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Chapter 5

Temporary Overvoltages Analysis




5.1 Introduction
A temporary overvoltage is an oscillatory overvoltage of relatively long
duration, which undamped or only weakly damped. Temporary overvoltages occur as
a result of a switching operation or the initiation or clearance of a fault. Temporary
overoltages may have different effects on the systems. During flashover of insulation
and puncture of internal insulation if their magnitude is high, and heating of the
transformer and reactor cores if they cause saturation. In addition, they can affect
surge reseal properties and possibly the thermal stability of the surge arresters [4], [5].
This thesis studies most dangerous temporary overvoltages in the 500 kV
transmission line between Nam Theun 2 Power Plant and Thailand network at Roi Et
2 substation occur when the circuit breaker are operated to produce Ferranti effect,
load rejection and inrush transient due to transformer energization as illustrated in
Figure 4.1.
5.2 Case of Study
Several events that can produce high temporary overvoltages are investigated in
this thesis as following:
1) Ferranti rise effect of the line when light load energizing from Nam Theun 2
to Roi Et 2 single circuit and double circuits.
2) Load rejection is considered only one side from Nam Theun 2 to Roi Et 2 as
following:
- Three phases load rejection at Roi Et 2 substation 230 kV side external
grid and 500 kV side, changing rejection of loads are examined.
- Two phases and single phase load at circuit at Roi Et 2 substation 500 kV
side. Changing rejection in each phase A-B-C and two phases in step A-
B, B-C and A- C at full load condition are considered.
3) Inrush transient due to transformer energization is considered during no load
energization as following:
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- The step up single phase step up power transformer 95 MVA, 12 units at
Nam Theun 2 Power Plant, from 18 kV low side.
- The step down autotransformer 333.3 MVA, 3 units at Roi Et 2
subatation, energizing from 500 kV high side.
5.3 Ferranti Effect Analysis
A long transmission line draws a substantial quantity of charging current. If such
a line open circuited or very lightly loaded at the receiving end, the voltage at
receiving end may become greater than voltage at sending end. This is known as
Ferranti effect and is due to the voltage drop across the line inductance ( due to
charging current ) being in phase with sending end voltages. Therefore both
capacitance and inductance is responsible to produce this phenomenon. The
capacitance and charging current is negligible in short time but significant in medium
line and appreciable in long line. Therefore this phenomenon occurs in medium and
long lines. The Ferranti effect of 500 kV transmission line Nam Theun 2 to Roi Et 2
subatation was analyzed as illustrated in Figure 5.1.
The case study of Ferranti effect for 500 kV transmission line Nam Theun 2 to
Roi Et 2 substation, 304 km with line length. The first step, circuit breakers at the
sending end ( Nam theun 2 Power Plant ) operates in steady state condition, circuit
breakers at the receiving end ( Roi Et 2 ) is opened and the double circuits line is
turning on/off shunt reactors compensation at both sides.



Figure 5.1 Circuit diagram of NTN 2 RE 2 transmission line [8].

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From Figure 5.1, the Ferranti effect of 500 kV transmission line from Nam
Theun 2 to Roi Et 2 (304 km with line length) is presented. The breaker in Nam
Theun 2 side is operated to energize the line and the voltage is steady state condition.
The voltage at the 500 kV transmission line end at Roi Et 2 substation be reach about
3% higher than the sending end at Nam Theun 2 Power Plant. This is due to the
Ferranti effect in the network with the installation of shunt reactor compensation of
line ( 165 Mvar at NTN 2 and 110 Mvar at RE 2 ) and surge arresters.
When a transmission line is left unloaded, the Ferranti effect will cause rise in
the voltage from the sending end towards the remote end. The Ferranti effect is useful
to consider the requirement of the arrester maximum continuous operation voltage
rating of surge arresters which would decide the selection of insulation level of the
system. Other case study on removing shunt reactors to see their effect on the
receiving voltage rise as table 5.1 which is shown the effect of line end voltage
variation and the effect of shunt reactor on reducing Ferranti effect.

