocal the reflectance of individual fibers possessing different
microscopy to measure the 3-D amounts, distributions and/or orientations of dye will enable
distribution of dye in fiber. us to determine which of these features of the dyed fiber are
most important to the visual perception of its color and that of
Because LSCM employs spot illumination and strongly the resulting fabric.
eliminates out-of-focus light, the internal structures of solid [Contributing Graduate Students: Ye Song, Robert Kyles (NC
polymers may be visualized without physical sectioning of the State), Mojgan Bakhshee, Elizabeth MacFarland (Georgia
sample. For example, a fiber dyed with a fluorescent dye may Tech) Kanitta Asvashem (Clemson)]
be examined by illuminating with a laser emitting close to the
Industry Interactions: none reported
absorption maximum of the dye and then detecting the
reflected fluorescent light after passing through a dichroic Project Web Site Address: none reported
filter. This discriminates between the wavelengths of illumi-
nating and reflected fluorescent light and results in a For Further Information
3-dimensional distribution of dye in the fiber. Because LSCM 1. Y. Song, M. Srinivasarao, A. E. Tonelli, C. M. Balik and R.
scans are rapid (a few minutes), we may eventually be able to McGregor, Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopic Study of Dye
Diffusion in Fibers, Macromolecules 33: (Jun 2000).
monitor the dyeing process on-line. By coupling LSCM
observations of dyed fibers with microspectrophotometric Alan Tonelli, the KoSa Professor of
measurement of their reflectance we can determine the effect Polymer Science at NC State, joined
of dye distribution in a fiber on its color, and also how fiber the faculty in 1991 after a 23-year
career at AT&T's Bell Labs. He
finishes effect fiber color. Our studies on the diffusion of earned a B.S. in chemical engineer-
fluorescent dyes in uniformly dyed fibers will provide a ing from Kansas in 1964 and a Ph.D.
measure of dye mobility in the absence of a concentration in chemistry from Stanford in 1968.
gradient, which can then be compared to diffusion coefficients Alan is a Fellow of the American
Physical Society and author of “NMR
measured by LSCM during fiber dyeing. Spectroscopy and Polymer Micro-
LSCM enables the reconstruction of 3-D images of the structure The Conformational
Connection" and "Polymers from the
distribution of dye molecules in a fiber in terms of both their Inside Out: An Introduction to Macro-
concentrations (fluorescence) and their orientations (Raman). molecules." His research interests
We are now building a new LSCM which will be able to include conformational characteris-
investigate the spectral behavior of dye across a fiber cross- tics, microstructures, NMR spectros-
copy and physical properties of
section and to learn how the absorption spectrum of a dye is polymers.
influenced by its environment in the fiber. By operating in an C95-S7, C98-S1*, C99-S4*
evanescent wave spectroscopy configuration, not only can we alan_tonelli@ncsu.edu
observe the location, orientation and spectroscopic profiles of (919)-515-6588
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/tonelli.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 61


J. Richard Aspland, a Professor of Paul S. Russo, a Professor in the
Textile Chemistry at Clemson, joined Department of Chemistry at Louisi-
the faculty in 1982. He earned a M.S. ana State University, joined the
in dyeing at Leeds (U.K.) in 1960 and faculty in 1983 after a period as
a Ph.D. in textile chemistry from Postdoctoral Associate at the Univer-
Manchester (U.K.) in 1964. From sity of Massachusetts. He has worked
1966-82, Dick held research and in the Wright Research & Develop-
research management positions at ment Center at Wright-Patterson Air
Sodyeco (now a Sandoz div.) and Force Base, and in Sandia National
Reeves Brothers. His research inter- Laboratory, Department of Organic
ests include dye-fiber interactions, and Electronic Materials. Paul's
shade sorting and dye synthesis. research interests include polymer
C95-S7, C99-S4 physical and analytical chemistry,
aj@clemson.clemson.edu optical measurements, gels, liquid
(864)-656-5953 crystals, and rodlike polymers.
C95-S7
Stephen Michielsen, an Associate paul_russo@chemgate.chem.lsu.edu
Professor in Textile and Fiber (504)-388-3361
Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined
the faculty in 1995. He has a B.S. in Mohan Srinivasarao, an Assistant
chemistry from S.U.N.Y. and earned a Professor in Textile and Fiber
Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the Engineering, joined the faculty in
University of Chicago in 1979 and did 1999 from the NC State faculty He
postdoctoral research at Stanford earned a M.Sc. in applied chemistry
whereupon he spent 15 years at from University of Madras (India) in
DuPont in their polymer and fiber 1981, a M.S. in polymer science in
research departments. Steve's 1985 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from
research interests include fiber Carnegie Mellon in 1990, then was a
surface modification, fiber strength, Research Fellow at UMass-Amherst.
thermomechanical properties of He also consulted at AT&T and Polar-
fibers and polymers, fiber/polymer oid. Mohan's research interests
physics and polymer blends. include physical chemistry of
C98-A17, C99-S4 polymers, physics of nematic liquid
stephen.michielsen@tfe.gatech.edu crystals and rheology and rheo-
(404)-894-6345 optics of polymeric fluids, liquid
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/michielsen/michielsen.html crystals and biological color science.
C99-S4
mohan@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-9348

62 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


A Novel Non-Aqueous Fabric Finishing
We are investigating the use of high
Process
C99-S9 energy plasma to create a continuous
Marian McCord, leader; Peter Hauser, Yiping Qiu, non-aqueous fabric treatment system,
Jerome Cuomo (NC State)
encompassing desizing, scouring, dyeing
We are investigating a new, environmentally friendly and especially finishing.
method for fabric finishing and modification which uses
plasmas. Plasmas are gases in a highly excited state, consist- an atmospheric plasma process. Effects of these treatments
ing of ions and free radicals, which can interact with polymer may be either beneficial or deleterious to the desired finished
surfaces and radically change the nature of those surfaces. fabric properties. We will compare the properties of fabrics
Plasma treatments have been used to induce both surface treated with atmospheric plasmas to those from vacuum
modifications and bulk property enhancements of textile plasmas and from conventional aqueous finishing processes.
materials, resulting in We have now designed a
improvements to textile new atmospheric plasma
products ranging from device specifically for
conventional fabrics to treatment of rolled goods in
advanced composites. a variety of gaseous
These treatments can environments (See
enhance dyeing rates of Schematic). This device
polymers, improve color- will allow diagnostic
fastness and wash resis- characterization of the
tance of fabrics, change the plasma during processing,
surface energy of fibers controlled treatment varia-
and fabrics and improve tion throughout a fabric roll
toughness, tenacity and and continuous fabric
shrink resistance. We are processing.
now investigating plasma {Other Contributors:
treatments for producing Graduate Students: Laura
hydroscopicity in fibers, Schematic of our new atmospheric plasma chamber
Canup, Jinho Hyun (NC
altered degradation rates State), Undergraduate Student:
of biomedical materials (such as Traci Jones (NC State); Faculty:
sutures) and for the deposition of Mohamed Bourham, Orlando
antiwear coatings. Hankins (Nuclear Engineering
Plasma treatment can occur in NC State)]
either a vacuum or at atmos- Industry Interactions: 2 [Milliken,
Air-helium plasma Plasma Ireland]
pheric pressures. There are advantages and disad-
vantages to each process. Vacuum processes are usually not Project Web Site Address: none reported
viable for industries requiring high throughput and large
surface area, are expensive and take up lots of space; also, For Further Information
sample size is limited. However, a wide variety of plasma 1. B.L. Bures, O.H. Hankins, M.A. Bourham, L.K. Canup and M.
chemistries can be used since it is a closed system and the McCord, Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Plasma-Fabric
fundamental physics of vacuum plasma processes are well Interafce" ; (in preparation).
2. L. Canup, M. McCord and M. Bourham, An Exploration into
understood. On the other hand, atmospheric processes are Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Textile Materials (in
preferred by industries requiring large surface areas and high preparation).
throughput (such as the textile industry where there is substan-
tial interest) and sample size is practically unlimited (depend- Marian Gayle McCord, an Assistant
Professor at NC State since 1994
ing on the configuration of the sample). However, when she received a Ph.D. in textiles
atmospheric plasma chemistries are limited and environmental and polymer science at Clemson,
enclosure must be used when using gases with unfavorable also earned a Sc.B. in biomedical
by-products. Atmospheric processes are also more suited to engineering at Brown and a M.S. in
bioengineering at Clemson. Marian's
organic materials, due to their lower temperatures. Atmos- research interests include torsional
pheric plasma technology is still relatively new, and less is properties in high performance
known about its physics and chemistries. fibers, barrier fabrics and comfort of
textile materials.
We are conducting experiments in a prototype atmospheric M94-C4, F95-S24, I98-S8, C99-S9*,
plasma device using air-oxygen and air-helium plasmas (See F99-S2
Photo). These plasmas are not intended to treat the fabrics, marian_mccord@]ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6571
but rather represent background effects that may be present in http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/mmccord.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 63


Jerome J. Cuomo, a Professor of Yiping Qiu, an Assistant Professor at
Materials Science and Engineering at NC State since 1996 received a B.
NC State since 1993, is a member of Engr. in textile engineering at Zheji-
the National Academy of Engineering ang Institute of Silk Technology
and received the National Medal of (China), a M.S. in textile science at
Technology in 1995. He holds a Auburn and a Ph.D. in fiber science
Ph.D. in physics in 1979 from Odense at Cornell. Yiping's research inter-
Universitet (Denmark) and a M.S. in ests include fabrication and charac-
physical chemistry from St. Johns in terization of fiber reinforced
1960. Jerry had a 30-year career at composites, modification and analy-
IBM culminating as manager of sis of fiber matrix interfaces,
Materials Processing. His research mechanics of fibrous structures and
interests include enhanced plasma moisture vapor transfer in fibrous
processes. structures.
C94-S13, C99-S9 F98-S9*, C99-S9
cuomo@ncsu.edu yiping_qiu@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6556 (919)-515-9426

Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Profes-


sor of Textile Chemistry at NC State,
joined the faculty in 1997 after a
23-year industrial research career
with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler
Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a
Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC
State. Peter's research interests
include high performance chemical
finishes for enhanced value textiles,
indigo dyeing and denim garment
wet processing, mathematical model-
ing of textile wet processes and new
textile processes to reduce costs,
energy usage and pollution associ-
ated with textile wet processing.
C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9
peter_hauser@ncsu.edu
(919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.html

64 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Integrated Enterprise Systems
Research in systems to enable rapid response, including computer modeling, sensor technology, expert systems,
customer interactive design, market research and demand-activated, closed-loop production systems.

Consumer Preferences We developed a web-based


for Apparel and Textile Products interactive data collection technique
as a Function of Lifestyle Imagery that allows us to efficiently track
I97-A11
Michael R. Solomon, leader (Auburn); evolving product and style
Basil G. Englis (Berry College) preferences in a national sample of
We are constructing a visual database to explore the role fashion-forward women.
played by the perceived "fit" between a product and a valued
lifestyle in shaping the wants and needs of twentysomething This tool will help us monitor the changing tastes and product
female customers for textile and apparel products. Our preferences of key textile and apparel customers, thus facilitat-
conceptual framework empha- ing prediction of mass-
Technological Symbolic
sizes how consumers' prefer- Innovation Innovation market acceptance of
ences are influenced by their clothing and textile designs
desires to attain aspirational Abundant Resources and products.
lifestyles, as well as how they Actualizers
Certain VALS types tend
integrate depictions of these Principle Oriented Status Oriented Action Oriented to adopt an innovation first
lifestyles from advertising, then the innovation diffuses
entertainment, editorials and across other types. These
Fulfilleds Achievers Experiencers
other mass-media. While “fashion-forward” opinion
most research on apparel leaders tend to be found in
choices is confined to a the high-resources region of
specific product category, we Believers Strivers Makers the VALS typology and in
are emphasizing how these the status- and action-
products are evaluated in the oriented segments. To
context of other products with recruit our respondents, we
which they are jointly Strugglers are using the Simmons Study
consumed to make a lifestyle Minimal Resources of Media & Markets
statement. database that is linked to
The VALS2 Consumer Typology (courtesy SRI) VALS2 and contains detailed
Our procedure gives rapid
feedback about visual product consumption information of
options which can be related over 20,000 specific Ameri-
to important psychological can consumers.
and socioeconomic character- The fashion-forward,
istics of selected fashion twentysomething respondents
innovator market segments. in our opinion leader panel
With the cooperation of the will react to visual images
Stanford Research Institute culled from a variety of
(SRI), our industry partner media. By thus understand-
who has given us access to ing how consumers’ aspira-
their widely used Values and tions are expressed visually,
Lifestyles (VALS2) consumer we hope to be able to forge
typology, we can specify tools that will help the indus-
precise psychographic profiles try better understand the
of female fashion innovators specific lifestyle images
and recruit these women into a sought by its customers. This
national panel. VALS2 information will help apparel
divides the American public manufacturers and retailers
into eight general categories in Scenario Screen with Access to Jennifer’s Closet develop strategic positioning
terms of resources available and strategies and should facilitate
self-orientation by principle, status or action (See top Figure).

65 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


efforts to penetrate global
markets, where timely product
design and lifestyle positioning
are more pronounced.
In our web-based, quick-
response data collection tool we
can capture preferences for
specific product and style
images from our panel in a
central testing facility or in their
own homes via our password-
protected web site. When the A Trip Through Jennifer’s Closet on Our Web Site: Left to Right
respondent logs on, she is given Respondent clicks on a category (left), chooses specific item (e.g. outfit) for more detail,
a specific social scenario; for then repeats the process to assemble a completed “collage” of products (right).
example, Jennifer, a twentyso- Conference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Services
mething woman, is hosting a dinner party for work colleagues Science, Puerto Rico.
and wants to present herself and her home in the best way Michael Solomon, Human Sciences
(See Figure p. 65). The respondent makes selections for Professor of Consumer Behavior in
Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined
Jennifer from six discrete categories: outfits, shoes, perfumes, the faculty in 1995 from being Chair-
watches, hairstyles and purses that include brand names, price man of the Dept. of Marketing at
points, available colors, etc. (See Figure above). We have Rutgers. He earned B.A. degrees in
now added a "living room" (choices for couch, music, psychology and sociology magna
cum laude at Brandeis Univ. in 1977,
artwork, table, chair, carpet) and a "dining room" (choices for and a Ph.D. in social psychology
after-dinner drinks, cocktails, desserts, entrees, wallpaper from UNC-Chapel Hill in 1981. He has
patterns, table settings). We can also track the “clickstreams” written Consumer Behavior: Buying,
of our respondents and can follow up selections with probing Having and Being and Marketing:
Real People, Real Choices. Mike’s
questions. research interests include consumer
[Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Carri Lego, Natalie behavior and lifestyle issues, the
symbolic aspects of products, the
Quilty, Stephanie Wright, Trinske Antonides (Vrije Univer- psychology of fashion, decoration
siteit, The Netherlands] and image, and services marketing.
I97-A11*
Industry interactions: 21 [Stanford Research Institute, DDB
msolomon@humsci.auburn.edu
Needham Worldwide, Animated Images Inc., Total Research,
(334)-844-1316
Levi Strauss, Vanity Fair, Milliken, American Sheep Industry
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/solomon.html
Association, Alexander Julian, Inc., fashionmall.com, Cotton
Inc., Bruskin Marketing, Young & Rubicam, Consolidated Basil G. Englis, who holds the
Apparel Industries (Australia), delSol Publicidad (Argentina), Richard Edgerton Chair in Business
Ziv Consulting and Training (Israel), Cone Mills, Burlington Administration at Berry College,
Industries, Price Waterhouse Coopers, Look-Look Omnimedia, joined the faculty in 1996. He earned
Lion Apparel] a B.A. in psychology/sociology from
Other non-NTC interactions: 15 CUNY in 1978 and a Ph.D. in experi-
Project Web Site Address: mental psychology from Dartmouth
http://fafnir.berry.edu/ConsumersOnLine in 1982. Basil was an Assistant
Professor at Clarkson and Rutgers
For Further Information:
1. Englis, Basil G. and Michael R. Solomon (2000), "Life/Style Universities and an Associate Profes-
OnLine: A Web-Based Methodology for Visually-Oriented sor at Penn St and at the University
Consumer Research," Journal of Interactive Marketing, 14,1, of Umeå (Sweden), where he was
2-14. also a Fulbright Scholar. His research
2. Englis, Basil G. and Michael R. Solomon, (1999), "Life/Style interests include mass media and
OnLine: A Web-Based System to consumer socialization, political mar-
3. Track Apparel Preferences," presented at the International keting, consumer knowledge acquisi-
Apparel Research Conference, Atlanta. tion and cognitive representation of
4. Englis, Basil G. and Michael R. Solomon (1999), "Consumer lifestyle-related product groupings.
Dreams and Nightmares: A Web-Mediated Study of Lifestyle I97-A11
Aspirations," paper presented at European meeting of the Associa- benglis@biz.campbell.berry.edu
tion for Consumer Research, Jouy-en-Josas, France. (706)-290-2645
5. Solomon, Michael R., Basil G. Englis, and Carrie Lego (1999), http://campbell.berry.edu/faculty/benglis/b-vita.htm
"Life/Style Online: A Web-Based Consumer Research Tool to
Study Retail Positioning," paper presented at the 6th International

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 66


Real-Time Yarn Characterization and sub-frequency scales to detect and model the variation of
signals which could not be analyzed otherwise.
Data Compression using Wavelets
I97-S1 We analyzed and compared two yarn signals with similar
Moon W. Suh, Leader; visual qualities using a wavelet-based multi-resolution (MRA)
Warren Jasper, Jae L. Woo (NC State) technique. The yarns, showing no significant differences in
‘On-line’ monitoring or measurement systems in textile CV% and spectrogram, were decomposed into several
manufacturing processes are proliferating, but are we sure they sub-bans to investigate the yarn characteristics at different
are increasing our competitiveness? With faster sensing and frequencies. In spite of their similar original density profiles,
data-acquisition, the amount of data has increased exponen- the MRA windows showed quite different patterns at the
tially over the last few years. For example, it takes one Mbyte mid-frequency levels. The fabric images from the signals
of memory to store a set of yarn density data acquired at every showed a clear difference in appearance. Based on these
millimeter on a 1000m long specimen. Do we really need to observations, the variation of mid-frequency signals are highly
collect so much data, most of which is simply stored and never correlated with the visual qualities of the resulting fabrics.
analyzed?

We are designing a new on-line quality


measurement system that will make full use
of all data captured on-line.

With modern signal processing techniques, one can retain


most of the salient features of a yarn with over 99.9%
compression. Therefore, most of the data collected in real-
time on-line measurement systems is redundant and not
needed for yarn visualization and characterization. There is an
urgent need, and a definite promise, for a more sensible
approach in screening and storing of data on-line. Thus we
are designing a new on-line quality measurement system that
provides more meaningful and cost-effective decision making.
It eliminates wasteful data handling by extracting, retaining
and synthesizing only the essential information required for
characterizing the yarn. We selectively employ wavelet, joint
time-frequency and time-series analyses, together with some Typical output of line scan camera.
data compression techniques and algorithms generated from
stochastic models. Our research has a two pronged approach: [Contributing Graduate Students: Jooyong Kim, Sugjoon Lee,
• A theoretical time series analysis of yarn properties using Melih Gunay; Visiting Scholar: Hyung Bum Kim (NC State)]
wavelets to reduce the data set (compression) and predict the Industry interactions: 6 [Sara Lee, Lawson-Hemphill, Cotton
visual qualities of the resulting fabrics (image rendering) Inc.]
• An experimental test-bed to determine the accuracy and Other non-NTC interactions: 1
precision of the system. Project Web Site Address:
Also we will determine how best to combine different http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/I97-S01

measurements (data fusion) which will be used in our time For Further Information:
series analysis. 1. Jooyong Kim, On-Line Measurement and Characterization of
Yarn and Fabric Qualities Using a Wavelet-Stochastic Hybrid
The heart of the experimental test-bed is a Lawson- Method, Ph.D. Thesis, NC State (1998)
Hemphill Constant Tension Transport system which allows us 2.Jooyong Kin, Wavelet-Stochastic Models And Their Application
to sample the yarn every millimeter to produce a 1024 pixel To Yarn And Fabric Quality Measurement And Control, The Fiber
(12 bit) line-scan image. We also measure the linear mass Society Symposium “100 Years of Modern Fiber Science”,
Asheville, NC (Jul 1998) - Best Student Paper Award
density using a capacitance sensor with an 8 mm sensing zone. 3.Moon W. Suh and Jooyong Kim, Wavelet-Stochastic System for
We applied wavelet transforms to represent all the yarn Measurement and Analysis of Yarn and Fabric Qualities, 11th
EFS Systems Research Forum, Raleigh NC (Nov 1998)
characteristics from only a minimal amount of data without 4.Sugjoon Lee, Development of a Measurement System for Yarn
losing significant information. In this method the original Mass Variation, Masters Thesis, NC State (Dec 1998)
density profile of yarns is decomposed into different

67 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile Jae L. Woo, a Visiting Research
and Apparel Management and of Professor in textiles at NC State
Statistics at NC State, joined the since 1994, earned a B.S. in textile
faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career engineering at Seoul National Univ.
at Burlington Ind. as a statistician (Korea) where he taught textile
and operations research analyst. He engineering and process statistics, a
earned a B.S. in textile engineering S.M. at MIT and a Ph.D. at Univ. of
from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in New South Wales (Australia) where
1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC he taught machine dynamics,
State in 1969. Moon's research inter- random vibrations, experimental
ests include statistical and probabil- engineering in 1975-85. Jae’s
istic modeling of textile processes research interests include cotton and
and products, quality control wool fiber testing, on-line measure-
methods, apparel business informa- ments in textile processes, statistical
tion systems, biostatistics and statis- process control, textile mechanisms
tical failure models. and variations analysis.
I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2 I95-A11, I97-S1, F99-S2
moon_suh@ncsu.edu jae_woo@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6580 (919)-515-6580
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Warren J. Jasper, an Assistant


Professor in Textile Engineering at
NC State, joined the faculty after
receiving a Ph.D. in aeronautics and
astronautics from Stanford in 1991.
Upon receiving his B.S. and M.S.
from M.I.T. in 1983, Warren joined the
technical staff at Hughes Aircraft's
Space and Communications Group.
His research interests include
automated manufacturing and real-
time data acquisition and control of
textile processes.
I94-G2, C95-S4, I97-S1, C99-S2
warren_jasper@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6565
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/wjasper.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 68


Building Global Textile and Online Shoppers Demographic Characteristics
Apparel Brand Image Strategies
I98-A6
Sandra M. Forsythe, leader, Positive Motivation/ Negative Motivation/
Jai-Ok Kim, Thomas Petee, Gerry Dozier (Auburn); Perceived Benefits of Perceived Risks of
Online Shopping Online Shopping
Leon Chapman (Sandia National Lab)
Recent efforts to market domestic apparel products and Online Shopping Behavior
brands abroad have resulted in increased concern among
industry executives about the effectiveness of brand image
Strategies to Increase Strategies to Decrease
strategies across international markets. A key question is Positive Motivation Negative Motivation
“How can U.S. apparel firms develop a powerful, non-price
tool that will provide a sustainable advantage in targeted
Increased Online Shopping
global markets?” Effective brand image strategies in many
international markets can provide U.S. textile and apparel
marketers with a sustainable competitive advantage; whereas, Industry interactions: 1
Project Web Site Address: none reported
ineffective image strategies can result in lost sales and wasted
investment. http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/forsntc2.html

For Further Information:


We are examining the potential 1. S. Forsythe and B. Shi, Consumer Patronage and Risk Percep-
of the Internet as a strategic tool tions in Internet Shopping Journal of Business Research (in
press).
to enhance 2. S. Forsythe and C. Liu, Exploring Gender Differences in Online
global brand images and sales for Behavior (submitted for presentation at ITAA).
3. S. Forsythe and B. Shi, Internet Consumers’ Risk Perception and
U.S. apparel products and brands. Online Behavior (submitted for presentation at ITAA).
4. B. Shi, graduate thesis, Internet Consumers’ Risk Perception and
We are examining the potential of the Internet as a strategic Online Behavior (Auburn).
5. D. Batey, graduate thesis, The Effect of Cue Utilization on
tool to enhance global brand images and sales for U.S. apparel Purchase Intention for Apparel Products (Auburn).
products and brands. Online marketing, if properly developed 6. S. Forsythe and J. Kim, Product Cue Usage Among Consumers in
and implemented, has tremendous potential as a strategy to Two Asian Markets, Asian Pacific Journal of Management 16 275
build brand image, collect information from highly motivated (1999).
7. S. Forsythe and B. Shi, A Communication-Based Model of Online
and targeted consumers and provide an avenue for selling Marketing Presented at the 1999 ACRA Spring Conference,
products worldwide. We completed an initial examination of Tucson AZ.
current U.S. industry efforts to market apparel products and 8. S. Forsythe, J. Kim, Z. Gu and S. Moon, Cross-Cultural
brands online and another examination of the perceived risks Consumer Needs and Purchase Behaviors. Presented at the 1999
ACRA Spring Conference, Tucson AZ.
or barriers associated with shopping online. We are now
developing a model to examine the benefits and barriers Sandra Forsythe, Wrangler Professor
of Consumer Affairs at Auburn,
associated with Internet shopping. Many web site visitors may joined the faculty in 1991 after five
be reluctant to purchase online due to unresolved concerns years at Miami Univ. of Ohio and four
about the online shopping experience or may choose to years at Univ. of Georgia. She earned
purchase online due to perceived benefits. Thus, actions to an M.S. from Virginia Tech in 1976
and a Ph.D. in textiles and clothing,
reduce barriers by effectively addressing visitor concerns in marketing and consumer economics
these areas can lead to increased confidence in the online from Univ. of Tennessee in 1981. She
purchase process; whereas, actions that increase perceived is editor of Clothing and Textiles
benefits to purchase may lead to a greater motivation to Research Journal. Sandra's research
interests include international
purchase. apparel marketing consumer behav-
We examined the barriers to online purchases using a ior, apparel selection, brand image
and perception formation and
perceived risk framework and found that the perceived risks
consumer behavior.
were significantly related to online search behavior, which was I95-A23*, I98-A6*
significantly related to shopping behavior. We also investi- forsysa@auburn.edu
gated the gender differences in online behavior. At present we (334)-844-6458
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/forsythe.html
are in the process of examining the perceived benefits and
risks of Internet shopping (see Figure).
[Contributing Graduate Students: Bo Shi, Chuanlan Liu, Xue
Li, Samah Ahmed (Auburn); Visiting Research Scholar: Chun
Liu (People’s Republic of China)]

69 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Leon D. Chapman, the DAMA Thomas A. Petee, an Associate
(Demand Activated Manufacturing Professor of Sociology at Auburn,
Architecture) laboratory project joined the faculty in 1989 upon
manager at Sandia, earned a Ph.D. in earning a Ph.D. in sociology from
electrical and computer engineering Notre Dame. He also holds a M.S. in
from Oklahoma State in 1971, then sociology and a B.S. in criminal
was an Assistant Professor at Univ. justice from Univ. of Toledo. Tom's
of Alabama in Computer Science and research interests include decision-
Operations Research. Leon has also making models.
been a design engineer at Continen- I95-A23, I98-A6
tal Oil and a senior executive VP in peteeta@mail.auburn.edu
information and manufacturing (334)-844-2821
technologies at BDM Corp. (1985-90).
His research interests include infor-
mation systems and technology and Jai-Ok Kim, an Assistant Professor in
systems analysis. He plays golf on Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined
the Senior PGA tour. the faculty in 1992 when she earned
I95-A23, I98-A6 an MBA from Kentucky. She also
leon_chapman@sandia.gov] earned a Ph.D. in textile science from
(505)-845-8668 Maryland in 1987 and a B.S. in house
planning, interior design and art from
Gerry Dozier is an Assistant Profes- You Sei Univ. (Seoul) in 1973. She
sor in Computer Sciences and has been chairperson of Textiles and
Software Engineering at Auburn, Consumer Economics at Inha Univ
joined the faculty in year? Gerry (Korea) and a manager for Korean Air
holds a Ph.D. His research interests Lines. Jai-Ok's research interests
include genetic and evolutionary include clothing comfort and apparel
computation, esp. constraint satis- quality analysis and apparel market-
faction, motion planning and obsta- ing and retail analysis, esp. East
cle avoidance. Asian.
I98-A6 I96-A23, I98-A6
doziegv@auburn.edu kimjaio@auburn.edu
(334)-844-6327 (334)-844-1341
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/kim.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 70


Interactive Cohort Analysis: An Online Our conceptual framework for questioning is cohort analy-
Panel of "Baby Boom" Consumers I98-A7 sis. Moving beyond demographic profiles and lifestyle
Pamela Ulrich, Ann Beth Presley, co-leaders, psychographics, cohort analysis recognizes that each genera-
Evelyn Brannon, Lenda Jo Connell (Auburn) tional group's mentalities and attitudes were shaped by the
particular influences of their cultural time frames and that their
"Baby boomers” expenditures, purchase choices and choices are driven by cohort membership. We suspect that
demands for new ideas and items have had a major impact on baby boomers, the largest U.S. generational sub-cohort and
the U.S. market, as the “boomers” have moved through their the one nearest to retirement, may be driven somewhat differ-
various life stages. Now ages 36 to 54, baby boomers are ently than the youngest sub-cohort (See Figure).
reaching the heights of their working careers and incomes,
[Contributing Graduate Student: Marina Alexander (Auburn)]
heavily involved in raising families and/or facing empty nests
Industry interactions: 2 [Milliken, Lands’ End]
and coping with aging parents. As they enter their retirement
Project Web Site Address:
years, it is unlikely they will be content with the status quo in
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ntc/htmlcode.html
products and services. Demographic forecasts suggest that
they will live longer in retirement. By asking baby boomers For Further Information:
how they are visualizing their retirement lifestyles, we can 1. Presentation Submitted: International Textile & Apparel
better anticipate their future consumption patterns. Association.
By discovering how baby boomers are Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate
visualizing their retirement lifestyles, we Professor in Consumer Affairs at
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987.
can explore web-based consumer research.
research. She earned a Ph.D. in American
history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991
Our primary research goal is to evaluate the benefits and and a M.S. in clothing and textiles
from Auburn in 1980. She has
parameters of using a web-site as a new way for companies to department store experience.
conduct longitudinal research and establish learning relation- Pamela is curator of Consumer
ships with consumers. Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile
Boomers affluent enough to Collection at Auburn. Her research
interests include commercial devel-
own and use computers in opment of the textile, apparel and
their homes may be ready to retail sectors; fashion history, analy-
comment on how the textile sis and forecasting; and marketing
and apparel marketplace is trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*,
I98-A8, I98-A9
or is not meeting their ulricpv@auburn.edu
needs. They may also be (334)-844-1336
the trendsetters who can http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich.html
help us anticipate boomer Evelyn Brannon, an Associate
behavior in coming years. Professor in Consumer Affairs at
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990
We are establishing an online, interactive relationship with after earning a Ph.D. in Communica-
about 500 female and male baby boom consumers by creating tions at the Univ. of Tennessee in
a controlled access web site that will seek information for 1989. She also has an M.S. in Cloth-
consumer research. Three years of online interaction data ing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn
has been an editor/writer for several
with a panel of trend setting consumers will reveal the benefits consumer publications and an indus-
of this method for try consultant on product develop-
• delineating strategies ment and entrepreneurship. Her
research interests include consumer
• testing new concepts or styles behavior, retail forecasting systems,
• identifying consumers' satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors and rural economic development.
Our bulletin board setting gives us a way to combine specific I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8,
I98-A9*
questions with opportunities to open up topics for discussion
brannel@auburn.edu
and feedback. As the life of the web site proceeds, we will (334)-844-6457
seek a balance between tight control of discussions and a flexi- http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html
bility to change according to participants’ directions. Devel-
oping and retaining participants’ interest in and willingness to
be active respondents is an overarching goal of our web-site.

