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QUALITY

PHOSPHATIZING
GUIDE
FREMONT INDUSTRIES, INC.
Shakopee, Minnesota
QUALI TY PHOSPHATI ZI NG
PREPARATI ON OF METALS BY PHOSPHATI ZI NG
Phosphat e coat i ngs ar e produced on f er r ous
U
and non- f er r ous met al
sur f aces and ar e composed of t i ny cr yst al s of i r on, zi nc or
manganese phosphat es. The i norgani c coat i ngs produced on met al
sur f aces r et ar d cor r osi on and pr omot e bet t er pai nt bondi ng.
Phosphat e coat i ngs ar e produced af t er pr ecl eani ng or f ormed i n a
combi nat i on bat h known as cl eaner- phosphat e. Phosphat e coat i ngs
ar e gener al l y used by t he met al f i ni shi ng i ndust ry f or t he
f ol l owi ng reasons:
__
1) To pr ovi de a base f or bondi ng or gani c f i ni shes such as
pai nt s, l acquer s, pl ast i cs, r ubber , adhesi ves, et c.
2) To pr ovi de a base f or oi l s, waxes and r ust pr event i ves t o
r educe met al corrosi on.
3 ) To pr ovi de a base f or l ubr i cant on bear i ng sur f aces t o
r educe f ri ct i on.
4 ) To ai d i n dr awi ng and f or mi ng of met al s.
However , phosphat e coat i ngs ar e used pri mari l y f or t he bondi ng of
pai nt . Coat i ngs produced on met al ar e not onl y st abl e and
chemi cal l y i ner t t owar d or gani c f i ni shes, but t hey ar e al so
absor pt i ve and bi nd or gani c f i ni shes t o t he met al . The most
i mpor t ant aspect f or use of a phosphat e coat i ng i s t o pr event or
r et ar d t he spr ead of cor r osi on under pai nt i ncl udi ng t he ar eas near
r upt ur ed f i l m.
I. THE CHEMI CAL THEORY OF FI LMFORMATI ON
Phosphat e coat i ngs consi st of cr yst al l i ne sal t s of t he met al
whi ch i s bei ng t r eat ed and/ or cr yst al l i ne sal t s of met al i ons
added t o t he phosphat i zi ng sol ut i on.
When t he met al comes i n cont act wi t h t he phosphat i zi ng
sol ut i on, some pi ckl i ng occur s whi ch r esul t s i n a r educt i on of
aci d concent r at i on at t he l i qui d- met al i nt erf ace. At t hi s
poi nt i r on i s di ssol ved, hydr ogen i s evol ved, and phosphat e
coat i ng i s deposi t ed. Shoul d t he sol ut i on cont ai n addi t i onal
met al i ons such as zi nc or manganese, phosphat e coat i ngs of
t hese i ons wi l l al so be deposi t ed.
Accel er at or s such as ni t r i t e, ni t r at e, chl or at e, per oxi de or
speci al or gani c chemi cal s may be added t o i ncr ease t he r at e of
coat i ng deposi t i on.
I n gener al , i r on phosphat e coat i ng wei ght s of 25- 90 mg/ f t 2 and
zi nc phosphat e coat i ng wei ght s of 100- 300 mg/ f t 2 ar e commonl y
accept ed as bases f or pai nt bondi ng.
1
As wi t h any good qual i t y- met al f i ni shi ng, pr oper sel ect i on of
cl eaner and phosphat i zi ng compound r equi r es caref ul
consi der at i on. For i nst ance, an aut omat ed l i ne and f i xed l i ne
speed demand good cl eani ng i n t he shor t est t i me possi bl e t o
al l ow f ul l use of t he r emai ni ng t i me f or phosphat e coat i ng
f ormat i on. Poor cl eaner s t end t o l essen t he qual i t y of
phosphat e coat i ng and promot e f l ash r ust i ng, st r eaki ng, or
powderi ng.
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11. TYPES OF PHOSPHATE COATI NGS
A. I RON PHOSPHATES
I r on phosphat e coat i ngs are usual l y der i ved f rom
sol ut i ons whi ch cont ai n very l i t t l e i ron. They are
pr oduced on f er r ous met al s t hr ough t he combi ned use of
aci d phosphat e sal t s, f r ee phosphor i c aci d pl us
accel er at or s. For non- f er r ous met al s such as al umi numor
zi nc, mi cro- et ched sur f ace i s produced i n pl ace of i ron
phosphat e coat i ng f ormat i on.
1. Var i ous TYD es of Compounds Avai l abl e
a. Met al Condi t i oner s
Ther e ar e a number of met al condi t i oni ng
pr oduct s avai l abl e as l i qui d concent rat es.
