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Ion Luca Caragiale National

College, Ploiesti

Gabriela Marin
Coordinating Teacher,
Marian Ichim
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Table of Contents

1 Background
2 History
2.1. The Queens Life
2.2. Past Jubilees
3 Commonwealth-wide and beyond
4 The Queens Diamond Jubilee Message
5 Timeline

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One thing I enjoy doing while reading history is to imagine how those events were seen
through the eyes of those who were witnesses, the one who observed the making of what
we nowadays only see as history. John F. Kennedy once said that History is a relentless
master. It has no present, only the past rushing into the future. But rushing or not, we
should be aware of the moment and realize when we are the witnesses of history in the
making and when we live days that will always be remembered.
The reason I have chosen this subject for my paper is on the one hand the glamour and
elegance behind the Diamond Jubilee celebrations, and on the other hand because of the
realization that memorable events that impact the views of people and change the course of
history. I believe that witnesses should not remain idle while a celebration such as the
Diamond Jubilee is taking place as it is a once in a lifetime event and it is also the second
Diamond Jubilee celebrated in the United Kingdom.
The purpose of this paper is to present the history of the Diamond Jubilee and of Queen
Elizabeth II and also to highlight the main events during the celebration.

1. Background

The term Diamond
Jubilee covers a
wide range of
meanings and it is
used with different
connotations in
different countries
of the world. It is a
celebration held to
mark a 75

anniversary, but
only the 60

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anniversary in the case of a monarch, more exactly the length of time a
monarch has reigned. Traditionally, the diamond jubilee of a person was also on
the 75
anniversary, but this changed with the diamond jubilee of the British
Queen Victorias reign, being decided to bring the celebration forward to the
anniversary on 22 June 1897. The Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II,
celebrated on 2 June 2012, was only the second in the countrys history.
However, in South Asia the term is also used for certain 100-week anniversaries.
For instance, in India and Pakistan, a diamond jubilee film is one shown in
cinemas for 100 weeks or more.
This paper will cover specifically the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II,
which was a multinational celebration throughout 2012 marking the 60

anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of 7 countries
upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. She is today
queen regnant of 16 sovereign states, 12 of which were British colonies or
Dominions at the start of her reign.
Plans were discussed at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
2011. A diamond Jubilee was awarded in Canada and the United Kingdom and
events were held throughout the Commonwealth realms, following the tradition
of past jubilees.
During her Golden Jubilee,
the Queen toured most of
her countries around the
world. However, for the
Diamond Jubilee, Elizabeth
II and Prince Philip, Duke of
Edinburgh, toured the UK
only because of her old
age and frail state of
health, while Prince
Charles, Prince of Wales,
and Camilla, Duchess of
Cornwall, toured Canada,
Papua New Guinea, New
Zealand and Australia;
Prince Charles, Earl of
Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, toured Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint
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Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada and Saint Kitts
and Nevis; Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of
Cambridge, toured the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu; Prince Harry toured the
Bahamas, Belize and Jamaica.

2. History

2.1. The Queens Life
The Queen was born
Princess Elizabeth of York at
2.40am on 21 April 1926 at
17 Bruton Street, Mayfair,
She was the first child of The
Duke and Duchess of York,
who were later crowned
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King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
At the time of her birth, Princess Elizabeth stood third in line of succession to the
throne after Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), and her father, The
Duke of York. But it was not expected that her father would become King, or
that she would become Queen.
The Princess's early years were spent at 145 Piccadilly, the London house taken
by her parents shortly after her birth, and at White Lodge in Richmond Park.

In 1930, Princess Elizabeth gained a sister, with the birth of Princess Margaret
Rose. The family of four was very close.
When she was six years old, her parents took over Royal Lodge in Windsor Great
Park as their own country home. In the grounds of Royal Lodge Princess Elizabeth
had her own small house, which was given to her by the people of Wales in
Princess Elizabeth's quiet family life came to an end in 1936, when her
grandfather, King George V, died.
His eldest son came to the throne as King
Edward VIII, but, before the end of the
year, King Edward VIII had decided to give
up the throne in order to marry the woman
he loved, Mrs Wallis Simpson.
Upon his abdication, Princess Elizabeth's
father acceded to the throne as King
George VI, and in 1937 the two Princesses
attended their parents' coronation in
Westminster Abbey.
Princess Elizabeth was now first in line to the throne, and a figure of even more
intense public interest.
On 6 February 1952 Princess Elizabeth acceded to the throne as Queen
Elizabeth II and was crowned the following year on 2 June 1953 in Westminster
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The Queens reign has spanned six decades of enormous social change and
2.2. Past Jubilees
George III
The celebration of the Sovereign's jubilee years really
began in the long reign of King George III. The
beginning of the fiftieth year of his reign, on 25 October
1809, was marked both in Britain and the Colonies. The
King and other members of the Royal Family attended a
private service in Windsor and a grand fete and firework
display at Frogmore. In London the Lord Mayor and
Corporation processed to St Paul's Cathedral for a
service of thanksgiving before holding a dinner at the
Mansion House.