71 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate Ann Beth Presley, an Associate
Professor in Consumer Affairs at Professor at Auburn since receiving
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971 a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from
after receiving a masters degree in the University of Maryland, has a B.S.
clothing and textiles from Louisiana from Western Kentucky University
State University. In 1990, she earned and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann
a Ed.D. in adult education from Beth supervised quality assurance
Auburn. For 15 years she was an for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile
Extension Resource Management testing for the International Fabricare
Specialist for the textile and apparel Institute. She was a faculty fellow at
industry and now coordinates the [TC]2. Her research interests include
Apparel Production Management quality issues in apparel and textiles,
program. Lenda Jo's research inter- historic aspects of the industry, and
ests include electronic sourcing, computerization of the industry.
apparel product development and I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9
consumer preference style testing. preslab@auburn.ed
I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7, (334)-844-1347
I98-A8*, I98-A9 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html
anderl1@auburn.edu
(334)-844-3789
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 72


Understanding Fitting Preferences questionnaire to use in surveys with female students, black
professional women and an additional group of professional
of Female Consumers:
women. The questionnaire included flat sketches depicting
Development of an Expert System to categories of garments, including jackets, blouses, dresses,
Enhance Accurate Sizing Selection jeans, pants and skirts. To understand if body shape is related
I98-A8
Lenda Jo Connell, leader, Evelyn L. Brannon, to fit preference, we asked survey participants to select from
figures representing hourglass, rectangular, pear and inverted
Pamela V. Ulrich, Ann Beth Presley (Auburn),
triangle body shapes the shape most representing their body
Maureen Grasso (UNC-G), Judson H. Early [TC]²
shape. Then we developed consumer profiles for each fit
Stephen Gray (Nottingham Trent) preference and body type for each of the three survey groups.
A significant number of consumers are dissatisfied with the Fit preference is related to age and body shape - older
fit of apparel - mail order companies find it is one of the women and larger women generally prefer more loosely fitted
primary reasons for garment returns. Now apparel. Using our data, we developed
A Focus Group Body Scan
we are on the threshold of two new profiles for very specific consumers. For
technologies (3-D body scanning and the example, twentysomething black profes-
Internet) which could combine to allow sional women of average weight and waist
manufacturers to interact directly with who are rectangular or hourglass shaped
consumers to produce garments tailor- and feel that fit and body part emphasis are
made to each individual’s body measure- not important clothing benefits will usually
ments. However, satisfying consumers’ prefer a fitted jacket. On the other hand,
expectations for fit of apparel extend heavy, thirty-something black professional
beyond body measurements. To produce women who are rectangular shaped and feel
garments that fit in an electronic environ- that fit and body part emphasis are impor-
ment, manufacturers must understand tant clothing benefits will usually prefer a
consumers’ perceptions of physical and loosely fitted jacket. Next, we will survey a
psychological comfort and appearance. national population of female consumers.
We are exploring the role that fit plays [Contributing Graduate Students: Marina
from the perspective of the individual Alexander, Melissa Manuel, Gina Pisut
consumer. From the traditional perspec- (Auburn), Linda Cocciolone (UNC-G)]
tive, achieving “good fit” in a garment
Industrial Interactions: Clarity Fit
Technologies
We seek to understand the nuances Project Web Site Address:
of fit from the consumer's perspective http://www.auburn.edu/~anderl1
so we can translate For Further Information:
1. Goldsberry, 1993
consumer fit preference data 2. Melissa Manuel, Master’s thesis, Auburn, Understanding the Fit
into an expert system. Preferences of Black Professional Women (2000).
Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate
often required numerous on site fittings. Our ultimate goal is Professor in Consumer Affairs at
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971
to develop an expert system that would be used in conjunction after receiving a masters degree in
with body measurements to aid designers, product developers, clothing and textiles from Louisiana
and pattern makers in successfully fitting consumers in remote State University. In 1990, she earned
locations. Initially we are focusing on understanding the fit a Ed.D. in adult education from
Auburn. For 15 years she was an
preferences of females. While males buy clothing sized by Extension Resource Management
measurement, female consumers select sizes from numerical Specialist for the textile and apparel
or alphabetical listings not related to body measurements. industry and now coordinates the
Apparel Production Management
We first took a qualitative look at what female consumers program. Lenda Jo's research inter-
had to say about fit. We conducted four focus groups to ests include electronic sourcing,
collect multiple sets of data including body scans (See Figure) apparel product development and
consumer preference style testing.
and a questionnaire assessing fit problems, body cathexis I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7,
(feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the body), and I98-A8*, I98-A9
benefits sought in selection of apparel. We analyzed the focus anderl1@auburn.edu
group data for comments relative to fit and relationships (334)-844-3789
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html
among hard data and group discussions, then refined the

73 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Evelyn Brannon, an Associate Stephen Gray, a Professor and Head
Professor in Consumer Affairs at of Computer Clothing Research at
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 Nottingham Trent Univ., joined the
after earning a Ph.D. in Communica- faculty in 1991. He earned a degree
tions at the Univ. of Tennessee in in mathematics from Univ. of Sussex
1989. She also has an M.S. in Cloth- in 1976 and M.Sc. degree in comput-
ing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn ing science from Imperial College in
has been an editor/writer for several 1979. Stephen created the ORMUS
consumer publications and an indus- Fashion software and authored
try consultant on product develop- CAD/CAM in Clothing and Textiles
ment and entrepreneurship. Her (1998). His research interests include
research interests include consumer CAD/CAM, system interfaces,
behavior, retail forecasting systems, software tools for the creative artist,
and rural economic development. 3D modeling and animation.
I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A8
I98-A9* stephen.gray@ccr.ntu.ac.uk
brannel@auburn.edu
(334)-844-6457 Ann Beth Presley, an Associate
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html Professor at Auburn since receiving
a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from
Judson H. Early, Director of R&D with the University of Maryland, has a B.S.
Textile Clothing Technology Corpora- from Western Kentucky University
tion and on NTC’s TAC committee, and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann
joined [TC]2 in 1991 following a 21 Beth supervised quality assurance
year career at Haggar Apparel Co. for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile
where he served as Director, and testing for the International Fabricare
later, Vice President of R&D. Follow- Institute. She was a faculty fellow at
ing mechanical and electrical [TC]2. Her research interests include
engineering studies at Arlington quality issues in apparel and textiles,
State College (TX) from 1962-66, Jud historic aspects of the industry, and
launched a custom machine develop- computerization of the industry.
ment business. He has more than 25 I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9
patents received over a 30 year span. preslab@auburn.ed
In 1995-96 he was Chairman of the (334)-844-1347
Apparel Research Committee of the http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html
AAMA. His research interests include
technology integration and 3D Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate
imaging. Professor in Consumer Affairs at
I98-A8 Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987.
jearly@tc2.com She earned a Ph.D. in American
(919)-380-2156 history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991
Maureen M. Grasso, Associate Dean and a M.S. in clothing and textiles
of the Graduate School and Associ- from Auburn in 1980. She has
ate Professor of textile products department store experience.
design and marketing at UNC- Pamela is curator of Consumer
Greensboro joined the faculty in 1992 Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile
after 12 years at Univ. of Texas Collection at Auburn. Her research
-Austin. She earned an M.S. from interests include commercial devel-
Cornell in 1977 and a Ph.D. in textile opment of the textile, apparel and
science and consumer economics retail sectors; fashion history, analy-
from the Univ. of Tennessee in 1982. sis and forecasting; and marketing
Her research interests include trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*,
environmental aspects of textile I98-A8, I98-A9
products and mass customization. ulricpv@auburn.edu
I98-A8 (334)-844-1336
m_grasso@uncg.edu http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich.html
(336)-334-4887
http://www.uncg.edu/tdm/faculty_and_research.html#Grasso

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 74


Agent-Based Simulation of the Consumer's
Apparel Purchase Decision We are using agent-based simulation
I98-A9 to model the formation of
Evelyn L. Brannon, leader; Lenda Jo Connell,
a consumerÊs intent to purchase apparel.
Ann Beth Presley, Sven Thommesen, Pamela V. Ulrich
(Auburn) Tradeoffs between the Product Profile and the Consumer
In an instant consumers simplify a cluttered, crowded Profile take place in three analysis modules:
marketplace using pattern matching and heuristics to deter- ! The Closet Inventory module involves a needs assessment
mine which garments to consider for purchase and which to which helps determine the level of urgency to make a
eliminate from further consideration. Our research attempts to purchase decision.
model that decision-making process by using agent-based ! The Risk Evaluation module considers social, enjoyment
simulation. The simulation models the connections between and economic risks under the following conditions:
apparel products; consumers' intrinsic and extrinsic • products purchased for public or private use
motivation, attitudes, beliefs and preferences; and constraints • necessities or luxuries
on purchase decisions. This simulation offers a tool to explore • branded or unbranded
consumer response to a proposed apparel purchase by making • symbolic, hedonic and functional products
the connections, interactions and barriers more transparent. • the influence of reference groups on purchasing
Apparel executives will be able to submit “what-if” scenarios ! The Price/Value module evaluates tradeoffs between
based on specification of the target consumer and the charac- consumer wants and needs and product attributes given
teristics of the product. Results will show the probability of economic constraints.
purchase, the most positive connections between consumer During a simulation run, the more the proposed product
and product and potential barriers to purchase. This approach “connects” with a consumer’s preferences and behavior
dovetails with structural changes in the industry aimed at profile, the more points will accrue leading to a strong buy
perfecting the supplier/consumer relationship by increasing signal, a weak buy signal or a not-buy signal. At the end of
responsiveness to consumers. the simulation a diagnostic report details the points of connec-
The simulation is being designed in modules. Agent-based tion (or lack of connection) between Product Profile and
modeling allows simulation design as nested swarms of rules Consumer Profile.
with messages passing between swarms. Each module can be The main outcome of agent-based simulation of the apparel
modeled as subsets of rules synthesized from decades of buyer purchase decision will be to provide apparel executives with a
behavior research. Using SWARM software means that customized "Virtual Consumer" for proprietary buyer behav-
subsets can be programmed with either logical operators or ior research. The executive will use a menu to set selected
with fuzzy logic, neural nets or genetic algorithms to mimic variables within the model in two categories:
the different approaches used by consumers in decision • The intrinsic and extrinsic product attributes submitted to the
making. Programming for each module will be comprised of tradeoff analysis.
associated rules and constraints. When complete the simula- • The segmentation profile of the Virtual Consumer based on
tion will include: proprietary profiles of current or targeted customers.
• Rules (variables) that can be set as discrete or continuous
This "consumer in a box" approach provides a new tool for
values
exploring the decision making process and for discovering the
• Coordinated rules sets programmed for each module
triggers, interactions and barriers in the formation of purchase
• Connections established between rules sets for message
intention. Executives can use the Virtual Consumer to experi-
passing on preliminary purchase decisions
ment with scenarios based on long-tern and short-term
• A weighting system that can be set to favor one rule set or
company strategies and to identify and interpret the interac-
module over all others in the tradeoff analysis
tions between variables that could lead to product modifica-
• Constraint filters that will either pass a preliminary purchase
tions or alternative marketing approaches. A spin-off from
decision to the next rule set, modify the decision or halt the
such investigations could be more fine-grained profiling of
decision (veto the purchase)
consumers to provide more detailed specifications for the
Two modules, each with a complex system of interacting model and for subsequent research using the simulation.
variables, are used to initiate the simulation: Simulation of the apparel decision process provides a useful
! The Product Profile includes rule sets for style genre, tool for identifying and defining U.S. and foreign markets and
fashionability, fabric, fit, season and consumer adoption for fine-tuning the purchase proposal.
variables (compatibility, complexity and relative advantage). [Contributing Graduate students: Missam Momin (Auburn)]
! The Consumer Profile includes rule sets for shopping Industry interactions: 10
orientation, fashion leadership, personality type, innovative- Other non-NTC interactions: 77 [Santa Fe Institute,Swarm
ness and product preferences. Development Group]
Executives supply available information on the proposed Project Web Site Address:
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/brannon/elbhome.html
product and on the target consumer for each module.
For Further Information: nothing reported

75 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Evelyn Brannon, an Associate Ann Beth Presley, an Associate
Professor in Consumer Affairs at Professor at Auburn since receiving
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from
after earning a Ph.D. in Communica- the University of Maryland, has a B.S.
tions at the Univ. of Tennessee in from Western Kentucky University
1989. She also has an M.S. in Cloth- and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann
ing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn Beth supervised quality assurance
has been an editor/writer for several for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile
consumer publications and an indus- testing for the International Fabricare
try consultant on product develop- Institute. She was a faculty fellow at
ment and entrepreneurship. Her [TC]2. Her research interests include
research interests include consumer quality issues in apparel and textiles,
behavior, retail forecasting systems, historic aspects of the industry, and
and rural economic development. computerization of the industry.
I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9
preslab@auburn.ed
I98-A9* (334)-844-1347
brannel@auburn.edu http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html
(334)-844-6457
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html
Sven N. Thommesen, a Research
Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate Associate at Auburn since 1996 when
Professor in Consumer Affairs at he received a C.Phil in economics
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971 from UCLA. He also earned a B.A. in
after receiving a masters degree in economics from Auburn in 1985.
clothing and textiles from Louisiana Sven's research interests include
State University. In 1990, she earned modeling of artificial agent simula-
a Ed.D. in adult education from tions and macroeconomic stability.
Auburn. For 15 years she was an I98-A9
Extension Resource Management thommsn@auburn.edu
Specialist for the textile and apparel (334)-844-6457
industry and now coordinates the
Apparel Production Management
program. Lenda Jo's research inter- Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate
ests include electronic sourcing, Professor in Consumer Affairs at
apparel product development and Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987.
consumer preference style testing. She earned a Ph.D. in American
I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7, history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991
I98-A8*, I98-A9 and a M.S. in clothing and textiles
anderl1@auburn.edu from Auburn in 1980. She has
(334)-844-3789 department store experience.
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html Pamela is curator of Consumer
Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile
Collection at Auburn. Her research
interests include commercial devel-
opment of the textile, apparel and
retail sectors; fashion history, analy-
sis and forecasting; and marketing
trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*,
I98-A8, I98-A9
ulricpv@auburn.edu
(334)-844-1336
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 76


Integrated Supply Chain Analysis and Schematic for Supply Chain Design and Optimization Procedure
Decision Support
I98-S1 Supply Chain Knowledge
Gordon Berkstresser, Trevor J. Little (NC State, Textiles) Configuration Extraction
Shu-Cherng Fang, Russell E. King, Henry L. W. Nuttle,
James R. Wilson (NC State, Engineering)
A softgoods supply chain involves the activity and interac- Input - Performance
tion of many entities. Usually each of these entities knows Simulation
Data
how to make locally optimal decisions when the situation is
clear. Unfortunately many decisions must be made in settings
involving vagueness and uncertainty. Furthermore successful
supply chain operation requires coordination of the decisions
of the individual entities while the level of uncertainty is Goals met?
amplified as information is passed through the chain. Even in
the emerging data rich environment with current information Stop
technology (electronic data interchange, Internet, data
mining), lack of fundamental knowledge about supply chain Fuzzy
Activate Fuzzy
operation in a vague and uncertain environment is still a key System / Relationship
Rules/Logic
problem faced by the industry. Identification

In this project we are attacking critical softgoods supply


chain integration and decision support problems using fuzzy Soft Computing
mathematics and neural network technologies. In spite of the Guided Simulation
name, fuzzy mathematics is a rigorous discipline, more Industry interactions: 17 [Fruit of the Loom, I2 Technologies,
general than standard mathematics. In the past fuzzy mathe- Mercantile Stores, Milliken & Company, Paragon Management
matics has been used mainly for the control of machinery and Systems, Inc., Chinese Textile Institute, Universal Furniture,
processes while neural networks have been used primarily for Century Furniture]
pattern recognition and prediction. We are bringing fuzzy Other non-NTC interactions: 3
mathematics and neural network technology into the arena of Project Web Site Address:
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/fangroup/NTCpage/NTCI98S1.html
knowledge extraction and application for optimal decision
making in a setting which involves coordination among For Further Information
1. T-W Hung, A New Approach to Fuzzy System Identification,
various entities. Ph.D. Dissertation, Operations Research (NC State 1999).
2. T-W Hung, S-C Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, A Clustering-Based
Approach to Fuzzy System Identification, Proceedings of the
We are attacking critical softgoods supply Eighth International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress,
chain integration and decision support 1:415 Taipei, Taiwan (Aug 1999).
problems using fuzzy mathematics and 3. H.L.W. Nuttle, D-W Wang, S-C. Fang and S-H. Chen, Multi-
Customer Due-Date Bargaining with Soft Computing,
neural network technologies. Proceedings of the Eighth International Fuzzy Systems Associa-
tion World Congress, 1:401, Taipei, Taiwan (Aug 1999).
4. H.L.W. Nuttle, R.E. King, J. A. Wilson, N.A. Hunter and S-C.
We will provide the fundamental knowledge necessary to Fang, Simulation Modeling of the Textile Supply Chain, Part II -
develop the tools to support coordinated capacity allocation, Results and Research Directions, to appear in The Journal of the
inventory planning, scheduling and delivery date assignment Textile Institute.
in a supply chain operating in a vague and uncertain environ- 5. D-W. Wang, S-C. Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, Soft Computing for
Multi-Customer Due-Date Bargaining, IEEE Transactions on
ment. To date we have developed prototype fuzzy-based Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 29 (4) (1999).
decision support systems for inventory control, interactive 6. D-W. Wang, S-C. Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, Fuzzy Rule Quantifi-
multi-customer due-date bargaining, system identification and cation and Its Application in Manufacturing Systems, to appear in
supply chain design and optimism (See Figure). A neural Journal of Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineering - Special
Issue on Softcomputing in Industrial Engineering (2000).
network based decision surface modeling tool is now included 7. P. Wu, S-C. Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, Curved Search Based
in the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture Neural Network Learning Using Fuzzy Control, Proceedings of
(DAMA) project's Sourcing Simulator. We have also devel- the Eighth International Fuzzy Systems Association World
oped "jackknifing" techniques to determine confidence inter- Congress, 1: 381, Taipei, Taiwan (Aug 1999).
8. T-W Hung, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle and R. E. King, A Fuzzy-
vals on the decision surface models. Control-Based Quick Response Reorder Scheme for the Retailing
[Contributing Students: Shyh-Huei Chen, Yi Liao,Hao Cheng, of Seasonal Apparel, Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conference on
Saowanee Lertworasirikul (NC State, Eng)] Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience 2:300 (1997)
9. T-W Hung, J. R. Wilson and P. Wu, Confidence Intervals for
Estimated Decision Surfaces", working paper, NC State (1997).
10.F.B. Stringer, Robust Confidence Interval Estimation for Neural
Network Decision Surfaces, Masters' Thesis, NC State (1998).

77 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


11.D-W. Wang, S-C. Fang and H. L. W. Nuttle,Soft Computing for Russell E. King, a Professor of Indus-
Multi-Customer Due-Date Bargaining, Technical Report #98-04, trial Engineering at NC State, earned
Operations Research and Industrial Engineering, NC State (1998) a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from
12.P. Wu, Neural Networks and Fuzzy Control with Applications to the University of Florida. Before
Textile Manufacturing and Management, Ph.D. Dissertation, joining the faculty at NC State in
Graduate Program in Operations Research, NC State (1997) 1986, he worked as a Systems
13.P. Wu, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King and J. R. Wilson, Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of
Decision Surface Modeling of Textile Spinning Operations Using Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty
Neural Network Technology, Proceedings of the IEEE 1994 received an NC State Alumni
Annual Textile, Fiber and Film Industry Conference, Institute of Outstanding Teacher Award and in
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway NJ (1994). 1995 received the Alcoa Foundation
14.P. Wu, S-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King and James R. Engineering Research Achievement
Wilson, Guided Neural Network Learning Using a Fuzzy Award. His research interests
Controller with Applications to Textile Spinning, International include modeling and analysis of the
Transactions in Operational Research, 2, No. 3 (1995) fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline.
15.P. Wu, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle and R. E. King, Decision I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16
Surface Modeling of Textile Retail Operations Using Neural king@eos. ncsu.edu
Networks, Proceedings of the Third Annual Fuzzy Theory and (919)-515-5186
Technology International Conference, Duke, 312 (1994). http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm
16.P. Wu, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle and R. E. King, Decision
Surface Modeling of Apparel Retail Operations Using Neural Trevor J. Little, a Professor and Head
Network Technology, International Journal of Operations and of the Textile and Apparel Manage-
Quantitative Management, 1, #1 (1995). ment Dept. at NC State, joined the
faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D.
Gordon A. Berkstresser III is a in textile industries at the Univ. of
Professor (and former Department Leeds (England) in 1974 whereupon
Head) of Textile and Apparel Technol- he was a research scientist in textile
ogy and Management at NC State. physics at CSIRO (Australia), a
Before returning to his NC State alma professor at PhillaU and Director of
mater in 1978, Gordon worked 16 Product Development at Danskin.
years in the textile and furniture Trevor's research interests include
industries, then received an MBA in automated manufacturing and
human resources from Baruch and a handling systems, sewability and
Ph.D. in business from City Univer- sewing dynamics and apparel
sity of New York. His research inter- manufacturing and management.
ests include marketing and interna- I98-S1 , I98-S12
tional trade in textiles, apparel and trevor_little@ncsu.edu
related products and the modeling (919)-515-6646
and analysis of the fiber-textiles- http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
apparel-retail pipeline.
I95-S2*, I98-S1*
gordon_berkstresser@ncsu.edu Henry L.W. Nuttle, Professor of
(919)-515-6593 Industrial Engineering at NC State,
received a Ph.D. in operations
Shu-Cherng Fang, the Walter Clark research from Johns Hopkins. Hank's
Professor of Operations Research research interests include applied
and Industrial Engineering at NC operations research and production
State, received his Ph.D. in Industrial systems such as the analysis and
Engineering and Management modeling of the fiber-textile-apparel-
Science from Northwestern Univer- retail pipe- line.
sity. Before joining NC State, he I95-S2, I98-S1
worked on manufacturing process nuttle@eos.ncsu.edu
optimization and telecommunication (919)-515-2364
network design for AT&T. His current http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm
research interests are operations
research and systems optimization,
such as analysis and modeling of the James R. Wilson, a Professor of
apparel pipeline. Industrial Engineering at NC State,
I95-S2, I98-S1 received a Ph.D. in industrial
fang@eos.ncsu.edu engineering from Purdue. Jim has
(919)-515-2350 served as Departmental Editor of
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm Management Science for Simulation.
His current research interests include
the design and analysis of simulation
experiments and operations research
techniques applied to industrial
engineering.
I95-S2, I98-S1
jwilson@eos.ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6415
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 78


Demand Systems Approach to Prediction of Estimated Change in Habit Stock for Men's Apparel
Textile and Apparel Demands under
Dynamic Social Trends 5.75
I98-S6
Moon W. Suh, leader, Matthew T. Holt (NC State) 5.45

Habit Stock
Because of nearly unlimited substitution possibilities, 5.15
fashion-oriented textile and apparel demand may only be 4.85
accurately predicted if all available information is incorpo-
rated using a systems approach. Only by combining both 4.55
quantitative information (relating to demographic and socio- 4.25
economic changes) and qualitative information (on social, 1990 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
political and technological trends) can we design a compre- Year
hensive and theoretically consistent system of consumer
demand equations for predicting consumer purchases in interrelationships for the past nine years. The model incorpo-
textiles and apparel. rates a measure of the psychological stock of habits as well.
Information and Data Acquisition The notion is if there is ‘persistence’ in consumer expenditure
At the statistical and econometric modeling level, we patterns for men’s clothing, then this habit stock variable
merged demographic and economic data with measurable should help determine the current demand for the various
social, political and technological trends and other nontradi- categories of men’s apparel. Using 1990 to 1998 monthly
tional qualitative and quantitative data pertaining to fashions purchasing statistics, most equations fit the data well, with
and their intensities. We applied a first-order differential individual equation correlation coefficients (R2) generally in
demand system (the Rotterdam Demand System) and specified the 0.80 to 0.95 range. Overall, the Rotterdam model used in
the parameters of this system as a function of the consumer's conjunction with consumer habit stock formation provided a
"habit stocks," the mix of various types of clothing that the good fit to the data and demonstrated the apparel purchase
consumer purchases. We specified these habit stocks as a behavior patterns of men (See Figure). Of interest is that total
dynamic state-adjustment equation. With this approach, repre- expenditure for all men’s clothing is increasing over time and
sentative consumer's preferences for particular textile or the habit stock variable is not represented by a simple linear
apparel categories were allowed to evolve systematically over trend, but instead cycles with the seasons.
time. For example, with the advent of a more casual business We have attempted to link habit stock variables to some of
attire, dress shirts have declined as a percentage of men’s habit the social trend data to see how well consumers’ response
stock of shirts. rates correlate with apparel purchase volumes. We ran a
correlation analyses with the GSS cumulative dataset that
We are designing consumer demand merges 20 years of annual data consisting of over 1000
equations to predict consumer purchases in questions about socioeconomic status, social mobility, social
textiles and apparel. control, the family, race relations, sex relations, civil liberties
and morality. From this GSS data we selected 12 questions
We have now used our estimated demand systems to link that are likely to be correlated with consumer purchasing
habit stock variables to observed social, economic, behavior. Although the sample size is rather small, it seems
demographic, technological and other industry-specific that, in general, there is a positive correlation between the
fashion trend variables. In addition to commonly deployed response rates and apparel purchase sales volumes (See Figure
econometric variables, we incorporated General Social below for the buying habits of people who favor abortion at
Survey1 (GSS) data, standard industry advertising expendi- the woman’s discretion - a GSS question).
tures, indicators for ethnic diversity and measures related to
sudden changes in political and technological climates. In this Correlation of Pro-Abortion Support with
way, we are able to identify which factors, aside from prices Casual Women's Shorts Purchases
and income, are important in explaining consumers' buying
casual units purchased

patterns. 300000
Concurrently, we have also updated all relevant U.S. 250000
government statistics (e.g. Census, Economic Analysis and 200000
Labor Statistics) in our Textile and Apparel Business Informa- 150000
tion System (TABIS) database. y = 87.602x + 176432
100000
R2 = 0.7064
Modeling, Analysis and Results 50000
We have now applied the so-called “habit-stock” model to 0
fifteen categories of men’s apparel items, including knit shirts, 0 200 400 600 800 1000
dress shorts, jeans, shorts, suits, blazers and casual slacks to
Abortion for any reason
examine consumption trends and price-consumption

79 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


[Other Contributors: Graduate Student Eun-Kyung Lee (NC Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile
and Apparel Management and of
State); Consultant: Carl Priestland (AAMA)]
Statistics at NC State, joined the
Industry interactions: 8 [American Apparel Manufacturers faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career
Association, BLS, Cotton Inc., Dept. of Commerce, Fashion at Burlington Ind. as a statistician
Institute, Univ. of Chicago National Opinion Research Center, and operations research analyst. He
NPD Group (Port Washington NY), Shinshu Univ. (Japan)] earned a B.S. in textile engineering
from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in
Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/I98-S06
1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC
State in 1969. Moon's research inter-
For Further Information ests include statistical and probabil-
1. University of Chicago National Opinion Research Center. istic modeling of textile processes
2. A.Deaton and J. Muellbauer, An Almost Ideal Demand System. and products, quality control
American Econ. Rev., 70 (1980) methods, apparel business informa-
3. M. Holt, B.Goodwin, Dynamic Generalizations of Inverse Almost tion systems, biostatistics and statis-
Ideal Demand Systems: An Application to Meat Expenditures in tical failure models.
the United States., Department of Agricultural and Resource I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2
Economics. moon_suh@ncsu.edu
4. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Modeling of U.S. Mens (919)-515-6580
Apparel Consumption Trends and Its Implication on Cotton http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
Consumption, Beltwide Cotton Economics Conference, Orlando
FL (Jan 1999) Matthew T. Holt, a Professor of
5. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Modeling of U.S. Men's Agricultural and Resource Econom-
Apparel Consumption Tredns and Its Implication on Cotton ics at NC State joined the faculty in
Consoumption, Beltwide Cotton Economics Conference, Orlando, 1993, after six years in Agricultural
FL (Jan. 1999) Economics at the University of
6. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Modeling and Estimation of Wisconsin. He earned a B.S. (1981)
U.S. Textile Mill Cotton Demand Based on Men's Apparel and a M.S. (1983) both in agricultural
Consumption Trends., International Textile and Apparel Associa- economics from Purdue and a Ph.D.
tion Conference, Santa Fe, NM (Nov. 1999) in agricultural economics from the
7. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Analysis of Men's Apparel University of Missouri in 1987. Matt's
Consumption Trends in U.S., Textile Institute Conference, research interests include demand
Menchester, Great Britain (April 2000) system estimation, price forecasting,
agricultural policy analysis, the role
of risk in agricultural supply
decisions and applied econometric
and statistical analysis.
I98-S6
holt@ag.arizona.edu
(919)-515-4527

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 80


Analysis of Apparel Production Systems to We are developing software to
Support Quick Response Replenishment better understand the role of
I98-S12
Russell E. King, leader; Thom J. Hodgson (NC State, manufacturing configuration and
Engineering), Carol G. Carrere, Trevor J. Little (NC production planning and control in
State, Textiles), D. Michelle Benjamin Reese [TC]2 support of quick response
The apparel manufacturer is often blamed as the weak link replenishment to retail.
in the apparel supply chain. Typically a small to medium size We have used the tool to demonstrate to retailers that
enterprise, the manufacturer must deal with the conflicting wholesale cost is not necessarily the best measure to use. In
objectives of the larger fabric suppliers and retailers. The addition, we have performed case study analysis for some
almost daily erosion of apparel manufacturing in the U.S. is manufacturers as well. While this has been effective, retailers
well documented. The trend is to note that most apparel
seek lower labor rates since most manufacturers are not currently
retail merchants look at pre-season able to provide QR replenish-
gross margins and thus wholesale ment. Manufacturers are
cost is often the determining factor in typically staff lean and, thus,
a sourcing decision. Earlier work by cannot directly support their
part of our team led to the develop- own research and
ment of an analysis tool, the development. The objective of
Sourcing Simulator (a.k.a. ARMS), this project is provide the basic
that is used to quantity financial, research necessary to help
inventory and service performance manufacturers understand
(e.g. see Figure 1) at retail for a line which manufacturing system
of garments. Analysis with this tool bests supports their business
has supported quantitatively what both from a financial and
Quick Response (QR) proponents service viewpoint.
have touted for years, i.e. a flexible
and rapid, apparel supply system This project involves four
leads to superior performance at retail. In fact, case studies efforts. First, case study analyses for apparel manufacturers
with the Sourcing Simulator have shown that, depending upon have been carried out to better understand the issues and the
the garment, the retailer could afford to pay a QR vendor as potential gain for the supply chain for quick response supply.
much as 50% or more per garment and still achieve gross This involves working with directly with our industry partners.
margins in excess of that which is achieved using a lower cost Second, we are developing analytic models of the manufactur-
traditional, and often offshore, vendor. ing systems to understand optimal operating policies.
Through earlier research efforts we have developed a method-
We address a natural question that arises from the Sourcing ology using a virtual representation of the factory that has
Simulator work, that is, How can the manufacturer achieve been very effective. We are extending this methodology to
cost effective and flexible QR replenishment? We will apparel manufacturing domains. Characterization of optimal
analyze, in detail, existing manufacturing systems such as policies is a crucial part of the process in gaining insight into
Progressive Bundle, Modular and Team Sewing to understand effective and implementable candidate systems. The goal here
what form best supports a quick response supplier in terms of is to develop a relatively generic and flexible software tool to
cost and performance. We will also develop analytic models allow analysis of a number of environments. Finally, using the
to understand optimal manufacturing planning and control simulation models we are analyzing the various candidate
policies under a variety of operating scenarios. We will manufacturing systems under the range of scenarios identified
develop realistic systems that are characteristic of the optimal as part of the first effort described above.
policies.
[Contributing Students: Ali Gokce, Kara Moon, Amy Pinnow,
During the last year we released a new version of the Mehmet Taner (NC State, Eng.) Karla Peavy, Yu Zhao (NC
Sourcing Simulator (Version 2.0). The new version explicitly State, Textiles)]
includes a model of the primary manufacturer supplying the Industry interactions: 28 [Avon Home Fashions, Bain and Co.,
product to the retailer. This includes capacity, quality, raw Cross Creek Apparel, Inc. Dillards Stores, Inc., EA Projects,
The Gap, Griffin Manufacturing, Gymboree Corp., Hemingway
material supply and consumption, make-to-stock or make-to- Apparel Inc., i2 Technologies, Intrade Partners OY, Itac, J.C.
order production/inventory stocking policies. The user defines Penney, K-Products, Med Covers, Milliken & Co., Paragon
Management Systems, Inc., Prime Tanning Co. Inc PTA
a production and raw material ordering plan for the season, as Group OY, Royal Park Uniforms, Sol Frank, Timberland,
well as costs such as raw material, production, and inventory Triboro Quilt Mfg. Corp., Tropical Sportswear, Unifirst, Virke
OY, Warren Featherbone Co.]
carrying. Finally, information feedback from the retailer
Other non-NTC interactions: 30
concerning forecasts and retail inventories can be shared or Project Web Site Address:
not. A updated release (version 2.1) is now available through
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/ntc_i98s12
the Textile Clothing and Technology Corporation [TC]2.