These pr oduct s consi st of phosphor i c aci d,
gr ease cut t i ng sol vent s and or gani c det er gent s
i n wat er. Some pr oduct s may cont ai n a smal l
amount of aci d f l uor i de or sal t t o enhance
aci d act i vi t y on al umi numor gal vani zed st eel
surf aces. Met al condi t i oni ng compounds are
appl i ed by wi pe- on, di p, or spr ay wi t h vari ous
concent r at i ons at ambi ent t emperat ure. I n
addi t i on t o use as pai nt bondi ng bases, met al
condi t i oni ng pr oduct s have t he capabi l i t y t o
r emove r ust , scal e or wel d f l ux deposi t s.
b. Iron Phosphat e Compounds
Ther e are t wo t ypes of i r on phosphat e
compounds i n use t oday. Fi r st t ype i s an i ron
phosphat e t hat does not have cl eani ng
capabi l i t y and i s used on pr evi ousl y cl eaned
met ai surf aces. Second t ype i s an i ron
phosphat e t hat does cl ean and deposi t i ron
phosphat e coat i ng i n t he same bat h and i s al so
known as cl eaner - phosphat e. Bot h t ypes of
i r on phosphat es ar e capabl e of deposi t i ng
phosphat e coat i ng wei ght s of 25- 90 mg/ f t2.
2
2.
I r on phosphat e compounds ar e gener al l y used at
concent r at i ons var yi ng bet ween 1. 5 t o 3. 0%by
vol ume f or l i qui ds or 2 t o 4 oz. / gal . f or
powders at t emper at ur es r angi ng f rom 90 t o
130F i n most spray appl i cat i ons. For
i mmersi on i r on phosphat i zi ng, 3. 0 t o 5. 0% f or
l i qui ds or 4 t o 6 oz. / gal . f or powder s at
t emper at ur es of 120 t o 160F i s used. I r on
phosphat e coat i ngs can be appl i ed wi t h hi gh
pressure spr ay wand equi pment wi t h 1. 0% by
vol ume of l i qui d cl eaner phosphat e f or most
l ar ge part s.
Maj or advant ages of most i r on phosphat e
compounds ar e t hat t her e i s a mi ni mum of
sl udge f or mat i on, ease of sol ut i on
mai nt enance, no heavy met al di sposal probl em
and economi cal t o operat e. Most good i ron
phosphat e compounds meet t he Federal
Speci f i cat i on TT- C- 490, Type 11.
Gener al Pr ocessi na Dat a
Thor ough under st andi ng of avai l abl e wat er f or
pr ocessi ng wi l l hel p t o mi ni mi ze sl udge f or mat i on
i n t anks and prol ong t ank l i f e. Wat er shoul d be
anal yzed f or i t s har dness and di ssol ved sol i ds i n
mi cromhos. For ext remel y hard wat er s, sel ect
al kal i ne cl eaner s or phosphat e compounds wi t h hard
wat er st abi l i zers.
I t wi l l be especi al l y i mpor t ant f or phosphat e
compounds t o have a hard wat er st abi l i zer syst em
bui l t i n t o mi ni mi ze sl udge f or mat i on as wel l as
f r equent oper at i ng pH adj ust ment f or qual i t y
phosphat e coat i ng f ormat i on.
Oper at i ng pH wi l l vary wi del y wi t h t ype of phosphat e
compounds and some wi l l f avor pH r ange of 3. 5 t o
5 . 0 , whi l e ot her s wi l l f avor 4 . 8 t o 6. 0. I t i s
mor e economi cal t o use pH adj ust ment aci d
concent r at e t han use of phosphat e compound. pH
wi l l t end t o r i se i n oper at i on i n most i nst ances.
Pr oper sel ect i on of energy conser vi ng al kal i ne
cl eaner s or phosphat e zompwcriida will geiierate cost
savi ngs wi t h BTU consumpt i on, especi al l y wi t h spray
washers. Ther e ar e many f i ne pr oven l ow
t emper at ur e cl eaner s, cl eaner - phosphat es and
phosphat es i n use t oday.
3
?
3.
Addi t i onal consi der at i on shoul d be gi ven t o handl e
met al s properl y. Gener al l y, st eel s - col d r ol l ed,
hot r ol l ed, hot rol l ed col d pi ckl ed and oi l ed or
cast i r on wi l l not r equi r e speci al consi der at i on
f or sel ect i on of al kal i ne cl eaner s. However , i t
wi l l be i mpor t ant t o sel ect pr oper al kal i ne
cl eaner s or phosphat es t o be abl e t o handl e
al umi num, zi nc, gal vanneal , gal vani zed or
t er nepl at ed st eel t o ef f ect good cl eani ng and pai nt
bondi ng. For mi xed met al pr ocessi ng, t he pr oper
sel ect i on of cl eaner s and phosphat es become of
par amount i mport ance. Li kewi se, t ype of pai nt s
empl oyed such as hi gh sol i ds or powder coat i ngs
demand pr oper pr epar at i on of met al surf aces.
I r on PhosDhat e - Reci r cul at i on Spr ay Pr ocess
Thr ee St aaes: ( Most wi del y used met hod. )
a. Cl eaner - Phosphat e
1.5-3.0% by vol . ( l i qui d) or
2-4 oz . / gal . ( powder)
90-130F
60 sec. or t i me may vary wi t h l i ne speed
b. Wat er Ri nse
Over f l owrecommended
30 sec.
c. Seal - Ri nse
( Mai nt ai n suspended and di ssol ved sol i ds
Chr omat e - 70 t o 130F, 30 seconds
Non- Chr omat e - 100 t o 160"F, 30 sec.
l ow. )
For ce dr y or dr y- of f oven i s r ecommended t o
get ri d of wat er t o pr epar e t hemf or pai nt i ng.