Queen Victoria

The longest-reigning British monarch, Queen
Victoria celebrated Golden and Diamond
Jubilees marking 50 and 60 years of her reign.
Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee was
celebrated on 20 and 21 June 1887. On 20
June the day began quietly with breakfast
under the trees at Frogmore, the resting
place of her beloved late husband, Prince
Ten years later, Queen Victoria's Diamond
Jubilee was marked by many celebrations,
including, on 22 June 1897, a progress to St
Paul's Cathedral, where a short service of
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thanksgiving was held outside the building, as the Queen was too lame to
manage the steps.
Eleven colonial Prime Ministers were in attendance. The Queen's progress
continued via the Mansion House across London Bridge and through South
London, before returning over Westminster Bridge, past the Houses of Parliament
to Buckingham Palace.
In her journal the Queen wrote: "No one ever, I believe, has met with such an
ovation as was given to me, passing through those 6 miles of streets . . . The
cheering was quite deafening and every face seemed to be filled with real joy. I
was much moved and gratified."

Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee
In 1977 The Queen's Silver Jubilee was marked with celebrations at every level
throughout the country and Commonwealth.
On 4 May at the Palace of Westminster both Houses
of Parliament presented loyal addresses to The
Queen, who in her reply stressed that the keynote of
the jubilee was
to be the unity
of the nation.
During the
summer months
The Queen embarked on a large scale
tour, having decided that she wished to
mark her jubilee by meeting as many of
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her people as possible. No other Sovereign had visited so much of Britain in the
course of just three months - the six jubilee tours in the UK and Northern Ireland
covered 36 counties. The home tours began in Glasgow on 17 May, with greater
crowds than the city had ever seen before. The tours continued throughout
England and Wales - in Lancashire over a million people turned out on one day -
before culminating in a visit to Northern Ireland.
Official overseas visits were also made to Western Samoa, Australia, New
Zealand, Tonga, Fiji, Tasmania, Papua New Guinea, Canada and the West
Indies. During the year it was estimated that The Queen and The Duke of
Edinburgh travelled 56,000 miles.
Golden Jubilee-2002
Despite the deaths of Princess Margaret and Queen
Elizabeth The Queen Mother in February and March 2002
respectively, and predictions in the media that the
anniversary would be a non-event, the jubilee was marked
with large-scale and popular events throughout London in
June of the same year, bookended by events throughout
the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth attended all of
the official celebrations as scheduled, along with her
husband, the Duke of Edinburgh; over twelve months, the royal couple
journeyed more than 64,000 kilometres (40,000 mi) to the Caribbean, Australia,
New Zealand, then around the United Kingdom, and wrapped up the jubilee
year in Canada.

3. Commonwealth-wide and beyond
At the 2011 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Perth , Australia,
British Prime Minister David Cameron announced the creation of the Queen
Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, which was officially launched in the UK on 6
February 2012. The trust is intended to support charitable organizations across
the Commonwealth of Nations, focusing on areas such as cures for diseases and
the promotion of all types of culture and education. In early 2012, Australias
Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, announced the Australian Crown-in-Council would
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make a $5.4 m contribution to the trust and the New Zealand Crown-in-Council
later made a similar donation of $1 m.
Quentin Bryce, the Governor-General of Australia, announced that the
Diamond Jubilee would be celebrated with a host of national and community
events throughout the Commonwealth.
The Royal Australian Mint announced in August 2011 that it would be releasing a
silver proof 50-cent coin to celebrate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee. Australia
Post also issued a series of special stamps to mark the occasion.
A special ecumenical service was conducted in St James' Church, Sydney, at
which the invited preacher was Cardinal George Pell and the Governor of New
South Wales, Marie Bashir, was the guest of honour.
Between 5 and 10 November 2012, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and Camilla,
Duchess of Cornwall, toured the country, travelling to Queensland, Victoria,
South Australia, New South Wales, and the Australian Capital Territory.

Prince Harry toured The Bahamas. There, he attended a reception for youth
leaders and met with Governor-General of the Bahamas Sir Arthur Foulkes. The
Prince attended an outdoor ceremony where children's schools, clubs, and
associations presented themselves and delivered a speech at Government
House, where he stated "I stand before you with a deep sense of pride at being
asked to convey to you a message of good wishes from The Queen on the
occasion of her Diamond Jubilee." He also took part in maritime exercises
organised by the Royal Bahamas Defence Force and toured Harbour Island.