81 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


For Further Information: I98-S12
1. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom, Satis- ccarrere@ncsu.edu
fying Due-Dates in Large Job Shops, Management Science, 44-10 (919)-515-6514
(1998) http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
2. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom,
Evaluating Alternative Process Plans in Large Manufacturing Thom J. Hodgson, the James T. Ryan
Systems, Computer Aided Process and Assembly Planning: Professor of Industrial Engineering
Methods, Tools and Technologies, Gordon and Breach (TBD). and Director of the Integrated Manu-
3. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom, Imple- facturing Systems Engineering Insti-
menting a Virtual Factory Cell Scheduling System, International tute at NC State, joined the faculty in
Journal of Engineering Design and Automation (TBD). 1983 from 13 years on Univ. of Flori-
4. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom, A da’s faculty and at Ford Motor Co. He
Simulation Based Finite Capacity Scheduling System, Proceed- earned a BSE in science engineering,
ings of the 1997 Winter Simulation Conference a MBA in quantitative methods and a
5. R. E. King and R. P. Maddalena, Replenishment Rules, Bobbin Ph.D. in industrial engineering all
(May 1998). from University of Michigan. Thom’s
6. R. E. King and R. P. Maddalena, Developing Proactive Replen- research interests include production
ishment Strategies, Proceedings of the VICS ’98 Conference, scheduling, inventory control, logis-
New Orleans (1998). tics, real-time control of systems and
7. R. E. King, W. K. Moon and H. L. W. Nuttle, Analysis of Inven- applied operations research.
tory Stocking Policies to Support Quick Response Retailing, I98-S12
Technical Report, NC State - Industrial Engineering (2000). hodgson@eos.ncsu.edu
8. R. Lowson, R. E. King and N. A. Hunter, Quick Response: (919)-515-5194
Managing the Supply Chain to Meet Consumer Demand, John http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm
Wiley and Sons, Sussex, England (1999).
9. H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King, N. A. Hunter, J. R. Wilson and S. C. Trevor J. Little, a Professor and Head
Fang, Simulation Modeling of the Textile Supply Chain, Part 1 - of the Textile and Apparel Manage-
The Textile Plant Models, Journal of the Textile Institute (TBD. ment Dept. at NC State, joined the
10.H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King, S. C. Fang, J. R. Wilson, and N. A. faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D.
Hunter, Simulation Modeling of the Textile Supply Chain, Part 2 - in textile industries at the Univ. of
Results and Research Directions, J. of the Textile Institute (TBD). Leeds (England) in 1974 whereupon
11.Hodgson, T. J., R.E. King, K. Thoney, N. Stanislaw, A. J. he was a research scientist in textile
Weintraub, A. J. Zozom, Jr., “On Satisfying Due-Dates in Large physics at CSIRO (Australia), a
Job Shops: Idle Time Insertion,” IIE Transactions, 32:177 (2000) professor at PhillaU and Director of
12.D. Wang, S.-C. Fang, and T. J. Hodgson, A Fuzzy Due-Date Product Development at Danskin.
Bargainer for Make-To-Order Manufacturing Systems, IEEE Trevor's research interests include
Transactions on Systems Man, and Cybernetics, 28-3 (Aug 1998). automated manufacturing and
13.A. J. Weintraub, D. Cormier, T. J. Hodgson, R. E. King, J. R. handling systems, sewability and
Wilson, A. Zozom, Scheduling with Alternatives: A Link between sewing dynamics and apparel
Process Planning and Scheduling, IIE Transactions 31:1093 manufacturing and management.
(1999). I98-S1 , I98-S12
trevor_little@ncsu.edu
Russell E. King, a Professor of Indus-
(919)-515-6646
trial Engineering at NC State, earned http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from
the University of Florida. Before D. Michelle Benjamin Reese, Simula-
joining the faculty at NC State in tion Services Manager at [TC]2 since
1986, he worked as a Systems 1993 when she earned an M.S. in
Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of industrial engineering and operations
Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty research from Penn State. Michelle's
received an NC State Alumni research interests include flexible
Outstanding Teacher Award and in simulation and Visual Basic tools for
1995 received the Alcoa Foundation textile and apparel processes and
Engineering Research Achievement production assembly, warehousing
Award. His research interests and transportation systems. finite
include modeling and analysis of the capacity planning and flexible
fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline. simulation tools for textile and
I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16 apparel processes and production
king@eos. ncsu.edu assembly, warehousing and trans-
(919)-515-5186 portation systems.
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm I98-S12
Carol G. Carrere, a Visiting Assistant mreese@tc2.com
Professor of Textile & Apparel Tech- (919)-380-2156
nology & Management at NC State,
earned a Ph.D. in textile technology
management there in 1997. Carol's
research interests include modeling
and analysis of manufacturing
elasticities for sewn product replen-
ishment, sewability, sewing dynam-
ics, fabric objective measurement
and performance analysis,
ergonomics and production opera-
tions management.

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 82


Use of Artificial Intelligence employed to structure the knowledge, and in the representation
of the knowledge acquired by the system. Using such artificial
in Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries,
intelligence programming language strings, we can represent
Polymers and Textile Fibers backbones and side chain groups. Our techniques enable
I98-P1
Les M. Sztandera, leader; Charles Bock, sophisticated calculations to be performed on large molecules
Mendel Trachtman (PhilaU) at relatively low cost. While these three
methods have successfully established
Each molecule is described by a set of structural features, a predictive patterns for our databases, we
set of physical properties and the strength of some activity, have observed some limitations, particu-
such as toxicity. We are using artificial intelligence to find larly concerning predictions made on
patterns of these structural features and properties that corre- closely related molecules such as 2- and
spond to a desired level of activity in various classes of 3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene, where the
molecules. Specifically, we are calculated physical properties and
! using genetic algorithms, neural networks and fuzzy logic A Feed-Forward
Neural Network topological indices are very similar,
along with molecular orbital methods to design dyes, chemi- despite radically different mutagenic
Architecture
cal auxiliaries, polymers and fibers behaviors. We are continuing to develop
! investigating novel molecular indices to be used for the our methods to account for these limitations.
prediction of various physical and toxicological properties of
textile chemicals [Contributing Graduate Student: Janardhan R. Velga
! developing the machine learning (soft computing) (PhilaU)]
techniques required to extract and utilize the information. Industry interactions: 1 [International Pigments and
Photochemicals Ltd., Canada]
Project Web Site Address:
We are using genetic algorithms, http://titan.philau.edu/~les/
For Further Information:
neural networks and fuzzy logic 1. A. D. Becke, Phys. Rev. A38:3098 (1968).
with molecular orbital methods to 2. J. P. Perdew and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B23:5048 (1981).
3. J. P. Perdew, Phys. Rev. B33:8822 (1986).
design dyes, chemical auxiliaries, 4. Spartan v. 5.0 molecular modeling package (Wavefunction, Inc.).
polymers and fibers. 5. L. M. Sztandera, A Comparative Study of Ranking Fuzzy Sets
Defined by a Neural Network Algorithm - Justification for a
Centroidal Method, Archives of Control Sciences 4:5 (1995).
6. L. M. Sztandera, Fuzzy Neural Trees, Encyclopedia of Computer
Molecular Modeling Science and Technology 40:87 (1999).
Using density functional calculations we are establishing 7. L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock and M. Trachtman, Use of Artificial
properties of various molecules of interest to the textile indus- Intelligence in Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers,
try, initially for nontoxic azo dyes. This approach uses and Textile Fibers, presented at the 6th International Conference
on Fuzzy Theory and Technology, Research Triangle Park NC
non-local corrections for (Oct 1998).
the functional calcula- 8. L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock and M. Trachtman, A Soft Computing
tions1,2,3 and a numerical Approach to the Design of Non-Carcinogenic Azo Dyes, Proceed-
basis set which is very ings of the Third International Conference on Soft Computing,
Genoa 434 (Jun 1999).
flexible and includes 9. L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Artificial
polarization functions on Neural Networks Aid the Design of Non-Carcinogenic Azo Dyes,
all atoms4 leading to Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Method-
complete geometry ologies for Intelligent Systems, Warsaw 503 (Jun 1999).
10.L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Artificial
Electrostatic potential optimization with no Neural Networks Aid the Design of Non-Carcinogenic Azo Dyes,
superimposed on the density for constraints. We now Proceedings of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Springer-
4-amino-3-methoxyazobenzene, have complete geometry Verlag #1609:503 (1999).
a known mutagen optimizations of over 11.L. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Fuzzy Logic
Approach to the Design of Non-Mutagenic Azo Dyes, Proceedings
120 azobenzene derivatives and have calculated the following of the IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence
properties: atomic charges, dipole moments, highest occupied and Soft Computing, Honolulu 286 (1999).
molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular 12.C. Bock and M. Trachtman, Fuzzy Entropy Approach to the
orbital (LUMO) energies, and the logarithm of the octanol Design of Non-Mutagenic Azo Dyes Proceedings of the Eight
International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress, Taipei,
water partition coefficients. We now have high-quality 699 (1999).
graphical displays of the density, HOMO, LUMO and electro- 13.L. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Structure
static potential for all these molecules (See Sample Graph). Activity Relationship In Azo Dyes, Fiber Society Meeting, Phila-
delphia PA (1999).
Soft Computing 14.L. Sztandera, C. Bock and M. Trachtman, Fuzzy Logic Aids the
We are currently using three methods of machine learning: Design of Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers, and Textile Fibers, 6th
fuzzy neural tree induction,6 fuzzy logic (CUBICALC) and International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Technology,
Research Triangle Park, NC, 1998.
supervised neural network (Ward Systems Group) (See Figure 15.Janardhan R. Velga, Thesis, PhiladelphiaU (2000).
below). These methods differ both in the learning strategy

83 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Les M. Sztandera, an Associate Charles Bock, a Professor of Compu-
Professor and Head of the Computer tational Chemistry at PhiladelphiaU
Science program at PhiladelphiaU earned a Ph.D. in 1972, an M.S. in
earned a Ph.D. in computer and 1970 and a B.S in 1968, all in physics
engineering science in 1993 from the from Drexel. Chuck’s research inter-
University of Toledo, an M.S. from ests include computational
Missouri in 1990 and a Diploma in chemistry, molecular modeling of
English in 1989 from Cambridge carcinogenic dyes and interaction of
(England). Les’ research interests water with various metal ions.
include fuzzy logic, pattern recogni- I98-P1
tion, computer vision, genetic chuck@larry.texsci.edu
algorithms, neural networks, hybrid (215)-951-2876
intelligent systems, and modeling
and management of uncertainty.
I98-P1 Mendel Trachtman, Professor Emeri-
sztanderal@philau.edu tus of chemistry, and former Chair of
(215)-951-2871 the Dept. of Chemistry and Physical
http://larry.texsci.edu/les2.html Science at ,PhiladelphiaU earned a
Ph.D. from Univ. of Pennsylvania in
1961, an M.S. from Drexel in 1957 and
a B.A. from Temple in 1951. Mendel’s
research interests include ab initio
and semiempirical molecular orbital
methods, density functional analysis,
physical chemistry and color
science.
I98-P1
mendel@spartan.texsci.edu
(215)-951-6855

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 84


Physically Based Fabric Drape Models as
Tools for Computer-Aided Design of We are developing a physically
Apparel and Other Textile Structures. based model of fabric drape that
I98-P2
Muthu Govindaraj (PhilaU)
can be used in apparel design
including multiple layers of fabrics,
Fabrics are discontinuous structures possessing anisotropic,
nonlinear, hysteric and time dependent characteristics. They
two-ply seams and stitched fabrics.
also undergo large deformations with only small applied
forces. One such deformation, fabric drape, can be seen as a We have developed and successfully demonstrated a flexi-
complex buckling of a planar sheet. However, a physically ble shell based model, to be used in complex fabric drape
based model of fabric drape that can be used in apparel design situations, that has a unique way of modeling fabric taking into
is not yet a reality. Missing is the real visualization of draped consideration the initial, dual curvature formation. We are
now focusing on simulating sewn textile
articles, including complete garments. In this
endeavor we have essentially overcome compu-
tational problems in finite element analysis of
large deformation, thin shell, anisotropic, and
most importantly, multiple layer and stitch
representation techniques (See Figure).
In our efforts to model complete garments,
Simulation of the drape of a tablecloth with and without seams we are using an anthropometrically correct
garments on human forms and the incorporation of seams, human computer model, developed at the
stitches and multiple layers of fabrics. University of Pennsylvania, to drape garments simulated by
our model. Eventually we plan to develop a method to model
Commercial packages of drape are not real drape, but a walking mannequin with fully formed clothing including
texture mapping algorithms which do not represent the fabric stitches and seams.
material characteristics. Some of the more sophisticated
models are too computationally intensive to be used in apparel [Contributing graduate student: Anand Vallamshetla (PhilaU)]
design applications. Usually in the fabric drape analysis work Industrial interactions: 7 [Boeing Helicopters, Milliken,
Fieldcrest Cannon, White-Westinghouse, Levis Corporation,
reported so far, researchers have assumed the fabric to be Hunter Douglas Company, Lectra Inc]
initially flat. When using numerical methods such as Newton- Project Web Site Address:
Raphson an initial guess that is close to the equilibrium state http://faculty.philau.edu/govindarajm/ntc/
For Further Information:
must be given in order to find the final solution. Then a fabric 1. B. Chen and M. Govindaraj, A Physically-Based Model of Fabric
considered initially flat is the most reasonable solution. Drape Using Flexible Shell Elements Text. Res. J. 65:324 (1995).
However, with an approach like this the equilibrium solutions 2. B. Chen and M. Govindaraj, Mathematical Modeling of Fabric
usually are unobtainable even with modified a Riks method, Drape: A Parametric Study Text. Res. J. 66:17 (1996).
3. A. Vallamshetla, Modeling Draping Behavior of Fbarics with
which was supposed to solve postbuckling problems in solid Seams aand Stitches, Masters Thesis, PhiladelphiaU (May 2000)
mechanics.
Muthu Govindaraj, an Associate
Earlier we developed a two step method to model fabric Professor and Director of Textile
drape using flexible thin shell theory and finite element analy- Graduate Programs at PhiladelphiaU
since 1995, earned a Ph.D. in
sis. By using dynamic and static analysis with a nine node
mechanical engineering at the
flexible shell element, our model1,2 produces simulations very University of Liberec (Czech
close to actual fabric drape, allowing us to study how fabric Republic) in 1982. He also earned a
drape is impacted by fabric mechanical parameters (namely MTech. in textile engineering at the
University of Madras (India). Muthu
Young’s modulus, shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, weight and was also a machine design engineer
thickness). Our flexible shell based model can predict drape in industry in India, a post-doctoral
over arbitrary surfaces to a high degree of accuracy. We are research associate at NC State and
now extending our model to simulate drape over complex an assistant professor at Cornell. His
research interests include fabric
arbitrary surfaces, such as fabrics with seams, stitches and mechanics and on-line control
multiple ply fabric assemblies. systems for textile and apparel
We now have successfully simulated drape of fabrics with machinery.
I98-P2*
seams and stitches by adopting a variety of techniques includ- mgraj@aol.com
ing master slave configurations for multiple layer modeling, (215)-951-2684
self collision algorithms, and Lagrange multiplier techniques http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/govind.html
for contact constraints.

85 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


A Programmic Solution to Compress the and quantify intra-company, inter-process communications
bottlenecks that inhibit optimization of the mill supply chain.
Supply Chain in Fabric Weaving
I98-P3 To measure the textile-universality of the ERP application we
Guillermo Duenas, leader, Joseph Abelson, will then compare actual post-ERP installation results with the
Mohamed Abou-iiana, John E. Luke (PhilaU) theoretical calculations from the adapted model.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) is an integrated [Contributing Graduate Student: Shyam Kuppurathnam]
Industrial interactions: 19+ [Backbone Suppliers: Baan,
approach for planning and controlling the flow of materials Oracle, SAP; Module Suppliers: Aspen Technology, Dataworks,
(See Figure). At its heart is Enterprise Resource Planning J.D. Edwards, Exe Technologies, I2 Technologies, Logility,
Marcam, Manugistics, Peoplesoft, Qad, Ryder Systems Inc.,
(ERP) which starts with a customer order, continues through Sybase, TIM; Systems Consultants: Advanced Manufacturing
production and delivery of finished goods and is built around Research, several major accounting firms; Industry Sources:
DAMA, ATMI, J.E. Morgan Co., VF Corp., U.S. Department of
software designed to model, automate and integrate informa- Commerce]
tion across a total company. ERP aims to reduce the time Project Web Site Address: none reported
NEED THIS
between order entry and shipment with programs designed to
organize virtually all sales, production and other activities by For Further Information - none reported
linking computer systems. Guillermo Duenas, an Associate Pro-
fessor of Management in the School
We are helping to design of Business and Co-director of the
Enterprise Resource Planning Center of Management Excellence at
PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in
software to compress the time 1983. He earned a Ph.D. in systems
between order entry and shipment sciences from Wharton School (Univ.
of Penn) in 1987. Guillermo’s
in fabric weaving. research interests include total
quality management, strategic
To compete, the U.S. textile industry must devote signifi- planning and cross- cultural manage-
cant resources to supply chain management. Using our knowl- ment strategies.
I98-P3*
edge of textile industry channels of distribution, we are assist- duenasg@philacol.edu
ing a commercial supplier of ERP/SCM software to adapt (215)-951-2823
current software into modules specific to the supply chain Joseph Abelson, an Adjunct Profes-
needs of a textile manufacturer. We will then test the applica- sor in management at the School of
bility of the software to a wide variety of fiber and textile Business at PhiladelphiaU, joined the
operations. faculty in 1991 from being president
and chief operating officer of Interna-
Enterprise tional Pigments and Photochemicals
Supply Chain
Management
Resource Ltd., a Canadian firm. He earned a
Planning
(ERP)
B.S. in chemical engineering and an
M.S. in polymer chemistry from the
SUNY. From 1960 to 1986 he held
various technical and commercial
Inter-process positions for ICI. Joe's research
Reengineering guided
Communication interests include total quality
Identification by Industry
of Best Practices & management and ISO 9000, new
Bottlenecks Benchmarks markets for innovative products and
supply chain management.
I98-P3
Decision
Making
abelsonj@philacol.edu
Process (215)-951-2816
Mohamed Abou-Iiana, an Assistant
Professor of Textile Engineering at
PhiladelphiaU since 1997, earned his
Ph.D. from NC State in knitting
engineering in 1995, a masters from
Integrated
Leicester Polytechnic (ENG) in 1987,
Optimization of
Supply Chain and B.Sc. in textile engineering from
Using ERP Alexandria University (Egypt) in 1983.
Mohamed spent about 15 years in the
textile industry in Egypt and USA in
We are planning cooperative efforts with the Demand knitting, dyeing and finishing and
Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project and apparel industries. His research inter-
with the American Textile Manufacturer’s Institute (ATMI). ests include knitting, on-line control
of knitting machines, mechanical
ATMI has identified and measured the significant benchmark properties of fabrics and software
parameters for improvements expected using ERP and SCM development for the textile industry.
systems. Using DAMA’s SCM modeling software (Sourcing I98-P3
Simulator and Quick Response) and the Theory of Constraints abouiianam@philacol.edu
(215)-951-2680
we will drill down one level below DAMA's work to identify

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 86


John Luke, an Assistant Professor of
Textile Marketing in the Schools of
Business and Textiles and Materials
Technology at PhiladelphiaU, joined
the faculty in 1997 after a number of
years in marketing, operations and
finance in Chemstrand, FMC Fibers
and Avtex and has had his own
marketing consulting practice since
1989. He earned his BSE in engineer-
ing from Princeton in 1957 and his
MBA from NYU in 1967. John's
research interests include strategic
marketing & planning analyses as a
function of product-market position.
I98-P3
lukej@philacol.edu
(215)-951-2814

87 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Bionomic Analysis of
Predatory Exclusion of Technologies
450000
400000
I99-A2
350000
Howard L. Thomas, leader; Henry Thompson (Auburn) N1
300000
Alexei Sharov (Virginia Tech), Neil Cahill (ITT) 250000 N2
200000 shuttle
One metaphor for a market economy is a tropical rainforest,
150000 shuttleless
populated by numerous highly specialized technologies 100000
instead of highly specialized organisms. The relative advan- 50000
tages of one technology over another determine the dominance 0
of that technology in a manner similar to species survival 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
patterns in nature. This similarity to natural selection of the
Curve fit of data with the Lotka Volterra model
acceptance, viability and life cycle of a product or a technolo- using a shuttleless/shuttle loom speed ratio factors of 5
gy in a marketplace has been one of high importance to
economic analysts for many years. Models of self-organizing Introduction of a new technology may lead to a reduction of
economies fit well into the bionomics paradigm because they fabric price in a specific product category. As the price of
are deterministic and can therefore show which technologies goods in the category goes down, the profit from old machin-
can survive in which markets and to what extent. ery becomes lower than the average in the industry, and the
market value of old machines may drop dramatically. If old
machines get cheaper, it may not be profitable to invest money
To improve purchasing decisions,
in their repair. As a result, the "death rate" of old machines
we are developing a model to predict will increase.
how new textile technologies will To further test the model we will also analyze the 1978-98
survive, flourish, diminish and perish statistics on U.S. textile production for:
versus competitive technologies. ! production rates of several kinds of machines
! production of textile categories/types on each kind of
Using a version of the Lotka-Volterra ecological model to machine
simulate competition of textile technologies in a predatory ! prices for textile and weaving machines
market (Lotka 1925, Volterra 1926), we are modeling the ! labor costs
competition between textile technologies with the addition of a We will apply results to predict the effect of new technologies
consumer component. Initially we are testing the model using now being introduced to the US textile production market in
1978-98 statistics about U.S. textile weaving technology the following years.
competition. We multiplied the number of shuttleless looms It may appear that the competition of weaving technologies
by 5 to adjust for their higher textile production rate because in the U.S. cannot be analyzed in isolation from the global
relative economic benefits depend on production, not numbers market, so we will expand the model to a heterogeneous
of looms. The costs of resources (e.g. fiber) are expected to market as a set of locations (e.g., countries) with a flow of
be essentially the same; so cost reductions should come mostly products among them. Local markets may have different labor
from labor and capital savings. Initial results indicate a close and capital costs. For example, the cost of labor is high in the
fit with the Lotka-Volterra model (See Figure). The ratio of U.S. and low in China, but the cost of capital is low in the U.S.
shuttleless/shuttle looms is more important than their absolute and relatively high in China. We expect that our expanded
values. Further study is needed to determine the influence of model will show that development of new technologies is
such factors as internal competition among newer faster in markets with a high ratio of labor/capital costs than in
technologies. We can examine this as competition among markets with a low ratio. In some markets with low labor
subspecies or different predator species, some of which are costs old technology may persist indefinitely. In a heterogene-
beginning to become more powerful even than the former ous market, there should be no fast drop in prices for old
dominant species. machinery because it can be sold to countries with a low ratio
The lifetime we used for a shuttle loom (4 years) appears of labor/capital costs. Thus, a heterogeneous market may
rather low, because looms generally function much longer than stabilize prices and decelerate the competitive exclusion of
that. If we use longer lifetimes the curve of declining shuttle technologies. Some technologies may even coexist. We will
looms does not fit well. This is because shuttle looms are not use the model to determine the conditions of coexistence and
discarded, but instead are being sold to developing countries the proportion of various technologies at the equilibrium.
(a factor which is not now included in our model). The curve If there is a good fit using new considerations about internal
describing the population of shuttleless looms initially corre- competition, we will extend the model to other technologies,
sponds well to the model, but then it becomes flat and even including spinning (e.g. vortex spinning), on-line quality
curves down. The possibility of shrinking textile production control, fibers (e.g. cotton and polyester) and dyeing
was explored, but it is more likely that the data do not fit machinery.
because of changes in subspecies competition (e.g. fibers, end
uses) over the past 25 years. [Contributing Graduate Student: Kasey Myers (Auburn)]

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 88


Industrial interactions: None reported Neil Cahill, Professor and Vice Presi-
Project Web Site Address: dent of ITT, joined the faculty in 1974
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/thomas/i99a2.html
after working 13 years in industry
For Further Information - none reported with various textile companies. Neil
earned his B. S. from the University
Howard L. Thomas, Jr., an Assistant of Massachusetts-Dartmouth in 1961
Professor of Textile Engineering at and his M. S. from the ITT in 1964.
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1996 His research interests include design
from ITT. He received a Ph.D. in of World Class manufacturing organi-
textile and polymer science from zations, global competitiveness and
Clemson in 1991 and a M.S. in profitability engineering.
textiles from Georgia Tech. He is the I99-A2, I99-S10
USA editor for International Textile neilc@itt.edu
Bulletin and has industrial experi- (804)-296-5511
ence with Sulzer-Ruti, Springs Indus-
tries, J. P. Stevens and Cone Mills. Alexei Sharov, a Research Scientist
Howard's research interests include in the Dept. of Entomology at Virginia
weaving machine redesign and Tech since 1992, earned his Ph.D. in
process consolidation, recycled entomology from Moscow State Univ.
fibers for nonwovens and ballistic (Russia) in 1980 following a B.S.
resistant fabrics. there in 1976. He also earned a
I96-A9, I99-A2* Doctorate of biological sciences
hthomas@eng.auburn.edu there in 1988. Alexei’s research inter-
(334)-844-5461 ests include quantitative population
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~hthomas ecology and mathematical modeling.
I99-A2
sharov@vt.edu
(540)-231-7316
http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov

Henry L. Thompson, a Professor in


Business at Auburn, joined the staff
in 1986 from the staff at Tennessee.
He earned a B.S. in 1970 and Ph.D. in
1981 at the University of Houston,
both in economics. Henry’s research
interests include international and
energy economics and applied
microeconomics.
I99-A2
(334)-844-4910
thomph1@auburn.edu
http://www.auburn.edu/~thomph1

89 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


When Is Domestic Apparel Manufacturing
Competitive?
I99-D16
Roger D. H. Warburton, leader; Steven Warner
(UMassD), Russell E. King (NC State)
Linda Welters (URI, Merchandising and Design)
Employment in the U.S. apparel industry has declined
dramatically since the 1960s. Will it fall inexorably to zero,
or is there some base level that can endure? If so, what strate-
gic characteristics are required to survive? There is consider-
able interest in Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) as a
reason to support domestic manufacturing and to reduce
supply chain costs. However, since domestic labor costs are
higher than offshore, “Why should anyone bother with domes-
tic manufacturing?”
Overall margins can be higher
when domestic manufacturing is utilized.

