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CTU Reports, Vol.

6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8


EXPERIMENTS OF BOLTED COVER PLATE
CONNECTIONS WITH SLOTTED HOLES


FRANTIEK WALD, VRATISLAV MAZURA
MATTHIEU MOAL, ZDEN!K SOKOL


Key words: Steel structures, Bolted connections, Slotted holes, Cover plate connections,
Experimental observations, Bolt bearing resistance, Bolt shear resistance, Eurocodes.

The work describes the tests of the bolted connections with slotted holes perpendicular
to the acting force. Two sets of tests simulating behaviour of components of cover plate
connections were carried out in laboratory of Czech Technical University. This paper
summarises these tests with components and results of the tests of TU Nottingham and of
CRIF laboratory, Liege. The results of preliminary statistical calculations made with
Annex Z procedure are presented. The obtained reduction factors applicable to the bearing
resistance of bolted connections are ready to be incorporated into the European design rules.


1. Introduction

The slotted holes are used in bolted connections of steel structures to compensate the
tolerances during the erection. Since the first application of high-strength friction bolts in
1947, the oversize bolt holes 2 mm larger than the bolt diameter have been used for assembly
[Kulak et al, 1987]. Restricting the nominal hole diameter to 2 mm in excess of the nominal
bolt diameter can impose rigid alignment conditions between structural members, particularly
in large joints. The erection problems occur when the holes in the material do not line up
properly. Occasionally, steel fabricators have to pre-assemble structures to ensure that the
joint will align properly during the erection. With a larger hole size, it is possible to eliminate
the pre-assembly process and save both time and money. An oversize hole provides the same
clearance in all directions to meet tolerances during erection. However, if an adjustment is
needed in a particular direction, slotted holes are used, as shown in Figure 1. Slotted holes are
identified by their parallel or transverse alignment with respect to the direction of the applied
load. The application of NC cutting machines and the digitalisation of the geometry of
elements bring rather lower tolerances into the production of the structural elements [Kersten,
1997]. This allows use of long slotted holes and slots in inclination at the primary beams and
columns for connection to different endplates of particular cross-sections of connected beams.
Deformation of the connection in direction of the slot is prevented by preloading of the bolts.
Smooth tightening of the non-preloaded bolts reach up to 20% of the tensile resistance of the
bolt and together with the corrosion pretends structural use of the slip in the joint [Bickford,
1995].
The design requirements limit the bolt end and pitch distances. For regular slotted
holes for M16 and M24 bolts, short slotted holes may not be greater than (d + 2) mm by
(d + 6) mm, where d is the nominal bolt diameter in mm. Long slotted holes may not be
greater than: (d + 2) mm by 2,5 d. Extra large slots according to British rules may not be
greater than (d + 2) mm by 3,5 d.
Drilling, punching, or cutting form the holes. Punching of the holes in steelwork is
faster than drilling but cracks may appear in the material. Therefore, the holes are not
punched to full size but 2 mm less in diameter and then reamed. New punching machines,
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
which operate at high speeds, induce less distortion in the material, and it is expected that
punching will be used extensively in the future. The punching is approved for material up to
25 mm in thickness provided that the hole diameter is not less than thickness of the material, if
there is no other specification. The burrs should be removed from the holes before the
assembly. It can be omitted when the holes are drilled in one operation through parts clamped
together which would not be separated after drilling. The gas and plasma cutting may also
form the holes. In this case, similarly to fast drilling/punching, influence on material
properties has to be studied experimentally.
Limited knowledge is available about the design of connections with slotted and
oversize holes. Resistance of bolted connections loaded by shear force in plane of the plates
is limited by failure of bolts in shear and in bearing. The same design limits at service limit
state may be applied when high strength friction bolts are preloaded and slip is allowed in
ultimate limit state. When the high strength friction bolts are used and no slip is allowed,
bearing resistance needs to be checked at ultimate limit state to eliminate the end shear
failure. The bearing resistance represents the resistance of internal and external bolts in most
design procedures. Based on experimental evidence, shear and bending type of failure may
be recognised on the bearing failure. The bearing resistance is reduced in case of the slotted
holes. The reduction factor is based on the best engineering practice and few unpublished
tests only. In the European design rules [ENV 1993-1-8, 2001], the slotted holes are taken
into consideration by calculation of the slip resistance of preloaded bolts only.
e
4
! 1,5 d
e
3
! 1,5 d
d

0,5 d
0
0
0
0

Figure 1 : Geometry of the slotted hole and the requirements for the end distances
a) b)
Figure 2 : Test arrangements a) and points of measurement b) [Mazura, 2002]
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
a) b)
Figure 3 : Bolt bearing failure of component tests [Mazura, 2002], a) shear failure,
b) bending failure