Wat er qual i t y f or seal - r i nse makeup can pl ay
an i mpor t ant rol e. Sof t ened wat er i s not
r ecommended as i t al ways cont ai ns some
r esi dual sodi um chl or i de sal t ( corrosi ve) .
Dei oni zed wat er i s hel pf ul t o use, however , i t
i s ver y cor r osi ve t o st eel t anks, unl ess used
wi t h seal - r i nse compounds. Hard wat er s wi t h
l ow t o medi um wat er har dness and di ssol ved
sol i ds ar e commonl y used.
Fi ve St ases: ( Most ef f i ci ent and economi cal met hod. )
a.
b.
C.
d.
e.
Al kal i ne Spr ay Cl eaner
1.5-3.0% by vol . ( l i qui d) or
1-2 oz . / gal . ( powder)
60 sec. or t i me may vary wi t h l i ne speed
100-130F
Wat er Ri nse
( Moni t or pH of r i nse wat er peri odi cal l y. )
Good over f l owi s r ecommended
30 sec.
Phosphat e
60 sec. or t i me may var y wi t h l i ne speed
Wat er Ri nse
Over f l ow
30 sec.
90-130F
Seal - Ri nse
( Mai nt ai n suspended and di ssol ved sol i ds
Chr omat e - 70 t o 130F, 30 sec.
Non- Chr omat e - 100 t o 160"F, 30 sec.
l ow. )
For E- coat syst em, addi t i onal st ages t o empl oy
dei oni zed wat er r i nse as wel l as dei oni zed
hal o mi st r i nse i s requi red t o prevent
car r yover of unwant ed sol i ds i nt o pai nt t anks.
4. I ron Phosphat e - I mmer si on Pr ocess
Thr ee St ases:
a. Cl eaner - Phosphat e
3.0-5.0% by vol . ( l i qui d) or
4-6 oz . / gal . ( powder)
3-5 mi nut es
120-160F
b. Wat er Ri nse
Over f l ow
30-60 sec.
c. Seal - Ri nse
( Mai nt ai n suspended and di ssol ved sol i ds
Chr omat e - 70 t o 160F, 30 sec.
Non- Chr omat e - 130 t o 160"F, 30 sec.
l ow. )
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Fi ve St ases:
a. Al kal i ne Soak Cl eaner
5.0-7.0% by vol . ( l i qui d) or
6-8 oz . / gal . ( powder)
5- 10 mi n.
130-160F
b. Wat er Ri nse
( Moni t or pH of r i nse wat er peri odi cal l y. )
Good over f l owi s requi red
60 sec.
c. Phosphat e
1.5-3.0% by vol ume
2-5 mi n.
d. Wat er Ri nse
Over f l ow
30-60 sec.
e. Seal - Ri nse
( Mai nt ai n suspended and di ssol ved sol i ds
Chr omat e - 70 t o 160F, 30 sec.
Non- Chr omat e - 130 t o 160F, 30 sec.
l ow. )
Most al kal i ne soak cl eaner s ar e capabl e of
r emovi ng oi l y soi l s, however , t hey f i nd i t
di f f i cul t t o r emove par t i cul at e i norgani c
soi l s i n a st at i c wat er ri nse. Empl oyment of
some f or mof spr ay wat er r i nse wi l l i mprove
t he uni f or mi t y of phosphat e coat i ng deposi t i on
drast i cal l y.
5. Hi sh Pr essur e Spr ay Wand Phosphat i zi nq
I r on phosphat e can be ef f i ci ent l y deposi t ed wi t h
hi gh pr essur e spr ay wand equi pment wi t h spr ay
pr essur es r angi ng f rom500- 1500 psi at t he nozzl e
by usi ng qual i t y l i qui d cl eaner- phosphat es.
Advanced t echnol ogy i n equi pment desi gn hel ped t o
pr oduce spr ay wand equi pment wi t h a capabi l i t y t o
gener at e i nst ant t emper at ur e up t o 185F on demand
wi t h ener gy ef f i ci ent operat i on. use of downst ream
i nj ect or wi l l posi t i vel y del i ver exact
phosphat i zi ng concent r at i on t o t he nozzl e and par t s
bei ng cl eaned and phosphat i zed si mul t aneousl y.
Gener al l y, 0.5-1.0% by vol ume of i r on phosphat e i s
used t o pr epar e met al s f or good pai nt bondi ng.
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B. ZI NC PHOSPHATE
Fi ne gr ai n zi nc phosphat e coat i ngs ar e gener al l y used f or
pai nt bondi ng and r ust proof i ng purposes. Car ef ul l y
cont r ol l ed f i ne gr ai n zi nc phosphat e coat i ngs of f er
super i or cor r osi on r esi st ance t han i r on phosphat e
coat i ngs i n general . Wi t h ever i ncr easi ng envi r onment al
r egul at i ons pert ai ni ng t o di sposal of r i nse wat er s
cont ai ni ng heavy met al s and sl udges, i t s popul ar i t y i s
conf i ned t o t hose l ar ge oper at i ons wi t h el abor at e wast e
t r eat ment f aci l i t i es.