To mark Elizabeth II's 60 years as Barbados' monarchas Queen of the United
Kingdom between 1952 and 1966 and as Queen
of Barbados thereafterthe country hosted the
Queen's youngest son and his wife, the Earl and
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The Parliament of Barbados
Countess of Wessex, between 23 and 24 February 2012.
As in other Commonwealth realms, a set of commemorative Diamond Jubilee
stamps were released by the Barbados Postal Service.

In Belize, the Governor-General-in-Council and the Belize Tourism Board
organised a tour of the country by Prince Harry, between 2 and 3 March 2012,
as part of the country's celebrations of Elizabeth II's 60th year as monarch of
Belize, first as Queen of the United Kingdom and then, after 1981, as Queen of
Belize. Harry visited Belmopan and San Ignacio where ceremonies and events
had less emphasis on state protocol.

Forethought about the
anniversary began as early
as April 2007, when then-
Secretary of State for
Canadian Heritage (now
Minister of Citizenship and
Immigration) Jason Kenney
requested that the various
lieutenant governors begin
preparations for the jubilee.
Three years later, the question of a national holiday to mark the jubilee was
raised in the media and a series of official announcements were made by the
Minister of Canadian Heritage.
The Diamond Jubilee week began on Accession Day (6 February) 2012. That day, the
Queen's personal standard for Canada was unfurled in Ottawa, both at the monarch's
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residence Rideau Hall and on Parliament Hill, as well as at provincial royal residences
and legislatures across the country.
Also on 6 and 7 February, the first of the 60,000 Canadian Queen Elizabeth II
Diamond Jubilee Medals to be distributed to citizens and permanent residents
were handed out by lieutenant governors, commissioners, and other dignitaries
across the country.

Prince Harry toured Jamaica between 5 and 8 March 2012. During the tour, the
Prince took part in military exercises with the Jamaica Defence Force, visited
Bustamante Hospital for Children and other locations.
The Governor-General and his wife travelled to London, United Kingdom (UK), to
partake in various events there in June, including a reception held by the High
Commissioner of Jamaica to the UK. Jamaica's Diamond Jubilee celebrations
proceeded despite Miller's on-going work to have the country become a

Sir Jerry Mateparae, the Governor-General of New
Zealand, unveiled New Zealand's Diamond Jubilee
emblem on 27 November 2011 and announced at
that time that a full programme would be
New Zealand Post and the Reserve Bank of New
Zealand stated in January 2012 the release a silver
proof dollar coin to celebrate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee.
The New Zealand Army Band took part in the Diamond Jubilee Pageant held at
Windsor Castle and also took part in the changing of guard ceremony at
Buckingham Palace.
A royal tour was undertaken by Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and Camilla,
Duchess of Cornwall, between 10 and 16 November 2012. Their programme is to
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focus on excellence and innovation in business, agriculture, community service,
and sports, as well as children's literacy and animal health.

Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, will tour
Papua New Guinea between 3 and 5 November. During their time in the
country, the couple is scheduled to meet church, charity, and community
volunteers, cultural groups, and members of the Papua New Guinea Defence
Force in and near Port Moresby.

In the UK, national and regional events to
mark the Diamond Jubilee were
coordinated by the Queen-in-Council
and her Royal Household at Buckingham

The Central Weekend
Saturday 2 June, 2012
The Queen attended the Epsom Derby.
Sunday 3 June, 2012
The Big Jubilee Lunch: Building on the
already popular Big Lunch initiative,
people were encouraged to share
lunch with neighbours and friends as
part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations.
The Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant:
This event took place on the Thames and
consisted of up to 1,000 boats
assembled from across the UK, the
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Commonwealth and around the world. The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh
travelled in the Royal Barge which formed the centrepiece of the flotilla.
Monday 4 June, 2012
BBC Concert at Buckingham Palace: A host of famous faces came together to
celebrate the Diamond Jubilee against the backdrop of Buckingham Palace.
Find out more
The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Beacons: A network of 2,012 Beacons will be lit by
communities and individuals throughout the United Kingdom, as well as the
Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the Commonwealth. As in 2002, The Queen
will light the National Beacon. Find out more
Tuesday 5 June, 2012
On Tuesday 5 June, the Diamond Jubilee weekend culminated with a day of
celebrations in central London, including a service at St Pauls Cathedral
followed by two receptions, a lunch at Westminster Hall, a Carriage Procession
to Buckingham Palace and finally a Balcony appearance, Flypast, and Feu de

4. The Queens Diamond Jubilee Message

Official message from Her Majesty released by Buckingham Palace on 6 February 2012,
the 60th anniversary of The Queen's Accession to the throne:
Today, as I mark 60 years as your Queen, I am writing to thank you for the wonderful
support and encouragement that you have given to me and Prince Philip over these
years and to tell you how deeply moved we have been to receive so many kind
messages about the Diamond Jubilee.