A retailer or manufacturer can now when domestic, quick response manufacturing is cost
effective. However, a cooperative environment has to be
analyze the accuracy
established early in the planning cycle, and involve everyone
of their sales forecast, and in decision making and sharing of data. It naturally emerges
determine how much that a successful domestic manufacturer must evolve well
Quick Response Manufacturing beyond the old fashioned “cut and sew,” and invest in CAD
is cost-effective. systems, computer-controlled cutting, logistics support and
most importantly, rapid exchange of sales and production data
We are researching these questions in four ways. First, we between retailers and manufacturers.
have developed an analytical model that includes both domes- [Contributing Graduate Student: Maged S. Fanous (UMassD)]
tic and offshore manufacturing. Our model has the advantage
Industrial interactions: “several companies” but none reported
that its parameters are readily observable and can be tuned to
an organization’s individual business situation. Retailers can Project Web Site Address:
http://www.umassd.edu/1academic/cengineering/textiles/index.html
use the model to determine when it is cost effective to employ
domestic manufacturers. Second, we are testing and evaluat- For Further Information
1. Lowson, R. E. King and A. Hunter, Quick Response: Managing
ing the Sourcing Simulator4 (See I98-S12 on p.81) to compare the Supply Chain to Meet Consumer Demand [in-depth account].
its predictions to real-world sales data for several athletic wear 2. R. E. King and A. Hunter, The Quick Response Advantage
styles. Bobbin (Mar 1997) [some advantages of QRM].
3. J. Lovejoy, Sourcing Simulator, [TC]2 (1999).
Third, we have received encouraging support from several
quite diverse manufacturers. U.S. companies typically use Roger Warburton, an Adjunct Profes-
sor in the Department of Textiles at
off-shore manufacturing for high volume, basic styles; but they UMass Dartmouth since 1999, earned
also struggle with the quick response demands of their custom- a Ph.D. in physics from the Univ. of
ers. Thus they often use a mixture of off-shore and on-shore Pennsylvania in 1976, then managed
manufacturing. software projects for Jaycor (Defense
Dept. contractor). Roger also earned
Fourth, standard accounting practices often make offshore a B.Sc. in physics in 1969 from
manufacturing appear more financially attractive than it Sussex (UK) Univ. Since 1989, he has
been Director of Management Infor-
actually is. One has to look carefully at the raw labor rate mation Systems (MIS) for Griffin
because staff turnover rates in the Caribbean often exceed Manufacturing where he designed
40%, while sewing efficiencies are sometimes only 25% of software to manage factory workflow,
U.S. factories. Also, there is evidence that off-shore logistics purchasing and inventory and
garment costing. His research inter-
costs actually exceed labor costs, off-shore minimums and ests include apparel MIS and supply
guaranteed contracts make small production runs expensive, chain management
and their long lead times conflict with quick response require- I99-D16*
ments and tie up capital. Therefore, it is absolutely vital to roger@griffinmanufacturing.com
(508)-677-0048
determine the true offshore manufacturing costs. http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/faculty.html
Our analytical model links the accuracy of sales forecasting
to product margins, and can be used to determine precisely

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 90


Steven B. Warner, a Professor and Russell E. King, a Professor of Indus-
Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass trial Engineering at NC State, earned
Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D. a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from
in polymer and material science & the University of Florida. Before
engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He joining the faculty at NC State in
then spent 12 years in industrial 1986, he worked as a Systems
research at Hoechst-Celanese and Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of
Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty
faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the received an NC State Alumni
author of the texts: The Science and Outstanding Teacher Award and in
Design of Engineering Materials and 1995 received the Alcoa Foundation
Fiber Science. His research interests Engineering Research Achievement
include fibers science, microstruc- Award. His research interests
ture of nonwovens and fluid manage- include modeling and analysis of the
ment in fibrous assemblies and fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline.
properties. I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16
M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3, king@eos. ncsu.edu
C97-G31, I99-D16 (919)-515-5186
swarner@umassd.edu http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm
(508)-999-8449

Linda Welters, a Professor and Chair-


person of the Textiles, Fashion
Merchandising and Design Dept. at
University of Rhode Island, joined
URI in 1979. She earned a Ph.D. in
home economics from the University
of Minnesota in 1981, an M.A. in
clothing and textiles from Colorado
State in 1973 and a B.A. from the
College of St. Catherine in 1971.
Linda is the Associate Editor of
Dress, the Journal of the Costume
Society of America. Her research
interests include historic costumes
and archaeological textile analysis.
I99-D16
lwelters@uriacc.uri.edu
(401)-874-4525
http://www.uri.edu/hss/tmd/FACSTF.html#Linda

91 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Educating the Educators In winter 2000 term we used chapter pre-reading as an
I99-P01
Christopher M. Pastore, leader; Brian George, individual assignment and conducted facilitated discussions to
increase HOCS development. This summer we will create
Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, John Pierce (PhilaU)
faculty development opportunities for textile professors to
When one considers qualities that are well regarded in an further the program goals of fostering HOCS development and
employee, problem solving, decision-making, critical thinking, strengthening skills that are important in the textile industry.
and evaluative thinking would all be considered noteworthy.
[Contributing Undergraduate Student: Daniel Carman
These abilities are considered higher-order cognitive skills
(PhilaU)]
(HOCS); many times in a textile degree program, capabilities
such as simple recall of information, and application of Industrial interactions: “several companies” but none reported
memorized algorithms to solve problems are emphasized. Project Web Site Address:
http://fibers.texsci.edu/I99P01/index.html
These abilities are considered lower-order cognitive skills
(LOCS). Our challenge in developing instructional For Further Information - none reported
approaches is to cover the breadth of information necessary in
Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate
a field, while imparting the depth of knowledge that will some Professor of Textile Engineering and
day be necessary when troubleshooting and resolving a techni- Technology and Director of Research
cal problem in the workplace. We are developing and assess- of the School of Textiles and Materi-
ing instructional strategies to optimize the combination of als Technology at Philadelphia
University, joined the faculty in 1995.
LOCS and HOCS for a variety of textiles related courses. Previously he was on the Textile
Materials Science faculty at NC State
and the Materials Engineering faculty
We are developing at Drexel University. Chris holds a
instructional strategies B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a
Ph.D. in materials engineering from
that expand the abilities Drexel in 1988. His research inter-
of textile graduates in the workplace. ests include modeling of fabric and
composite structures.
F98-P1*, I99-P1*
There is a wide variety in textile student learning styles cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu
(See Figure). This information demonstrates the benefit of (215)-951-2683
supplementing lecture with visual aids, manipulatives and http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html
laboratory activities. Reading the textbook prior to lecture
provides a strong base for student learning. When “Introduc- Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, a Research
Associate at the School of Textiles
tion to Textiles” students worked as groups and submitted and Materials Technology at Philadel-
chapter summaries before the lecture, 67% of the students phiaU since 1999, earned a B.A. in
remembered related textbook content during the lecture at physics from Boston Univ. in 1986
and an M.S. in materials engineering
least sometimes and 8% believed they learned more from the
from Drexel in 1989. Then Eileen
lecture due to familiarity with the concepts from pre-reading. worked for Navmar Applied Sciences
In addition, the chapter reading assignment improved the and the Naval Air Warfare Center and
HOCS for a quarter of the students' by teaching them how to earlier was a biophysics researcher
at Massachusetts General Hospital.
utilize textbooks as a resource and identify key concepts. We Her research interests include low
use student evaluations as the primary means for assessing cost manufacturing techniques,
instructional methods. instructional methods, and modeling
of fabric and composite structures.
Textile Student Learning Styles I99-P1
ecarroll@fibers.texsci.edu
(215)-951-2563

Brian George, an Assistant Professor


of Textile Engineering and Technol-
ogy at Philadelphia University, joined
the faculty in 1999. Brian holds a
B.S. in Textile Science and a Ph.D. in
Fiber and Polymer Science from NC
State. His research interests include
instructional methods, nonwovens,
and fiber extrusion.
I99-P1
georgeb@philau.edu
(215)-951-2782

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 92


John D. Pierce Jr. joined the faculty
of Philadelphia University in 1998 as
an Assistant Professor of Biopsy-
chology. He earned a Ph.D. in
psychobiology from the University of
Florida in 1989, a M.A. from the
University of Nevada Reno in 1985,
and a B.S. from St. Joseph’s Univer-
sity in 1981. John was a postdoctoral
researcher in psychophysics at the
University of Pennsylvania and affili-
ated institutions from 1989 to 1998.
His research interests include
sensory processing and perceptual
experiences.
I99-P1
piercej@PhilaU.edu or philacol
(215)-951-2556
http://faculty.philau.edu/piercej

93 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


Rapid Prototyping: While proving the process both viable and more efficient
than normal product development processes, we were not
Making Better Products Faster
Seed Project: I99-S7 happy with the complications and limitations of the new
Cynthia Istook (NC State) process. To determine ways to transfer files between applica-
We are exploring ways to integrate apparel and home tions, we used a variety of CAD systems (for both textiles and
furnishings product design with textile design so that proto- apparel development), digital printing systems, cutting systems
types can be produced quickly. Initially, we created some and production systems. We will be analyzing, in detail, exist-
simple apparel designs using an industry computer-aided- ing CAD systems and working with the software developers to
design (CAD) program and prepared them for production in a find or create ways to more easily integrate the complicated
normal manner, including seam allowances and grading. product development process. We will be addressing color
calibration, pre- and post-treatment of textile substrates, and
calibrating digitally printed images with automatic cutting files
so that our efforts will produce the exact product we have
envisioned and can actually reproduce.
[Other Contributors (NC State): Graduate Students: Karla
Simmons, Lashawnda McKinnon, Lisa Parrillo-Chapman ();
Jeff Kraus (Pilot Lab Manager), Claudia Deaton (Apparel Lab
Manager); 15 high school students]
Industrial interactions: 25 [Gerber, Lectra, CDI, Stork, Encad,
Mimaki, Telmat, [TC]2, Kimberly Clark, & Rupert, Gibbon, &
Spyder]
Virtual images of desired Prepared Project Web Site Address: none reported
prototype garments, prototype garment
created in Adobe for digital print For Further Information
Photoshop. 1. C. Istook, Technologies Supporting Mass Customization of
Apparel: A Pilot Project. Presented at Manchester 2000, Textile
During the apparel design process, we created a library of Institute Conference, Manchester UK (April 2000).
textile designs in a variety of colorways and dimensions (See Cynthia Istook, an Associate Profes-
Photos). But when we tried to take the images of the apparel sor in Textile and Apparel, Technol-
pattern pieces from one CAD program and move it into the ogy and Management at NC State,
joined the faculty in the fall of 1997.
textile CAD program, we discovered that the systems would
Cindy earned a Ph.D. in textiles and
not integrate naturally. The apparel CAD systems are vector clothing in 1992 from Texas Woman’s
based programs for the most part, while most of the more Univ. She taught there and at Baylor
robust textile CAD systems are raster based programs. We and Univ. of North Texas. She has a
B.S. in fashion merchandising, cloth-
were eventually able to successfully integrate the two CAD ing and textiles from Texas Christian
systems by using a complicated mixture of software (virtual in 1976. She was also a department
design, apparel design, textile design) and hardware (scanners, group manager at Federated Depart-
digital cameras, etc.). ment Stores. Her research interests
include mass customization, apparel
sizing systems, computer-aided-
By linking textile and pattern design, technology integration, rapid
prototyping, digital printing and 3-D
design software, we are developing body scanning.
ways to rapidly create new, I99-S7
(919)-515-6584
improved digital printed fabrics and cistook@tx.ncsu.edu
to minimize fabric waste. http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/faculty/cistook_res_p2.htm

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 94


Information Engineering: the interface from the information system to the human user.
Information Engineering assists in this process.
Textile Industry’s Value-adding Key
to Effective Decision-Making We will conduct surveys with plant and management level
I99-S10 personnel to identify their requirements, then we will define
George Hodge, leader; William Oxenham (NC State), data collection and control profiles for the manufacturing
Neil Cahill (ITT) processes. Our final goal will be to optimize the quality of the
Information Engineering is a technique for extracting the “message” to create a sound understanding for effective
"meaning" contained in information to allow the understand- decision making.
ing needed by a user to make a "right" decision. Another Data Mining is an analytical tool, usually a computer
definition is to provide the right information, in the right form, software package, used to sort through data, in order to deter-
quantity and quality at the right mine trends, relationships or
time so that the manager can profiles, while Enterprise
efficiently and effectively perform Modeling represents the various
his/her job. We seek to fundamen- components of an enterprise to
tally increase the decision effec- better formulate, restructure or
tiveness in textile manufacturing by design enterprise operations for
designing a more efficient Informa- effective decision-making. We
tion Engineering system which are now comparing Data Mining
would capture and disseminate methodology to the data-end of
management information for effec- the model and Enterprise
tive decision-making. We will Modeling to the decision-end of
focus on a new paradigm that the model. We are evaluating
would diagnose the "meaning both these techniques and Infor-
content and understanding" of the mation Engineering for their
vital information, which in turn will assist in effective and applicability towards improving decision effectiveness.
efficient decision-making by textile personnel. This will [Contributing Graduate Students: Yatin Karpe, Hasan Cete,
involve rationalizing the large amount of raw data that is Stacey Schertel; Undergraduate Students: Brent Plunkett,
currently presented from on-line and off-line measurement and Greg Grisset (NC State, Textiles)]
monitoring systems in textile manufacturing processes. We Industrial interactions: 50+ [MRP/ERP Software Vendors: SAP,
will convert pertinent data into formats relevant for immediate I2, CMD, Manugistics, Datatex, PowerCurve, JD Edwards,
Baan)]
use, then distributed it to appropriate users. Providing person-
Project Web Site Address:
nel with the information most pertinent to their decision- http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/I99-S10
making results in faster and more accurate decisions to
improve process and product quality, shorten response time For Further Information
1. C Yatin S. Karpe, George L. Hodge, Neil Cahill and Bill
and minimize manufacturing losses. Oxenham, Information Engineering: Enhancing Decision Effec-
tiveness in Textiles?, paper for The Textile Institute World
Conference, Manchester UK (April 2000)
We are developing ways to extract 2. George Hodge, Taxonomy of Textile Information Systems, poster
the "meaning" from on- and off-line for The Textile Institute World Conference, Manchester UK
(April 2000)
textile manufacturing raw data 3. Stacey Schertel, George Hodge and Bill Oxenham, Data Mining:
so that humans can quickly Its Current Status and Potential Uses, poster for The Textile Insti-
tute World Conference, Manchester UK (April 2000)
make more effective decisions. 4. George Hodge, Directory of Manufacturing Planning and Control
Systems Software for the Textile & Apparel Industry (submitted
Information is the raw material of human thinking, but it is for publication to APICS)
the “meaning and understanding” that is the raw material of 5. George Hodge, What are ERP systems?, APICS, TA-SIG
Newsletter (Winter 2000).
decision thinking. The human decision-maker acquires this 6. George Hodge, Current Research in E-Business, “Moving
meaning and understanding from the “message content” of the Beyond ERP: Staying on Information Technology’s Leading
information. The process by which raw data is translated into Edge” workshop, NC State (Feb 2000).
decisions is the Data-to-Decision Cycle model (See Figure). 7. Yatin Karpe, George Hodge, Neil Cahill and Bill Oxenham, ITS
Textile Leader, Can Information Engineering pave the way for
While a good 60% of any office workers’ time is spent in better Decision-Making in the Textile Industry? (September 1999)
looking for and/or preparing information, only about 10-15% 8. Yatin S. Karpe, George L. Hodge, Bill Oxenham, Neil Cahill and
of the information contained in plant reports is actually Peter Kilduff, Information Engineering: Improving the Effective-
utilized. This low information utilization occurs because the ness of Decision-Making in the Textile Industry. Textiles in the
New Millenium World Congress, University of Huddersfield UK
user does not have enough diagnostic time to acquire the vital (July 1999)
information buried in the report. Therefore, the goal should 9. Yatin S. Karpe and George Hodge, Information Engineering
be to optimize the quality of the messages transmitted through Research Review, Knowledge Exchange Symposium, College of
Textiles, NC State (May 1999)

95 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000


George L. Hodge is an Associate William Oxenham has been an
Professor in Textile and Apparel Associate Professor of the Depart-
Technology and Management at NC ment of Textile and Apparel Technol-
State where he earned a Ph.D. in ogy and Management at NC State
industrial engineering in 1990 and a since 1992 after having lectured at
B.S. in nuclear engineering. George the University of Leeds (England)
also holds a M.S. from Ohio St. and since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974.
has held engineering positions with Bill's research interests include data
Ohio State Univ. and Carolina Power reduction, fiber damage during
& Light. His research interests processing, ring spinning instability,
include economic analysis, multi- fiber friction, yarn tensile testing,
attribute decision analysis, expert carding variability and microfiber
systems, technology management, processing.
enterprise integration, systems F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5,
modeling and computer integrated F99-S6*, I99-S10
manufacturing. woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu
F98-S12, I96-S15, I99-S10* (919)-515-6573
george_hodge@ncsu.edu http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
(919)-515-6579
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Neil Cahill, Professor and Vice Presi-


dent of ITT, joined the faculty in 1974
after working 13 years in industry
with various textile companies. Neil
earned his B. S. from the University
of Massachusetts-Dartmouth in 1961
and his M. S. from the ITT in 1964.
His research interests include design
of World Class manufacturing organi-
zations, global competitiveness and
profitability engineering.
I99-A2, I99-S10
neilc@itt.edu
(804)-296-5511

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 96


Index by Principal Contributor

Abbott, Albert (C) 8 Goswami, Bhuvenesh C. (C) 20, 23, 26 Salem, David (TRI) 14
Abelson, Joseph (P) 86 Govindaraj, Muthu (P) 85 Samuels, Robert J. (G) 6
Abou-iiana, Mohamed (P) 86 Gowayed, Yasser A. (A) 1 Schork, F. Joseph 57
Acar, Memis (Loughborough Univ.) 39 Grasso, Maureen (UNC-G) 73 Seyam, Abdelfattah (N) 33
Adanur, Sabit (A) 35 Gray, Stephen (Nottingham Trent) 73 Shalev, Itzhak (N) 37
Ahmed, Anwar (A) 35 Gregory, Richard V. (C) 6 Sharov, Alexei (Virginia Tech) 88
Armstrong-Carroll, Eileen (P) 92 Hanks, Timothy (Furman) 6 Slaten, Lewis (A) 3, 45
Aspland, J. Richard (C) 61 Hauser, Peter (N) 49, 51, 63 Smith, C. Brent (N) 59
Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I. (A) 35 Hinks, David (N) 55 Solomon, Michael (A) 65
Barker, Roger L. (N) 37 Hodge, George L. (N) 33, 95 Srinivasarao, Mohan (G) 61
Basu, Arindam (S.India TRA) 39 Hodgson, Thom J. (N) 81 Suh, Moon W. (N) 37, 67, 79
Batra, Subhash K. (N) 20 Holt, Matthew T. (N) 79 Sun, Gang (Univ. of California Davis) 45
Beale, David G. (A) 35 Hudson, Samuel (N) 4 Sundermann, Christine A. (A) 45
Bechtel, Steve (Ohio State) 14 Istook, Cynthia (N) 94 Sztandera, Les M. (P) 83
Beck, Keith R. (N) 59 Jacob, Karl (G) 14, 16 Teulé, Florence (C) 8
Beckham, Haskell (G) 43 Jasper, Warren (N) 59, 67 Thomas, Howard (A) 88
Berkstresser, Gordon (N) 77 Kamath, Y. K. (TRI) 47 Thommesen, Sven (A) 75
Bock, Charles (P) 83 Kim, Hyung Bum (N) 37 Thompson, Henry L. (A) 88
Brannon, Evelyn (A) 71, 73, 75 Kim, Jai-Ok (A) 69 Tincher, Wayne C. (G) 57
Broughton, Roy M. Jr (A) 1, 3, 19, 43 Kim, Yong K. (D) 22, 25 Tonelli, Alan E. (N) 49, 61
Buschle-Diller, Gisela (A) 4, 53 King, Russell E. (N) 77, 81, 90 Trachtman, Mendel (D) 83
Cahill, Neil (ITT) 88, 95 Ko, Frank K. (Drexel) 28 Ulrich, Pamela (A) 71, 73, 75
Carr, Wallace W. (G) 26, 43, 57 Lee, Gordon K. L. (N) 59 Vaughn, Edward A (C) 23
Carrere, Carol G. (N) 81 Leisen, Johannes (G) 43 Walsh, William K. (A) 4
Chapman, Leon (Sandia) 69 Lewis, Armand F. (D) 12, 22, 25 Wang, Youjiang (G) 26, 32
Chen, Julie (U. Massachusetts Lowell) 12 Lickfield, Gary C. (C) 8, 41, 55 Warburton, Roger D. H. (D) 90
Chen, Xuemin (TRI) 47 Lin, Weiping (A) 4 Warner, Steven B. (D) 10, 12, 43, 90
Clapp, Timothy G. (N) 30 Little, Trevor J. (N) 77, 81 Welters, Linda (Univ. Rhode Island) 90
Connell, Lenda Jo (A)71, 73, 75 Luke, John E. (P) 86 Wilson, James R. (N) 77
Cook, Fred L. (G) 26 Mahrous, Mohamed (UNO) 36 Woo, Jae L. (N) 37, 67
Cuculo, John (N) 1 Marcotte, William R. Jr. (C) 8 Worley, Dave (A) 45
Cuomo, Jerome J. (N) 63 May, Sheldon W. (G) 19 Yang, Charles Q. (UG) 41
Dawson, Darren (C) 30 McClain, Aliecia (A) 4 Zeronian, S. Haig (UC Davis) 53
Dorrity, J. Lewis (G) 26 McCord, Marian G. (N) 37, 63 Zhu, JunYong (IPST) 57
Dozier, Gerry (A) 69 Mi, John Z. (Cotton, Inc.) 32 Zumbrunnen, David A. (C) 23, 26
Drews, Michael J. (C) 55 Michielsen, Stephen (G) 45, 61 (A): Auburn
Du, Weiping (A) 36 Mills, German (A) 3, 45 (C): Clemson
Duenas, Guillermo (P) 86 Morris, Jeffrey F. (G) 57 (D): University of Mass. at Dartmouth
Dunn, Matthew W. (P) 18 Neimark, Alexander V. (TRI) 47 (G): Georgia Tech
Early, Judson H. [TC]2 73 Nuttle, Henry L. W. (N) 77 (IPST): Inst. of Paper Science & Technology
Eischen, Jeffrey W. (N) 30 Oxenham, William (N) 20, 33, 39, 95 (ITT): Institute of Textile Technology
El Mogahzy, Yehia (A) 36 Parachuru, Radhakrishnaiah (G) 26, 53 (MIT): Mass. Inst. of Technology
Ellison, Michael S. (C) 8, 23 Pastore, Christopher M. (P) 28, 92 (N): North Carolina State University
Englis, Basil G. (Berry College) 65 Paul, Frank (C) 30
(P): Philadelphia University
Fang, Shu-Cherng (N) 77 Petee, Thomas (A) 69
[TC]2: Textile/Clothing Technology Corp
Forsythe, Sandra M. (A) 69 Pierce, John D. Jr. (P) 92
(TRI): Textile Research Institute
Fowler, Alex (D) 25 Polk, Malcolm (G) 16
(UNC-G): Univ. of North Carolina Greenville
Fraser, W. Barrie (U.Sidney,Australia) 20 Presley, Ann Beth (A) 71, 73, 75
(UNO): University of New Orleans
Franzon, Paul (N) 33 Qiu, Yiping (N) 32, 63
Rahn, Christopher D. (C) 20, 30 For more abbreviations see p. xi. See the page
Freeman, Harold S. (N) 51, 53 cited for the report authored by the principal
George, Brian (P) 92 Realff, Mary Lynn (G) 26
contributors whose bios, photos, E-mail
Ghosh, Subhas (ITT) 36 Reese, D. Michelle Benjamin [TC]2 81 addresses, telephone numbers and web address
Ghosh, Tushar K. (N) 20 Russo, Paul (Louisiana State) 61 (if available) follow each report.
Rutledge, Gregory C. (MIT) 10

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 97


33
UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

DIRECTORY
FEATURING

BIOGRAPHIES
with

PHOTOS
NTC PROJECT N O S.
E-MAIL ADDRESSES
PHONE NUMBERS
WEB ADDRESSES
JUNE 2000
NTC Principal Investigators: A - C

Albert G. Abbott, Associate Professor Memis Acar, a visiting research


of Biological Sciences at Clemson, scholar at NC State, has been a
joined the faculty in 1984. He earned Lecturer (1986) and Senior Lecturer
a Ph.D. in cell and molecular biology (1991) in Mechanical Engineering at
from Brown University in 1980 and a Loughborough University (Leicester-
B.S. in biological sciences from Univ. shire UK) where he earned a PhD in
of Connecticut in 1976. He was a mechanical engineering in 1984. He
Fellow at the Rockefeller Founda- earned a MSc in textile technology in
tion's Plant Breeding Institute in 1979 from Univ. of Manchester.
Cambridge (England). Bert's research Memis' research interests include
interests include basic gene struc- air-jets for texturing and mingling,
ture and function, improving plant water jets for hydroentanglement,
products through genetic manipula- hydroentangled nonwovens, design
tion and genetic engineering to of textile machinery, mechatronics in
produce novel proteins. textile industries and yarn imaging.
M98-C5 F98-S12, F99-S6
aalbert@clemson.edu macar@unity.ncsu.edu
(864)-656-3060 (919)-515-6449
m.acar@lboro.ac.uk, +44 1509 223218
Joseph Abelson, an Adjunct Profes-
sor in management at the School of Sabit Adanur, a Professor in Textile
Business at PhiladelphiaU, joined the Engineering at Auburn since 1992,
faculty in 1991 from being president received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer
and chief operating officer of Interna- science in 1989 and a M.S. in textile
tional Pigments and Photochemicals engineering in 1985 from NC State
Ltd., a Canadian firm. He earned a and a B.S. in mechanical engineering
B.S. in chemical engineering and an in 1982 from Istanbul Technical
M.S. in polymer chemistry from the University in Turkey. Before coming
SUNY. From 1960 to 1986 he held to Auburn, Sabit was a product and
various technical and commercial process development manager for
positions for ICI. Joe's research Asten Forming Fabrics (Appleton WI).
interests include total quality His research interests include indus-
management and ISO 9000, new trial textiles, composites, computer-
markets for innovative products and aided design and manufacturing.
supply chain management. F94-A8*, F95-A24, I96-A9*, F99-A10*,
I98-P3 I00-A6
abelsonj@philacol.edu sadanur@eng.auburn.edu
(215)-951-2816 (334)-844-5497
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~sadanur
Mohamed Abou-Iiana, an Assistant
Professor of Textile Engineering at
Suresh G. Advani, Professor of
PhiladelphiaU since 1997, earned his
Mechanical Engineering at the
Ph.D. from NC State in knitting
University of Delaware, joined the
engineering in 1995, a masters from
faculty in 1987. He received his Ph.D.
Leicester Polytechnic (ENG) in 1987,
from the University of Illinois in 1987.
and B.Sc. in textile engineering from
Suresh was chairman of ASME
Alexandria University (Egypt) in 1983.
Polymer Committee and won the
Mohamed spent about 15 years in the
American Society of Composites
textile industry in Egypt and USA in
Best Paper Award in 1996. His
knitting, dyeing and finishing and
research interests include
apparel industries. His research inter-
non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and
ests include knitting, on-line control
rheology, transport phenomena, flow
of knitting machines, mechanical
and cooling of polymers in reinforced
properties of fabrics and software
composites manufacturing and
development for the textile industry.
process models.
I98-P3
M96-G19
abouiianam@philacol.edu
advani@me.udel.edu
(215)-951-2680
(302)-831-8975

Key on page B-38

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-1


Anwar Ahmed an Associate Profes- Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, a Research
sor and Director of the Wind Tunnel Associate at the School of Textiles
and Aerodynamics Lab at Auburn, and Materials Technology at Philadel-
earned a B.Sc. in mechanical phiaU since 1999, earned a B.A. in
engineering from Peshawar Univ. physics from Boston Univ. in 1986
(Pakistan) in 1976 and a Ph.D. in and an M.S. in materials engineering
aerospace engineering from Wichita from Drexel in 1989. Then Eileen
State in 1985. Since then Anwar worked for Navmar Applied Sciences
taught at Tuskegee Univ and Texas and the Naval Air Warfare Center and
A&M and was Associate Director of earlier was a biophysics researcher
Aerospace at Southern Univ. His at Massachusetts General Hospital.
research interests include aero- Her research interests include low
optics of airborne lasers, flow insta- cost manufacturing techniques,
bilities in jets, wakes and boundary instructional methods, and modeling
layers, vortex dominated flows, circu- of fabric and composite structures.
lar shear layers and free vortex F98-P1, I99-P1
dynamics. ecarroll@fibers.texsci.edu
F99-A10 (215)-951-2563
aahmed@eng.auburn.edu
(334)-844-6817 J. Richard Aspland, a Professor of
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~aahmed Textile Chemistry at Clemson, joined
the faculty in 1982. He earned a M.S.
Donald A. Alexander, now at Guilford in dyeing at Leeds (U.K.) in 1960 and
Mills and a member of NTC’s TAC a Ph.D. in textile chemistry from
committee, was project manager of Manchester (U.K.) in 1964. From
AMTEX’s Textile Resource Conserva- 1966-82, Dick held research and
tion project and Director of the research management positions at
Technology Transfer Center at ITT Sodyeco (now a Sandoz div.) and
from 1988-98. Don earned an M.S. in Reeves Brothers. His research inter-
textile technology from ITT in 1985. ests include dye-fiber interactions,
His research interests include recov- shade sorting and dye synthesis.
ery and reuse of raw materials in the C95-S7, C99-S4
integrated textile industry. aj@clemson.clemson.edu
C94-G2T (864)-656-5953
dalexander@gfd.com
(336)-316-4781

Rajesh D. Anandjiwala, a Research


Associate and Assistant Professor of
Textiles, Fibers and Polymer Science
at Clemson since 1989, received a
Ph.D. in textile mechanics at Univer-
sity of Leeds (England) in 1984
whereupon he joined Arvind Mills,
Ltd. (India) in research and develop-
ment before coming to Clemson.
Rajesh's research interests include
mechanics of yarns and fabrics,
fatigue in textile materials, textile
mechanisms and application of
statistical methods in textiles.
F92-C2
anandjr@hubcap.clemson.edu
(803)-656-0373

Lenda Jo Anderson, see Lenda Jo


Connell

B-2 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Everett E. Backe, a Senior Scientist at Mary E. Barry, an Associate Profes-
ITT, joined the staff in 1959 upon sor and Coordinator of Fashion
earning a B.S. in textile manufactur- Merchandising at Auburn, joined the
ing and management from faculty in 1973. after receiving an
Massachusetts-Dartmouth. In 1961 he Ed.D. in vocational education from
earned a M.S. in textile technology Temple. She has an M.S. in retailing
from ITT. Everett's research interests from New York University in 1954 and
include growing, harvesting, ginning, a B.S. in economics from St. Joseph
and textile processing of cotton, College in 1953. For 15 years she
cotton and man-made fiber proper- was a buyer for G.Fox & Co., Hartford
ties and statistical process control. CT. Mary's research interests include
I95-A11 world production and distribution of
(804)-296-5511 textiles and apparel, global retailing
and sourcing and apparel apprentice-
Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, a Senior ship programs.
Research Fellow in the Space Power I93-A4
Institute at Auburn, joined the staff in mbarry@humsci.auburn.edu
1995. Sayavur earned a Sc.D. from (334)-844-1338
the Azerbaijan Inst. of Math. & Appl.
Mech. in 1992 and a Ph.D. from the Arindam Basu, the Assistant Director
Azerbaijan Institute of Thermophys- of The South India Textile Research
ics in 1978, all mechanical engineer- Association, Coimbatore, earned a
ing. He also holds a B.Sc. from Ph.D. in textile engineering from
Azerbaijan Inst. Of Oil & Chemistry in Univ. of Leeds in 1991, a Bachelor's
1971. His research interests are in 1983 in textile technology from
rheology of composites and Univ. of Calcutta and a Diploma in
polymers, fluid and gas dynamics. business and industrial management
F99-A10 from Datamatics Institute (Bombay).
sayavurb@eng.auburn.edu He was a supervisor for West Bengal
(334)-844-6198 Co-operative spinning mills from
1986-1997 and then Deputy manager
Pamela Banks-Lee, an Associate for Indian Rayon and Industries
Professor at NC State, received a Limited.
Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science F99-S6
from NC State. Earlier Pam was a sitra@md2.vsnl.net.in
process control engineer for +91-422-574367 (India)
Monsanto. Her research interests
include fabric deformation during Subhash K. Batra, a Professor in
roll-making, sound absorption and Textile and Apparel Management and
wave propagation in nonwoven in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and
fabrics. Science at NC State and Director of
I92-S3 the Nonwovens Cooperative
pbanks-l@tx.ncsu.edu Research Center, received a Ph.D. in
(919)515-6573 mechanics at Rensselaer Polytechnic
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm in 1966 and a S.M. in management
from M.I.T. in 1977 when he joined
Roger L. Barker, a Professor and the faculty at NC State. Subhash was
Director of the Center for Research also a senior scientist at Battelle and
on Textile Protection and Comfort at a supervisor at the Ahmedabad New
NC State, joined the faculty in 1981 Cotton Mill in India. His research
after having served on the faculties interests include mechanical behav-
of Cornell and Clemson. He received ior of fibrous and textile materials
a M.S. in physics from Tennessee in and textile processing technology.
1969 and a Ph.D. in textile and M94-S2*, F97-C5
polymer science from Clemson in subhash_batra@ncsu.edu
1978. Roger's research interests (919)-515-6555
include textile comfort and protective http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
materials.
F95-S24*, I98-S8*, F99-S2*
roger_barker@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6577
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/rbarker.html