Zi nc phosphat e coat i ngs are produced on f er r ous and non-
f er r ous met al sur f aces i n sol ut i ons pr epar ed f rom
compounded l i qui d concent rat es. The l i qui d concent r at e
cont ai n zi nc- bear i ng sal t s and f r ee phosphor i c aci d.
They may al so cont ai n such accel er at or s as chl or at e,
ni t r at e, or or gani c compounds. Ni t r i t e or per oxi de can
be added di r ect l y t o wor ki ng sol ut i on.
Cer t ai n zi nc phosphat e compounds may cont ai n bi val ent
met al i ons i n or der t o r ef i ne t he cr yst al l i ne st r uct ur e
of t he phosphat e coat i ng. Addi t i on of f l uor i de or sal t s
may be needed t o pr omot e coat i ng deposi t i on on non-
f er r ous met al s.
1. Gener al Pr ocessi na Dat a f or Zi nc Phosphat i nq
Zi nc Phosphat e - Spr av Pr ocess
a.
b.
C.
d.
e.
Al kal i ne Spr ay Cl eaner
1. 5- 3. 0%by vol . ( l i qui d) or
1- 2 oz . / gal . ( powder)
120- 140 OF
60 sec.
Wat er Ri nse
( Moni t or pH of r i nse wat er peri odi cal l y. )
Good over f l ow
Zi nc Phosphat e
1. 5- 3. 0%by
100- 140F
60- 90 sec.
vol ume
Wat er Ri nse
Over f l ow
30 sec.
Seal - Ri nse
Chr omat e - 70- 130F, 30 sec.
Non- Chr omat e - 100- 140F, 30 sec.
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C.
A minimum of 5 stages are used to obtain
coating weights of 150-300 mg/ft2, however, 7
stages or more are common for larger volume
operations or E-coat paint systems.
Us e of titanated cleaner or titanium grain
refining conditioner is employed to speed up
uniform zinc phosphate coating with fine grain
structure.
Zinc Phomhate-Immersion Process
a.
b.
C.
d.
e.
Alkaline Soak Cleaner
6-8 oz./gal.
5-10 min.
130-160F
Water Rinse
Good overflow
60 sec.
(Monitor pH of rinse water periodically. )
Zinc Phosphate
3.0-5.0% by volume
140-160F
2-10 min. for paint bonding
15-30 min. for corrosion protection
Water Rinse
Overflow
30 sec.
Seal-Rinse
Chromate - 70-130F, 30 sec.
Non-Chromate - 100-140F, 30 sec.
Heavy crystalli e zinc phosphate coatings of
wear resistant, corrosion resistant or cold
forming aid.
1500-3000 mg/ft P can be obtained for use as a
WGANESE PHOSPHATE
Manganese phosphate coatings are produced on ferrous
metals from baths which contain manganese bearing salts.
The solution ?n,ay also contain other metal ions as we11 as
nitrate to promote crystal growth. Manganese coatings
serve to resist wear and corrosion and are used as a cold
forming aid. Manganese phosphate coatings are most
commonly applied by immersion for periods ranging from
10-30 minutes.
8
111. SEALI NG OF PHOSPHATE COATI NGS
A f i nal and i mpor t ant st ep i n t he phosphat i ng pr ocess i s t he
seal i ng ri nse. I t i s accompl i shed by usi ng a di l ut e chr omi c
aci d sol ut i on, a chr omi c- phosphor i c aci d sol ut i on, a bl end of
chr ome sol ut i on of hexaval ent and t r i val ent chr omi um, or
pr opr i et ar y non- chr omat e compounds of i nor gani c or organi c
pol ymers. Concent r at i ons are kept l owas not t o di ssol ve t he
coat i ng. The pri mary f unct i on of seal - r i nse i s t o passi vat e
or seal ar eas of porosi t y around phosphat e coat i ng.
Addi t i onal l y, i t i s absorbed by t he phosphat e coat i ng t o
enhance r esi st ance t o rust i ng by t he f or mat i on of compl ex
coat i ng. Al t houghmany cl ai ms are made f or non- chr omat e seal -
r i nse, i t i s as good as t he chr omi c onl y on t he basi s of
phosphat e or pai nt coat i ng speci f i cal l y. Over al l , chr omi c
seal r i nse cannot be mat ched f or under f i l m cor r osi on
pr ot ect i on of pai nt s i n cor r osi ve envi r onment by non- chr ome
seal ri nses.
As a good pr act i ce, i r r espect i ve of what t ype seal - r i nse i s
used, el i mi nat i on of cor r osi ve sal t s or unreact ed phosphat e
sal t s by usi ng hal o mi st of cl ean wat er or dei oni zed wat er
wi l l f ur t her i mpr ove cor r osi on r esi st ance of al l pai nt f i l ms,
ai r dr y, hi gh sol i ds bake, powder coat i ngs or E- coat f i ni sh.