2. Tests with Components

2.1 Main Tasks

Three kinds of tests were carried out in view to determine the bearing resistance, the
deformation stiffness and the ductility. At CRIF, Liege the assemblage with more bolts has
been tested [Piraprez, 2000]. The plates were connected with bolts in each hole of the plate
made by different technology. At University of Nottingham the experiments were carried out
in order to investigate the behaviour of the very long slots in the plate [Tizani, 1999]. At the
Czech Technical University of Prague it was planned to study the plate bearing capacity by
the component method [Wald F., Sokol 1999] and [Mazura et al, 2001]. Thus double cover
plates were used with only one bolt in an internal/external position. The design prediction
model of stiffness and resistance including gap and using component method is under
preparation at Czech Technical University with cooperation of Universit B. PASCAL
Clermont, laboratory LERMES-CUST.
The available tests are shown in Tables A1.1, A1.3 and A1.5. The original name of test
specimens is kept in order to refer to the original paper. The bolt diameter, the number of
bolts and the slot length follow the original name to describe the major parameters of tests.
Additional information is included: the bolt presence in the holes, the thickness of the cover
plates t, the slot length and the hole in the internal plate, the joint geometry (e
1
; e
2
; p
1)
, the
method of production of the holes and the threaded or unthreaded part of the bolt in the shear
plane. The measured values are summarized in Tables A1.2, A1.4 and A1.6: the reached
deformation "
exp;ult.
the maximal measured set-up resistance, the ratio to the predicted value
with circular hole and the failure mode.
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
82
2.2 Test Set-Up
3A, 3B, 3C 1A, 1B, 1C

Test 3A-16-1- 3d Test 5B-16-1-2,5d Test 1A-16-1-d+2
5A, 5B, 5C
Tests with the bolts in the external holes were the major tests [Mazura, 2002] and tests
with the bolts in the internal holes complete the observations [Moal, 2001]. The test
arrangements and the points of measurement can be seen at Figure 2. Test machine FPZ 300
with load capacity 300 kN was used for the tests. The geometry is summarized at Figure 4
and Table A1.3, which also include the measured values. The characteristic values are shown
in Figure 4. The bolt bearing failure of the component tests [Mazura, 2002] is described
according to the type of the bearing failure as bending or shear failure [Bijlaard D02, 1989]. It
was observed, that the slotted holes tends to fail in bending failure of the plate, see Figure 3.


























Figure 4 : Geometry of the test set-up
test 3A-16-1-3d, 5B-16-1-2,5d and 1A-16-1-d+2 [Mazura, 2002]


3B)
3C)
Figure 5 : Bending failure of component test 3B-16-1-3 and 3C-16-1-3 [Mazura, 2002]

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Displacement, mm
Force, kN
slotted holes,
circular holes,
180
(test 1C - 16-1-d+2)
(test 5C - 16-1-2,5d)

Figure 6 : Examples of force - displacement diagrams of test with circular holes
(test 1C - 16-1-d+2) and slotted holes (test 5C - 16-1-2,5d)

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, mm
Force, kN Test 2A - 16-1-2,5d
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, mm
Force, kN Test 2B - 16-1-2,5d
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, mm
Force, kN Test 4C - 16-1-2,5d
2A, 2B, 4C

dimensions in mm,
slots 2,5 d

Figure 7 : Force - displacement diagram of the tests with repeated loading,
test 2A - 16-1-2,5d, 2B - 16-1-2,5d, and 4C - 16-1-2,5d, [Mazura, 2002]
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
2.3 Repeated loading

Three tests specimens were loaded by repeated loading to study the unloading branch
of the force-displacement diagram and deformation capacity of the connection. The results
are shown in Figure 7 and Table A1.2. The tests with repeated loading were not included in
the statistical evaluation.

2.4 Material tests

The standard coupon test [EN 10002] were provided for material of the plates. Five
cylinder specimens were prepared from the central plate. The results and the statistical
evaluation are shown in Table A2-1. The material of the plates has average strength of
424 MPa. Ten cylinder specimens were made from the cover plates, see Table A2-2, five
specimens located parallel (C1 to C5) and five specimens perpendicular (C6-C10) to the
applied force. The average strength of 452 MPa of material of the cover plates was found.

2.6 Stress distribution

The thermal emission measurements are based on temperature changes due to elastic
deformations during one loading cycle. Generally, the temperature change caused by elastic-
plastic load cycle is composed of a thermoplastic component, which oscillates during the
loading, and of a component, which is irreversible and cumulative. This component causes
the temperature to rise. The change for uni-axial loading is proportional to hysteresis loop.
The Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission (SPATE) technique utilise measurements of
surface temperature changes during the repeated loading. The SPATE based on this principle
determines linear sum of principal elastic stresses on the surface of the structure. The applied
equipment SPATE OMETRON, Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, with sensitivity of 0,001K allows to digitalise,
store and process the signal obtained by CCD image sensor with the sensitivity below
0,4 MPa for steel [Drdck, 2000]. Figure 8 illustrates surface bulk stress distribution in the
cover plate loaded by force 35 kN and was prepared the for comparison to FE simulation.
a) b)





Figure 8 : a) Test set-up for measurement of principal stresses on surface by SPATE,
b) surface bulk stress distribution around the hole under loading of 35 kN [Drdck, 2000]
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
3. Evaluation of Resistance