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-3


David G. Beale, an Associate Profes- Hassan M. Behery, an Associate
sor in Mechanical engineering at Professor in Textile Science at
Auburn, received a Ph.D. in mechani- Clemson first joined the faculty in
cal engineering from Michigan. 1965. He earned a Ph.D. in textiles
David’s research interests include from Manchester Univ. (England) and
dynamics, control and design of a M.S. in mechanical engineering
mechanisms and mechanical from Alexandria Univ. (Egypt) where
systems. he was a Professor and Head of the
F99-A10 Textile Dept. 1967-69. Hassan was
dbeale@eng.auburn.edu also a manager of textile processing
(334)-844-3336 for Phillips Fibers Corp. 1972-75. His
research interests include fiber
science, fiber and yarn processing
and nonwovens.
Keith R. Beck, a Professor of Textile I95-A11
Chemistry at NC State, received his nassahb@clemson.clemson.edu
Ph.D. in chemistry from Purdue in (864)-656-5954
1970. Before joining NC State in
1986, Keith was on the faculty of Larry D. Benefield, an Associate
Elmhurst College and Purdue. His Dean and a Professor of Civil
research interests include durable Engineering at Auburn since 1979,
press finishing, near infrared received a Ph.D. degree in civil
spectroscopy, carbon dioxide as an engineering from Virginia Polytech-
analytical and processing fluid, flow nic Institute. Before returning to
injection analysis and other spectro- Auburn where he earned a B.S. and
scopic methods for dyebath M.S., Larry was an Assistant Profes-
monitoring. sor at Mississippi State and at
C95-S4, C99-S2 Colorado. His research interests
keith_beck@ncsu.edu include biological wastewater treat-
(919)-515-6558 ment and mathematical modeling,
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/beck.htm esp. of environmental systems.
C92-A4
Haskell Beckham, an Associate larryb@eng.auburn.edu
Professor at Georgia Tech, joined the (334)-844-4326
faculty in 1993. He received a B.S. in
textile chemistry at Auburn and a Marie Drum Beninati, a partner with
Ph.D. in polymer science at M.I.T. in CSC Consulting (Computer Sciences
1991 whereupon he served a 2-year Copr.) joined the firm in 1995. She
postdoctoral internship at the Max holds a B.S. in economics from City
Planck-Institute (Mainz). His research Univ. of New York in 1968 and an
interests include polymer and textile M.B.A. in marketing and finance from
chemistry, synthesis and properties Adelphi Univ. in 1978. Marie has
of functionalized polymers and solid been a senior executive at National
state NMR investigations of polymer Retail Federation, Carter Hawley Hale
molecular structure, order and Stores and R.H. Macy’s. Her
dynamics. research interests include global and
M95-G8, C95-G2, C95-G13*, C97-G11* national strategisc issues within the
haskell.beckham@tfe.gatech.edu retail supply chain and long term
(404)-894-4198 strategic thought leadership and
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham positioning and consumer linkage.
I95-A19
Stephen E. Bechtel, Professor and (212)-251-6132
Graduate Studies Chair at Ohio State,
joined the faculty in 1983 upon
earning a Ph.D. in mechanical
engineering at UCal-Berkeley. He
also holds a B.S. in engineering
science from Michigan in 1979,
Steve's research interests include
computer modeling of industrial
polymer processing, continuum
mechanics, viscoelastic fluid flow,
free surface flows and instability
mechanisms characterization of
industrial and agricultural materials.
M98-G5
bechtel@seb1.eng.ohio-state.edu
(614)-292-6570

B-4 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Gordon A. Berkstresser III is a Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of
Professor (and former Department Textile Engineering at Auburn since
Head) of Textile and Apparel Technol- 1976, received his Ph.D. with concen-
ogy and Management at NC State. trations in textile chemistry and fiber
Before returning to his NC State alma and polymer science from NC State.
mater in 1978, Gordon worked 16 Before joining Auburn, Roy worked
years in the textile and furniture in polyester research at Goodyear
industries, then received an MBA in Tire & Rubber. His research inter-
human resources from Baruch and a ests include manufacture, utilization
Ph.D. in business from City Univer- and testing of fibers and nonwovens.
sity of New York. His research inter- M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10,
ests include marketing and F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11
international trade in textiles, apparel royalb@eng.auburn.edu
and related products and the model- (334)-844-5460
ing and analysis of the fiber-textiles- http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton
apparel-retail pipeline.
I95-S2*, I98-S1* David Brown, a CNRS Position Rouge
gordon_berkstresser@ncsu.edu at Université de Nancy I, France since
(919)-515-6593 1996, earned a B.Sc. in chemistry at
University of Leeds in 1979 and a
Charles Bock, a Professor of Compu- Ph.D. in chemistry at University of
tational Chemistry at PhiladelphiaU Manchester Institute of Science and
earned a Ph.D. in 1972, an M.S. in Technology in 1984. Remaining on
1970 and a B.S in 1968, all in physics the research staff there David
from Drexel. Chuck’s research inter- consulted in molecular dynamics
ests include computational with industry (DuPont, Exxon, Shell,
chemistry, molecular modeling of ICI and Fujitsu) over the following 12
carcinogenic dyes and interaction of years. His research interests include
water with various metal ions. molecular dynamics simulations of
I98-P1 polymers.
chuck@larry.texsci.edu M96-G19
(215)-951-2876 brown@incm.u-nancy.fr
33-(0)3-83-91-20-00 Ext. 3532
http://www.lctn.u-nancy.fr/Chercheurs/David.Brown/db.html

Gisela Buschle-Diller, an Assistant


Professor of Textile Engineering at
Alex Bogdanovich of NC State Auburn, joined the faculty in 1995.
F92-S12 Gisela earned a Ph.D. in chemistry
abogdano@tx.ncsu.edu from the U. of Stuttgart (Germany) in
(919)-515-6679 1989 with postdoctoral work at U. of
California, Davis, in textiles and
clothing. She worked at Berlin's
Fraunhofer Institute for Applied
Polymer Science and Rathgen
Research Laboratories. Her research
interests include dyeing and
finishing, especially enzymatic
Evelyn Brannon, an Associate processes, natural fibers, environ-
Professor in Consumer Affairs at mental issues and the history of dyes
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 and textile materials.
after earning a Ph.D. in Communica- C96-A1*, M98-A16, C99-A7*
tions at the Univ. of Tennessee in giselabd@eng.auburn.edu
1989. She also has an M.S. in Cloth- (334)-844-5468
ing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~giselabd
has been an editor/writer for several
consumer publications and an indus- Peter N. Butenhoff, president of
try consultant on product develop- Textile/Clothing Technology Corpora-
ment and entrepreneurship. Her tion and a member of NTC’s TAC
research interests include consumer committee, joined [TC]2 in 1992,
behavior, retail forecasting systems, following a 27-year career with
and rural economic development. DuPont. In addition to several
I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8, positions in marketing, manufactur-
I98-A9* ing and product management in the
brannel@auburn.edu Textile Fibers Dept., Pete served a
(334)-844-6457 3-year stint as vice-president of
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html DuPont Japan, Ltd.
I95-S2
pbutenh@tc2.com
(919)-380-2156

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-5


Neil Cahill, Professor and Vice Presi- Nancy L. Cassill is an Associate
dent of ITT, joined the faculty in 1974 Professor and Director of Graduate
after working 13 years in industry Studies in Clothing and Textiles at
with various textile companies. Neil UNC-Greensboro. She earned a
earned his B. S. from the University Ph.D. from UTN-Knoxville in 1986, an
of Massachusetts-Dartmouth in 1961 M.S. from Indiana in 1976 and a B.S.
and his M. S. from the ITT in 1964. from Purdue in 1972. Nancy's
His research interests include design research interests include textile
of World Class manufacturing organi- products marketing and consumer
zations, global competitiveness and behavior.
profitability engineering. I95-S2
I99-A2, I99-S10 cassillm@iris.uncg.edu
neilc@itt.edu (910)-334-5250
(804)-296-5511

Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Profes- Dorothy H. Cavender, an Assistant


sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering Professor in Consumer Affairs and
at Georgia Tech since 1980, received an Assistant Dean for Academic
a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering Affairs in the School of Human
from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before Sciences at Auburn, joined the
joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a faculty in 1978 upon earning an Ed.D.
senior research engineer at there in adult education. She holds a
Monsanto. His research interests M.S. in textiles, apparel and merchan-
include thermal sciences in industrial dising from Univ. of Kentucky.
fiber and textile processes (particu- Dotty's research interests include
larly radio frequency, microwave, direct marketing of apparel through
ultrasound and infrared), electro- catalogues, consumer behavior and
photographic printing of textiles and apparel marketing, academic issues,
polymer properties and structure. student recruitment development and
C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11, placement.
C98-G30*, C99-G8* I95-A23
wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu dcavende@humsci.auburn.edu
(404)-894-2538 (334)-844-4790
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html

Carol G. Carrere, a Visiting Assistant


Professor of Textile & Apparel Tech-
nology & Management at NC State,
earned a Ph.D. in textile technology
management there in 1997. Carol's
research interests include modeling
and analysis of manufacturing
elasticities for sewn product replen-
ishment, sewability, sewing dynam-
ics, fabric objective measurement
and performance analysis, ergonom-
ics and production operations
management.
I98-S12
ccarrere@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6514
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

B-6 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Carol B. Centrallo, an Assistant Al Chen, an Associate Professor in
Professor and Extension Apparel & Accounting at NC State, joined
Textile Management Specialist at faculty in 1989 upon earning a Ph.D.
Auburn since 1992, received her in accounting from Georgia Tech
Ph.D. in apparel from the University where he also earned an MBA in
of Minnesota in 1993. She has an 1984. He also earned a BBA from the
undergraduate degree in fashion Chinese Culture University in Taiwan
merchandising from University of in 1980. Al's research interests
North Alabama. Carol worked in include activity-based costing and
retailing at Parisian for six years and cost management in a competitive
was an associate assistant extension strategy.
agent for eight years. Carol's I97-S8
research interests include apparel al_chen@ncsu.edu
production and human relations in (919)-515-4437
the apparel industry.
I94-A10T Julie Chen, Associate Professor of
ccentral@humsci.auburn.edu Mechanical Engineering and
(334)-844-1325 Co-Director of the Advanced
Composite Materials and Textile
Leon D. Chapman, the DAMA Research Laboratory at UMass
(Demand Activated Manufacturing Lowell since 1997, earned a Ph.D.
Architecture) laboratory project from MIT in mechanical engineering
manager at Sandia, earned a Ph.D. in in 1991, then became Assistant
electrical and computer engineering Professor, Aerospace and Mechani-
from Oklahoma State in 1971, then cal Engineering at Boston University
was an Assistant Professor at Univ. until 1997. Julie’s research interests
of Alabama in Computer Science and include mechanical behavior and
Operations Research. Leon has also deformation of fiber structures, fiber
been a design engineer at Continen- assemblies and composite materials.
tal Oil and a senior executive VP in M98-D3
information and manufacturing julie_chen@uml.edu
technologies at BDM Corp. (1985-90). (978)-934-2992
His research interests include infor- http://m-5.uml.edu/chen
mation systems and technology and
systems analysis. He plays golf on Xi Chen, Georgia Tech
the Senior PGA tour. no bio or photo
I95-A23, I98-A6 F98-G15
leon_chapman@sandia.gov]
(505)-845-8668 Xuemin Chen, a Staff Scientist at
TRI/Princeton, joined TRI in 1999. He
earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry
from Brigham Young Univ. in 1991
and an M.S. from Nankai University
(China) in 1985. Before joining TRI,
Xuemin was a postdoctoral fellow
and research associate at Brigham
Young. His research interests include
interactions of liquids with fibrous
materials, distribution and stability of
finish films on fibers and yarns, and
chemical instrumentation.
C98-P2
xchen@triprinceton.org
(609)-430-4836

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-7


Fred L. Cook, a Professor and Direc-
tor of the School of Textile & Fiber
Engineering at Georgia Tech, has
Timothy G. Clapp, a Professor at NC been on the faculty since he received
State, joined the faculty in 1985 after a Ph.D. there in organic-polymer
receiving a B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in chemistry in 1975 after being a
mechanical engineering from NC polymer research chemist at DuPont.
State. Tim's research interests He is a consulting chemical editor of
include apparel automation and Textile World magazine, and vice-
automated material handling. president of the National Council for
I94-S4*, F95-S20, F98-S4 Textile Education. Fred's research
timothy_clapp@ncsu.edu interests include textile/polymer
(919)-515-6566 chemistry, sustainable textile chemi-
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/tclapp.html cal application processes and carbon
fibers.
James L. Clark, a Senior Research F98-G15
Engineer at the Georgia Tech fred.cook@tfe.gatech.edu
Research Institute, has been on the (404)-894-2536
staff since 1978. He earned a B.S. in http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/cook/cook.html
physics from Davidson in 1968, an
M.S. in industrial management in John A. Cuculo, Hoechst Celanese
1981 and a Ph.D. in mechanical Professor Emeritus of Fiber and
engineering from Georgia Tech. Jim Polymer Science at NC State, joined
is a registered Professional Engineer the faculty in 1968 after an 18-year
with 8-years industrial experience at career in fiber research at DuPont.
Hercules and Monsanto. His He received a Ph.D. in chemistry
research interests include industrial from Duke and a Sc.B. from Brown.
process improvements, thermal John's research interests include
sciences, operations analysis and high performance fibers from polyes-
pollution prevention. ter fiber extrusion and cellulose. He
C94-G2T holds several patents in these areas.
jim.clark@gtri.gatech.edu F98-A4
(404)-894-6103 john_cuculo@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6556
Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate
Professor in Consumer Affairs at Jerome J. Cuomo, a Professor of
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971 Materials Science and Engineering at
after receiving a masters degree in NC State since 1993, is a member of
clothing and textiles from Louisiana the National Academy of Engineering
State University. In 1990, she earned and received the National Medal of
a Ed.D. in adult education from Technology in 1995. He holds a
Auburn. For 15 years she was an Ph.D. in physics in 1979 from Odense
Extension Resource Management Universitet (Denmark) and a M.S. in
Specialist for the textile and apparel physical chemistry from St. Johns in
industry and now coordinates the 1960. Jerry had a 30-year career at
Apparel Production Management IBM culminating as manager of
program. Lenda Jo's research inter- Materials Processing. His research
ests include electronic sourcing, interests include enhanced plasma
apparel product development and processes.
consumer preference style testing. C94-S13, C99-S9
I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7, cuomo@ncsu.edu
I98-A8*, I98-A9 (919)-515-6556
anderl1@auburn.edu
(334)-844-3789 Tim Curran, a Simulation Analyst at
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html Textile/Clothing Technology Corpora-
tion, joined [TC]2 in 1997 after receiv-
ing his B.S. in industrial engineering
from NC State. Tim’s research inter-
ests include analysis of the effects of
different production methods on
manufacturing cycle time and in
development of flexible decision
support tools to aid in the implemen-
tation of quick response, short cycle
manufacturing.
I98-S12
tcurran@tc2.com
(919)-380-2156

B-8 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


NTC Principal Investigators: D - G

Darren M. Dawson, a Professor in Zhi Ding, an Associate Professor in


Electrical and Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering at Auburn,
and the Center for Advanced Manu- joined the faculty in 1990 upon
facturing at Clemson, joined the receiving a Ph.D. in electrical
faculty in 1990 when he received a engineering from Cornell. Zhi also
Ph.D. in electrical engineering from holds a M.A.Sc. from Univ. of Toronto
Georgia Tech. After receiving a B.S. in 1987 and a B.Eng. in wireless
in 1984 he was a control engineer at engineering from Nanjing Institute of
Westinghouse until 1987. Darren’s Technology. His research interests
research interests include nonlinear include digital communications,
based robust, adaptive and learning system identification and adaptive
control for electromechanical sys- signal processing.
tems including robot manipulators, I95-A11
motor drives, magnetic bearings, ding@eng.auburn.edu
flexible cables, flexible beams and (334)-844-1817
high-speed transport systems. http:..www.eng.auburn.edu/~ding
F98-S4
ddawson@ces.clemson.edu R. Alan Donaldson, a Professor and
(864)-656-5924 Program Director of Textile Design in
http://ece.clemson.edu/crb/index.htm Textile and Apparel Management at
NC State, joined the faculty in 1976.
Hawthorne A. Davis, an Associate He is an Honors graduate of the
Professor at NC State joined the Scottish College of Textiles. Alan has
faculty in 1992 after completing a 30 been a designer for Hayward/Schus-
year career at DuPont as a Research ter Woolen Mills (East Douglas MA),
Fellow. Hawthorne received a Ph.D. Llorens y Torra (Spain), Guilford
in solid state physics at the Univer- (New York) and Courtaulds. He has
sity of Virginia. His research inter- been a tenured lecturer at the Univer-
ests include fabric appearance sity of Manchester Institute of
nonuniformities, computer modeling, Science and Technology. His
mechanistic studies and characteri- research interests include computer
zations of polymer, fiber and fibrous integrated design systems for the
systems using such analytical textile industry.
techniques as microscopy, X-ray and I95-A20
interference fringe patterns. alan_donaldson@ncsu.edu
F92-S9, F93-S8, M94-S2, C95-S7 (919)-515-6586
hdavis@tx.ncsu.edu http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
(919)-515-4552
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm J. Lewis Dorrity, an Associate Profes-
sor of Textile & Fiber Engineering at
Prashant Desai, an Associate Profes- Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in
sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering 1988. He received a MS in electrical
at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty engineering at the Air Force Institute
upon earning a Ph.D. in chemical of Technology in 1965, then served 6
engineering there in 1988. Prashant years in the U.S. Air Force, leaving as
holds a B.Tech. in textile chemistry a Captain. Lew then earned a Ph.D.
from I.I.T. (Delhi, India). His research in electrical engineering from
interests include carbon, ceramic and Clemson in 1973 and spent 15 years
other high performance polymeric at Greenwood Mills rising to vice-
fibers, fiber formation principles, president of Research and Quality.
polymer molecular modeling, His research interests concentrate on
morphol- ogy, crystallization and instrumentation and control of textile
characterization processes.
C92-G5, M94-C4, F95-S24, C95-G1 I94-G2*, I94-S4, F98-G15
prashant.desai@tfe.gatech.edu lew.dorrity@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-8341 (404)-853-9076
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/dorrity/dorrity.html

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-9


Gerry Dozier is an Assistant Profes- Guillermo Duenas, an Associate Pro-
sor in Computer Sciences and fessor of Management in the School
Software Engineering at Auburn, of Business and Co-director of the
joined the faculty in year? Gerry Center of Management Excellence at
holds a Ph.D. His research interests PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in
include genetic and evolutionary 1983. He earned a Ph.D. in systems
computation, esp. constraint satis- sciences from Wharton School (Univ.
faction, motion planning and obsta- of Penn) in 1987. Guillermo’s
cle avoidance. research interests include total
I98-A6 quality management, strategic
doziegv@auburn.edu planning and cross- cultural manage-
(334)-844-6327 ment strategies.
I98-P3*
Michael J. Drews, a Professor of duenasg@philacol.edu
Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Sciences (215)-951-2823
at Clemson, joined the faculty in
1974. He is the co-director of Matthew W. Dunn, a Research Assis-
Clemson's Center for Advanced tant Professor in Textile Engineering
Engineering Fibers and Their at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in
Composites. He received a Ph.D. in 1998 after serving as Assistant Direc-
physical chemistry from the Univ. of tor of Research at Fiber Concepts,
North Texas in 1971 following a B.S. Inc. Matt received his B.S. in 1995 in
in chemistry from the Univ. of textile materials science from NC
Wisconsin. Mike's research interests State and an M.S. in 1997 in textile
include instrumental methods to engineering from PhiladelphiaU, and
characterize polymers, supercritical is currently completing his Ph.D. in
fluids and fiber reinforced compos- materials engineering at Drexel.
ites for biomaterials. Matt's research interests include
M94-C4, F94-C2*, M95-S22, C95-C3*, composite preform manufacturing
C99-C3* and design and permeability model-
dmichae@clemson.clemson.edu ing of textiles.
(864)656-5955 C98-P1*
mdunn@fibers.texsci.edu
(215)-951-2683
http://fibers.texsci.edu/html/matt.html

B-10 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Judson H. Early, Director of R&D with Michael S. Ellison, a Professor of
Textile Clothing Technology Corpora- Textile and Polymer Science at
tion and on NTC’s TAC committee, Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984.
joined [TC]2 in 1991 following a 21 He received a Ph.D. in polymer fiber
year career at Haggar Apparel Co. physics at the University of California
where he served as Director, and (Davis) in 1982. Mike's research
later, Vice President of R&D. Follow- interests include structure/property
ing mechanical and electrical relationships in melt extrusion of
engineering studies at Arlington fibers, tensile and non-tensile loading
State College (TX) from 1962-66, Jud during mechanical property testing of
launched a custom machine develop- fibers, electrical properties of
ment business. He has more than 25 polymers and application of chaos
patents received over a 30 year span. theory to polymer physics.
In 1995-96 he was Chairman of the M94-C4*, M94-S2, M96-C1*, M98-C5*,
Apparel Research Committee of the F98-C4*
AAMA. His research interests include ellisom@clemson.clemson.edu
technology integration and 3D (864)-656-5966
imaging. http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/ellison.html
I98-A8
jearly@tc2.com David J. Elton, an Associate Profes-
(919)-380-2156 sor in Civil Engineering at Auburn
since 1985, received a Ph.D. in civil
Jeffrey W. Eischen, an Associate engineering at Purdue in 1982 and a
Professor of Mechanical and M.S. in geotechnical engineering at
Aerospace Engineering at NC State Utah State in 1977. From 1982-5, he
since 1986, received a Ph.D. in was an Assistant Professor of civil
Applied Mechanics from Stanford engineering at The Citadel. Dave's
University. Jeff has been involved research interests include geotechni-
with the College of Textiles in inter- cal engineering, expert systems,
disciplinary research for several geosynthetics, highway engineering,
years. His research interests include earthquake engineering and fuzzy
finite element numerical analysis of sets.
fabric drape and manipulation, F94-A8
dynamics and control of flexible elton@eng.auburn.edu
mechanisms and stress analysis in (334)-844-6285
layered microelectronic media.
F95-S20*, F98-S4* Basil G. Englis, who holds the
eischen@eos.ncsu.edu Richard Edgerton Chair in Business
(919)-515-5263 Administration at Berry College,
http://www.mae.ncsu.edu/faculty/faculty.html joined the faculty in 1996. He earned
a B.A. in psychology/sociology from
CUNY in 1978 and a Ph.D. in experi-
Yehia E. El Mogahzy, an Associate mental psychology from Dartmouth
Professor of Textile Engineering at in 1982. Basil was an Assistant
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1986 Professor at Clarkson and Rutgers
when he received a Ph.D. in fiber and Universities and an Associate Profes-
polymer science from NC State. He sor at Penn St and at the University
also holds a M.S. in textile engineer- of Umeå (Sweden), where he was
ing from Alexandria University also a Fulbright Scholar. His research
(Cairo). Yehia's research interests interests include mass media and
include statistical analysis, quality consumer socialization, political mar-
control, fiber-to-yarn engineering and keting, consumer knowledge acquisi-
physical/mechanical properties of tion and cognitive representation of
fibers, yarns and fabrics. lifestyle-related product groupings.
I95-A11, F96-A3, F99-A13* I97-A11
yehiae@eng.auburn.edu benglis@biz.campbell.berry.edu
(334)-844-5463 (706)-290-2645
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~yehiae/welcome.html http://campbell.berry.edu/faculty/benglis/b-vita.htm

Aly H. M. El-Shiekh, a Professor of


Textile Engineering, Chemistry and
Science at NC State, joined the
faculty in 1968. He received a Ph.D. in
mechanical engineering from M.I.T. in
1965. Aly's research interests include
mechanics of textile structures,
processing dynamics, automation
and the manufacturing of textile
preforms for composites.
F92-S12
aly_el-shiekh@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-6561

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-11


Shu-Cherng Fang, the Walter Clark Paul D. Franzon is a Professor of
Professor of Operations Research Electrical and Computer Engineering
and Industrial Engineering at NC and Director of the Engineering
State, received his Ph.D. in Industrial Research Laboratory at NC State
Engineering and Management University. He received his Ph.D. in
Science from Northwestern Univer- Electrical Engineering from the
sity. Before joining NC State, he University of Adelaide, Australia in
worked on manufacturing process 1989. He joined NC State in 1989
optimization and telecommunication after working for AT&T Bell Laborato-
network design for AT&T. His current ries, Australian Defense Science and
research interests are operations Technology Organization, and
research and systems optimization, Communica Pty. Ltd. His research
such as analysis and modeling of the interests include developing novel
apparel pipeline. integrated systems incorporating
I95-S2, I98-S1 MEMS (micromachines), silicon ICs
fang@eos.ncsu.edu and advanced packaging.
(919)-515-2350 (919)-515-7351
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm paulf@eos.ncsu.edu
http://www.ece.ncsu.edu/erl/faculty/paulf.html
Sandra Forsythe, Wrangler Professor
of Consumer Affairs at Auburn,
joined the faculty in 1991 after five
years at Miami Univ. of Ohio and four W. Barrie Fraser, a Senior Lecturer in
years at Univ. of Georgia. She earned the School of Mathematics and
an M.S. from Virginia Tech in 1976 Statistics at the University of Sidney
and a Ph.D. in textiles and clothing, (Australia), joined the faculty in 1965.
marketing and consumer economics He received a Ph.D. in applied
from Univ. of Tennessee in 1981. She physics from Harvard in 1965 and an
is editor of Clothing and Textiles M.E. in civil engineering from the
Research Journal. Sandra's research University of New Zealand in 1961. In
interests include international 1990 Barrie was a Visiting Scholar at
apparel marketing consumer behav- NC State. His research interests
ior, apparel selection, brand image include mathematical modeling,
and perception formation and dynamics of moving threadlines,
consumer behavior. theory of ring spinning and transfor-
I95-A23*, I98-A6* mation toughening of ceramics.
forsysa@auburn.edu F94-S9, F97-C5
(334)-844-6458 barrief@maths.usyd.edu.au
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/forsythe.html
Harold S. Freeman, a Professor of
Alex Fowler, an Assistant Professor Dyestuff Chemistry at NC State,
of Mechanical Engineering at joined the faculty in 1982. He
UMassD since 1994 after earning a received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry
Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from from NC State in 1981 while working
Duke. and a B.A. in philosophy in as an organic chemist at Burroughs-
1987 from Weslyan University. Alex’s Wellcome. Harold's research inter-
research interests include heat trans- ests include synthetic pigment and
fer with specific applications involv- dyestuff chemistry, especially
ing porous media, computational computer-aided design, purification,
fluid dynamics, multiphase systems photodegradation, environmental
and bioengineering. interactions and instrumental
F98-D4 analysis.
afowler@umassd.edu M95-S22*, C98-S4*, C99-A7
(508)-999-8542 harold_freeman@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6552
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/hfreeman.html

B-12 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Brian George, an Assistant Professor Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of
at PhiladelphiaU School of Textiles Textile and Polymer Science at
and Materials Technology since 1999, Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984.
earned a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer He received his Ph.D. in textile
science in 1999 and a B.S. in textile technology from Manchester
science in 1994, both at NC State. (England) in 1966 and a M.S. in
Brian’s research interests include textiles from Bombay University
fiber and polymer science, nonwov- (India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past
ens and recycling president of The Fiber Society. and a
I99-P1 Fellow of the American Society of
georgeb@philau.edu Mechanical Engineers. His research
(215)-951-2782 interests include dynamics of fiber
processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile
Subhas Ghosh, a Professor and structures for composites and fiber,
Director of Research at ITT, joined yarn and fabric structural mechanics.
the faculty in 1976. He earned a B.S. M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9,
in textile technology in 1967 from F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15
Calcutta University and a M.S. and gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu
Ph.D. in fiber science in 1994 from (864)-656-5957
the University of Manchester (ENG). http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/f
He was also a Quality Control Direc- aculty/goswami.html
tor at National Spinning Company
(North Carolina). Subhas’ research Muthu Govindaraj, an Associate
interests include near infrared Professor and Director of Textile
spectroscopy, textile material charac- Graduate Programs at PhiladelphiaU
terization, polymer recycling, and since 1995, earned a Ph.D. in
filament processing. mechanical engineering at the
F99-A13 University of Liberec (Czech
(804)-296-5511 Republic) in 1982. He also earned a
subhasg@itt.edu MTech. in textile engineering at the
University of Madras (India). Muthu
Tushar K. Ghosh, an Associate was also a machine design engineer
Professor in Textile and Apparel in industry in India, a post-doctoral
Management at NC State, joined the research associate at NC State and
faculty in 1988 after receiving a Ph.D. an assistant professor at Cornell. His
there in fiber and polymer science. research interests include fabric
Earlier he was a scientist at the Jute mechanics and on-line control
Technological Research Laboratories systems for textile and apparel
in Calcutta (India). Tushar's research machinery.
interests include mechanics of I98-P2*
fibrous assemblies, design and mgraj@aol.com
analysis of industrial textiles, dynam- (215)-951-2684
ics of textile processes and technol- http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/govind.html
ogy of fabric formation.
F94-A8, F94-S9*, F97-C5, I96-A9 Yasser A. Gowayed, an Associate
tushar_ghosh@ncsu.edu Professor at Auburn joined the
(919)-515-6568 faculty in 1992, when he received a
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at
NC State. He also earned a M.S. in
Thomas F. Gilmore, an Associate materials engineering from the
Professor and Associate Director, American University (Cairo) in 1989
Research, of the Nonwovens after an 8-year career in industry as a
Cooperative Research Center at NC structural designer and civil
State, joined the faculty in 1990. He engineer. Yasser's research interests
earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineer- include modeling and analysis of
ing at the University of Delaware textile composites, image analysis,
followed by a 26-year industrial geotextiles and re-utilization of solid
career at Monsanto, Stearns & Foster wastes.
and as the V.P., Technology, of the F94-A8, F95-A24*, I95-A11, F98-A4,
Nonwovens Division of James River I96-A9
Corporation. His research interests ygowayed@eng.auburn.edu
include development of new process (334)-844-5496
and product technology for the http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~ygowayed
nonwoven industry.
F93-S8*
thomas_gilmore@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6557