I V. SOLUTI ON CONTROL
Phosphat i zi ng sol ut i on cont r ol i s done by t i t r at i on t o
det er mi ne t r ue chemi cal concent rat i on. Somet i mes, addi t i onal
t est s ar e done t o det er mi ne f r ee aci di t y, t ot al aci di t y,
accel er at or , act i vat or , or i r on concent rat i on. pH of
phosphat i zi ng sol ut i on i s ext r emel y i mport ant . Use of
aut omat i c moni t or/ cont rol uni t s wi l l aut omat i cal l y moni t or a
bat h f or var i ous const i t uent s and r epl eni sh t he depl et ed ones
t o mai nt ai n t he bat h wi t hi n t he prespeci f i ed oper at i ng range.
Use of t ot e bul k- pac wi l l mi ni mi ze personnel handl i ng of
hazar dous chemi cal s and el i mi nat e drumdi sposal probl em.
Recor d keepi ng sol ut i on char t or aut omat i c sol ut i on
concent r at i on r ecor der wi l l mai nt ai n uni f ormworki ng sol ut i ons
and ai d i n t r oubl e shoot i ng.
V. COATING QUALITY CONTROL
Mor e or l ess, phosphat e coat i ng wei ght s do not have a di r ect
i nf l uence on t he degr ee of cor r osi on r esi st ance, pai nt
adhesi on, or sal t spr ay hours.
However , t he t ype of phosphat e
coat i ng, such as hi ghl y accel er at ed i r on phosphat e or heavy
met al phosphat e, has a di r ect i nf l uence over cor r osi on
r esi st ance or sal t spr ay hours.
9
Some frequently performed tests are as follows:
1. Phosphate Coating Weight Determination per Gov. Spec. TT-
C-490A.
2. Cross Hatch Test ASTM D-3359
3. Reverse Impact Test ASTM D-2794
4. Conical Mandrel Bend Test ASTM D-522
5. Relative Humidity Test ASTM D-1748
6. Water Immersion Test ASTM D-870
7. Salt Spray (Fog) Test ASTM B-117
10
PURPOSE FORM USE CONC. & TEMP.
ZINC PHOSPHATE (Meets Gov. Spec. lT-C-490C, Type I.)
602 E.C. Up-to-date fine textured zinc phosphate coating of controlled coat-
-620 ing weight to suit moern paint technology for steel and
electrogalvanized steel. 602 E.C. is a makeup and 620 is a
replenisher.
Acidic Liquids 1 .O-2.0% b.v. 130-,140
602M 602M is a single package calcium modified zinc phosphate that
parameters. Best suited for use with powder coatings on
Acidic Liquid 1.5-4.0% b.v. 120-1 40F
3.0-5.0% b.V. 140-1 60F
offers varying degrees of coating weights with operating
electrogalv. steel and steel.
_--
605 605 is best suited for dip tank operation for heavier coating
weights.
Acidic Liquid 4.0-6.0% b.v. 180-1 90F
604 Titanated conditioner promotes sights for deposition of fine Alkaline Powder 112 oz./gal. (conditioning)
grained zinc phosphate coating uniformly at lower operating
1-3 oz./gal. (cleaning and
temperatures. conditioning)
603-603L Accelerators are used to control dissolved iron concentration to
speed coating formation as well as supress coarse crystal
formation.
Source of liquid caustic soda - controls free acidity or pH of
effluent.
Alkaline Liquids As needed to control iron.
21 3 Alkaline Liquid As needed to adjust free
acidity or pH of effluent.
21 4 Source of soda ash - controls free acidity. Alkaline Powder As needed to adjust free
acidity .
IRON PHOSPHATE (Meets Gov. Spec. lT-C-490C, Type 11.)
748-758 Improved paint adhesion and superior underfilm corrosion protection Acidic Liquids 2.0-4.09'0 b.v. 90-1 40F
can be achieved with this class of super accelerated iron phosphate pH 4.8-6.0
system. 758 is a bath makeup. Use as a single package or use with
748 pH control aid.
607 High tech phosphate that deposits higher phosphate coating Acidic Liquid 153.0% b.v. 90-140F
weight and improved salt spray resistance. pH 3.8-4.8
738-738M Iron phosphate with built in metal surface wetting capability to Acidic Liquid 1.5-3.0% b.v. 90-130F
insure uniorm deposition of coating for good paint bonding. 738M pH 3.0-4.5
is a product with preneutralized free acidity to show proper operat-
ing PH.
CLEANER PHOSPHATE (Meets Gov. Spec. TT-C-490C, Type 11.)
607-CL Combination cleaner-phosphate for use with limited number of stages. Acidic Liquid 1 .O-2.0% b.v. 120-140F
When used in 3 stages with a proper seal-rinse. 607-CL meets spec. pH 4.0-4.8
METHOD OF METALS COATING
APPLICATION WEIGHTS REMARKS
Spray 5-Stage Steel, Galv. Steel 100-300 mgfft2 Handles large volume of mixed metals predominantly steel
and some electrogalvanized steel. Responds to titanated
conditioner for developing tight fine grained phosphate
coating .
602M provides fine grained uniformly deposited coating at
lower operating temperatures with 604.
r, 'I Washer
Jf
Spray 5-Stage Steel, Galv. Steel 150-300 mg/ft2 Used with or without accelerator depending upon metal loads. ____
Washer
Dip
5-Stage Dip Tank
Dip Steel, Iron Min. 1000 mgM Rust preventive oil, wax, or corrosion specially colored paint
5-Stage Dip Tank can be used.
