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UNEP

Multilateral Fund for the Implementation


of the Montreal Protocol
United Nations Environment Programme
Industry and Environment
OzonAction and TourismProgrammes
How the Hotel and
Tourism Industry
Can Protect the
Ozone Layer
Copyr ight 1998 UNEP
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pr oce s s e s cons t it ut e e ndor s e me nt .
Hot e l car t oon us e d in t he for e wor d is fr om t he
Environmental Action Pack for Hotels.
39-43, QUAI ANDRE CITROEN
75739 PARIS CEDEX 15 - FRANCE
TEL : (33) 01 44 37 14 50
FAX : (33) 01 44 37 14 74
E-MAIL : unepie@unep.fr
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UNEP
INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION
ISBN: 92-807-1668-9
UNEP
Multilateral Fund for the Implementation
of the Montreal Protocol
1800 McGi l l Col l ege Avenue, 27th Fl oor
Montreal , Quebec H3A 3JC
Canada
United Nations Environment Programme
Industry and Environment
39- 43 Quai Andr Ci tron
75739 Pari s Cedex 15
France
How the Hotel and
Tourism Industry
Can Protect the
Ozone Layer
ACRONYMS
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
GWP Global Warming Potential
HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HFC hydrofluorocarbon
LVC low-volume ODS consuming countries
NOU National Ozone Unit
ODP Ozone Depletion Potential
ODS Ozone Depleting Substance
UV Ultraviolet
Acknowle dge me nts 4
Fore word 5
PART I: ABOUT THE OZONE LAYER 6
What is t he ozone laye r ?
Why is t he ozone laye r unde r t hr e at ?
What che micals de s t r oy t he ozone laye r ?
What ar e t he impact s of ozone -laye r de ple t ion?
How has the inte rnational community re s ponde d? 9
Why s hould the hote l and touris m indus try be conce rne d? 10
What are the be ne fits of managing ODS? 11
PART II: WHAT IS AN ODS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME? 12
How can ODS us e be re duce d and avoide d? 12
Cont ainme nt and Cons e r vat ion
Re t r ofit t ing
Re place me nt
Whe re are ODS us e d in the hote l and touris m indus try? 13
Re fr ige r at ion
Air condit ioning in buildings
Air condit ioning in ve hicle s
Dr y cle aning and de gr e as ing
Ae r os ols
Foams
Fir e e xt inguis he r s
PART III: HOW TO CARRY OUT AN ODS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME 22
Pre paration 23
make a commit me nt , appoint a t e am, che ck t he r e gulat ions ,
ide nt ify ar e as whe r e ODS ar e us e d, r e gis t e r e quipme nt and pr oduct s ,
de t e r mine pr ior it y act ion ar e as , de t e r mine budge t
Action 27
r e fr ige r at ion, air condit ioning in buildings , air condit ioning in ve hicle s ,
dr y cle aning and de gr e as ing, ae r os ols , foams , fir e e xt inguis he r s
Support me as ure s 32
infor m and t r ain s t aff, infor m clie nt s about your achie ve me nt s ,
r e por t t o s t ake holde r s
Supplie rs 34
Re vie w progre s s 34
PART IV: EXAMPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE 35
Re fr ige r at ion
Air condit ioning
Ae r os ols
Fir e e xt inguis he r s
Hot e l cont act s
PART V: FURTHER INFORMATION 43
Glos s ary 43
Publications 45
Contacts 47
Countrie s ope rating unde r Article 5 of the Montre al Protocol 49
ODS phas e -out s che dule 50
Example s of Trade Name s of Anne x A Subs tance s ( CFCs ) 52
About UNEP IEs OzonAction and Touris m Programme s 53
CONTENTS
This pr oje ct was manage d by t he following UNEP IE s t aff:
Jacque line Alois i de Lar de r e l Dir e ct or, UNEP IE
Raje ndr a She nde Coor dinat or, UNEP IE OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme
H l ne Ge not Se nior Cons ult ant , UNEP IE Tour is m Pr ogr amme
Jame s Cur lin Infor mat ion Office r, UNEP IE OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme
Os hani Pe r e r a Cons ult ant , UNEP IE Tour is m Pr ogr amme
UNEP IE is inde bt e d t o t he many or ganizat ions and individuals t hat have cont r ibut e d t o
t he pr oduct ion of t his guide .
The Int e r nat ional Hot e l & Re s t aur ant As s ociat ion kindly pr ovide d
cas e s t udie s fr om t he 1996 applicant s t o t he As s ociat ions annual
Gr e e n Hot e lie r Envir onme nt al Awar d.