Table 5.1 The Ferranti effect overvoltage at open end of line circuits 1 NTN 2
RE 2.
Shunt Reactor
( NTN 2 ) Mvar
Shunt Reactor
( RE 2 ) Mvar
Overvoltage at the
sending end [p.u]
Overvoltage at the
receiving end [p.u]
165 110 1.023 1.055
165 0 1.060 1.133
0 110 1.073 1.109
0 0 1.119 1.201

Figure 5.2 presents the voltage waveform during Ferranti effect occurred on the
500 kV transmission line Nam Theun 2 to Roi Et 2 substation. The maximum
overvoltage reaches 1.055 p.u energized with shunt reactors compensation at both
sides. The disconnection of shunt reactors at both sides produce high overvoltage is
reach 1.201 p.u at the receiving end as illustrated in Figure 5.3.

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Figure 5.2 Ferranti effect overvoltage at the receiving end RE 2 with protection
devices at both sides.


Figure 5.3 Ferranti effect overvoltage at the receiving end RE 2 without shunt reactors
compensation at both sides.

In this part, the Ferranti effect from the energization of both circuits is studied.
The breaker at the sending end is operated under steady state condition and the shunt
reactors of both sides are turned on/off. The simulation results are illustrated in table
5.2.

Table 5.2 The Ferranti effect overvoltage at the open end of double circuits
NTN 2 RE 2.
Shunt Reactor
( NTN 2 ) Mr
Shunt Reactor
( RE 2 ) Mvar
Overvoltage at the
sending end [p.u]
Overvoltage at the
receiving end [p.u]
165 110 1.058 1.088
165 0 1.132 1.210
0 110 1.162 1.197
0 0 1.255 1.342

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Figures 5.4 - 5.5 show the voltage waveform affected by Ferranti effect on the
transmission line at the sending end and the receiving end. When the open breaker at
RE2 or receiving end, it is found that the Ferranti effect is occurred. This phenomenon
brings to get higher voltage at sending end compared to that of receiving end and the
voltage oscillation between both substations. It should be noted that the magnitude of
oscillating voltage depends on the length of the transmission line. Moreover, the result
shows that in case of turn on the shunt reactor at both ends, the voltage magnitude at
RE2 can be raised to 1.088 p.u. and this result is shown in Figure 5.4. However, in
case of without shunt reactor, the voltage magnitude 1.342 p.u., this result is also
shown in Figure 5.5.


Figure 5.4 Ferranti effect on the overvoltage of transmission line at the receiving end
in case of double circuits with shunt reactors.


Figure 5.5 Ferranti effect overvoltage during double circuit without shunt reactors at
both sides.
5.4 Load Rejection Analysis
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Phase to earth and longitudinal temporary overvoltages due to load rejection
depends on the rejected load. The three phases to earth voltage rises are identical and,
therefore, the same relative overvoltages occur phase to earth and phase to phase.
These rises may be especially important in the case of load rejection at the remote end
of a long line ( Ferranti effect ) and they mainly affect the apparatus at the station
connected on the source side of the remote open circuit breaker as illustrated in Figure
5.6 [30].


Figure 5.6 Single line diagram of 500 kV transmission line NTN 2 RE 2.

Load rejection causes temporary overvoltages and it brings to get most severe
conditions. The reason is that the power generation and the connected lines are part of
a weak system and this can lead to machine accelerations. This waveform type of
temporary overvoltage is sinusoidal and always increases of power system frequency,
unless transformer in the vicinity is saturated. Its magnitude can be increased to 1.583
p.u during three phases full load rejection at node 3 as illustrated in Figure 5.7. When
the load at node 5 is rejected, the maximum overvoltage is 1.462 p.u as illustrated in
Figure 5.8. It is lower than that of the rejection at node 3.

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Figure 5.7 Voltage waveform for three phases full load rejection at node 3.


Figure 5.8 Voltage waveform for three phases full load rejection at node 5.

For the second case, a 304 km of 500 kV transmission line between Nam Theun
2 and Roi Et 2 substation with shunt reactors and series compensation is considered.
The load power is 450 MW. The presence of three phases loads is rejected in node 5
is shown in table 5.3 and voltage waveform as illustrated in Figure 5.9 to Figure 5.11.