3.1 Test Interpretation

The transfer of the forces by friction may be observed in the first stage of the force -
displacement diagrams, see Figure 9 (first stage) [Kulak et al, 1987]. The friction on surface
of the plates was minimised by lubricant (MoS
2
in oil) and a low level of tightening (torque
10 Nm). In the second stage, the load exceeds the frictional resistance and the joint slips into
bearing. In the third stage, the fasteners and plates deform elastically, and consequently the
load versus deformation relationship remains linear. In the fourth stage, yielding of the
plates, fasteners, or both, occur and results in plate fracture or complete shearing of the bolts.
In most of the tests, these stages may be clearly recognised.
Stage 3

Stage 1
Stage 4
Stage 2
Applied load
Overall alongation

Figure 9 Typical force - displacement diagram of symmetrical connection
Three basic concepts of evaluation of the resistance may be applied for the tests of
bolted connections. The traditional research work for most codes based on allowable limit
states (British Standards as example) clearly states that for bolts with threads in bearing the
design bearing stresses results in a maximum deformation of 1,5 mm at working load. This
deflection limit for resistance F
exp;1,5
is given in the data, see Tables A2.2, A2.4 and A2.6 in
Appendix A2. In the test specimens the deflection limits correspond to the displacement of
3 mm because of measuring the total deformation.
The ultimate limit of resistance F
exp;ult
represents the maximum force that is transferred
by the connection. The bearing capacity is the limiting design criterion for most of the test
specimens. However, during the tests, most specimens displayed other forms of failure. The
application of ultimate resistance in limit state concept needs to be accompanied by
serviceability limit, which leads to more complex design procedure and therefore a difficult
applicability.

F

Initial stiffness
Initial stiffness / 10
exp
"
exp, ult
F
exp, conv
F
exp; 1,5
F

Figure 10 : Limits of the resistance of joint, deflection limit F
exp;1,5
, ultimate limit F
exp;ult
,
conventional limit F
exp;conv
85
The conventional (elastic) limit of resistance F
exp;conv
is defined as the intersection of
a straight line passing through the origin and having the slope equal to the initial stiffness and
of straight a line having the slope equal to stiffness divided by ten, which is tangent to the

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
plastic yielding part of the curve, see Figure 10. The conventional resistance depends more
on the stiffness of the joint than on the type of failure. The conventional resistance is more
sensitive to the stiffness of the joint than to the type of failure.
Resistance of the connection based on these limits is shown on Figure 11 and is
summarised in Appendix A1, where the failure modes are also included.
0
50
100
150
200
0 5 10 15 20
Displacement, mm
Force, kN
3 mm
exp, ult
F
exp, conv
F
exp; !,5
F

Figure 11 : Determination of the resistance Test I 1-3 (16 - 1 - 2,5d) [Piraprez, 2000]

3.2 Design model

The bearing resistance is predicted by the simple model [Eurocode 3, 1992] as
Mb
u
Rd . b
t d f 5 , 2
F
#
$
% & , [1]
where " is the smallest of
0 , 1 or
f
f
;
4
1
d 3
p
;
d 3
e
u
ub
o
1
o
1
' . [2]
The partial safety factor #
Mb
is taken equal to 1,00 in order to compare the resistance F
b.Rd

with the tests results. A reduction coefficient for slotted holes is calculated as
Rd . b test
F / F & % [3]
The results of the calculations are given in Annex A2. The comparison between the ultimate
resistances is limited due to different failure modes. The deflection limit 1,5 mm corresponds
to a small deformation at assembly of slotted boltholes. The results confirm the trend that the
longer the slot length, the lower the bearing resistance of the assembly.
For the specimens with short slotted (d+ 6 mm) only two different sets are available.
Their bearing resistance is almost the same as for the normal clearance hole.
The specimens with long slot (2 d and 2,5 d) include holes from d + 6 mm to 2,5 d.
When end and edge distances are respected it appears that a reduction of 30 % is sufficient for
a safe design. The edge distance e
2
(e
4
for slotted hole) influences the bearing resistance of
the plate. This is not taken into consideration in the simple design formulation.
The specimens with very long slot (3,125 d and 3,5 d) have been realised with length
up to 3,5 d. In this case a reduction of 40% of the bearing capacity defined for normal
clearance hole is required.
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
4. Statistical evaluation

The Annex Z, see [Bijlaard D02, 1989] and [Eurocode 3/A2, 1998], brings a standard
procedure for determining partial safety factors from the results of tests. The number of test
with slotted holes available is limited to 70. It is a limited number compare to the number of
tests in background documents [Snijder 6.02, 1988], [Snijder 6.04, 1988]. The Annex Z
model allows comparing values of different tests. The variation in the prediction of the
design model is determined from the tests (in term d). This variation is combined with
variations of the other variables in the resistance function, with the variation in material
strength and stiffness and variation in geometrical properties. Not all the variations in
geometrical properties and in strength were available and assumptions have to be made for the
error term. The calculation of the error term is using the data available ([Mazura, 2002] and
[Moal, 2001]) and is extended to all tests.
Two sets of tests made in CRIF with 27 mm bolt diameter were not taken into
consideration. In these experiments, the bolts failed in shear before it was expected. The tests
with repeated loading were also not taken into statistical calculation.
The theoretical resistance r
t.i
= F
b.Rd
was compared to the experimental value r
ei
from the
tests. The points representing pairs of corresponding values (r
ti
, r
ei
) are plotted on Figure 12.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
e
r , kN
t r ,kN