Cor r e s ponde nt s for t he cas e s t udie s we r e :
Nakul Anand Ge ne r al Manage r, We lcomgr oup Maur ya, She r at on Hot e l & Towe r s ,
Ne w De lhi, India
Amy Ang Public Re lat ions Manage r, ANA Hot e l Singapor e
Tim Gar dine r Gr anada Cat e r ing Se r vice s , London, Unit e d Kingdom
A. Ge or ge Exe cut ive Hous e ke e pe r, We lcomgr oup Par k She r at on Hot e l and
Towe r s , Madr as , India
Nat war Pat e l Chie f Engine e r, She r at on Fiji Re s or t
Jay Robins on Engine e r ing Pe r s onal As s is t ant , t he Re ge nt Hot e l, Sydne y, Aus t r alia
Gigi M. Valle y Public Re lat ions Manage r, Mane le Bay Hot e l, Lanai, Hawaii
The r e vie w pane l cons is t e d of:
Var una Fe r nando Re gional Chie f Engine e r, Int e r Cont ine nt al Hot e ls , Eas t Afr ica
Haze l Hame lin Dir e ct or of Communicat ions , Int e r nat ional Hot e l &
Re s t aur ant s As s ociat ion, Par is , Fr ance .
St uar t Jaunce y Se nior Le ct ur e r Hos pit alit y Manage me nt , Br ooke s
Unive r s it y, Oxfor d, Unit e d Kingdom
Lambe r t Kuijpe r s Co-chair, UNEP Te chnology and Economic As s e s s me nt Pane l,
Eindhove n, Ne t he r lands
Je an-Mar ie Le cle r cq Ge ne r al Manage r, Hot e l Nikko, Hong Kong
The guide was de ve lope d for UNEP IE by Andr e w Blaza, PULSAR Int e r nat ional.
Final e dit ing was done by Robin Clar ke
De s ign and layout by Chapman Bounfor d & As s ociat e s
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
4
Emis s ions of man-made che micals colle ct ive ly known as ozone -de ple t ing s ubs t ance s
( ODS) ar e de ple t ing t he s t r at os phe r ic ozone laye r which pr ot e ct s life on Ear t h fr om
har mful ult r aviole t r adiat ion fr om t he s un. De ple t ion of t he ozone laye r is like ly t o
affe ct food pr oduct ion, he alt h and e cos ys t e ms wor ldwide .
The wor lds nat ions have t ake n act ion t o s olve t he pr oble m t hr ough t he Mont r e al
Pr ot ocol on Subs t ance s t hat De ple t e t he Ozone Laye r ( 1987) ,an int e r nat ional t r e at y
t hat r e quir e s count r ie s t o phas e out t he ir pr oduct ion and cons umpt ion of
chlor ofluor ocar bons ( CFCs ) and ot he r ODS accor ding t o pr e cis e de adline s . A
Mult ilat e r al Fund was e s t ablis he d unde r t he Pr ot ocol t o pr ovide t e chnical and financial
as s is t ance t o he lp de ve loping count r ie s phas e out ODS.
Hot e ls and t he t our is m indus t r y us e ODS in r e fr ige r at or s in kit che ns and mini-bar s , air
condit ioning in gue s t r ooms and public ar e as , ae r os ol s pr ays in cle aning pr oduct s , fir e -
pr ot e ct ion e quipme nt , and foam mat t r e s s e s . Since your e s t ablis hme nt us e s t he s e
che micals , you and your s t aff have t o be par t of t he s olut ion.
The t our is m and hot e l indus t r y is r e alizing t hat a he alt hy e nvir onme nt me ans good
bus ine s s . Many hot e ls and holiday ce nt r e s ar e car r ying out e nvir onme nt al manage me nt
pr ogr amme s and r e aping t he be ne fit s . Howe ve r, unt il now r e ducing t he us e of ODS has
be e n give n lit t le at t e nt ion in t his s e ct or. This guide is int e nde d t o fill t hat gap by:
e xplaining why you s hould be conce r ne d about ozone de ple t ion
out lining how you s hould appr oach t he pr oble m
pr oviding infor mat ion on how t he us e of ODS can be r e duce d and avoide d
pr oviding e xample s of good pr act ice t o de mons t r at e how s ome t our is m
facilit ie s have t ake n act ion t o pr ot e ct t he ozone laye r.
Te chnologie s and che micals t hat do not de s t r oy t he ozone laye r ar e now available
wor ldwide , and good s e r vicing pr act ice s and ot he r s kills e xis t t o r e duce ODS
e mis s ions . Swit ching t o ne w t e chnologie s and acquir ing pr ope r t r aining can he lp your
bus ine s s impr ove ope r at ing e fficacy, r e duce cos t s in t he me dium t e r m, and e nhance
it s mar ke t image . Int e gr at ing t e chnologie s t hat do not de ple t e t he ozone laye r int o
facilit ie s s t ill at t he planning and cons t r uct ion s t age can s ave cons ide r able t ime and
mone y lat e r on.