Table: 5.3 Influence of amount of rejected load on overvoltages.
Rejected load
(%)
30%
( 320 MW)
60%
(180 MW)
90%
(45 MW)
Overvoltage at
receiving end (p.u)
1.186 1.277 1.414

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Figure 5.9 Voltage waveform for three phases-opening 30% at node 5.


Figure 5.10 Voltage waveform for three phases-opening 60% at node 5.


Figure 5.11 Voltage waveform for three phases-opening 90 % at node 5.
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For the third case, a 304 km of 500 kV line with shunt reactors compensation is
considered. The load power is 450 MW is rejected at node 3 during two phases and
single phase A, B, C. There are overvoltages in the system. Overvoltage can reach
1.364 p.u due to phase A-C rejected as illustrated in Figure 5.12, 1.330 p.u due to
phase A-B as illustrated in Figure 5.13 and 1.363 p.u due to phase B-C rejected as
illustrated in Figure 5.14. The maximum overvoltage during single phase load
rejected at node 3 can reach up to 1.329 p.u due to phase A. When the phase B and C
are rejected, the magnitude of both are the same reach 1.329 p.u. as illustrated in
Figure 5.15 5.17.
Note that, in this work the load rejection is considered only at node 3. Since, in
case of single phase and two phases, the overvoltage magnitude of node 3 is the
highest compared to those of another node.


Figure 5.12 Voltage waveform for phase A-C opening at node 3.

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Figure 5.13 Voltage waveform for phase A-B opening at node 3.

Figure 5.14 Voltage waveform for phase B-C opening at node 3.


Figure 5.15 Voltage waveform for phase A opening at node 3.

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Figure 5.16 Voltage waveform for phase B opening at node 3.


Figure 5.17 Voltage waveform for phase C opening at node 3.

5.6 Inrush Transient due to Transformer Energizing Analysis
The energization of a power transformer could results in severe temporary
overvoltage due to harmonic components in the transformer inrush currents. The
inrush transient during the energization of a single phase power transformer at 525/18
kV Nam Theun 2 Power Plant and at autotransformer 525/230/22 kV Roi Et 2
substation were analyzed for the system restoration simulation from the 18 kV and
500 kV side.
5.6.1 System Restoration from the 18 kV Side
In this simulation, the 500 kV line is restored from 1,122 MVA generators
4 unit of Nam Theun 2 Power Plant. The 525 / 18 kV step up power transformer at
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Nam Theun 2 substation is energizing from Power Plant 18 kV side, after the
energization of Nam Theun 2 substation as illustrated in Figure 5.18. Temporary
overvoltages with high harmonic content having the magnitude of 1.578 p.u, as
illustrated in Figure 5.19, appear during transformer energization. The maximum
inrush current on the 18 kV side reaches 36.421 A peak. The temporary overvoltage
and inrush current would be stressful to the 525 / 18 kV transformer and to other
system equipment.

Figure 5.18 System restoration from the 18 kV Nam Theun 2 Power Plant.


Figure 5.19 Inrush transient during transformer energizing at NTN 2.

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Figure 5.20 Inrush current in phase A at NTN 2.

Figure 5.21 Inrush current in phase B at NTN 2.


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Figure 5.22 Inrush current in phase C at NTN 2.

5.6.2 System Restoration for 500 kV Side
In this simulation, the 525 kV system is restored from 1,122 MVA
generators 4 units of Nam Theun 2 Power Plant. The 525/242/22 kV power
autotransformers three units at Roi Et 2 substation is energized from 525 kV side after
the energization of the 525 kV transmission line as illustrated in Figure 5.23. The
temporary overvoltage with high harmonic contents having the magnitude of 1.490
p.u appears during autotransformer energization, as illustrated in Figure 5.24. The
maximum inrush current on the 525 kV side is reach 0.820 A in phase A as illustrated
in Figue 5.25, phase B is 1.520 A as illustrated in Figure 5.26 and inrush current in
phase C is 1.05 A as illustrated in Figure 5.27. The oscillation between the series
compensated line and the unloaded transformer would prolong high magnitude
transformer inrush currents.
Important harmonic temporary overvoltage and inrush currents were observed
during transformer energization from the 525 kV side or 18 kV side at Nam Theun 2
Power Plant. The following remedy measures for the suppression of inrush transients
due to transformer energization have been investigate:


Figure 5.23 System restorations the from 525 kV side NTN 2- RE 2.