Figure 12 : r
e
r
t
diagram for a full set of test
The mean value of the correction factor b was estimated as 0,90 & ) r ( b . The coefficient of
variation V
"
of the error in term of " was found at the observed case V . The
compatibility of the test population was analysed for subsets according to the slot length as
shown in Figure 13. Three different assemblies were separated: the specimens with short
slotted (d+ 6 mm) and normal clearance holes, specimens with long slot (between 2 and 2,5d)
and specimens with very long slot (between 3,125 and 3,5 d). The coefficients of variation
V
04 , 0
2
&
"
Xi
of the basic variable were studied for the bearing capacity using three parameters of the
test specimens available in Prague [Mazura et al, 2001]. The same variation was applied to
the other sets. For the thickness t was taken as V
t
= 0,005 ( 0,00, for the ultimate resistance
as V
fu
= 0,02 based on the tensile tests and for the factor $, as V
$
= 0,02.
The characteristic value r
k
of the resistance was predicted with and
for the present sets as
30 n )
64 , 1 u u
, k n , k
& &
*
[4]
2
210 , 0 5 , 0 208 , 0 991 , 0 64 , 1 028 , 0 134 , 0 64 , 1
tm k
e r 9 , 0 r
+ ' + + ' + + '
&
[5]
tm k
r 626 , 0 r &
The design value r
d
for the resistance was obtained from the present set of tests as
. The initial estimation of the partial safety factor is
tm d
r 467 , 0 r & 34 , 1
R
& # . The corrected
partial factor to be used with the nominal resistance function may be obtained from
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
14 , 2
r
r
k
d
n
R c
*
R
& & & # # [6]
For the partial safety factor for a plate in bearing 25 , 1
Mb
& # is the coefficient of reduction
58 , 0
14 , 2
25 , 1
*
R
Mb
& & &
#
#
% [7]
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4
r
e
r
t
Bolt size / bolt diametr

Figure 13 : Influence of the slot length in the plate failure
The sub-sets were analysed using the same standard procedure with limited number of
tests. The results are summarised in Table 1. The coefficient 0,93 for normal clearance and
short slotted holes belong to the accuracy of the method and the small number of tests. This
coefficient is influenced by the determination of the resistance.
The % coefficient for the full set is below the % coefficient for very long slot due to
small variation. The factor introduces higher errors, which are responsible for this low
variation of the reduction factor %. The variation underlines the importance of division of the
set into three sub-sets in order to predict more accurate results.

Table 1 Application of Annex Z on different sub-sets
Normal and
Set All test specimens
short slotted holes
Long slotted holes Very long slotted holes
From d + 2 mm d + 2 mm 2 d 3,125 d
To 3,5 d d + 6 mm 2,5 d 3,5 d
Number of test 61 15 39 7
#
R
* 2,14 1,34 1,76 2,05
% 0,58 0,93 0,71 0,61


Conclusions

Two set of tests were performed to investigate the behaviour of bolted joints with
slotted holes loaded perpendicular to the slot. These tests were prepared for application of the
component method to predict the resistance, stiffness and deformation capacity of connection
with more bolt rows.

The results highlight the limits of information concerning the bolts into regular
circular holes. The material quality and its variation, the technology of holes production and
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
numerical management of the production tools is different compared to the older tests
available as background of todays design rules and structural recommendations.

Three sets of tests were analysed by statistical calculation made according to Annex Z
procedure [Eurocode 3/A2, 1998]. The findings are limited due to the small number of the
tests results available. The presented tests show small (reduction factor % = 0,9) reduction in
prediction of the bearing resistance of the short slotted holes (length up to d + 6 mm) compare
to the circular holes. The reduction of 30% (reduction factor % = 0,7) is recommended for
slotted holes with length up to 2,5 d and 40% (reduction factor % = 0,6) up to 3,5 d.

It is recommended to incorporate the edge distance e
2
into the design model to
improve the prediction accuracy.

Further set of tests and analytical prediction models by the component method will
bring better understanding of the influence of the tolerances in the cover plate joints.


Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank colleagues Mr. E. Piraprez, CRIF Liege and Mr. W. Tizani,
TU Nottingham for help and cooperation. This research has been supported by grant
COST C12 and by grant J01-98:210000004 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.


