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POLYMER LETTERS EDITION 863

motions of the polymer backbone, and the phonon spectra of crystalline poly-
mers. Studied of polymer solution and polymer networks are also discussed.
Chapter V, “Ultrasonic Characterization of Solid Polymers,” R. A. Pethrick,
emphasizes high-frequency phenomena in polymers, which means that local
modes are probed by the ultrasonic waves. Measurements of velocity and atten-
uation of ultrasonic beam contain the information extracted from standard ex-
periments. The techniques are discussed as is the molecular theory used in inter-
preting results. A variety of investigations on different polymers are cited.
In Chapter VI, “Characterization and Assessment of Polymer Orientation,”
H. Kawai and S. Nomura, the characterization of polymer orientation is based
on an extension of the theory of Krigbaum and Roe. The several methods of
measuring orientation, dichroism, fluorescence polarization, NMR, and x-ray dif-
fraction are mentioned. Equations describing the analysis are given with only
sparse examples of the applications.
Each of the chapters serves as a review article for the subject. The references
at the end of the chapters provide good starting points for researchers especially
interested in the material.

Robert Ullman

Ford Motor Company


Dearborn, Michigan

Polymers and Their Properties, Vol. 1 , Fundamental of Structure and


Mechanics, J. W. S. Hearle, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, England,
1982, 437 pp. No price given.

The author presents in this first volume a completely new approach to poly-
mers which concentrates on an idealized situation: the isolated polymer mole-
cule as a model for the fundamental responses of real polymer materials as crys-
talline solids, rubbers, glasses, solutions, and melts.
The book contains eight chapters and three appendices. In the first chapter,
as an introduction, the physical types of polymers, the architecture of the macro-
molecular system, and answers to the question “Why are polymers different?”
are discussed.
“Basic concepts: ideal polymeric states” is the title of the second chapter.
Here the idea of an isolated polymer molecule, the behavior of flexible chain
molecules, chain stiffening, condensed states of a single molecule, assemblies of
polymer molecules, polymeric states are presented.
In the third chapter, “Chain statistics and rheology; polymer solutions and
melts,” conformations of freely orienting chain, polymer solutions, viscosity and
related phenomena in polymer solutions, viscoelasticity of polymer solutions,
gel, and melts are the topics of discussion.
864 POLYMER LETTERS EDITION

Rubber elasticity is discussed in detail in the fourth chapter. It starts with a


discussion on the nature of rubber and continues with the basic theory and fur-
ther effects such as behavior at large strains, phenomenological representations,
factors influencing the mechanical properties, and so on.
In the fifth and sixth chapters the transition to the glassy state and the prob-
lem of hard amorphous polymers are developed in brief.
Chapter 7, one of the most important chapters of this book, is devoted to
polymer crystals. The author covers the crystal lattice, deformation of polymer
lattices, single crystals, chain folding, bulk crystallization, and melting of poly-
mer crystals.
The last chapter discusses the morphology and thermomechanical responses
of partly crystalline plastics and fibers such as characterization of real materials,
thermal responses, and mechanical responses.
The useful and interesting appendices are “A discussion on some general
physics,” “Notes on formal aspects of elasticity and rheology,” and “The chemi-
cal constitution of some polymers.”
The book is very clearly written and presented at a high scientific level with
many very useful figures, pictures, and schemes. It is highly recommended to
macromolecular scientists, chemists, engineers, biologists, teachers and students
of polymer science, senior undergraduate and postgraduate level, and those with
an interest in related disciplines such as materials science, textiles, mechanical
and civil engineering, physics, many branches of chemistry, to postgraduate
level.

D. Feldman

Corcordia University
Montreal, Canada