Spray or Dip Steel 604 can be used with no precleaner for treating reasonably
clean metals.
Steel Strong oxidizing chemicals. 603L is concentrated then 603.
Spray or Dip Caution should be exercised when neutralizing effluent
containing zinc as it will precipitate severely in alkaline pH.
Spray or Dip Slow acting but easier to handle. Avoids sharp ups and
downs.
Spray 5-Stage Suitable for use with E-Coat System or Powder Coating. Use
Washer Aluminum with Fremont chemical strength monitor/control system when
combined with alkaline cleaners 765 or 752.
Steel, Galv. Steel, 50-80 mgM
Spray 5-Stage Steel, Aluminum 40-80 mg/ft2 Versatile product with wide operating temperatures and pH
Washer
Spray 5-Stage Steel, Zinc, Galv. 25-40 mgm2 General purpose iron phosphate that handles mixed metal
Washer, Dip Steel, Aluminum loads including zince and terneplated stee.
5-Stage Washer
without sacrificing underfilm corrosion protection.
Spray 1 or 2-Stage Steel
Washer
30-40 mg/ft*
Use in limited stages or water rinse . . . shows low level of
chemical residues after dry off for good paint adhesion.
PURPOSE FORM USE CONC. & TEMP.
CLEANER PHOSPHATE (Meets Gov. Spec. TT-C-490C, Type 11.)
737-1 High Tech, highly built combination cleaner-phosphate that favora-
possible with use of 737-1.
Acidic Liquids 2.0-3.0% b.v. 110-130" F pH
bly competes against the powdered cleaner-phosphate. Extremely
3.5-4.8
low sludging, lower operating concentration, and longer tank life is
A ,
727 Alternative product of 737-1 for those washers with limited rate of
overflow in the inse stages. Lower operating temperature is
Acidic Liquid 2.0-4.OYo b.v. 100-1 40' F
pH 3.5-4.8
possible with use of 727.
Versatile high concentrate liquid product that can be used in 3 or 5
monitor/control system.
71 7 Acidic Liquid
2.0-3.0% b.v. 100-1 40F
stages and with or without Fremont chemical strength
pH 3.8-4.8
726 General purpose energy saving low temperature Acidic Powder 2-4 oz./gal. 90-1 30" F
cleaner-phosphate for good cleaning while producing uniform pH 3.5-5.0
phosphate coating.
601 Versatile combination cleaner-phosphate that can be operated at
wide temperature ranges of 90 - 160" F and pH of 3.5 - 4.8 while
offering high coating weight.
Acidic Powder 2-4 oz./gal. 90-1 60" F
pH 3.5-5.0
601P Specially formulated product to handle most mixed metals Acidic Powder 2-4 oz./gal. 90-130 F
especially aluminum and electrogalvanized steel. Handles pH 3.5-4.8
extremely hard waters.
342 Combination cleaner-phosphate with high cleaning power to Acidic Powder 4-6 oz./gal. 130-1 50' F
handle oils, shop soils and light smuts while developing phosphate pH 3.5-4.5
coating .
342L Combination cleaner-phosphate with high cleaning power to Acidic Liquid 3.0-5.0% b.v. 140-1 60 F
handle oils, shop soils and light smuts while developing phosphate pH 3.5-5.0
coating. Suitable for use with Fremont chemical strength
monitor/control system.
SPRAY WAND PHOSPHATE (Meets Gov. Spec. TT-C-490C, Type 11.)
63 1 Heavy duty, high active solids with sufficient free acidity to clean and Acidic Liquid 1 .O-3.0% b.v. 100-1 80F
phosphatize metals too large for dip or power washer spray machines.
Good paint bonding base is formed with high efficiency spray wand
phosphatizing equipment at very low operating cost.
626TP High tech combination cleaner-phosphate that can be used on Acidic Liquid 1 .O-2.0% b.v. 100-1 80F
metals with or without water rinse.
608 True time tested one-step no rinse cleaner-phosphate with no Acidic Liquid 1.1-1.5% b.v. 120-180F
sodium salt deposit when not rinsed for good protection.
SPRAY WAND EQUIPMENT
System A machine designed from the floor up to meet the rigorous demands of
900 the metal pretreatment industry. Fremont units feature our exclusive
all stainless steel custom calibrated fixed orifice injection systems -
System nonadjustable for dependable and precise chemical metering. A total Equipment 1000 psi nozzle up to 180" F -
package source for high performance equipment custom designed for
the metal finishing industry and performance matched phosphatizing
System chemicals. Equipment 1500 psi nozzle up to 180" F
Equipment 800 psi nozzle up to 180" F
1100
1600
METHOD OF METALS COATING
APPLICATION WEIGHTS REMARKS
Spray 3-Stage Steel, Zinc, Galv.
Washer Steel, Alumimun,
Terneplated Steel
30 - 40 mglft2 Exceptionally good degreaser and smut remover for phospha-
tizing cold rolled steel, hot rolled steel, galvanneal, electrogal-
vanized steel for powder coatings. Contains almost 50% of
active phosphatizing solids.
Spray 3-Stage
Washer energy saving operating temperatures.
Steel, Galv. Steel
30 40 mg/ft2 Good for use on heavy gauge metals at substantially low
?