References

[Bickford, 1995] Bickford J.H. (1995) An introduction to the design and behaviour of bolted
joints, third edition, Marcel Decker Inc., New York, ISBN 0-8247-9297-1.
[Bijlaard D02, 1989] Bijlaard F.S.K., Sedlacek G., Stark J.W.B. (1989) Statistical evaluations
of the results bolted connections, Background documentation, D.02, Delft.
[Bijlaard, 1989] Bijlaard F.S.K., Sedlacek G., Stark J.W.B. (1988) Procedure for the
determination of design resistance from tests, Background report to Eurocode 3, BI-
87-112, Delft.
[Eurocode 3, 1992] ENV - 1993-1-1 (1992) Design of Steel Structures - General rules and
roles for buildings, European Prenorm, CEN, Brussels.
[Eurocode 3/A2, 1998] ENV - 1993-1-1/A2 (1998) Design of Steel Structures - General rules
and roles for buildings, Annex Z, CEN, Brussels.
[EN 10002] EN 10002-1 (1990) Metallic materials, Tensile testing. Part 1: Method of testing
(at ambient temperature), CEN, Brussels.
[Drdck, 2000] Drdck M. (2000) Problems of Experimental research of Semirigid Joints
and Structures, in Semirigid Joints in Metal and Composite Structures, ed. Gizejovski
M.A., Warsaw, pp. 27-48, ISBN 83-908083-1-5.
[Jaspart J.P., 1997] Jaspart J.P. (1997) Recent advances in the field of steel joints Column
bases and further configurations for Beam-to Column Joints and Beam Splices, Thesis,
Universit de Lige.
[Kersten, 1997] Kersten O. (1997) Zum Last-Verschiebungs-Verhalten geschraubter Scher-
Lochleibungs- (SL-) Verbindungen im Stahlbau unter statischer Belastung.
Dissertation, TU Hamburg-Namburg, Hamburg, p. 111.
[Kulak et al, 1987] Kulak G., Fisher J.W., Struik J.H.A. (1987) Guide to Design Criteria for
Bolted and Riveted Joints, Second Edition, Wiley, New York.
[Kulak et al, 1980] Kulak G., Wens G.W., Hargreaves, A.C. (1980) Bearing Stresses in
Connections using Grade 8.8 Bolts Stage 2, Imperial College, Report BC6.
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CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
[Mazura et al, 2001] Mazura V., Wald F., Sokol Z (2001) Slotted Holes in Structural Bolted
Connections, CTU Reports, CVUT, Praha, pp. 880 881, ISBN 80-01-02335-4.
[Mazura, 2002] Mazura V. (2002) Slotted Holes in Structural Bolted Connections, PhD.
thesis, CVUT, Praha, p. 165.
[Moal, 2001] Moal M. (2001) Assemblages avec trous oblongs et boulons non-precontraints,
Diploma theses, CUST, Dpartment Gnie Civil, Universit Blaise Pascal, Clermont-
Ferrand, p. 101.
[Piraprez, 2000] Piraprez E. (2000) Behavior of plates with slotted holes CRIF Belgium,
Proceeding of International Conference on Steel Structures of the 2000s, IABCE,
Istanbul.
[Snijder 6.02, 1988] Snijder H. H., Ungerman D., Stark J.W.B., Sedlacek G., Bijlaard F.S.K.,
Hemmert-Halswick A. (1988) Evaluation of test results on bolted connections in order
to obtain strength functions and suitable model factors, Part B: Evaluation,
Background documentation, 6.02, BI-88-087, Delft.
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strength according to Eurocode 3 with bolt strength according to national codes, Part
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[Tizani, 1999] Tizani W. (1999) The bearing capacity of plates made with long-slotted bolt
holes, Internal copy, University of Nottingham.
[Wald, Sokol, 1999] Wald F., Sokol Z. (1999) Connection design, in Czech, Navrhovn
Sty#nk$, %VUT, Praha.


LIST OF SYMBOLS

The Eurocode [1] system of symbols is applied in the work:
b
mean value due to the correction factor
d, d
exp
bolt diameter, nominal and measured value (average of two measurements)
d
o
, d
0.exp
bolt hole diameter, characteristic and measured value
e
1
, e
1.exp
end distance, characteristic and measured value
e
2
, e
2.exp
edge distance, characteristic and measured value
f
u
ultimate strength of the structural steel
f
ub
ultimate strength of the bolt material
F
v,Rd
design bearing resistance
p
1
spacing between centres of fasteners in the direction of load
p
2
spacing between row of fasteners measured perpendicular to the direction of load
r
e
experimental resistance
r
t
theoretical resistance
t, t
exp
thickness of plate, characteristic and measured value
A cross-section of the shank of a bolt
A
s
net cross-section of a bolt
V
"
coefficient of variation
$ reduction factor for the bolt in shear
% reduction factor due to the slotted hole
#
Mb
partial safety factor for bolted connections
#
M
*
modified model factor
, variance of the term -
,
-
2
standard deviation
90