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-13


Maureen M. Grasso, Associate Dean David Thomas Grubb, an Associate
of the Graduate School and Associ- Professor in Materials Science &
ate Professor of textile products Engineering at Cornell, joined the
design and marketing at UNC- faculty in 1978. He received a Ph.D.
Greensboro joined the faculty in 1992 in materials science at Oxford (U.K.)
after 12 years at Univ. of Texas in 1970, is a fellow of the Royal
-Austin. She earned an M.S. from Microscopical Society and
Cornell in 1977 and a Ph.D. in textile co-authored Polymer Microscopy.
science and consumer economics David's research interests include
from the Univ. of Tennessee in 1982. polymer and fiber structure, micro-
Her research interests include mechanics of fiber composites, X-ray
environmental aspects of textile diffraction and Raman spectroscopy
products and mass customization. for systems under mechanical load.
I98-A8 M95-G8
m_grasso@uncg.edu grubb@msc.cornell.edu
(336)-334-4887 (607)-225-3684
http://www.uncg.edu/tdm/faculty_and_research.html#Grasso
Stephen Gray, a Professor and Head Michael B. Gunner, a Visiting
of Computer Clothing Research at Research Associate at NC State since
Nottingham Trent Univ., joined the 1992, earned a Ph.D. in electronics at
faculty in 1991. He earned a degree the Univ. of Hull (U.K.). Mike’s
in mathematics from Univ. of Sussex research interests include machine
in 1976 and M.Sc. degree in comput- design, fabric/mechanism interac-
ing science from Imperial College in tions, new apparel design and the
1979. Stephen created the ORMUS integration of multiple machines.
Fashion software and authored I94-S4
CAD/CAM in Clothing and Textiles mgunner@tx.ncsu.edu
(1998). His research interests include (919)-515-4199
CAD/CAM, system interfaces,
software tools for the creative artist,
3D modeling and animation. Hong Guo, a Research Associate of
I98-A8 Textile Engineering at Auburn since
stephen.gray@ccr.ntu.ac.uk 1996. earned her Ph.D. degree in
Perry L. Grady, an Associate Dean of fiber/textile science from the Univer-
the College of Textiles and Professor sity of Leeds (England) in 1995 and a
of Textile Engineering at NC State, M.S. degree in textile technology
joined the faculty in 1962. He from China Textile University (China)
received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer in 1985. Hong served as a Lecturer in
science from NC State. Perry's Wuhan Textile Institute (China) for 6
research interests include instrument years. Her research interests include
design and development, computer high performance fibers, fiber struc-
applications in textiles and energy ture and properties and textile
conservation. He is co-editor of testing.
Microprocessors and Minicomputers F96-A3
in the Textile Industry. hguo@eng.auburn.edu.auburn.edu
I92-S11 (334)-844 5488
perry_grady@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-6651 Liwen Guo earned a M.S. in textile
chemistry from NCState in 1999.
Richard V. Gregory, a Professor and
Lewen also earned a BS in polymer
Director of the School of Textiles,
engineering from Tianjin Univ.
Fiber and Polymer Science at
no photo
Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990.
M98-A4
He received his Ph.D. in physical
chemistry at Clemson in 1984 and
Bhupender S. Gupta, an Assistant
continued with postdoctoral work in
Head for Undergraduate Studies and
polymer spectroscopy whereupon he
a Professor of Textile Science at NC
joined the research staff at Milliken.
State, joined the faculty in 1966.
Dick is thrust leader of NSF Center
Bhupender holds a Ph.D. in textile
for Advanced Fibers and Films, and
physics from the University of
on the editorial board of Macro-
Manchester (England) in 1963. After
molecular Materials and Engineering.
receiving a B.S. from Punjab Univer-
His research interests include the
sity, he was a supervisor in the Delhi
formation, characterization and
Cloth and Modi Textile Mills (India).
potential industrial applications of
His research interests include bioma-
conductive polymers and the interac-
terials, structural mechanics, absorb-
tion of ultraviolet radiation with
ency and physical, mechanical and
polymers.
rheological properties.
M95-C6*, M95-C4*, M98-C1*
F96-A3
richar6@clemson.clemson.edu
bs_gupta@ncsu.edu
(864)-656-5961
(919)-515-6559
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/gregory.html

B-14 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


NTC Principal Investigators: H - L

David Michael Hall, a Professor of Padmini Srinivasan Hands, a Visiting


Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined Research Professor in Textile and
the faculty in 1965. He received a Apparel Technology and Manage-
Ph.D. in textile chemistry from Victo- ment at NC State joined the staff in
ria Univ. (Manchester U.K.) in 1964 1994 from the U. of Southwestern
and an M.S. in textile chemistry from Louisiana faculty. She earned a Ph.D.
Clemson in 1962. Dave is a regis- in computer science at Tulane. She
tered Professional Engineer and also earned a masters in business
fellow of the Textile Institute and the management from Asian Institute of
Society of Dyers and Colorists. His Management (Manila) in 1981, having
research interests include fiber previously been a management
identification for forensics, wet trainee at the Indo-Phil Textile Mills
processing, sizing and cellulose & (Manila). Padmini's research inter-
polymer chemistry. ests include knowledge representa-
C95-A8* tion, work flow analysis, intelligent
dmhall@eng.auburn.edu robotic systems and fuzzy logic
(334)-844-5454 systems.
I96-S15
Kunihiro Hamada, an Assistant padmini@ncsu.edu
Professor in material chemistry at (919)-515-8606
Shinshu Univ. (Japan) since 1988, is
currently a visiting scholar at NC Timothy Hanks, an Associate Profes-
State. He earned a Ph.D. in polymer sor of Chemistry at Furman Univer-
chemistry from Tokyo Institute of sity, joined the faculty in 1990. He
Technology in 1987. Kunihiro earned a B.S. in chemistry from
worked at Japan's Research Institute South Dakota School of Mines and
for Textiles and Polymers and Technology in 1982 and a Ph.D. in
received the Sobue Memorial Prize of organic chemistry from Montana
Japan's Society of Fiber Science and State in 1986. After postdoctoral
Technology. His research interests research at Minnesota, Tim was a
include using dyes as probes, visiting assistant professor at
sorption and dye diffusion in films Clemson. His research interests
and fibers and effects of auxiliaries. include nanoporous solids,
C95-S7 organometallic polymers for microe-
lectronics and electro-responsive
Hechmi Hamouda, an Associate polymers for non-linear optics,
Professor at NC State, joined the catalysis and sensing applications.
faculty in 1986. He holds an M.S. M98-C1
from Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de hanks@furman.edu
Tunis (Tunisia) and a Ph.D. in (864)-294-3373
mechanical engineering from the http://www.furman.edu/~hanks/hanks.html
State Univ. of New York at Buffalo
where he became a graphics Ian R. Hardin, a Professor and Head
programmer. Hechmi then was a of the Department of Textiles,
research fellow for U.S. Energy Dept. Merchandising and Interiors at the
His research interests include University of Georgia, joined the
computer modeling of heat transfer faculty in 1994 after having served on
through fabrics, e.g. radiative and the faculty at Auburn for 23 years.
radiofrequency drying of fabrics and He received a M.S. in textile engineer-
fire resistance of garments. ing at ITT in 1967 and a Ph.D. in
C92-S6 textile chemistry from Clemson in
hechmi_hamouda@ncsu.edu 1970, then did post doctoral work at
(919)-515-6567 Michigan in polymer physics. Ian's
research interests include fiber
surface modification for protective
functions, cellulosic pyrolysis, fiber
microanalysis and enzymatic
processes for textiles.
M93-S5
ihardin@hestia.fcs.uga.edu
(706)-542-0367

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-15


Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Profes- William Eugene Hill, a Professor of
sor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, Chemistry at Auburn since 1970,
joined the faculty in 1997 after a received a Ph.D. in inorganic chemis-
23-year industrial research career try from Strathclyde University in
with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler Scotland. Before coming to Auburn,
Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a Gene was a research chemist for
Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC Rohm and Haas. His research inter-
State. Peter's research interests ests include analytical detection of
include high performance chemical low level environmental pollutants
finishes for enhanced value textiles, such as those causing taste and odor
indigo dyeing and denim garment in drinking water, phosphorus
wet processing, mathematical model- removal in activated sludge, biologi-
ing of textile wet processes and new cal degradation of groundwater
textile processes to reduce costs, pollutants and transition metal
energy usage and pollution associ- coordination chemistry.
ated with textile wet processing. C92-A4
C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9 hillwil@mail.auburn.edu
peter_hauser@ncsu.edu (334)-844-6967
(919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.htm David Hinks, an Assistant Professor
at NC State, joined the faculty in 1993
Helmut H. A. Hergeth, an Assistant as a research associate upon earning
Professor in Textile and Apparel a Ph.D. in organic dye chemistry
Management at NC State since 1991, from Leeds (U.K.) where he had
received an M.B.A. and a Ph.D. in earlier received a Bachelors in colour
business and economics from chemistry. David’s research interests
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, include computer-aided colorant
(Münster, Germany) in 1986 after design, synthesis and application of
receiving a B.S. in textiles from NC dyes and pigments and functional
State. He was an export account chemistry in supercritical fluids.
manger and a marketing manager for M95-S22, C99-C3
American Enka. Helmut's research david_hinks@tx.ncsu.edu
interests include investment strate- (919)-515-6554
gies and export financing for the http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hinks.html
textile industry.
I97-S8*, I97-S10*
hhergeth@tx.
(919)-515-6574
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Solomon Phillip Hersh, a Professor


Emeritus at NC State, joined the
faculty in 1966. He has also served as
Head of the Department of Textile
Engineering and Science. Soloman
received a Ph.D. in physical chemis-
try from Princeton in 1954 whereupon
he was a research chemist at Union
Carbide and Chemstrand. His
research interests include fabrics
that protect against toxic and biologi-
cal agents, fatiguing of textile struc-
tures and expert systems for fabric
design.
F92-G1
sol_hersh@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6650

B-16 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


George L. Hodge is an Associate Matthew T. Holt, a Professor of
Professor in Textile and Apparel Agricultural and Resource Econom-
Technology and Management at NC ics at NC State joined the faculty in
State where he earned a Ph.D. in 1993, after six years in Agricultural
industrial engineering in 1990 and a Economics at the University of
B.S. in nuclear engineering. George Wisconsin. He earned a B.S. (1981)
also holds a M.S. from Ohio St. and and a M.S. (1983) both in agricultural
has held engineering positions with economics from Purdue and a Ph.D.
Ohio State Univ. and Carolina Power in agricultural economics from the
& Light. His research interests University of Missouri in 1987. Matt's
include economic analysis, multi- research interests include demand
attribute decision analysis, expert system estimation, price forecasting,
systems, technology management, agricultural policy analysis, the role
enterprise integration, systems of risk in agricultural supply
modeling and computer integrated decisions and applied econometric
manufacturing. and statistical analysis.
F98-S12, I96-S15, I99-S10* I98-S6
george_hodge@ncsu.edu holt@ag.arizona.edu
(919)-515-6579 (919)-515-4527
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
Thom J. Hodgson, the James T. Ryan Sidney B. Hornby, a Staff Scientist at
Professor of Industrial Engineering TRI/Princeton since 1988 when she
and Director of the Integrated Manu- earned a M.S. in chemistry from
facturing Systems Engineering Insti- Rutgers also has a B.S. in chemistry
tute at NC State, joined the faculty in from Rutgers in 1979. Sidney is
1983 from 13 years on Univ. of Flori- currently a doctoral candidate in
da’s faculty and at Ford Motor Co. He chemical engineering at the New
earned a BSE in science engineering, Jersey Institute of Technology. Her
a MBA in quantitative methods and a research interests include the surface
Ph.D. in industrial engineering all chemistry of films and fibers and hair
from University of Michigan. Thom’s chemistry and mechanics.
research interests include production C98-P2
scheduling, inventory control, logis- shornby@triprinceton.org
tics, real-time control of systems and (609)-430-4847.
applied operations research.
I98-S12 Samuel M. Hudson, an Associate
hodgson@eos.ncsu.edu Professor at NC State, joined the
(919)-515-5194 faculty in 1987. He is also an
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm Adjunct Assistant Professor in Art
Conservation for the University of
Delaware. Sam received a Ph.D. in
fiber and polymer science at NC State
in 1981 whereupon he became a
senior chemist for DuPont before
returning to NC State. His research
interests include the development of
"environmentally-friendly" fibers,
especially chitin and chitosan, and
micromechanics of bone fracture.
M98-A16
sam_hudson@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6545
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/shudson.html

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-17


Cecil O. Huey, a Professor in Karl I. Jacob, Assistant Professor in
Mechanical Engineering at Clemson, Textile and Fiber Engineering at
joined the faculty in 1975. He Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in
received a Ph.D. from Clemson in 1995 after 6 years in mechanics of
mechanical engineering in 1973, then composites and molecular modeling
was an Assistant Professor at of polymers with Dacron* Research
Georgia Southern for 2 years. and Central Research & Development
Earlier, Cecil was an engineer for at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in
Humble Oil. He has received several applied mechanics from Ohio State in
awards for teaching excellence. His 1985 and a B.S. in civil engineering in
research interests include the 1978 from University of Kerala (India).
kinematics of mechanisms and Karl's research interests include
machine design. polymer solidification, flow induced
F95-C9* morphological instabilities, molecular
cohuey@clemson.clemson.edu modeling and mechanics.
(864)-656-5623 M96-G19*, M98-G5*, M98-G8*
karl.jacob@tfe.gatech.edu
Norman Alan Hunter, a Visiting (404)-894-2541
Associate Professor at NC State http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jaco
since 1986, following a 32-year career b/jacob.html
at I.C.I. and then Celanese, where he
directed strategic and marketing Warren J. Jasper, an Assistant
planning, market research and Professor in Textile Engineering at
market relations. In 1954, Alan NC State, joined the faculty after
earned a M.S. in natural sciences receiving a Ph.D. in aeronautics and
from Cambridge (U.K.). His research astronautics from Stanford in 1991.
interests include quick response Upon receiving his B.S. and M.S.
apparel manufacturing, automation from M.I.T. in 1983, Warren joined the
and modeling the apparel retailing technical staff at Hughes Aircraft's
process. Space and Communications Group.
I95-S2 His research interests include
(514)-483-6327 automated manufacturing and real-
time data acquisition and control of
Cynthia Istook, an Associate Profes- textile processes.
sor in Textile and Apparel, Technol- I94-G2, C95-S4, I97-S1, C99-S2
ogy and Management at NC State, warren_jasper@ncsu.edu
joined the faculty in the fall of 1997. (919)-515-6565
Cindy earned a Ph.D. in textiles and http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/wjasper.html
clothing in 1992 from Texas Woman’s
Univ. She taught there and at Baylor
and Univ. of North Texas. She has a
B.S. in fashion merchandising, cloth-
ing and textiles from Texas Christian
in 1976. She was also a department
group manager at Federated Depart-
ment Stores. Her research interests
include mass customization, apparel
sizing systems, computer-aided-
design, technology integration, rapid
prototyping, digital printing and 3-D
body scanning.
I99-S7
(919)-515-6584
cistook@tx.ncsu.edu
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/
faculty/cistook_res_p2.htm

B-18 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Y. K. Kamath, a Director of Research Hyung Bum Kim, a Visiting Scholar
at TRI/Princeton and an Adjunct and measurement and control
Professor at PhiladelphiaU, joined specialist at NC State since 1997,
TRI in 1972. He earned a Ph.D. in earned an M.S. in textile engineering
physical and organic chemistry from in 1996 and a M.S. in measurement &
Univ. of Connecticut in 1973, a M.S. control in 1993 from Kyunghee Univ.
in plastic Technology and a B.S. in (Korea) and a B.S. in electronics in
chemistry and physics from Bombay 1986 from Sung Kyun Kwan Univ.
Univ. (India) in 1959. His research (Korea). Hyung Bum was in R&D on
interests include polymer colloids, Industry Automation for Samsung
polymerization kinetics, fiber and and a Research Officer at KITECH
fiber surface chemistry, interfacial and KyungHee Univ. His research
interactions, fiber transport, fiber interests include signal processing,
finishes and fiber, yarn and fabric fabric visualization and instrument
mechanical properties. design for yarns and nonwovens.
C98-P2 F99-S2
ykamath@triprinceton.org hbkim@tx.ncsu.edu
(609)-430-4820 (919)-515-6580
Yatin Karpe, a research assistant in
Jai-Ok Kim, an Assistant Professor in
Textile and Apparel, Technology and
Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined
Management at NC State, earned his
the faculty in 1992 when she earned
bachelor's degree in textile technol-
an MBA from Kentucky. She also
ogy from ,Victoria Jubilee Technical
earned a Ph.D. in textile science from
Institute (India) and a M.S. in textile
Maryland in 1987 and a B.S. in house
management from Georgia. Yatin
planning, interior design and art from
worked at Reliance Industries and
You Sei Univ. (Seoul) in 1973. She
Raymond Woolen Mills in India. His
has been chairperson of Textiles and
research interests include global
Consumer Economics at Inha Univ
quick response, competitive advan-
(Korea) and a manager for Korean Air
tage and information engineering.
Lines. Jai-Ok's research interests
I96-S15, I99-S10
include clothing comfort and apparel
yskarpe@tx.ncsu.edu
quality analysis and apparel market-
(919)-515-3043
ing and retail analysis, esp. East
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~yskarpe
Asian.
I96-A23, I98-A6
kimjaio@auburn.edu
(334)-844-1341
http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/kim.html

Yong K. Kim, a Professor of Textile


Sciences at UMass Dartmouth, joined
the faculty in 1981 when he earned a
Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science
from NC State. He holds a BS and
M.S. in textile engineering from Seoul
National University (Korea) in 1974.
Yong’s research interests include
textile process design and manufac-
turing systems, mechanics of fibrous
structures and composite materials.
F97-D1*, F98-D4
ykim@umassd.edu
(508)-999-8452

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-19


Russell E. King, a Professor of Indus- Frank K. Ko, a Professor in Materials
trial Engineering at NC State, earned Engineering and Director of the
a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from Fibrous Materials Research Center at
the University of Florida. Before Drexel, joined the faculty in 1984 after
joining the faculty at NC State in 8 years at PhiladelphiaU. He earned
1986, he worked as a Systems a Ph.D. in textile engineering at
Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of Georgia Tech in 1977. Frank is a
Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty SAMPE fellow and recipient of the
received an NC State Alumni Fiber Society distinguished achieve-
Outstanding Teacher Award and in ment award. His research interests
1995 received the Alcoa Foundation include advanced textile structural
Engineering Research Achievement composites, mechanics of fibrous
Award. His research interests structures, fiber viscoelasticity,
include modeling and analysis of the biomedical and industrial textiles,
fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline. and nanofibers and nanocomposite
I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16 technology.
king@eos. ncsu.edu F98-P1
(919)-515-5186 fko@coe.drexel.edu
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_p (215)-895-1640
age_people.htm http://fmrc.coe.drexel.edu/fmrc_director.html

Lawrence R. Klein, Professor Emeri- Satish Kumar, a Professor in Textile


tus of Economics and Finance at the and Fiber Engineering at Georgia
University of Pennsylvania, joined Tech joined the faculty in 1989. He
the faculty in 1958 and has also earned a Ph.D. in 1979 from Indian
taught at Univ. of Chicago, Michigan Institute of Technology (New Delhi).
& Oxford. In 1980 he was the Nobel After a postdoctoral at U of Mass.,
Laureate in Economics for his global Satish was a scientist at the Atomic
econometric LINK Model which Energy Commission of France
combined models from countries (Grenoble) and at the Air Force
around the world for studying inter- Materials Laboratory (Wright Patter-
national trade, payments and global son) and an adjunct associate profes-
economic activity. He holds a Ph.D. sor of chemistry at Wright State
from MIT (1944) and a B.A. (Phi Beta University. His research interests
Kappa) from California at Berkeley in include structure, properties and
1942. In 1976 he coordinated Jimmy processing of polymers, fibers and
Carter's econometric task force for composites.
the Presidential race. He founded the F92-S12, M92-G3, M95-S22
Wharton Econometric Forecasting satish.kumar@tfe.gatech.edu
Associates and has honorary (404)-853-9346
degrees from 25 universities. His
research interests include studying
international trade, payments and
global economic activity through
econometrics.
I93-A4
(215)-898-7713

B-20 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Martine LaBerge, an Associate Johannes Leisen, a research scien-
Professor of Bioengineering and tist at Georgia Tech since 1997,
Materials at Clemson, joined the received a PhD in chemistry from
faculty in 1990. She received her Johannes Gutenberg University in
Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from 1994 for research conducted at the
the Univ. of Montreal (Quebec). She Max Planck Institute for Polymer
has served on the scientific staff at Research (Mainz). He then did
Shriners Hospital in Greenville SC research at Fraunhofer Institute for
since 1990. Martine's research inter- Biomedical Research in St. Ingbert
ests include lubrication and friction (Germany). Hanno’s research inter-
of artificial orthopedic bearing ests include polymer characterization
surfaces, phospholipids as boundary using NMR spectroscopy and devel-
lubricants, fiber reinforced elastom- opment and application of spatially
ers design & characterization of resolved NMR techniques in textile
elastomeric coatings sciences.
F94-C2 C97-G31
laberge@clemson.clemson.edu johannes.leisen@textiles.gatech.edu
(864)-656-5557 (404)-894-9241

Kenneth D. Langley, a Professor of Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile


Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth Chemistry and Environmental
joined the faculty in 1968 when he Science at UMass Dartmouth, joined
earned an M.S. in textile technology the faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D.
from the Institute of Textile Technol- in surface chemistry from Lehigh in
ogy. He is a Fellow of the Textile 1958 following a B.S. in textile
Institute. His research interests chemistry from the New Bedford
include fiber microscopy, morphol- Textile Institute and an M.S. in
ogy and identification; quality chemistry from Oklahoma State.
engineering and yarn manufacturing. From 1959-88, Armand was in
F97-D2 research at American Cyanamid,
klangley@umassd.edu Lord Corp. and Kendall. His research
(508)-999-8199 interests include adhesion science,
flock material and processes,
Gordon K. L. Lee is a Mechanical composite materials and the fibrous
and Aerospace Engineering Profes- wiping of surfaces by nonwoven
sor at NC State . He received a Ph.D. fabrics.
in control systems from University of M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4
Connecticut in 1978; then, thru 1989 alewis@umassd.edu
was on the Electrical Engineering (508)-999-8452
faculty at Colorado State University
where he served as the Director for
Robotic Studies. Gordon is Presi-
dent of the International Society for
Computers and Their Applications.
His research interests include real-
time control and adaptive learning
systems, especially when applied to
robotics and dyeing processes.
C95-S4, C99-S2
glee@eos.ncsu.edu
(919)-515-5292

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-21


Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate Trevor J. Little, a Professor and Head
Professor in Textiles, Fiber & of the Textile and Apparel Manage-
Polymer Science at Clemson, joined ment Dept. at NC State, joined the
the faculty in 1986. He earned a faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D.
Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in in textile industries at the Univ. of
1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from Leeds (England) in 1974 whereupon
Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's he was a research scientist in textile
research interests include molecular physics at CSIRO (Australia), a
modeling, polymer surfaces and professor at PhiladelphiaU and Direc-
interfaces modification and charac- tor of Product Development at
terization, wetting and adhesion. Danskin. Trevor's research interests
M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3 include automated manufacturing
lgary@clemson.clemson.edu and handling systems, sewability and
(864)-656-5964 sewing dynamics and apparel
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html manufacturing and management.
I98-S1 , I98-S12
Mark I. Liff, an Associate Professor at trevor_little@ncsu.edu
PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in (919)-515-6646
1990 from a position as a research http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
scientist at NYU. In 1977 he earned a
Ph.D. in physics from the Institute of Jerome Link, an Affiliate Professor at
Macromolecules of the USSR Auburn and chairman of Trade
Academy of Sciences, then served as Resources, Inc. (New York), has had
an industrial R&D scientist in St. 35 years of international research,
Petersburg (Russia). Mark’s marketing and management experi-
research interests include molecular ence in chemicals, plastics, textile
biophysics of protein fibers, polymer products and leisure equipment,
physics, solid state NMR and relaxa- including president of Amcel Fibers
tion studies of polymer networks, (Hoechst Celanese) and chairman of
liquid state multidimensional NMR of the American Fibers Manufacturers
biological macromolecules and NMR Association's Trade and Tariff
and ESR of lipid bylayers. Committee. He received a B.A. in
M98-P1* education from Washington Univer-
liffm@philacol.edu sity in St. Louis. Jerry's research
(215)-951-2879 interests include international trade
and commerce and global
Weiping Lin, on the research faculty competitiveness.
of Textile Engineering at Auburn I93-A4
since 1997, received a Ph.D. in fiber (212)-889-9745
and polymer science from China
Textile University (Shanghai) in 1990, Charles Dwaine Livengood, Profes-
then became an Assistant Professor sor of Textile Chemistry and Associ-
of Material Science at Zhongshan ate Dean for Academic Programs at
University (Guangzhou, China). From NC State, joined the faculty in 1966.
1994 to 1996 Weiping was a Postdoc- Charlie received a B.S. and M.S. in
toral Research Fellow at California- textile chemistry and an Ed.D. in
Davis and Auburn. His research education at NC State. His research
interests include polymer synthesis, interests include warp sizing and
fiber formation, surface modification, pollution control.
stimuli-sensitive polymers, advanced C92-S1
fibers and reclamation of textile (919)-515-6647
waste.
M98-A16
lwp@eng.auburn.edu John Luke, an Assistant Professor of
(334)-844-4327 Textile Marketing in the Schools of
Business and Textiles and Materials
Technology at PhiladelphiaU, joined
the faculty in 1997 after a number of
years in marketing, operations and
finance in Chemstrand, FMC Fibers
and Avtex and has had his own
marketing consulting practice since
1989. He earned his BSE in engineer-
ing from Princeton in 1957 and his
MBA from NYU in 1967. John's
research interests include strategic
marketing & planning analyses as a
function of product-market position.
I98-P3
lukej@philacol.edu
(215)-951-2814

B-22 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


NTC Principal Investigators: M - Q

Mohamed Mahrous, a Professor of Sheldon W. May, Associate Director,


Applied Mathematics at the Univ. of Institute for Bioengineering and
New Orleans since 1973, earned two Bioscience, and Regents' Professor
Ph.D. degrees from Iowa State in of Chemistry & Biochemistry at
1966: mathematics (numerical analy- Georgia Tech, earned a B.S. in 1966
sis) and engineering mechanics. from Roosevelt Univ. and a Ph.D. in
Mohamed was a consultant to LSU chemistry from Univ. of Chicago in
Medical Center 1976-1995 on inner 1970. Then he joined Exxon, where
ear physiology and nerve transmis- he was a founding member of the
sion. His research interests include first industrial biotechnology group
mathematical modeling, (e.g. simulat- in the U.S. Sheldon is editor of
ing artificial organ mechanisms, Enzyme and Microbial Technology,
plasmas in the sun's atmosphere, and of the Biochemical Engineering
and characterizing human organ section of Current Opinion in
functions) and modeling non-parame- Biotechnology. His research interests
tric variables. include enzyme technology and
F99-A13 applications of biotechnology in
mmahrous@math.uno.edu materials Science.
(504)-394-0078 M97-G2*, M99-G11*
sheldon.may@chemistry.gatech.edu
(404)-894-4052
Robert S. Mariano, a Professor of
Economics at the Univ. of Pennsylva- Barbara Werner Mazziotti, Manager of
nia, joined the faculty in 1971 after Simulation Services at [TC]2 since
earning a Ph.D. in statistics at 1990, earned a M.S. in industrial
Stanford in 1970. He had taught at the engineering from NC State. She has
Univ. of the Philippines since he copyrighted the Modular Manufactur-
earned an M.S. degree in statistics ing Simulation System and the
there in 1963 then earned an M.S. in Textile/ Apparel Process Simulator
math at Illinois. Bobby edits the for [TC]2. Previously, Barbara was a
“Journal of Asian Economics” and consultant for Systems Modeling
Advances in Statistical Analysis and Corporation and a simulations
Statistical Computing.” He was an project engineer for General Motors.
expert reviewer for the U.S. Dept. of Her research interests include flexi-
Energy. His research interests ble simulation tools for apparel and
include dynamics of Asian financial textile processes.
markets and the economic implica- I95-S2
tions of trade policy.
I93-A4
mariano@econ.sas.upenn.edu
(215)-898-7716

Thomas E. Marshall, an Assistant


Professor of Management in the
College of Business at Auburn,
joined the faculty in 1991. He
received a Ph.D. in business
computer information systems from
the Univ. of North Texas in 1992.
Tom is a Certified Public Accountant.
His research interests include
decision support systems, expert
systems, human information
processing and database manage-
ment systems.
I95-A19, I95-A20
marshall@business.auburn.edu
(334)-844-4071

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-23


Robert E. McCall, a manager in Ultra- Marian Gayle McCord, an Assistant
sound Wet Textile Processing at NC Professor at NC State since 1994
State, has a B.S. in mathematics and when she received a Ph.D. in textiles
physics from Muskingum College and polymer science at Clemson,
and a M.B.A. from Xavier. He was a also earned a Sc.B. in biomedical
product manager with AccuRay Corp. engineering at Brown and a M.S. in
in computerized measurement, bioengineering at Clemson. Marian's
control and management information research interests include torsional
systems; managing sensor technolo- properties in high performance
gies using X-ray, radioisotopes, radio fibers, barrier fabrics and comfort of
frequency & infrared. He holds four textile materials.
U.S. patents for process control M94-C4, F95-S24, I98-S8, C99-S9*,
systems. Bob's research involves F99-S2
developing ultrasound for use in marian_mccord@]ncsu.edu
textile dyeing and washing. (919)-515-6571
C95-G13 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/mmccord.html
rmccall@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6591 Ralph McGregor, a Professor of
Textile Engineering at NC State,
Aliecia R. McClain, an Assistant joined the faculty in 1970. He was
Professor of Textile Engineering at also thrice a visiting researcher or
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1998 professor at the Tokyo Institute of
when she earned her Ph.D. in agricul- Technology. He holds a B.S., Ph.D.
tural and environmental chemistry at and D.Sc. in colour chemistry from
UC-Davis. Aliecia also has a B.S. in the University of Leeds (England) and
chemistry from Benedict College (SC) has received the Olney Medal for
in 1985 and a M.S. in inorganic outstanding achievement in textile
polymer chemistry from Clark-Atlanta chemistry in 1984. Ralph's research
University in 1990. Her research inter- interests include computer simula-
ests includes polymer synthesis, tion and modeling of textile wet
fiber and polymer science, and the processes, sorption and diffusion in
use of chelating fibers and resins to fibers and color perception in fabric
treat effluents. appearance defects.
M98-A16 C95-S4*, C95-S7*
amcclain@eng.auburn.edu ralph_mcgregor@ncsu.edu
(334)-844-5459 (919)-515-6554

