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DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL, MANDLA ROAD

On
Effects Of Acids And Bases On The Tensile Strength Of The Fibres

SUBMITTED TO: Mr. Aadesh Gupta
SUBMITTED BY: Abhay Pratap Singh
CHEMISTRY PROGECT REPORT June 22, 2014

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CHEMISTRY PROJECT REPORT ON
Study of Effects of
Acids and Bases On
Tensile Strength Of
Different Fibres
CHEMISTRY PROGECT REPORT June 22, 2014

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I, Abhay Pratap Singh, student of class XII in Delhi
Public School, Mandla Road is doing project report
entitled Study of Effects of Acids and Bases On Tensile
Strength of Different Fibres which is an original piece of
work done by me and has not been reproduced from
elsewhere.
CHEMISTRY PROGECT REPORT June 22, 2014

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I want to acknowledge the valuable help and contributions
of some individuals and organisations in building and
completion of this project report.
First of all I want to thank my parents for their support.
Gratitude to my subject teacher for his aid and guidance.
I appreciate the assistance and resources offered to me by
my schools Chemistry Laboratory. Also I appreciate some
organisations, namely Google, Wikipedia and NCERT.

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Certificate Page 6
Brief Description Page 7
Background Information Page 8
Experiment -1 Page 9-11
Experiment -2 Page 12-15
Results Page 16
Suggestions for further investigations Page 17
References Page 17


CHEMISTRY PROGECT REPORT June 22, 2014

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This is certified that this project titled THE STUDY OF
ELECTROPHILES AND NUCLEOPHILES has been
prepared by ABHAY PRATAP SINGH, studying in class XI
B, during the academic year 2013-14 as the annual
assignment in CHEMISTRY.

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This report states the results of the experiments done to study
the effects of acids and bases on tensile strength of different
fibres.
The prerequisites, procedures, observations, inferences from
the observations, conclusions, the logics on which the
conclusions are based, precautions, sources of errors, material
and chemical required are also stated along with the objectives
of each experiment done in the study.
Furthermore, the resources and suggestions to study and
investigate more about the topic are also stated.
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TENSILE STRENGTH - It means the maximum length to
which a fibre can be extended without breaking it.
Here it is measured in terms of minimum weight required to break
the fibre.

Depending on the sources, the fibres can be categorised into
Animal fibres (ex wool, silk)
Vegetable fibres (ex cotton, linen)
Synthetic fibres (ex nylon, polyester)
Wool and silk threads are observed to defragment and dissolve in
bases but not in acids. While cotton and linen are observed to be
affected by acids but not by bases. On the other hand synthetic
fibres are seen unaffected by both acids and bases. These facts are
also investigated.


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To measure the tensile strength of natural untreated fibre samples.


Objective


Cotton, wool and nylon fibres of same length.
Hook, weight hanger, weights
Material and Apparatus Required


The weights attached to the fibre stretch it. When the fibre is stretched
beyond its limit (tensile strength), it breaks. The weights required to
break the thread gives a measure of its tensile strength. By comparing
the weights required to break different samples of fibres, one can
compare the relative tensile strength of the fibres.
Principle Involved
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1. Cut out equal lengths of cotton, wool and nylon fibres of same
diameter.
2. Tie one end of the cotton fibre to a fixed hook and at the other end
tie a weight hanger. Get the thread taut.
3. Put a weight to the hanger and gradually increase the weight by
hanging additional weights until breaking point is reached. Note
the minimum weight required to break the fibre.
4. Note the required minimum weight three times by repeating the
above steps thrice and take out the average reading.
5. Repeat the above steps (1-4) by tying nylon and woollen fibres on
the hook separately.

Procedure



SR NO. Fibre Minimum Weight
1 Cotton 75 gm
2 Wool 750 gm
3 Nylon 350 gm

Observations
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1. Thread must be equal in length.
2. Thread must be of identical diameter.
3. Weights must be added in small amounts slowly.
Precautions
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To measure the tensile strength of fibre samples after treatment with
acids and bases.
Objective



Cotton, wool and nylon fibres of same length, dilute solution
of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Hook, weight hanger, weights.

Material and Apparatus Required



The weights attached to the fibre stretch it. When the fibre is stretched
beyond its limit (tensile strength), it breaks. The weights required to
break the thread gives a measure of its tensile strength. By comparing
Principle Involved

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the weights required breaking different samples of fibres, one can
compare the relative tensile strength of the fibres.



1. Cut out equal lengths of cotton, woollen and nylon fibres of
similar diameter.
2. Determine the tensile strength of the fibre as done in experiment 1
3. Soak the woollen thread in a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide
for about five minutes. Take it out of the solution and wash it
thoroughly with water and then dry it either by keeping it in the
sun or at a temperature of about 40C.
4. Again determine the tensile strength as done in experiment 1.
5. Now take another piece of woollen thread of identical length and
diameter and repeat step 3 but with a solution of hydrochloric
acid.
6. Repeat the above procedure for cotton and nylon fibres.
Procedure

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SR NO Fibre
Minimum Weight required to break
Untreated fibre
Fibre treated
with NaOH
Fibre treated
with HCl
1 Cotton 75 gm 75 gm 50 gm
2 Wool 750 gm 725 gm 750 gm
3 Nylon 350 gm 350 gm 350 gm

Observations



1. The tensile strength of woollen fibres decreases when soaked in
alkalies but remains unaffected when soaked in acids.
2. The tensile strength of cotton fibres decreases when soaked in
acids but remains unaffected when soaked in alkalies.
3. The tensile strength of nylon fibres remains practically unaffected
on soaking either in acids or alkalies.
Result
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1. Thread must be equal in length.
2. Thread must be of identical diameter.
3. Weights must be added in small amounts slowly.

Precautions

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Animal Fibres : The tensile strength of animal fibres is affected
by bases and not by acids.
Reason : The peptide bonds in animal fibres are easily hydrolysed
by bases than acids, therefore wool and silk threads breakup into
fragments and dissolve in bases.
Vegetable Fibres : The tensile strength of vegetable fibres is
affected by acids and not by bases.
Reason : The glucose units in the long polysaccharide chains in
plant fibres are joined by ether linkage. Since, ethers are only
hydrolysed by acids and not by bases plant fibres get affected by
acids.
Synthetic Fibres : The tensile strength of synthetic fibres
remains unaffected by both acids and bases.
Reason : The synthetic fibres practically remain unreactive to both
acids and bases.
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Some suggestions for further investigation :-
1. The strength of synthetic fibres relative to others bio-degradable fibres.
2. The effects of acids and bases on various fabrics can be investigated.
Suggestions For Further Investigation



1. Chemistry Lab Manual XI, NCERT

References