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
APPENDIX A1

TESTS RESULTS

Table A1.1 : Description of tests with long slots, [Tizani, 1999]
Test d - n bolt Bolt presence t Slot length Int. hole e
1
e
2
p
1
Holes Bolts
- hole size mm mm mm mm mm mm
S1-1
S1-2 20-1-d+2
S1-3
single hole 10 22 (d+2) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S2-1
S2-2 20-1-d+6
S2-3
single hole 10 26 (d+6) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S3-1
S3-2 20-1-2,5d
S3-3
single hole 10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S4-1
S4-2 20-1-3,5d
S4-3
single hole 10 70 (3,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S11-1
S11-2 20-1-d+2
S11-3
single hole 10 22 (d+2) 22 (d+2) 31 40 N dr th
S12-1
S12-2 20-1-2,5d
S12-3
single hole 10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 40 N dr th
S5b-1
S5b-2 20-2-d+6
S5b-3
all holes
with bolts
10 26 (d+6) 22 (d+2) 31 66 50 dr th
S6b-1
S6b-2 20-2-2,5d
S6b-3
all holes
with bolts
10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 66 50 dr th
S7b-1
S7b-2 20-2-3,5d
S7b-3
all holes
with bolts
10 70 (3,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 66 50 dr th
S9b-1
S9b-2 20-2-2,5d
S9b-3
all holes
with bolts
10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 66 70 dr th
S10b-1
S10b-2 20-2-2,5d
S10b-3
all holes
with bolts
10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 40 66 70 dr th
Notes: Holes: dr drilling,
Bolts: th threaded part

91

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8


Table A1.2 : Results of tests with long slots, [Tizani, 1999]
Test d - n bolt "
exp;ult
F
exp;ult
%
ult
F
exp;1,5mm
%
1,5
F
exp;conv
%
conv
Failure
- hole size mm kN kN kN mode
S1-1 7,61 141 1,33 68 0,65 119 1,13 bolt shear
S1-2 20-1-d+2 5,64 142 1,34 1,34 85 0,80 0,69 124 1,17 1,16 bolt shear
S1-3 7,30 143 1,35 64 0,61 124 1,17 bolt shear
S2-1 7,52 138 1,31 52 0,49 125 1,18 bolt shear
S2-2 20-1-d+6 5,69 139 1,32 1,30 48 0,45 0,45 134 1,27 1,22 bolt shear
S2-3 6,06 134 1,26 44 0,42 129 1,22 bearing
S3-1 6,51 99 0,94 43 0,41 90 0,85 bearing
S3-2 20-1-2,5d 5,49 95 0,90 0,92 41 0,39 0,40 89 0,84 0,85 bearing
S3-3 5,98 98 0,92 44 0,42 90 0,85 bearing
S4-1 5,27 76 0,72 42 0,40 69 0,65 bearing
S4-2 20-1-3,5d 5,24 76 0,72 0,72 44 0,42 0,40 68 0,65 0,65 bearing
S4-3 5,71 78 0,73 41 0,38 70 0,66 bolt shear
S11-1 6,52 145 1,37 72 0,68 127 1,20 bolt shear
S11-2 20-1-d+2 5,35 145 1,37 1,38 73 0,69 0,67 131 1,24 1,23 bolt shear
S11-3 6,25 147 1,39 67 0,63 132 1,25 bearing
S12-1 4,55 93 0,88 44 0,41 88 0,83 bearing
S12-2 20-1-2,5d 8,75 121 1,14 0,98 36 0,34 0,37 111 1,05 0,92 bearing
S12-3 5,95 99 0,93 38 0,36 92 0,87 bearing
S5b-1 5,89 260 1,21 97 0,45 239 1,11 bearing
S5b-2 20-2-d+6 6,11 271 1,28 1,25 99 0,47 0,46 252 1,19 1,17 bearing
S5b-3 5,47 264 1,25 95 0,45 253 1,20 end bolt shear
S6b-1 5,60 220 1,02 70 0,33 212 0,99 end bolt shear
S6b-2 20-2-2,5d 6,02 225 1,07 1,05 71 0,34 0,33 217 1,02 1,01 end bolt shear
S6b-3 5,41 223 1,06 68 0,32 218 1,03 inner bolt shear
S7b-1 4,71 194 0,90 73 0,34 187 0,87 inner bolt shear
S7b-2 20-2-3,5d 5,89 205 0,97 0,93 65 0,31 0,32 196 0,92 0,89 inner bolt shear
S7b-3 5,33 191 0,91 66 0,31 184 0,87 inner bolt shear
S9b-1 4,23 220 1,02 88 0,41 221 1,03 inner bolt shear
S9b-2 20-2-2,5d 5,96 247 1,15 1,08 79 0,38 0,40 238 1,12 1,07 inner bolt shear
S9b-3 4,29 227 1,06 88 0,42 223 1,06 inner bolt shear
S10b-1 6,29 235 0,85 84 0,30 223 0,81 inner bolt shear
S10b-2 20-2-2,5d 6,74 250 0,90 0,88 77 0,28 0,29 238 0,87 0,84 inner bolt shear
S10b-3 6,27 243 0,88 77 0,28 233 0,85 inner bolt shear