Donald H. Mershon, a Professor of


Psychology and Coordinator for the
Ergonomics Graduate Program at NC
State, joined the faculty in 1972. He
earned a Ph.D. from Univ. of Califor-
nia at Santa Barbara in 1970. As an
experimental psychologist speciali-
zing in human perception, Don’s
research interests include the
perception of 3-D space through both
vision and hearing.
F92-S9
don_mershon@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-2252

B-24 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Zhong-Xing Mi, Manager, Fabric German Mills, an Associate Professor
Development at Cotton, Inc. joined of Chemistry at Auburn since 1995,
the staff in 1995 from being a joined the faculty in 1989. He earned
Research Associate at the Nonwov- a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from
ens Cooperative Research Center at the Technical University of West
NC State. He received a Ph.D. in Berlin in 1985 and a MS in inorganic
textile physics in 1983 at the Univ. of chemistry from the University of
Manchester (England) whereupon he Chile in 1981. "Jimmy" has held
became Associate Professor and postdoctoral positions at Caltech and
Deputy Head of the No. 1 Textile Argonne National Lab. His research
Engineering Dept. at China Textile interests include synthesis and
University (Shanghai). Earlier he was properties of nanometer-sized metal
Technical Director for the Guangxi and semiconductor particles, "smart"
(China) Textile Mill. He is on NTC’s materials and transformation of toxic
TAC committee. John's research chemicals.
interests include fiber-reinforced F95-S24, C98-A17, M98-A10*
composites and textile physics. millsge@mail.auburn.edu
F98-S9 (334)-844-6974
jmi@cottoninc.com http://www.auburn.edu/~winkekj
(919)-510-6134
Gary N. Mock, a Professor of Textile
Stephen Michielsen, an Associate Engineering at NC State, joined the
Professor in Textile and Fiber faculty in 1976 during which time he
Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined received the Outstanding Teaching
the faculty in 1995. He has a B.S. in Award three times. He received a
chemistry from S.U.N.Y. and earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from
Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the Clemson in 1976 after four years of
University of Chicago in 1979 and did industrial experience at Milliken. His
postdoctoral research at Stanford research interests include the radio
whereupon he spent 15 years at frequency drying of textiles, ultra-
DuPont in their polymer and fiber sound and computer integrated
research departments. Steve's manufacturing in wet processing.
research interests include fiber C95-G13
surface modification, fiber strength, gary_mock@ncsu.edu
thermomechanical properties of (919)-515-6643
fibers and polymers, fiber/polymer
physics and polymer blends. Mansour H. Mohamed, a Professor of
C98-A17, C99-S4 Textile Engineering and Technology
stephen.michielsen@tfe.gatech.edu at NC State, joined the faculty in
(404)-894-6345 1969. He received a Ph.D. in textile
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/michielsen/michielsen.html technology from Manchester Univer-
sity (England) in 1965, whereupon he
Victor Milenkovic, an Associate became a Lecturer in Textile
Professor in Mathematics and Engineering at Alexandria (Egypt).
Computer Science at the University His research interests include
of Miami since 1994, received a Ph.D. dynamics of weaving machinery (esp.
in computer science from Carnegie air jet), twistless yarns, three dimen-
Mellon in 1988. He then became sional weaving, fabric structure and
Assistant Professor of computer properties, nonwoven fibrous struc-
science in the Division of Applied tures for filtration.
Sciences at Harvard where he earned F97-S15*
a BA in mathematics in 1981. In mmohamed@tx.ncsu.edu
1991, Victor was named an NSF (919)-515-6571
Presidential Young Investigator. His
research interests include computa-
tional geometry, numerical robust-
ness, automated part layout and
CAD/CAM.
I94-A13,
vjm@cs.miami.edu
(305)-284-4194

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-25


Jeffrey F. Morris, an Assistant R. Mark Nelms, an Associate Profes-
Professor of chemical engineering at sor of Electrical Engineering at
Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in Auburn, earned a Ph.D. in electrical
1995 after obtaining a Ph.D. in engineering at Virginia Polytechnic
ChemE. at Caltech and spending a Institute and State Univ. in 1987.
year with Shell Research in Amster- Mark’s research interests include the
dam. Jeff also earned a B.Ch.E. in application of power electronic and
1989 from Georgia Tech. In 1999 he electromechanical energy conversion
was a Visiting Professor at the technologies to textile machinery.
Universite de Provence in Marseille F92-A3
(France). His research interests nelms@eng.auburn.edu
include suspensions and colloids (334)-844-1830
especially modeling their flow behav-
ior. Henry L. W. Nuttle, Professor of
C98-G30, C99-G8 Industrial Engineering at NC State,
jeff.morris@che.gatech.edu received a Ph.D. in operations
(404)-894-5134 research from Johns Hopkins. Hank's
http://www.chemse.gatech.edu/people/jfm.html research interests include applied
operations research and production
Alexander V. Neimark, a Principal systems such as the analysis and
Scientist at TRI/Princeton since 1996, modeling of the fiber-textile-apparel-
earned an M.S. in mechanical retail pipe- line.
engineering in 1973, a Ph.D. in I95-S2, I98-S1
chemical engineering in 1977 and a nuttle@eos.ncsu.edu
D.Sc. in physical chemistry in 1988 (919)-515-2364
from Moscow State Univ. (Russia). He http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm
was then a Research Professor in
Physics at the Russian Academy of L. Howard Olson was an Associate
Science then to the faculty of Yale’s Professor in Textile and Fiber
Chemical Engineering Dept. 1994-96. Engineering at Georgia Tech where
Alex’s research interests include he joined the faculty in 1969. Howard,
interfacial phenomena and porous now deceased, earned a Ph.D. in
materials engineering, from molecu- textile physics at Manchester Univ.
lar level theories of nanocapillarity to (U.K.) in 1971, an M.S. in textile
macroscopic models of fluid flow and engineering at Georgia tech in 1967
sorption in porous media and fiber and a B.S.E. in mechanical engineer-
systems. ing at Princeton. His research inter-
C98-P2 ests included acoustic sensing of
aneimark@triprinceton.org sewing defects, high performance
(609)-430-4818 specialty fabrics, mechanics of knits,
http://www.triprinceton.org/aneimark quality control and testing, and
physics of fibers, yarns and fabrics.
I94-S4

William Oxenham has been an


Associate Professor of the Depart-
ment of Textile and Apparel Technol-
ogy and Management at NC State
since 1992 after having lectured at
the University of Leeds (England)
since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974.
Bill's research interests include data
reduction, fiber damage during
processing, ring spinning instability,
fiber friction, yarn tensile testing,
carding variability and microfiber
processing.
F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5,
F99-S6*, I99-S10
woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6573
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

B-26 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru, a Frank W. Paul, the Quattlebaum
Research Scientist in Textile and Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, at Clemson and Director of the
joined the staff in 1988 from the staff Center for Advanced Manufacturing,
of NC State. He received a Ph.D. in joined the faculty in 1977. He
textile engineering in 1981 from the received a Ph.D. in mechanical
Indian Institute of Technology (New engineering from Lehigh in 1968 and
Delhi) and an MS in applied statistics an M.S. from Penn State in 1964.
from Georgia State in 1995. Krishna Frank has served on the faculties of
was on the Textile Technology faculty Carnegie-Mellon and Lehigh and on
at the University of Madras (India) in the technical staffs of Hamilton
1984-5. His research interests Standard Division, United Technolo-
include spun yarn structure-property gies. His research interests include
relationships, Kawabata methodol- process control, robotic automation,
ogy and computer modeling of machine design and sensors.
manufacturing processes. F95-S20, F98-S4
C96-A1, F98-G15, C99-A7 frank.paul@ces.clemson.edu
krishna.parachuru@tfe.gatech.edu (864)-656-3291
(404)-894-0029 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Paul.html
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/krishna/krishna.html
Spyros G. Pavlostathis, a Professor
David Pascoe, an Assistant Profes- of Environmental Engineering at
sor in Health and Human Perform- Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in
ance at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1991. He received a Ph.D. in environ-
1990 when he received a Ph.D. mental engineering from Cornell
degree in bioenergetics from Ball University in 1985 and taught at
State. Earlier he received a M.A. from Clarkson University before joining
California State-Fresno. Dave's Georgia Tech. Spyros' research
research interests include physio- interests include biotransformation
logical evaluation of clothing of hazardous and industrial pollut-
systems for heat and cold stress and ants, reductive biotransformation
thermography to identify hazards due processes and environmental
to protective clothing systems. biotechnology for bioremediation
F95-S24 applications in both engineered and
pascodd@mail.auburn.edu natural systems.
(334)-844-1473 C96-G2*
spyros.pavlostathis@ce.gatech.edu
Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate (404)-894-0029
Professor of Textile Engineering and http://environmental.gatech.edu/~sgp/
Technology and Director of Research
of the School of Textiles and Materi-
als Technology at Philadelphia
University, joined the faculty in 1995.
Previously he was on the Textile
Materials Science faculty at NC State
and the Materials Engineering faculty
at Drexel University. Chris holds a
B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a
Ph.D. in materials engineering from
Drexel in 1988. His research inter-
ests include modeling of fabric and
composite structures.
F98-P1*, I99-P1*
cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu
(215)-951-2683
http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-27


Warren Perkins, a Research Associ- Thomas A. Petee, an Associate
ate at University of Georgia, had been Professor of Sociology at Auburn,
Professor of Textile Engineering, at joined the faculty in 1989 upon
Auburn and was Acting Head of the earning a Ph.D. in sociology from
Department 1987-89. In 1991-2 he was Notre Dame. He also holds a M.S. in
President of the American Associa- sociology and a B.S. in criminal
tion of Textile Chemists and justice from Univ. of Toledo. Tom's
Colorists. Warren received a B.S. research interests include decision-
and M.S. in textile chemistry from making models.
Clemson. His research interests I95-A23, I98-A6
include textile dyeing and finishing, peteeta@mail.auburn.edu
especially source reduction of pollu- (334)-844-2821
tion from textile dyeing and finishing
operations, reclaiming and recycling Peter H. Pfromm, an Assistant
water and dielectric and infrared Professor at the Institute of Paper
heating and drying of textiles. Science and Technology, joined the
F92-A1, C92-S6, C92-A4 faculty in 1994 after earning a Ph.D.
wperkins@hestia.fcs.uga.edu in chemical engineering from Univ. of
(706)-542-4885 Texas (Austin) in 1993. He also
earned a M.S. in process engineering
Ronald S. Perry, a retired Professor from the Univ. of Stuttgart in 1985
of Textile Chemistry at University of whereupon he was a researcher at
Massachusetts Dartmouth, joined the Membrane Technology and
faculty in 1973. He received a Ph.D. Research, Inc. and Pharmetrix (both
in polymer chemistry in 1965, an M.S. Menlo Park) and at Fraunhofer
in organic and also in textile chemis- Gesellschaft/IGB (Stuttgart). Peter's
try from the University of Lowell and research interests include membrane
B.S. in textile chemistry from the New separations and polymer and surface
Bedford Textile Institute in 1958. science in paper recycling.
From 1965-73 he was engaged in of C95-G1
industrial research and product peter.pfromm@ipst.edu
development at ICI and Sun (404)-853-1869
Chemical. Ron’s research interests
include textile dyeing and finishing,
fiber modification and fire science.
F97-D1
rperry@umassd.edu
(508)-999-8447

B-28 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


John D. Pierce Jr., an Assistant Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Professor and
Professor of Biopsychology at Phila- co-Director of the Nonwovens
delphiaU since 1998, earned a a B.S. Cooperative Research Center at NC
from St. Joseph's Univ. in 1981, an State joined the faculty in 1999 after
M.A. in psychology from the Univ. of being a Professor in Textile and Fiber
Nevada Reno in 1985, and a Ph.D. in Engineering at Georgia Tech,
psychobiology from the Univ. of preceded by 11 years at Univ. of
Florida in 1989. John then did Maryland in Textiles & Consumer
postdoctoral research in psycho- Economics and in Materials &
physics at the Univ. of Pennsylvania Nuclear Engineering. Behnam
and the Monell Chemical Senses earned a Ph.D. in textiles from Leeds
Center. His research interests include (U.K.) in 1982. In 1994 he received
sensory processing and perceptual the Fiber Society's Young Distin-
experiences. guished Scientist Award. His
I99-P1 research interests include failure
piercej@philau.edu mechanisms in fibers and polymers,
(215)-951-2556 image analysis and modeling the
http://faculty.philau.edu/piercej physical behavior of textile
structures, especially carpets and
Malcolm Polk, a Professor of Textile nonwovens.
and Polymer Chemistry at Georgia M95-G8
Tech, joined the faculty in 1985. He bpourdey@unity.ncsu.edu
received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry (919)-515-1822
from the University of Pennsylvania http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
in 1964. After a postdoctoral at the
Univ. of California (Davis), he worked Ann Beth Presley, an Associate
at DuPont until 1972, when he Professor at Auburn since receiving
became Associate Professor at a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from
Atlanta University. Malcolm's the University of Maryland, has a B.S.
research interests include polymer from Western Kentucky University
synthesis and characterization; and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann
depolymerization; liquid crystalline Beth supervised quality assurance
polymers; high temperature resistant for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile
polymers and molecular modeling of testing for the International Fabricare
polymers. Institute. She was a faculty fellow at
M95-S22, M98-G8 [TC]2. Her research interests include
malcolm.polk@tfe.gatech.edu quality issues in apparel and textiles,
(404)-894-2535 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/polk/polk.html historic aspects of the industry, and
computerization of the industry.
John J. Porter, a Professor in I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9
Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science bjenkins@humsci.auburn.edu
at Clemson, joined the faculty in (334)-844-1347
1962. He received a Ph.D. in organic http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html
chemistry in 1961 and a B.S. in
chemical engineering from Georgia Yiping Qiu, an Assistant Professor at
Tech in 1956. Jeff has been an indus- NC State since 1996 received a B.
trial consultant in water and air pollu- Engr. in textile engineering at Zheji-
tion control since 1971. His specific ang Institute of Silk Technology
research interests include process (China), a M.S. in textile science at
automation and modification to facili- Auburn and a Ph.D. in fiber science
tate recycling and reuse of water, at Cornell. Yiping's research inter-
chemicals and energy, the thermody- ests include fabrication and charac-
namics and kinetics of dyeing terization of fiber reinforced compos-
processes and membrane separation ites, modification and analysis of
techniques. fiber matrix interfaces, mechanics of
C95-C14* fibrous structures and moisture
porter@clemson.clemson.edu vapor transfer in fibrous structures.
(864)-656-3291 F98-S9*, C99-S9
yiping_qiu@ncsu.edu
(919)-515-9426

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-29


NTC Principal Investigators: R - Z

Arthur J. Raguaskas, an Assistant D. Michelle Benjamin Reese, Simula-


Professor of Wood Chemistry at the tion Services Manager at [TC]2 since
IPST since 1989, earned a Ph.D. in 1993 when she earned an M.S. in
organic chemistry from the Univ. of industrial engineering and operations
Western Ontario in 1985. After research from Penn State. Michelle's
postdocs at Univ. of Alberta and research interests include flexible
Colorado state, Art was a research simulation and Visual Basic tools for
associate with the National Research textile and apparel processes and
Council of Canada. His research production assembly, warehousing
interests include bleaching kraft and transportation systems. finite
pulps. capacity planning and flexible
C95-G2 simulation tools for textile and
art.ragauskis@ipst.edu apparel processes and production
Christopher D. Rahn, an Associate assembly, warehousing and trans-
Professor of Mechanical Engineering portation systems.
at Clemson since 1992 earned a Ph.D. I98-S12
degree in mechanical engineering mreese@tc2.com
from the University of California, (919)-380-2156
Berkeley. He also spent several
years as a research and development Clarence D. Rogers, a Professor of
engineer at Space Systems, LORAL. Textile Manufacturing at Clemson,
Chris's research interests include the joined the faculty in 1981. He was
modeling, dynamic analysis and named Teacher of the Year in Textiles
control of nonlinear flexible systems, in 1988 and 1992 and earned a Ph.D.
including fiber, fabric and paper there in applied economics in 1978.
handling machinery. In 1966 Clarence earned a M.S. in
F94-S9, F95-S20, F97-C5, F98-S4 applied mathematics from NC State,
rchrist@clemson.clemson.edu then worked in statistics and mathe-
(864)-656-5621 matics for Pratt & Whitney, Springs
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Rahn.html Ind. and the USDA where he became
a cotton marketing specialist. His
Mary Lynn Realff, an Associate research interests include process
Professor in Textile and Fiber integration in textile manufacturing to
Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined increase plant productivity and
the faculty in 1992 upon receiving a product quality.
Ph.D. in mechanical engineering and F95-C13*
in polymer science and technology cdrtex@clemson.clemson.edu
from MIT. She earned a B.Eng. in (864)-656-5962
textile engineering from Georgia
Tech in 1987. Mary Lynn's research Paul S. Russo, a Professor in the
interests include design of textile Department of Chemistry at Louisi-
structures, investigation and model- ana State University, joined the
ing of the mechanical behavior of faculty in 1983 after a period as
textile structures, image processing Postdoctoral Associate at the Univer-
and modeling and design of textile sity of Massachusetts. He has worked
processes. in the Wright Research & Develop-
I95-G7*, I97-S10, F98-G15 ment Center at Wright-Patterson Air
marylynn.realff@tfe.gatech.edu Force Base, and in Sandia National
(404)-894-2496 Laboratory, Department of Organic
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/realff/realff.html and Electronic Materials. Paul's
Matthew J. Realff, an Assistant research interests include polymer
Professor in Chemical Engineering physical and analytical chemistry,
and Associate Director for the Center optical measurements, gels, liquid
of Sustainable Technology at Georgia crystals, and rodlike polymers.
Tech, joined the faculty in 1993 upon C95-S7
receiving a Ph.D. from MIT and in paul_russo@chemgate.chem.lsu.edu
1986 a B.Eng. from Imperial College (504)-388-3361
(London), both in chemical engineer-
ing. Matthew's research interests
include process design, simulation,
scheduling and control for chemical
and textile manufacturing systems as
well as environmentally benign
process synthesis and sustainable
development.
I95-G7, I97-S10
matthew.realff@che.gatech.edu
(404)-894-1834

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-30


Jon Paul Rust has been an Assistant David Salem, Director of Research at
Professor in Textile Engineering at TRI/Princeton and member of NTC’s
NC State since 1990 when he TAC committee, joined them in 1983
received a Ph.D. there in fiber and after earning his Ph.D. in polymer
polymer science. He also holds B.S. and fiber physics from the University
and M.S. degrees from Clemson. Jon of Manchester Institute of Science
was named to the Academy of and Technology. From 1986-88, he
Outstanding Teachers in 1992. His was a research physicist at Rhone-
research interests include fiber Poulenc in France. David received
assembly and yarn properties in the Fiber Society's Award for Distin-
spinning and winding, computer guished Achievement in Fiber
integrated management of yarn Science in 1996. His research inter-
manufacture and paper product ests include polymer crystallization,
softness. microstructure characterization of
I95-A11 polymers and structure formation
jrust@tx.ncsu.edu during polymer processing.
(919)-515-6564 M98-G5
dsalem@triprinceton.org;
Gregory C. Rutledge an Associate (609)-924-3150x35
Professor of Chemical Engineering at
M.I.T. since 1991, earned a Ph.D. in Robert J. Samuels, a Chemical
chemical engineering there in 1990. Engineering Professor at Georgia
He also holds a B.S. degree in chemi- Tech since 1979, received a Ph.D. in
cal engineering from Virginia (1983). polymer chemistry from University of
Greg worked for the Dow Chemical Akron in 1961. During an 18 year
for 2 years and did postdoctoral career at Hercules, Robert was an
research at ETH (Zurich) and the Adjunct Professor at the Universities
University of Leeds (England). His of Delaware and Washington. His
research interests include structure/ research interests include rapid
property relationships in polymer nondestructive characterization of
science and engineering, statistical anisotropic polymers, deformation
mechanics and molecular simulation kinetics of polymer systems, and
of polymers, liquid crystal polymers prediction of advanced material
and polymer mechanics. behavior. He is author of the book
M98-D1 Structured Polymer Properties and
rutledge@mit.edu the recipient of the 1999 International
(617)-253-0171 Research Award of the Society of
Plastics Engineers.
M95-C4, M98-C1
robert.samuels@che.gatech.edu
(404)-894-2885

F. Joseph Schork, a Professor and


Associate Chair of Chemical
Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined
the faculty in 1982. Joe earned a
Ph.D. in chemical engineering in 1981
from Wisconsin. He also received a
an M.S. in chemical engineering in
1974 from the University of Louisville
then worked for DuPont until 1977.
His research interests include the
dynamics and control of reacting
systems, esp. development of mathe-
matical models, on-line sensors,
digital control schemes, and novel
reactor configurations for polymeri-
zation, and other reaction systems.
C99-G8
joseph.schork@che.gatech.edu
(404)-894-8470
http://www.chemse.gatech.edu:80/people/fjs.html

B-31 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Abdelfattah M. Seyam, an Associate Alexei Sharov, a Research Scientist
Professor in Textile and Apparel in the Dept. of Entomology at Virginia
Management at NC State since 1991 Tech since 1992, earned his Ph.D. in
and Associate Director of Technol- entomology from Moscow State Univ.
ogy Transfer in the Nonwoven Coop- (Russia) in 1980 following a B.S.
erative Research Center, earned an there in 1976. He also earned a
M.S. degree in textile engineering in Doctorate of biological sciences
1978 from Alexandria Univ. (Egypt) there in 1988. Alexei’s research inter-
and a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer ests include quantitative population
science from NC State in 1985. He ecology and mathematical modeling.
then held research positions at I99-A2
Burlington Ind. and Valdese Textiles. sharov@vt.edu
Abdelfattah's research interests (540)-231-7316
include mechanics of woven fabrics http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov
and technologies for apparel automa-
tion and web forming. Guanglin Shen, a Research Associate
F98-S12 of Textile Engineering at Auburn
a_seyam@ncsu.edu since 1997, when he earned a Ph.D.
(919)-515-6583 in polymer and fiber science from
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm University of Leeds (England). He
earned a M..S. in polymer science
Itzhak Shalev, Visiting Associate from Northwest Institute of Textile
Professor in Textile Engineering, Science and Technology (China) in
Chemistry and Science at NC State 1988. Guanglin was a Research
since 1991, is also CEO of Arpal Fellow at the Japan National Institute.
Engineering Ltd. Itzhak earned a B.S. His research interests include
in textile chemistry from Shenkar polymer synthesis, modification and
College (Israel) in 1980 and a Ph.D. in characterization; fiber production
fiber and polymer science at NC State and property testing; and medical
in 1984. He served as Head of the textiles.
Textile Chemistry Dept. at Shenkar M96-A2
College from 1994-98. Itzhak's guanglin@eng.auburn.edu
research interests include protective (334)-844-4123
barrier textiles, clothing comfort,
finishing technology and computer Mathew Sikorski was a Research
aided instruction. Scientist in Textile and Fiber
F95-S24, I98-S8, F99-S2 Engineering at Georgia Tech since
itzhak_shalev@ncsu.edu 1965; he earned a Ph.D. in fiber
(919)-515-6550 physics in 1986 at the Univ. of
http://www.shalev.net Manchester (U.K.). Before coming to
Georgia Tech, Mat taught at the
Lisa A. Shanley, an Associate Profes- Illinois Institute of Technology and
sor at Auburn since 1987, when she worked at Bell Telephone Labs. his
received a Ph.D. from Oklahoma research interests include supercriti-
State in clothing, textiles and cal fluids, recycling carpet wastes,
merchandizing with an emphasis on nonaqueous textile processing,
functional design of apparel, statis- electrostatic printing and on-line
tics and physiology. Lisa's research detection of sewing defects in robotic
interests include protective clothing apparel manufacture.
prototype design, physiological C92-C4
response to clothing and software
development for the apparel industry. B. Lewis Slaten, an Associate Profes-
I94-A13*, F95-S24 sor at Auburn, joined the faculty in
wildgngr@mindspring.com 1974 after receiving a M.S. in organic
(334)-844-1339 chemistry from University of Arkan-
sas and a Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
Paul S. Shanley, a Research Assis- ing from Maryland. Previously, Lew
tant at Auburn since 1990, when he was a chemist for Freeport Minerals
received a B.A. in communications and the National Bureau of
and public relations from Auburn. Standards' Fire Technology division.
Paul's research interests include His research interests include fabric
protective clothing prototype design, test methods, barrier textiles, protec-
technology transfer, new materials tive clothing, environmental chemis-
for the space program and physio- try and chemistry of textile finishes.
logical response to clothing. slatebl@humsci.auburn.edu
F95-S24 F95-S24, M98-A10, C98-A17
(334)-844-1330
http://www.auburn.edu/~slatebl

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-32


C. Brent Smith, a Professor of Textile Jolanta Sokolowska-Gajda, a Visiting
Engineering at NC State, joined the Research Assistant Professor at NC
faculty in 1983. He received a Ph.D. State, received her Ph.D. in chemistry
in chemical physics from the Univer- in 1981 from Technical University of
sity of Florida in 1966. Since then, Lodz (Poland), where she is perma-
Brent held various research positions nently employed. Since 1988 she has
in United Merchants and Manufactur- periodically been a Visiting Assistant
ers, West Point Pepperell and Cotton Professor and Research Associate at
Incorporated. his research interests NC State. Jolanta's research interests
include pollution control by source include the design and synthesis of
reduction, mathematical modeling environmentally friendly iron metal-
and real-time data for process lized dyes and nonmutagenic organic
control, coloration and color pigments and the photodegradation
perception. of disperse and metallized dyes.
C95-S4, C99-S2* M95-S22
brent_smith@ncsu.edu jsokolow@tx.ncsu.edu
(919)-515-6548 (919)-515-8116
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/bsmith.html
Michael Solomon, Human Sciences
Gary W. Smith, an Associate Profes- Professor of Consumer Behavior in
sor at NC State, joined the faculty in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined
1969 when he received a Masters of the faculty in 1995 from being Chair-
Textile Technology from NC State. In man of the Dept. of Marketing at
1980, he received a Ph.D. in Textile Rutgers. He earned B.A. degrees in
Industries from Leeds University psychology and sociology magna
(England). His research interests cum laude at Brandeis Univ. in 1977,
include yarn knittability, knitting, and a Ph.D. in social psychology
quality control and computer- from UNC-Chapel Hill in 1981. He has
integrated manufacturing. written Consumer Behavior: Buying,
I92-S11 Having and Being and Marketing:
gary_smith@ncsu.edu Real People, Real Choices. Mike’s
(919) 515-6582 research interests include consumer
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm behavior and lifestyle issues, the
symbolic aspects of products, the
Marc K. Smith, an Associate Profes- psychology of fashion, decoration
sor of Mechanical Engineering at the and image, and services marketing.
Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in I97-A11*
1991. He earned a Ph.D. in applied msolomon@humsci.auburn.edu
mathematics from Northwestern (334)-844-1316
Univ. in 1982. After postdoctoral http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/solomon.html
work at MIT and Cambridge Univer-
sity, he joined the faculty of Johns
Hopkins Univ. His research interests
include interfacial fluid mechanics
and hydrodynamic stability, with
particular emphasis on surface
tension effects and surface-tension-
driven flows, droplet atomization and
applications to spray cooling and
spray coating, and the fluid mechan-
ics of bioreactors.
C99-G8
jeff.morris@che.gatech.edu

B-33 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Mohan Srinivasarao, an Assistant Gang Sun, an Assistant Professor in
Professor in Textile and Fiber Textiles and Clothing at University of
Engineering, joined the faculty in California, Davis since 1995, received
1999 from the NC State faculty He a Ph.D. in organic/polymer chemistry
earned a M.Sc. in applied chemistry from Auburn in 1994. He also
from University of Madras (India) in received an M.S. in 1984 in textile
1981, a M.S. in polymer science in chemical engineering from China
1985 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Textile University (Shanghai). His
Carnegie Mellon in 1990, then was a research interests include functional
Research Fellow at UMass-Amherst. modifications of polymers and
He also consulted at AT&T and Polar- textiles, development of biological
oid. Mohan's research interests and chemical protective materials,
include physical chemistry of evaluation of functional properties of
polymers, physics of nematic liquid textiles and polymers, and utilization
crystals and rheology and rheo- of agricultural wastes in textile
optics of polymeric fluids, liquid processing.
crystals and biological color science. C98-A17
C99-S4 gysun@ucdavis.edu
mohan@tfe.gatech.edu (530)-752-0840
(404)-894-9348
Christine A. Sundermann, a Profes-
Nancy J. Staples, a Research Associ- sor of Zoology & Wildlife Science at
ate/ Associate Professor at Clemson Auburn, joined the faculty in 1984.
Apparel Research, joined Clemson in She earned a Ph.D. in zoology from
1990 upon earning a Ph.D. in clothing University of Georgia in 1983 and a
and textiles from UNC-Greensboro. B.S. from Iowa State in biology in
Nancy was a pattern maker in indus- 1977. Christine’s research interests
try, taught apparel production, include inactivation of Giardia and
draping and tailoring and owned a other parasitic protozoa in potable
custom pattern making and apparel water; in vivo and in vitro develop-
production business. Her research ment of Toxoplasma gondii and its
interests include application of exist- detection; hormone receptors in
ing and emerging CAD technologies ciliated protozoa.
to the sewn products manufacturing C98-A17
process. sundeca@mail.auburn.edu
I95-A19 (334)-844-3929
staplen@clemson.edu
(864)-546-8454 Les M. Sztandera, an Associate
Professor and Head of the Computer
Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile Science program at PhiladelphiaU
and Apparel Management and of earned a Ph.D. in computer and
Statistics at NC State, joined the engineering science in 1993 from the
faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career University of Toledo, an M.S. from
at Burlington Ind. as a statistician Missouri in 1990 and a Diploma in
and operations research analyst. He English in 1989 from Cambridge
earned a B.S. in textile engineering (England). Les’ research interests
from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in include fuzzy logic, pattern recogni-
1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC tion, computer vision, genetic
State in 1969. Moon's research inter- algorithms, neural networks, hybrid
ests include statistical and probabil- intelligent systems, and modeling
istic modeling of textile processes and management of uncertainty.
and products, quality control I98-P1
methods, apparel business informa- sztanderal@philau.edu
tion systems, biostatistics and statis- (215)-951-2871
tical failure models. http://larry.texsci.edu/les2.html
I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2
moon_suh@ncsu.edu Robert Taylor, a Professor of Agricul-
(919)-515-6580 tural Economics at Auburn, earned a
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm Ph.D. in resource economics at
Missouri in 1972, an M.S. in econom-
ics at Kansas St. in 1970 and a B.S.
in agricultural economics at
Oklahoma St. in 1968. Bob also
taught at Illinois, Texas A&M and
Montana St. His research interests
include regionalized econometric
simulation model of the agricultural
economy (major crops, livestock)
applied to farm and conservation
programs, agricultural biotechnology
and pesticide policy.
I93-A4
rtaylor@ag.auburn.edu
(334)-844-5606