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Figure 5.24 Inrush transient during the energization of 525/230/22 kV
autotransformer at Roi Et 2 from 525 kV side with protection devices.

Figure 5.25 Inrush current in phase A energization of autotransformer from 525 kV
side with protection devices.


Figure 5.26 Inrush current in phase B energization of autotransformer from 500 kV
side with protection devices
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Figure 5.27 Inrush current in phase C energization of autotransformer from 525 kV
side with protection devices.

The maximum inrush transient during energization of autotransformer is
occurred when Roi Et 2 is energized without protection devices. The inrush transient
with high harmonic contents having the magnitude of 2.641 p.u appear during
transformer energization, as illustrated in Figure 5.29. The maximum inrush current
on the 500 kV side reach 2.394 A in phase B as illustrated in Figure 5.30.


Figure 5.28 Inrush transient during the energization of 525/230/22 kV
autotransformer at Roi Et 2 from 500 kV side without protection
devices.

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Figure 5.29 Inrush current in phase B energization of autotransformer from 500 kV
side without protection devices.


When energized transformer with load condition connected at Roi Et 2
substation 230 kV side. The inrush transient during energized with load are quite low
as illustrated in Figure 5.30


Figure 5.30 Inrush transient during the energization of 525/230/22 kV
autotransformer at Roi Et 2 from 525 kV side with load condition.

5.7 Conclusion of Temporary Overvoltage analysis
The studies of temporary overvoltages in the 500 kV transmission line between
Nam Theun 2 and Roi Et 2 substation for different load operating. The study covers
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several aspects such as: Ferranti effect, Load rejection and Inrush transient during
transformer energization. The PSCAD/EMTDC program simulation was used.
Therefore, it could be concluded that:
- In the steady state Ferranti rise overvoltage the highest overvoltage will be
occurred at the opened end while there is no any shunt reactors be adapted. The
maximum overvoltage is 1.342 p.u without shunt reactors compensation at both sides.
The highest voltage is lower than maximum continuous voltage of surge arrester. The
shunt reactors terminal at both sides reduce the Ferranti effect occurred in the
transmission line.
- The temporary overvoltage in case of load rejection of the 500 kV transmission
line between Nam Theun 2 and Roi Et 2 substation. The amount of load to be
rejected, the line loading and asymmetrical operation on overvoltage are investigated.
It has been found that for load rejection at node 3 Roi Et 2 substation, with the
protection devices produce high overvoltage is reach 1.583 p.u, and these
overvotlages are very high during along time (several seconds) on winding of
transformer wingding. Overvoltages during three phases load is rejection are higher
than when the loads are rejected on two-one phase. The arrestors and shunt reactors
are allowed to get efficiently controlled overvoltage from load rejection in the 500 kV
lines as well as the energy stresses in the 444 kV surge arrester.
- Several harmonic temporary overvoltage and inrush transients could appear
during transformer energization from 18 kV side at Nam Theun 2 Power Plant and
from 500 kV side at Roi Et 2 substation. The maximum overvoltage during energized
from 18 kV side Nam Theun 2 Power Plant is reach 1.578 p.u. The maximum inrush
current on the 18 kV side reaches 36.421 A. The maximum overvoltage during
autotransformer energization from 525 kV side is reach 1.490 p.u. When the
autotransformer energized without any protection devices is 2.642 p.u. The present of
surge arrester allows to suppress harmonic temporary overvoltage and inrush currents
during the transformer energization at Nam Theun 2 and Roi Et 2 substation.
The temporary overvoltage is analyzed in cases Ferranti effect, load rejection
and inrush transient due to transformer energization. The overvotlages are very high
during along time (several seconds) occurred in the equipments of the 500 kV line
such as arrester and winding of transformer. Since the maximum overvoltage is
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between 1.055 p.u and 1.583 p.u which is in the boundary limit of insulation
coordination of the 500 kV transmission line from Nam Theun 2 to Roi Et 2
substations ( 2.45 p.u. following the IEC standard illustrated in table: A.10.1 in
appendix A ).