92

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
Table A1.3 : Description of component tests, [Mazura, 2002], [Moal, 2001]
Test d - n bolt Bolt position t
k
t
exp
Slot length d
exp
d
0.exp
e
1.k
e
1.exp
e
2.k
e
2.exp
p
1.k
p
1.exp
H B
hole size mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
1A 8,01 15,78 18,04 25,01 40,01 50,01
1B 16-1-d+2 8,03 15,75 18,07 25,01 39,98 50,01
1C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
18 (d+2)
15,76 18,05
25
25,01
40
40,02
50
49,99
dr th
3A 8,02 15,75 18,09 25,01 34,05 50,01
3B 16-1-3d 8,01 15,75 18,04 24,95 34,02 50,01
3C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
50 (3,125d)
15,76 18,08
25
24,95
34
34,02
50
49,97
dr th
5A 8,02 15,77 18,09 25,01 29,00 50,01
5B 16-1-2,5d 8,01 15,75 18,09 24,95 29,01 49,99
5C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,02
40 (2,5d)
15,76 18,09
25
24,95
29
28,99
50
49,98
dr th
I1-1 8,01 15,76 18,03 25,01 29,01 49,99
I1-2 16-1-2,5d 8,01 15,75 18,04 24,95 29,01 50,01
I1-3
internal
(external hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
40 (2,5d)
15,76 18,08
25
25,01
29
29,02
50
50,01
dr th
I2-1 16-1-3d 8 8,05 50 (3,125d) 15,75 18,02 25 24,95 34 33,97 50 50,01 dr th
2A 8,01 15,75 18,01 25,01 29,01 50,01
2B 16-1-2,5d 8,00 15,76 18,05 24,98 29,02 49,99
4C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
40 (2,5d)
15,75 18,05
25
25,01
29
29,00
50
50,00
dr th
Notes: H holes: dr drilling,
B bolts: th threaded part
Table A1.4 : Results of component tests, [Mazura, 2002], [Moal, 2001]
93
Test
Int. bolt
hole
"
exp;ult
F
exp;ult
%
ult
F
exp;1,5mm
%
1,5
F
exp;conv
%
conv
Failure
mm mm kN kN kN mode
1A 12,66 170 1,27 106 0,79 137 1,02 plate shear
1B 18 (d+2) 12,31 175 1,31 1,31 113 0,84 0,83 130 0,97 0,99 plate shear
1C 14,42 180 1,34 114 0,85 130 0,97 plate shear
3A 36,64 138 1,03 55 0,41 89 0,66 plate bend.
3B 18 (d+2) 37,17 125 0,93 0,96 56 0,42 0,41 80 0,60 0,63 plate bend.
3C 33,93 124 0,93 54 0,40 83 0,62 plate bend.
5A 32,82 148 1,10 60 0,45 98 0,73 plate bend.
5B 18 (d+2) 32,39 151 1,13 1,12 60 0,45 0,45 99 0,74 0,74 plate bend.
5C 34,79 150 1,12 59 0,44 101 0,75 plate bend.
I1-1 16,00 185 0,94 66 0,34 146 0,74 bolt shear
I1-2 18 (d+2) 12,92 187 0,96 0,95 85 0,43 0,42 145 0,74 0,74 bolt shear
I1-3 15,36 185 0,94 95 0,49 143 0,73 bolt shear
I2-1 18 (d+2) 17,42 180 0,92 0,92 99 0,51 0,51 122 0,63 0,63 bolt shear
2A 37,06 150 1,11 52 0,39 105 0,78 plate bend.
2B 18 (d+2) 28,88 148 1,10 1,08 53 0,39 0,38 99 0,74 0,74 plate bend.
4C 31,49 140 1,04 49 0,36 96 0,71 plate bend.

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8




Table A1.5 : Description of component tests, [Piraprez, 2000]
Test d - n bolt Position t
Slot
length
Int. bolt
hole
e
1
e
2
p
1
Holes Bolts
- hole size mm mm mm mm mm mm
25
26 16-2-2d
27
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 N dr fb
28
29 27-2-2d
30
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 N dr fb
31
32 16-6-2d
33
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 40 dr fb
34
35 27-6-2d
36
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 70 dr fb
37
38 16-2-2d
39
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 N gc fb
40
41 27-2-2d
42
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 N gc fb
43
44 16-6-2d
45
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 40 gc fb
46
47 27-6-2d
48
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 70 gc fb
Notes: Holes: gc gas cutting,
Bolts: fb full body