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-34


Amyn Teja, a Professor and Director Neelesh B. Timble, a Research
of Fluid Properties Research Inst. at Associate at the Nonwovens
Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in Cooperative Research Center at NC
1980. He received a Ph.D. in chemical State, earned a Ph.D. there in fiber &
engineering from Imperial College polymer science in 1993. He has a
(London) in 1972 and then was a B.S. in textile technology from Victor-
visiting professor at Delaware, Ohio ia Jubilee Technical Institute
State and Technical Univ. (Denmark). (Bombay) in 19984 and an M.S. in
Amyn's research interests include textile engineering from Indian Insti-
supercritical fluid extraction and tute of Technology (New Dehli) in
measurement/prediction of thermo- 1986. He has also worked for
physical properties. Johnson & Johnson in Bombay.
C92-C4 Neelesh’s research interests include
amyn.teja@che.gatech.edu applied and fundamental research in
404)-894-3098 nonwovens.
F93-S8
Howard L. Thomas, Jr., an Assistant nbtimble@ncsu.edu
Professor of Textile Engineering at (919)-515-4552
Auburn, joined the faculty in 1996 Wayne C. Tincher served for five
from ITT. He received a Ph.D. in years as the Research Director of the
textile and polymer science from Apparel Manufacturing Technology
Clemson in 1991 and a M.S. in Center and is currently NTC Site
textiles from Georgia Tech. He is the Director and a Professor in Textile
USA editor for International Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia
Bulletin and has industrial experi- Tech. He received a Ph.D. in physical
ence with Sulzer-Ruti, Springs Indus- chemistry at Vanderbilt. Before
tries, J. P. Stevens and Cone Mills. coming to Georgia Tech in 1971,
Howard's research interests include Wayne led fundamental research at
weaving machine redesign and Monsanto on polymer and fiber
process consolidation, recycled structure-property relationships. His
fibers for nonwovens and ballistic research interests include textile,
resistant fabrics. carpet and apparel manufacturing
I96-A9, I99-A2* technologies.
hthomas@eng.auburn.edu C95-G1, C96-G2, C98-G30, C99-G8
(334)-844-5461 wayne.tincher@tfe.gatech.edu
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~hthomas (404)-894-2197
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/tincher/tincher.html
Sven N. Thommesen, a Research
Associate at Auburn since 1996 when Kimberly J. Titus, a Visiting Assistant
he received a C.Phil in economics Professor in Textile Engineering,
from UCLA. He also earned a B.A. in Chemistry and Science at NC State,
economics from Auburn in 1985. received a Ph.D. there in experimen-
Sven's research interests include tal solid state physics in 1994. She
modeling of artificial agent simula- also earned a B.S. in physics and a
tions and macroeconomic stability. B.A. in mathematics from Stetson
I98-A9 University in 1989. Kim's research
thommsn@auburn.edu interests include fundamental proper-
(334)-844-6457 ties of fabric and seams, material
handling, sensor technologies and
Henry L. Thompson, a Professor in semiconductor materials for lasers.
Business at Auburn, joined the staff I94-S4
in 1986 from the staff at Tennessee. kimberly_titus@ncsu.edu
He earned a B.S. in 1970 and Ph.D. in (919)-515-1420
1981 at the University of Houston,
both in economics. Henry’s research Charles Tomasino, a Professor of
interests include international and Textile Chemistry at NC State, joined
energy economics and applied the faculty in 1977 after a 16-year
microeconomics. career at Burlington Industries. He
I99-A2 received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry
(334)-844-4910 from the University of Florida in 1959
thomph1@auburn.edu whereupon he became a research
http://www.auburn.edu/~thomph1 chemist at Celanese Fibers. Charles
won the Outstanding Teacher Award
in 1990. His research interests
include fabric and garment finishing
with emphasis on textile chemical
auxiliaries.
C94-S13*
charles_tomasino@ncsu.edu
(919) 515-6549

B-35 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


Alan Tonelli, the KoSa Professor of Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate
Polymer Science at NC State, joined Professor in Consumer Affairs at
the faculty in 1991 after a 23-year Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987.
career at AT&T's Bell Labs. He She earned a Ph.D. in American
earned a B.S. in chemical engineer- history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991
ing from Kansas in 1964 and a Ph.D. and a M.S. in clothing and textiles
in chemistry from Stanford in 1968. from Auburn in 1980. She has
Alan is a Fellow of the American department store experience.
Physical Society and author of “NMR Pamela is curator of Consumer
Spectroscopy and Polymer Micro- Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile
structure The Conformational Collection at Auburn. Her research
Connection" and "Polymers from the interests include commercial devel-
Inside Out: An Introduction to Macro- opment of the textile, apparel and
molecules." His research interests retail sectors; fashion history, analy-
include conformational characteris- sis and forecasting; and marketing
tics, microstructures, NMR spectros- trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*,
copy and physical properties of I98-A8, I98-A9
polymers. ulricpv@auburn.edu
C95-S7, C98-S1*, C99-S4* (334)-844-1336
alan_tonelli@ncsu.edu http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich.
(919)-515-6588
http://http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/tonelli.html Dan W. Urry, a Professor of Chemical
Mendel Trachtman, Professor Emeri- Engineering, University of Minnesota,
tus of chemistry, and former Chair of Department of Chemical Engineering
the Dept. of Chemistry and Physical and Materials Science (Minneapolis)
Science at PCT&S, earned a Ph.D. and the Biological Process Technol-
from Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1961, ogy Institute (St. Paul MN) is also
an M.S. from Drexel in 1957 and a Chairman of Bioelastics, Inc. since
B.A. from Temple in 1951. Mendel’s 1988. He earned a B.A. (Phi Beta
research interests include ab initio Kappa) in medical biology in 1960
and semiempirical molecular orbital and a Ph.D. in physical chemistry in
methods, density functional analysis, 1964 from Utah, whereupon he
physical chemistry and color served on the staffs of Harvard, Univ.
science. of California (Berkeley) and the Univ.
I98-P1 of Chicago. He was R&D Magazine's
mendel@spartan.texsci.edu 1988 Scientist of the Year. Dan's
(215)-951-6855 research interests include designer
proteins.
Paul A. Tucker, a Professor in Textile
M96-A2
Engineering, Chemistry and Science
danurry@oadi.uab.edu
at NC State, joined the faculty in 1964
(205)-943-6592
and received a Ph.D. there in fiber
danurry@cems.umn.edu
and polymer science in 1973. Paul's
(612)-625-4282
research interests include polymer
and textile processing, microscopy,
George Vachtsevanos, a Professor of
chemical and physical characteriza-
Electrical Engineering at the School
tion of polymers and textiles,
of Electrical and Computer Engineer-
electron and X-ray diffraction, melt
ing of Georgia Tech, joined the
spinning and degradation of
faculty in 1984. He received a Ph.D.
polymers.
in electrical engineering from the City
F95-S24
University of New York in 1970 and
paul_tucker@ncsu.edu
taught at Richmond College of CUNY,
(919)-515-6560
Manhattan College of New York and
Samuel Chuks Ugbolue joined the the University of Thrace in Greece
faculty of Textile Sciences at UMass- before joining Georgia Tech.
Dartmouth in 1998. He earned an M.S. George's research interests include
in textile science and evaluation in intelligent control, fuzzy logic and
1971 and a Ph.D. in polymer and fiber neural networks and their application
science in 1974 from Univ. of Strath- to complex engineered processes.
clyde (Scotland) then was a textile I94-G2
research chemist for Klopman. In george.vachtsevanos@gatech.edu
1976, Sam joined Ahmadu Bello Univ. (404)-894-6252
(Nigeria) and in 1983 became a
Professor in polymer and textile
technology at Federal University of
Technology (Nigeria). His research
interests include polymer and fiber
sructure-property relationships, yarn
and knitting process dynamics,
physico-chemical analysis of textiles
and morphology.
M98-D1
sugbolue@umassd.edu
(508)-999-8803

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-36


Edward A. Vaughn, a Professor of Roger Warburton, an Adjunct Profes-
Textiles at Clemson, joined the sor in the Department of Textiles at
faculty in 1966. He received a Ph.D. UMass Dartmouth since 1999, earned
from the University of Manchester in a Ph.D. in physics from the Univ. of
1969, an MS from the Institute of Pennsylvania in 1976, then managed
Textile Technology in 1964, and a BS software projects for Jaycor (Defense
in physics and math from Lynchburg Dept. contractor). Roger also earned
College in 1962. Ed is past president a B.Sc. in physics in 1969 from
of the National Council for Textile Sussex (UK) Univ. Since 1989, he has
Education and the Textile Quality been Director of Management Infor-
Control Association. His research mation Systems (MIS) for Griffin
interests include fiber processing Manufacturing where he designed
dynamics, fabric formation mechan- software to manage factory workflow,
ics, and materials analysis. purchasing and inventory and
F98-C4 garment costing. His research inter-
vedward@clemson.edu ests include apparel MIS and supply
(864)-656-5965 chain management
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/vaughn.html I99-D16*
J. Velga, PhiladelphiaU roger@griffinmanufacturing.com
no bio or photo (508)-677-0048
I98-P1 http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/faculty.html

Robert P. Walker, a retired Professor Steven B. Warner, a Professor and


of Textile Engineering at Auburn, Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass
joined the faculty in 1968. He earned Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D.
an M.S. in textile technology from ITT in polymer and material science &
Bob’s research interests include yarn engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He
preparation, fabric forming systems then spent 12 years in industrial
and fabric design and analysis. research at Hoechst-Celanese and
F92-A3*, I94-A10T Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the
rwalker@eng.auburn.edu faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the
author of the texts: The Science and
William K. Walsh, a Professor and Design of Engineering Materials and
Head of the Department of Textile Fiber Science. His research interests
Engineering at Auburn since 1989, include fibers science, microstruc-
received a Ph.D. in chemical ture of nonwovens and fluid manage-
engineering at NC State in 1967. He ment in fibrous assemblies and
then joined the NC State faculty, properties.
becoming an Associate Dean in 1988. M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3,
His research interests include C97-G31, I99-D16
mechanical and surface properties of swarner@umassd.edu
polymers, esp. adhesive bonding of (508)-999-8449
fabrics, wetting and wicking in
porous media; electron beam and UV Linda Welters, a Professor and Chair-
radiation polymerization and curing; person of the Textiles, Fashion
and hydrophilic fiber finishes and Merchandising and Design Dept. at
moisture transport mechanisms for University of Rhode Island, joined
improved clothing comfort. URI in 1979. She earned a Ph.D. in
C95-A8, C95-C14, C96-A1, M98-A16* home economics from the University
wwalsh@eng.auburn.edu of Minnesota in 1981, an M.A. in
(334)-844-5452 clothing and textiles from Colorado
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Walsh State in 1973 and a B.A. from the
College of St. Catherine in 1971.
Youjiang Wang, an Associate Profes- Linda is the Associate Editor of
sor in Textile and Fiber Engineering Dress, the Journal of the Costume
at Georgia Tech, received his BS in Society of America. Her research
textile engineering from China Textile interests include historic costumes
University and MS and Ph.D. in and archaeological textile analysis.
mechanical engineering from MIT. I99-D16
Youjiang is the Associate Technical lwelters@uriacc.uri.edu
Editor on Textiles for the Journal of (401)-874-4525
Manufacturing Science & Technology http://www.uri.edu/hss/tmd/FACSTF.html#Linda
in textiles. His research interests
include textile processes, mechanics,
composites and advanced construc-
tion materials.
F94-A8, F98-G15*, F98-S9
youjiang.wang@tfe.gatech.edu
(404)-894-7551

Weijun Wang, Auburn; no bio/photo


M98-A4

B-37 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


William J. Wepfer, a Professor of Samuel C. Winchester, Jr., a Profes-
Mechanical Engineering and Director sor at NC State since 1992, received a
of Graduate Studies at Georgia Tech, Ph.D. in chemical engineering at
joined the faculty in 1980. He earned Princeton in 1967. Before coming to
a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering in NC State, Sam culminated a 28 year
1979 from Univ. of Wisconsin. Bill’s career at DuPont as the Technical
research interests include thermody- Manager of the Dacron© Research
namics, thermal systems, heat trans- Laboratory and Dacron© Operations
fer, instrumentation and the experi- Technical. His research interests
mental method. include management of technology
C95-G2 and total quality, high performance
bill.wepfer@me.gatech.edu work groups, computer integrated
(404)-894-3294 manufacturing, man-made fiber
formation and property development
Nicholas C. Williamson is an Associ- and yarn formation.
ate Professor of Management and I98-S15
Marketing in Business and Econom- sam_winchester@ncsu.edu
ics at UNC-Greensboro. He earned a (919)-515-7458
Ph.D. in 1980 and a M.B.A. in 1975 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm
from UNC-Chapel Hill. Nick's
research interests include the evolu- Jae L. Woo, a Visiting Research
tion of marketing channel institutions Professor in textiles at NC State
in export domains and the textile since 1994, earned a B.S. in textile
industry impact of stocking out of engineering at Seoul National Univ.
apparel products at retail. (Korea) where he taught textile
I95-S2 engineering and process statistics, a
ncwillia@turing.uncg.edu S.M. at MIT and a Ph.D. at Univ. of
(910)-334-5691 New South Wales (Australia) where
he taught machine dynamics,
Alton R. Wilson, Associate Professor random vibrations, experimental
of Textile Sciences at UMass engineering in 1975-85. Jae’s
Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1970. research interests include cotton and
He earned a B. S. and M. S. in textile wool fiber testing, on-line measure-
technology from the University of ments in textile processes, statistical
Massachusetts Dartmouth in 1965 process control, textile mechanisms
and 1969, respectively. His research and variations analysis.
interests include woven fabric I95-A11, I97-S1, F99-S2
design, weaving mechanics, nonwov- jae_woo@ncsu.edu
ens and flexible composites and (919)-515-6580
physical evaluation of textile
materials. S. D. Worley, a Professor of Chemis-
F97-D2 try at Auburn, joined the faculty in
awilson@umassd.edu 1974 after being at Johnson Space-
(508)-999-8453 craft Center, Cleveland State Univ.
and the Office of Naval Research. He
James R. Wilson, a Professor of earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from
Industrial Engineering at NC State, Texas in 1969. Dave’s research inter-
received a Ph.D. in industrial ests include synthesis and testing of
engineering from Purdue. Jim has new biocidal polymers for numerous
served as Departmental Editor of applications such as coatings.
Management Science for Simulation. C98-A17
His current research interests include worlesd@mail.auburn.edu
the design and analysis of simulation (334)-844 4043
experiments and operations research
techniques applied to industrial Dave Woronka, an R&D Project
engineering. Coordinator at [TC]2, joined the staff
I95-S2, I98-S1 in 1993 after 15 years at RCA in
jwilson@eos.ncsu.edu custom microelectronics. Dave
(919)-515-6415 earned an A.A.S. in electromechani-
http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm cal technology from Union County
(NJ) College in 1974 and a B.S. in
management from Rutgers in 1979.
His research interests include 3-D
body scanning and automated
pattern alteration.
I98-A8
dworonk@tc2.com
(919)-380-2156 Ext. 708

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-38


Jie Xu, a Research Scientist at Charles Q. Yang, a Professor in the
Bioelastics Research, Ltd. (Birming- Dept. of Textiles at Georgia since
ham AL) since 1993 when he earned 1995, joined the faculty in 1990 after
a Ph.D. in cellular and molecular an assistant professorship in
biology from Univ. of Alabama - Chemistry at Marshall University
Birmingham, also earned a M.S. in (WV). Charles earned a Ph.D. in
molecular biology from the Institute analytical chemistry from Kansas
of Microbiology, The Academia State in 1987, an M.S. in polymer
Sinica, Beijing (China) in 1986. Jie’s chemistry in 1981 from Nanjing
research interests include design, University (China) and a B.S. in
construction and expression of chemistry from Peking University in
genes for elastin-based polymers, 1969. His research interests include
bioproduction and bioprocessing. chemical modifications and analyses
M96-A2 of textile fibers, fabrics and
jxbrl@oadi.uab.edu polymeric materials and nonformal-
(205)-943-6590 dehyde durable press finishing of
cotton fabrics.
Mehmet E. Yuksekkaya, a postdoc at C97-C3
NC State cyang@hestia.fcs.uga.edu
no bio or photo (706)542-4912
F96-A3
Chongwen Yu, a visiting scholar from
the Dept. of Textile Engineering,
China Textile Univ. (Shanghai) earned
a Doctorate in textile engineering in
1994. Chongwen’s research interests
include new spinning methods and
processing of Bast and leaf fiber.
F99-S6
yucw@ctu.edu.cn

B-39 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


S. Haig Zeronian, a Professor Emeri- Gilroy Zuckerman, an Associate
tus at U.C. Davis, earned an M.S. in Professor in Accounting at NC State,
textile chemistry in 1955 and a Ph.D. joined the faculty in 1979 from the
in cellulose chemistry in 1962 from faculty of Appalachian State Univer-
Manchester University, England. He sity where he received the Trustees'
was honored with a D.Sc. from there Award for Outstanding Teaching. He
in 1983 for contributions to polymer earned a Ph.D. in economics and
and fiber science. Haig is a Fellow of statistics from NC State in 1974 and a
the Textile Institute and has received B.A. in economics from SUNY -
the American Chemical Society's Binghamton in 1967. He is past Presi-
Anselme Payen Award for advances dent, Raleigh Chapter, of the Institute
in cellulosic science and technology. of Management Accounting. Gil's
He is on the editorial board for Cellu- teaching and research interests
lose. His research interests include include managerial accounting and
cellulose-water interactions, base taxes.
hydrolysis of polyester, cellulose I97-S8
oxidation, bleaching and gilroy_zuckerman@ncsu.edu
degradation. (919)-515-4445
C99-A7
shzeronian@ucdavis.edu David A. Zumbrunnen, a Professor of
(530)-752-6560 Mechanical Engineering and supervi-
sor of the Laboratory for Materials
JunYong Zhu, an Associate Profes- Processing and Industrial Mixing at
sor at the Institute of Paper Science Clemson, joined the faculty in 1988
and Technology (IPST), joined IPST upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical
in 1993. Previously, he was a engineering from Purdue. Dave
Research Scientist at a high technol- received a Presidential Faculty Fellow
ogy firm in Sunnyvale California. Award from The White House in 1992
JunYong’s research interests include for excellence in scientific research
ink jet printing, ink droplet formation, and teaching. His research interests
laser based instrumentation for include melt-processing and chaotic
droplet characterization and drop and mixing to yield in-situ structured
printing medium interaction. materials, and unsteady convective
C99-G8 heat and mass transfer.
junyong.zhu@ipst.edu M96-C1, F98-G15
(404)-894-5310 david.zumbrunnen@ces.clemson.edu
(864)-656-5625
http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Zumbrunnen.html

Key:
Short biography (experience, degrees, research interests)
NTC project(s) as investigator ( * = project leader)
[old# to new# style: G92-1=F92-G1, G94T-2=C94-G2T]
E-mail address
Phone number
Personal web page URL

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-40


NTC Site Directors

Sabit Adanur, an Associate Professor Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate


in Textile Engineering at Auburn Professor in Textiles, Fiber &
since 1992, received a Ph.D. in fiber Polymer Science at Clemson, joined
and polymer science and a M.S. in the faculty in 1986. He earned a
textile engineering from NC State and Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in
a B.S. in mechanical engineering 1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from
from Istanbul Technical University in Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's
Turkey. Before coming to Auburn, research interests include molecular
Sabit was a product and process modeling, polymer surfaces and
development manager for Asten interfaces modification and charac-
Forming Fabrics (Appleton WI). His terization, wetting and adhesion.
research interests include industrial M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3
textiles, composites, computer-aided lgary@clemson.clemson.edu
design and manufacturing. (864)-656-5964
sadanur@eng.auburn.edu http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html
I96-A9*, F99-A10*
(334)-844-5497 Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~sadanur/ Professor of Textile Engineering and
Technology and Director of Research
Haskell Beckham, an Associate of the School of Textiles and Materi-
Professor at Georgia Tech, joined the als Technology at Philadelphia
faculty in 1993. He received a B.S. in University, joined the faculty in 1995.
textile chemistry at Auburn and a Previously he was on the Textile
Ph.D. in polymer science at M.I.T. in Materials Science faculty at NC State
1991 whereupon he served a 2-year and the Materials Engineering faculty
postdoctoral internship at the Max at Drexel University. Chris holds a
Planck-Institute (Mainz). His research B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a
interests include polymer and textile Ph.D. in materials engineering from
chemistry, synthesis and properties Drexel in 1988. His research inter-
of functionalized polymers and solid ests include modeling of fabric and
state NMR investigations of polymer composite structures.
molecular structure, order and F98-P1*, I99-P1*
dynamics. cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu
M95-G8, C95-G2, C95-G13*, C97-G11* (215)-951-2683
haskell.beckham@tfe.gatech.edu http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html
(404)-894-4198
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham Douglas V. Rippy, a Professor in
Fiber and Polymer Science at
David R. Buchanan is an Associate Clemson, joined the faculty in 1989
Dean of the College of Textiles and a from the University of Dayton. He
Professor in Textile Engineering at earned a B.S. in textile management
NC State where he has been on the in 1964 and a Ph.D. in operations
faculty since 1978. Dave received a research engineering in 1974 from
Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Clemson, also holds an M.S. in logis-
Ohio State in 1962 whereupon he had tics management from the Air Force
an industrial research career at Institute of Technology in 1968 where
Chemstrand, Phillips Fiber and he taught while serving in the U.S.
Phillips Petroleum before joining the Air Force 1964-1980. His research
faculty at Cornell in 1975. His interests include applications of
research interests include the charac- mathematical programming, simula-
terization and control of fabric tion and statistical analysis
properties in textile and apparel techniques to the study of manufac-
manufacturing. turing problems.
david_buchanan@ncsu.edu rippyd@clemson.clemson.edu
(919)-515-6649 (864)-656-3180
http://www.ces.clemson.edu/textiles/main.htm

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-41


Carol Warfield, a Professor and Head Steven B. Warner, a Professor and
of the Department of Consumer Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass
Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D.
in 1977 after teaching textiles at the in polymer and material science &
University of Illinois for 10 years. engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He
She received a Ph.D. in family and then spent 12 years in industrial
consumption economics in 1977 and research at Hoechst-Celanese and
an M.S. in textile science in 1967 from Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the
the University of Illinois and a B.S. in faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the
home economics education from author of the texts: The Science and
South Dakota State in 1959. Carol's Design of Engineering Materials and
research interests include world Fiber Science. His research interests
production and distribution of include fibers science, microstruc-
textiles and apparel, textile and ture of nonwovens and fluid manage-
apparel industry competitiveness and ment in fibrous assemblies and
consumer wear studies. properties.
I93-A4 M98-D1*, M98-D3, C97-G31, I99-D16
cwarfiel@humsci.auburn.edu swarner@umassd.edu
(334)-844-1329 (508)-999-8449

B-42 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


NTC Operating Board

David R. Buchanan is an Associate Sherif D. El Wakil, Chancellor, Profes-


Dean of the College of Textiles and a sor and Interim Dean of the College
Professor in Textile Engineering at of Engineering at UMassD, joined the
NC State where he has been on the faculty in 1987. Sherif earned a Ph.D.
faculty since 1978. Dave received a in 1972 from Birmingham University
Ph.D. in physical chemistry from (England) following an M.S. in 1969
Ohio State in 1962 whereupon he had from El-Azhar University (Egypt) and
an industrial research career at a B.S. from Cairo University in 1965,
Chemstrand, Phillips Fiber and all in mechanical engineering. His
Phillips Petroleum before joining the research interests include computer-
faculty at Cornell in 1975. His aided manufacturing, design for
research interests include the charac- manufacturing and materials science.
terization and control of fabric
properties in textile and apparel selwakil@umassd.edu
manufacturing. (508)-999-8461
david_buchanan@ncsu.edu http://www.mne.umassd.edu/faculty/sherif.html
(919)-515-6649
Richard V. Gregory, a Professor and
David Brookstein, Dean of the School Director of the School of Textiles,
of Textiles & Materials Technology at Fiber and Polymer Science at
PhiladelphiaU since 1997, earned a Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990.
D.Sc. in mechanical engineering from He received his Ph.D. in physical
MIT in 1976 and a Bachelor in textile chemistry at Clemson in 1984 and
engineering from Georgia Tech in continued with postdoctoral work in
1971. Dave was with Albany Interna- polymer spectroscopy whereupon he
tional Research for 14 years rising to joined the research staff at Milliken.
Associate Director. He received the Dick is thrust leader of NSF Center
Fiber Society Award for Distin- for Advanced Fibers and Films, and
guished Achievement in 1988 and is on the editorial board of Macro-
in the Academy of Distinguished molecular Materials and Engineering.
Engineering Alumni at Georgia Tech. His research interests include the
brooksteind@philau.edu formation, characterization and
(215)-951-2751 potential industrial applications of
http://www.textileworld.com/editors/brook.html conductive polymers and the interac-
tion of ultraviolet radiation with
Fred L. Cook, a Professor and Direc- polymers.
tor of the School of Textile & Fiber M95-C6*, M95-C4*, M98-C1*
Engineering at Georgia Tech, has richar6@clemson.clemson.edu
been on the faculty since he received (864)-656-5961
a Ph.D. there in organic-polymer http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/f
chemistry in 1975 after being a aculty/gregory.html
polymer research chemist at DuPont.
He is a consulting chemical editor of June Henton, Dean of the School of
Textile World magazine, and vice- Human Sciences at Auburn, joined
president of the National Council for the faculty in 1985. She has a Ph.D.
Textile Education. Fred's research in family social science from Univ. of
interests include textile/polymer Minnesota in 1970. Earlier, she was
chemistry, sustainable textile chemi- an associate dean and professor at
cal application processes and carbon Oregon State and an associate
fibers. professor at Texas Tech. In 1990-91,
F98-G15 June was president of the Associa-
fred.cook@tfe.gatech.edu tion of Administrators of Home
(404)-894-2536 Economics and chair, Commission of
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/cook/cook.html Home Economics (National Associa-
tion of State Universities and Land-
Grant Colleges). Her research inter-
ests include global issues in higher
education, families and work and
trade and public policy.
I93-A4
jhenton@humsci.auburn.edu
(334)-844-4790

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-43


William K. Walsh, a Professor and
Head of the Department of Textile
Engineering at Auburn since 1989,
received a Ph.D. in chemical
engineering at NC State in 1967. He
then joined the NC State faculty,
becoming an Associate Dean in 1988.
His research interests include
mechanical and surface properties of
polymers, esp. adhesive bonding of
fabrics, wetting and wicking in
porous media; electron beam and UV
radiation polymerization and curing;
and hydrophilic fiber finishes and
moisture transport mechanisms for
improved clothing comfort.
C95-A8, C95-C14, C96-A1, M98-A16*
wwalsh@eng.auburn.edu
(334)-844-5452
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Walsh

B-44 National Textile Center Directory: June 2000


NTC Staff

Joe D. Cunning, Executive Director of Thomas P. Doherty, technical


the National Textile Center, joined consultant and technical editor for
NTC in 1992 after a 28-year career in the National Textile Center, joined
fibers and technical management at NTC in 1993 after a 26-year career in
DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in chemi- fibers and technology forecasting at
cal engineering from Iowa State in DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in
1965. Joe speaks and consults organic chemistry from Illinois in
widely on large system integration 1967 and an A.B. in chemistry in 1962
problems using neural nets and from the University of Omaha. Tom
chemometrics to relate multivariate is also a professional genealogist,
inputs and outputs. He is vice- historian and futurist specializing in
president of the Textile Institute and tailored presentations, technological
on the governing board of the Fiber and social trend forecasting, strate-
Society and serves on the technical gic planning and futures research.
advisory committees of [TC]2, TRI tom@ntcresearch.org
Princeton and the Institute of Textile (302)-478-4758
Technology. http://www.magpage.com/~tdoherty/tpdhome.html
joe@joecunning.com
(302)-478-4744 Phoebe F. Doherty, Printed Publica-
http://joecunning.com/Joe.htm tions Coordinator for the National
Textile Center, joined NTC in 1996.
Cindy Albright, Electronic Media She received a Doctor of Chiropractic
Specialist for the National Textile in 1994 from Pennsylvania College of
Center, joined NTC in 1997. She has Chiropractic and a CCSP (Sports
been a computer trainer for 12 years, Physician) postdoctoral degree in
working for Online Consulting and 1996 and is licensed to practice in PA
Delaware educational institutions. and DE. Phoebe earned a B.A. in
Cindy graduated with a B.S. in biology and teaching certification
economics from Butler University from Univ. of Delaware in 1966 then
(Indianapolis) in 1962. joined DuPont as an inhalation
calbrigh@magpage.com toxicologist and then a technical
(302)-764-8782 information analyst managing
http://www.albrightcomputing.com infomation search centers.
pdoherty@magpage.com
John E. Berkowitch, consultant on (302)-478-4758
technology development for the http://www.magpage.com/~tdoherty/pfdhome.html
National Textile Center, joined NTC in
1992 after a 34-year career at DuPont Rhonda Shin, Communications and
Fibers Technical. He earned a Ph.D. Forum Director for the National
in chemical physics from Univ. of Textile Center, joined NTC in 1992.
Brussels in 1956 and did postdoc- She is president of Rhonda Shin and
toral research at Cambridge. He Company, Inc., a communications
serves on the faculty of the Philadel- services company of Wilmington DE,
phia College of Textiles and Sciences specializing in the design and
and is a consultant to industry and planning of corporate meetings and
the U.S. Departments of Commerce events. Rhonda graduated with a
and Energy. His research interests degree in commercial art from the Art
include textile technology trends with Institute of Philadelphia in 1979.
an emphasis on the Far East. rshin@magpage.com
berkowje@magpage.com (302)-655-5667
(302)-478-0430 http://www.magpage.com/~rshin/

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000 B-45


Search All the NTC Research Reports to Date
The National Textile Center published regular printed reports of all its research projects from Spring 1992 to Fall 1998. Beginning
with the Spring 1999 Research Briefs, NTC has published these research reports electronically on CD/ROM and on the NTC web site
at http://www.ntcresearch.org/PDFindex.html Now you can read and keyword search all NTC reports ever published on the
CD/ROM. Keyword searching is under development for the web site. For help in accessing the reports electronically on the web,
contact Cindy Albright at calbrigh@magpage.com. For web access, you will need to download from the NTC web page a free copy
of Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is included on the CD.

NTC DIRECTORY - STAFF


Executive Director: E-mail: berkowje@magpage.com
Joe D. Cunning Forum Director:
National Textile Center Address: Phone: (302)-478-4744 Rhonda Shin
2207 Concord Pike Fax: (302)-478-0213 Phone: (302)-655-5667
Wilmington DE 19803-2908 E-mail: joe@joecunning.com Fax: (302)-655-5806
Phone: (302)-478-4744 Technical Consultant/Editor: E-mail: rshin@magpage.com
Fax: (302)-478-0213 Tom Doherty
Electronic Media Specialist:
Web: www.ntcresearch.org Phone: (302)-478-4758 Cindy Albright
E-mail: tom@ntcresearch.org Phone: (302)-764-8782
Technology Development: E-mail: calbrigh@magpage.com
John Berkowitch
Printed Publications Coordinator:
Phone: (302)-478-0430 Phoebe Doherty