In this special year, as I dedicate myself anew to your service, I hope we will all be
reminded of the power of togetherness and the convening strength of family, friendship
and good neighbourliness, examples of which I have been fortunate to see throughout
my reign and which my family and I look forward to seeing in many forms as we travel
throughout the United Kingdom and the wider Commonwealth.
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I hope also that this Jubilee year will be a time to give thanks for the great advances
that have been made since 1952 and to look forward to the future with clear head and
warm heart as we join together in our celebrations.

I send my sincere good wishes to you all.


5. Timeline Events during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth II
52- The accession
53- The Coronation; The historic conquest of Mount Everest, the highest peak;
End of Korean War; First Commonwealth Tour
54- 14 years of rationing in Britain come to an end with the lifting of restrictions
placed on the sale of various products; Elvis Presley releases his first record
(Thats All Right); Four miles are run in 4 minutes, a thing thought to be impossible
55- The Warsaw Pact is signed; Winston Churchill stands down
56- The Suez Crisis; The Calder Hall nuclear power station is opened in the UK
(the first nuclear power station to deliver electricity in commercial quantities)
57- The Queens first televised Christmas broadcast
61- First man in space; The Queen visits India
62- Cuban missile crisis
63- The I have a dream speech;
Assassination of JFK
65- Death of Winston Churchill; The Beatles
receive their MBEs from the Queen
68- The Queen visits Brazil and Chile
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69- Man on the Moon; The Queen invests her eldest son
70- The Queen attends her first Commonwealth Games
72- Silver wedding anniversary
73- The Queen opens Sydney Opera House
74- Richard Nixon resigns
75- End of the Vietnam War
77- Silver Jubilee; The Queen becomes a grandmother
78-First test-tube baby born
79- Overthrow of Irans monarchy; Margaret Thatcher sweeps to power
80- John Lennon shot dead
82- Falklands War; The Pope visits Britain; Prince William is Born
83- Queen meets Mother Teresa
84-Birth of Prince Harry
86- Chernobyl disaster
89- Fall of the Berlin Wall
90- Nelson Mandela walks free
91- Gulf War
94- Channel Tunnel opens
96- Dolly, the sheep, is cloned
97-The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh
celebrate their golden anniversary; Death of
Diana, Princess of Wales
00- Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mothers 100

01- September 11
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02- Death of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother; The Golden Jubilee
03- War in Iraq
06- The Queen turns 80
07- Diamond wedding anniversary
09- Rwanda joins the Commonwealth
10- The Queen joins Facebook; The Queen becomes a great grandmother
11-Royal Wedding
12- Diamond Jubilee
Did You Know?
The Queen is the second longest serving monarch. Only five other kings
and queens in British history have reigned for 50 years or more. They are:
Victoria (63 years)
George III (59 years)
Henry III (56 years)
Edward III (50 years)
James VI of Scotland
(James I of England) (58
Tony Blair was the first Prime Minister to have been born during The
Queen's reign. He was born in early May, 1953 - a month before the
There have been six Roman Catholic Popes during The Queens reign (Pius
XII, John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul I, John Paul II, Benedict XVI)
The Queen has sat for 129 portraits during her reign.
In 1969 the first television film about the family life of the Royal Family was
made, and shown on the eve of the Investiture of Prince Charles as Prince
of Wales.
The Queen has 30 godchildren.
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More than 35,000 entries were received by Blue Peter in the national
competition to design the official Diamond Jubilee emblem. The
competition, open to children aged between 6 and 14, was won by 10-
year-old Katherine Dewar, from Chester.
The Diamond Jubilee Lunch at Westminster Hall on 5th June, was
attended by 700 guests from all over the country representing a cross-
section of trades, crafts and professions.
The sovereigns of 26 countries came to Windsor Castle on 18th May for a
special luncheon to mark The Queens Jubilee.
In her Diamond Jubilee year, The Queen opened the London 2012
Olympic Games on 27th July and the London 2012 Paralympic Games on
29th August.
208 schools across the UK entered a competition to Cook for The
Queen, creating a special menu featuring recipes showcasing the best
of British to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee. The menus of the four winning
schools were served to The Queen and The Duchess of Cornwall at a
reception at Buckingham Palace in June.


The official Website of the Queens Diamond Jubilee
The Official Website of the British Monarchy
Royal Australian Mint
Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II
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