94

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8






Table A1.6 : Results of assembly tests, [Piraprez, 2000]
Test d - n bolt "
exp;ult
F
exp;ult
%
ult
F
exp;1,5
%
1,5
F
exp;conv
%
conv
Failure
- hole size mm kN kN kN mode
25 - 612 1,15 320 0,60 440 0,83
26 16-2-2d 52,88 642 1,11 1,13 211 0,36 0,42 417 0,72 0,79 bearing
27 54,44 649 1,12 165 0,29 475 0,82
28 70,91 1319 1,44 240 0,26 911 1,00
29 27-2-2d 66,82 1309 1,32 1,35 248 0,25 0,25 917 0,92 0,94 bearing
30 61,37 1268 1,28 244 0,25 906 0,91
31 43,12 1626 1,23 500 0,38 1119 0,84
32 16-6-2d 41,09 1625 1,13 1,15 490 0,34 0,35 1144 0,79 0,80 bearing
33 36,88 1595 1,11 500 0,35 1117 0,77
34 97,06 2124 0,88 580 0,24 1533 0,63
35 27-6-2d 79,31 2026 0,77 0,84 610 0,23 0,24 1511 0,57 0,60 bolt shear
36 91,86 2305 0,88 - - - -
37 42,96 530 1,00 160 0,30 389 0,73 bearing
38 16-2-2d 42,15 532 0,92 0,94 150 0,26 0,25 389 0,67 0,73
39 - 529 0,91 118 0,20 449 0,78
40 55,06 966 1,06 186 0,20 750 0,82
41 27-2-2d 68,11 1002 1,01 1,03 182 0,18 0,20 736 0,74 0,78 bearing
42 56,09 1002 1,01 198 0,20 777 0,78
43 26,97 1430 1,08 270 0,20 1306 0,98
44 16-6-2d 29,31 1466 1,02 1,04 260 0,18 0,19 1353 0,94 0,94 bearing
45 34,25 1497 1,04 285 0,20 1308 0,91
46 75,59 2180 0,90 300 0,12 1622 0,67
47 27-6-2d 120,87 2480 0,94 0,92 320 0,12 0,12 1600 0,61 0,64 bolt shear
48 113,11 2441 0,93 300 0,11 1690 0,64



95

CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 80-01-02526-8
APPENDIX A2

TESTS RESULTS OF MATERIAL

The standard coupon test results are summarized in Tables A2.1 and A2.2 below. The relative
elongation was calculated as
A = [(L
u
- L
0
) / L
0
]*100 % , (A2.1)
where L
u
is the coupon final length and L
0
is the coupon initial length. The contraction was
evaluated based on expression
Z = [(A
u
- A
0
) / A
0
]*100 % , (A2.2)
where A
u
is the coupon final cross-section area and A
0
is the coupon initial area. Evaluation of
the characteristic values of the stress strain diagram was based on T-distribution of the
values under 5% quantile for a small number of data as
x = .
i
(f
ui
) / n , (A2.3)
R = max [f
ui
] - min[f
ui
] , (A2.4)
f
k
= x - !
t
R(i) , (A2.5)
where n is number of tests, f
ui
is the measured value of resistance,

!
t
is the probability factor
for the T distribution, (for three tests !
t5
= 0,328, !
t10
= 0,315).

Table A2.1 : Coupon test of the central plate
No. d
0
L
0
A
0
d
u
L
u
A
u
F
eH
F
m
R
eH
R
m
A

Z
mm mm mm
2
mm mm mm
2
kN kN MPa MPa % %
M1 6,05 30,00 28,75 3,80 41,80 11,34 6,85 12,00 238 417 39,33 60,55
M2 5,85 30,00 26,88 3,60 40,10 10,18 6,52 11,41 243 424 33,67 62,13
M3 5,95 30,00 27,81 3,70 39,40 10,75 6,83 12,08 246 434 31,33 61,34
M4 5,75 30,00 25,97 3,45 40,50 9,35 6,37 11,12 245 428 35,00 64,00
M5 5,90 30,00 27,34 3,65 40,10 10,46 6,50 11,34 238 415 33,67 61,73
x 242 424 35 62
R 8 19
f
k
239 417

Table A2.2 : Coupon test of the cover plate
No.
d
0
L
0
A
0
d
u
L
u
A
u
F
eH
F
m
R
eH


R
m
A

Z
mm mm mm
2
mm mm mm
2
kN kN MPa MPa % %
C1 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 26,80 5,11 4,18 5,65 333 449 34,00 59,37
C2 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,70 26,30 5,73 3,90 5,85 310 465 31,50 54,45
C3 3,80 20,00 11,34 2,70 * 5,73 3,45 5,12 304 451 * 49,51
C4 3,85 20,00 11,64 2,60 26,40 5,31 3,65 5,37 314 461 32,00 54,39
C5 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 26,50 5,11 4,12 5,64 328 449 32,50 59,37
C6 3,95 20,00 12,25 2,60 25,80 5,31 3,65 5,45 298 445 29,00 56,66
C7 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 27,10 5,11 3,98 5,70 317 453 35,50 59,37
C8 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 26,30 5,11 3,95 5,45 314 434 31,50 59,37
C9 3,85 20,00 11,64 2,60 25,60 5,31 3,45 5,37 296 461 28,00 54,39
C10 3,85 20,00 11,64 2,55 25,50 5,11 3,50 5,27 301 453 27,50 56,12
x 312 452 33 58
R 37 31
f
k
300 442
* outside of the measured reference length
96