____
Spray 3 or 5-Stage
Washer
Steel, Galv. Steel
30 40 mg~t2 When used in 5-stage operation, 717 will provide additional
cleaning when the line speed is increased and contact time
decreased.
Spray 3-Stage Steel, Galv. Steel, 30 45 mgfi2 Time tested true low temperature operating combination
Washer Terneplated Steel cleaner-phosphate without sacrificing cleaning power or
quality of phosphate coating for good paint bonding on all
types of metals.
Spray 3 or 5-Stage Steel
Washer
30 - 50 mglft2
Removes smuts and resists flash rusting when operated at
low operating pH and high operating temperature.
Spray 3 or 5-Stage
Washer Galv. Steel
Steel, Aluminum,
30 - 50 mg/ft2
Provides microetched surface for good paint bonding on
aluminum. Buffered to resist pH shifts in hard water uses.
Dip Steel
3-Stage Dip Tank
30 - 50 mgM2
Appearance of coating improves when spray water rinse is
employed.
Steel
30 - 60 mgM2
Appearance of coating improves when spray water rinse is
employed.
-_
3-Stage Dip Tank
Spray Wand Steel, Galv. Steel 25-35 mgfi2 Fremont Industries, Inc. has been producing many quality
metal finishing chemicals since 1954. Although these
products will perform with other trade equipment, they are
most suited for use with fine line of Fremont Spray Wand
Phosphatizing Equipment. Fremont products are developed
from the ground level up through extensive testings ...p roduct
performance and wet parts compatibility of equipment.
Steel, Galv. Steel 25-35 mgfi2
Steel, Galv. Steel 25-35 mgh2
Spray Wand
Spray Wand
440,000 B.T.U. 4 H.P. 4 G.P.M. Available for use with natural gaslor liquid propane gas.
Burner Input Quality cleaning and phosphatizing demand instant
generation of high heat. This ensures use of less chemicals
550,000 B.T.U. 6 H.P. 5 G.P.M. and energy. Fremont spray wand phosphatizing machines
inject chemicals into the heated high pressure stream, after
Burner Input
the water has exited the coils through our patent pending
550,000 B.T.U. 7 1R H.P. 5 G.P.M. injection system. IN-SERVICE DESCALER is available for
Burner Input
use with pre-packaged 21 3-223 for hard water scale removal.
_>
PURPOSE FORM USE CONC. & TEMP.
CHROMATE SEAL-RINSE
343 Chromated seal-rinse for corrosion protection on painted parts for
outdoor use. Filiorm corrosion protection can be best
accomplished with use of chrome seal also.
Acidic Liquid 10 - 12 oz. / 100 gallons room
temp. to 130" F
344 Chromate seal-rinse, especially suited for use on Acidic 0.16% b.v.
electrogalvanized steel after zinc phosphatizing.
RECYCLE-SEALm
U.S. patented Fremont Recycle SeaP System afford the use of
chromated seal-rinse for best corrosion protection without
generating hazardous waste for disposal.
Equipment
NON-CHROMATE SEAL-RINSE
745 Non-chromated seal-rinse to prevent flash rusting following
phosphatizing.
Acidic Liquid 1-3 qt./l 00 gallons 130" F
~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ____ _ _ _ _ ~ ____ _ _ _ _ ~ ~
71 9 Acidulated rinse to remove hard water residues and unreacted
phosphatizing chemicals.
Acidic Liquid Maintain pH 5.5-6.0 room
temp. to 130" F
739 Non-chromated seal-rinse especially suited for use on non-ferrous Acidic Liquid 1-2 pt./l 00 gallons
metals to insure good paint adhesion. 130-1 60" F
742 Non-chromated seal-rionse to prevent flash rusting while removing Acidic Liquid 1-4 pt./l 00 gallons
unreacted phosphatizing chemicals with spray wand. 100-1 60" F
METAL PREP PRODUCTS
71 -72 Removes light rust and oxides, heat scale and oils from iron and
steel while p;roviding good paint bonding base.
Acidic Liquids 1 part product to 3-5 parts
water unheated
329 Removes oxides and white rust - provides microetched surface on
aluminum and galvanized steel for good paint adhesion.
Acidic Liquid 1 part product to 7-1 0 parts
water unheated
ADDITIVES (PHOSPHATIZING)
764 Added cleaning power is provided with addition of a small amount
of super concentrated low foam organic detergent rather than in-
crease of chemical concentration.
Maintenance of pH provides more uniform cleaning or powder free
phosphate coating formation. Other benefits include better paint
adhesion on non-ferrous metals, less sludge formation and longer
tank solution life.
Neutral Liquid 0.1-1 .O% b.v.90-160" F
3077 Acidic Liquid
METHOD OF METALS COATING
APPLICATION WEIGHTS REMARKS
Steel, Galv. Steel,
Aluminum
Predominantly made of hexavalent chromium that is best
suited for use with patented Fremont Recycle SealTM System.
Galv. Steel, Steel Predominantly made of trivalent chromium that is very
effective on zinc phosphatized galvanized steel.
A completely self-contained equipment supported with full
anlytical services and startup assistance for EPA compliance.
Spray, Dip Steel, Galv. Steel,
Aluminum
spray Steel, Galv. Steel
Iron Zinc, Galv. Steel,
Aluminum
pray Wand Steel, Galv. Steel
Purpose of use of seal-rinse is to seal off bare spots in
between phosphate coating while removing hard water salts
and unreacted water soluble phosphatizing chemicals.
Seal-rinse provides added corrosion protection to painted
parts in most cases. Most paints favors slightly acidic or
neutral surface for good dry paint adhesion.
Manual Swab or Dip Steel 10-25 mg/ft2 Good replacement approach to solvent degreasing for
painting. Suited for treatment of small volume production.
Manual Swab or Dip Aluminum, Galv. None, Micro-etch Excellent choice for cold cleaning and micro-etching of
Steel, Stainless Steel aluminum sheet stocks and extrusions for chromate
conversion coating with 3008.
All metals Periodic addition of organic detergent restores depleted
cleaning surface active agents especially for processing
heavy work loads and varying soil conditions.
Spray, Dip
+i - 1
Steel, Galv. Steel
Zinc, Aluminum,
Terneplated Steel
Stabilizes varying source of water quality and conserves use
of phosphatizing chemicals.
PURPOSE FORM USE CONC. & TEMP.
FREMONT PRODUCT STRENGTH MONITOR/CONTROL SYSTEMS
Fremont automatic metering system is suitable for use with most
all alkaline cleaners and liquid phosphating compounds that are
used in 3 to 5 stage spray washers.
Fremont provides titration kits
at no charge. No guess work
or down time is possible with
Fremont approach.
TOTE BULK-PAC PROGRAM
Another convenient way to avoid headache created by drum
disposal. Provides better material handling.
Available in D.O.T. Approved
330 gallon capacity.
WASTE CONTROL
7067 Oil separation in spent phosphatizing solutions can be expedited Liquid Waste stream should be
pretested via "J ar Mixer
Tester."
Predetermine as per chrome
concentration to be treated.
by using 7067 clarifer. Pretesting is required per steam.
pH adjuster-chrome reucer, 212-21 6 are fast acting chemicals for
the treatment of chromate seal rinse and zinc in phosphatizing
solutions. Works best when they are treated together in batch
process.
212-216 Liquid Powder
261-262 Coagulating aids for treated chrome and zinc. Liquids Predetermine as per chrome
and zinc concentration to be
coagulated.
CHROMATE CONVERSION COATING (3008-Approved under MIL-C-81706, Class IA, Form 11. and Method C.)
3008 Excellent chromate conversion coating for use on aluminum and
aluminum alloys for paint adhesion and corrosion protection to
Acidic Powder 1 oz.1gal. with 114- 112
oz.1gal. Nitric Acid 70-90" F
decorative finish. Listed in current QPL-81706-13. pH 1.60-2.10
3006-3007 Chromate phosphate conversion coating for use on aluminum Acidic Liquids 2%b.v. 3007 and 1 %b.v.
3006 in 1 gal. water. extrusions as paint adhesion base. Chromic phosphate shows
olive drab finish.
100-1 10" F
369-1 Chromate conversion coating for magnesium alloys or zinc die Acidic Liquid 0.5%b.v. Unheated
castings. Works exceptionally good on Zamak #3.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
Fremont commitment to quality products and service start
immediately before and after installations.
Field
Service
Technical sales representative works hand in hand with our metal
finishing specialists, tech support groups, to keep you abreast with
technical advancement in metal finishing fieid.
Lab
Service
Technical evaluation of phosphatized panels, unpainted or
painted, are provided at no charge to our customers with minimum
delay.
No long waiting period is
required. Minimum delay is
encouraged.
Training Technical application seminars are provided upon special
requests. handling of chemicals, OSHA
Training includes safe
SARA, and other related
topics.
METHOD OF METALS COATING
APPLICATION WEIGHTS REMARKS
Fremont Product Strength Monitor/Control Systems are
capable of checking concentration and pH. Chemical
metering systems restore previously set operating parameters
automatically.
Waste Treatment
Tank
Waste Treatment
Tank
Waste Treatment
Tank
Each waste stream has to be pretested to determine
suitability of Fremont chemicals. Fremont combination
treatment is very simple and fast, not requiring heavy capital
investment.
Dip
' 1
Aluminum, Aluminum 40-60 mg/ft2 3008 and MIL-C-81706 is applicable for use under
Alloys MIL-C-5541 D process specification.
___ ~~~
Aluminum Extrusions
~~
Phosphate coatings or non-chromated conversion coatings
canno provide the comparable corrosion protection quality of
chromate conversion coatings in most cases.
Dip
_ _ _ ~ ~
Zinc, Zamak #3,
Magnesium
369-1 is an alternative process to Dow recommended process
on magnesium alloys for paint adhesion.
Fremont metal finish testing laboratory is fully equipped to
apply powder coatings, E-Coat (Electrodeposition coating)
and wet paints as per specifications.
Laboratory service inclues coating weight determinations, salt
spray test or humidity test as per ASTM or others. Standard
Q-panels and customer production stocks are used for the
testing. (ACT panels are available upon request.)
-
Application training includes video, slides, or physical
demonstration of parts treatment.