This guide is wr it t e n for manage r s and s t aff in t he hot e l and t our is m indus t r y. Though t he
guide e mphas ize s me dium and s malle r unit s in de ve loping count r ie s , it can e qually be us e d
by facilit ie s of all s ize s in all count r ie s , de ve loping and de ve lope d. In addit ion, t he guide will
be of int e r e s t t o all comme r cial and r e s ide nt ial e s t ablis hme nt s , including accommodat ion
unit s , s hopping ce nt r e s , vis it or ce nt r e s , office buildings and s por t s ar e nas . The guide als o
pr ovide s backgr ound infor mat ion which is s uit able for pr ope r t y de s igne r s and de ve lope r s .
This guide was pr oduce d by UNEP IEs OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme unde r t he Mult ilat e r al
Fund, as par t of it s infor mat ion e xchange s e r vice s . The guide was de ve lope d in
coope r at ion wit h t he UNEP IE Tour is m Pr ogr amme , which has alr e ady publis he d t wo
t it le s on e nvir onme nt al manage me nt in t he t our is m s e ct or.
FOREWORD
5
6
?
What is the diffe re nce
be twe e n the ozone laye r
and ground le ve l ozone ?
Whereas stratospheric ozone
shields the Earth from the
Suns harmful radiation,
ground level ozone is a
pollutant caused by the
burning of fossil fuels and
biomass. Ground level ozone
is a component of urban
smog and can cause
respiratory problems.
What is the ozone layer?
Ozone is nat ur ally occur r ing gas , cons is t ing of t hr e e oxyge n at oms . Ne ar ly 90 pe r ce nt
of all ozone is found in t he uppe r at mos phe r e ( or s t r at os phe r e ) , 12-50 km above t he
Ear t hs s ur face . This is r e fe r r e d t o as t he ozone laye r .
Toge t he r wit h ozone in t he lowe r par t s of t he at mos phe r e , t he ozone laye r act s as a
giant s uns hade , abs or bing t he har mful wave le ngt hs of t he s uns ult r aviole t ( UV)
r adiat ion and pr e ve nt ing it fr om r e aching t he Ear t hs s ur face . Wit hout ozone life could
not have de ve lope d and flour is he d on t he Ear t h.
Why is the ozone layer under threat?
Whe n r e le as e d int o t he air, s ome man-made che micals cont aining chlor ine and
br omine e ve nt ually migr at e int o highe r r e gions of t he at mos phe r e , including t he
s t r at os phe r e . Though t he s e che micals ar e s t able in t he lowe r at mos phe r e , t he y ar e
br oke n down int o highly r e act ive for ms of chlor ine and br omine in t he s t r at os phe r e by
t he high le ve ls of UV s olar r adiat ion. The s e che micals t he n t ake par t in a s e r ie s of
chain r e act ions le ading t o ozone de ple t ion ( s e e illu s t r at io n o p p o s it e ) .
Which chemicals destroy the ozone layer?
Chlor ofluor ocar bons ( CFCs ) , t he mos t wide ly-known ozone -de s t r oying che micals ,
we r e fir s t s ynt he s ize d in 1928. Be caus e of t he ir inflammabilit y and low t oxicit y, t he y
we r e us e d in applicat ions as dive r s e as r e fr ige r ant s in r e fr ige r at or s and air
condit ione r s , pr ope llant s in ae r os ol s pr ay cans , blowing age nt s in t he manufact ur e of
foams , and cle aning age nt s for e le ct r onic e quipme nt .
Hyd r o ch lo r o flu o r o car b o n s ( HCFCs ) we r e d e ve lo p e d as s u b s t it u t e s fo r CFC
r e fr ige r an t s an d b lo win g age n t s . Th o u gh le s s d e s t r u ct ive t h an CFCs , t h e
o zo n e -d e p le t in g p o t e n t ial ( ODP) o f t h e s e ch e micals ar e t o o h igh t o allo w
lo n g-t e r m u s e ( s e e b o x o p p o s it e ) .
Two ot he r chlor ine cont aining che micals , wide ly us e d as s olve nt s for cle aning
me t als , have s ignificant ODP. The s e ar e car bon t e t r achlor ide and me t hyl chlor ofor m
( 1,1,1-t r ichlor oe t hane ) .
The main br omine -cont aining che micals t hat de s t r oy ozone ar e calle d halons .
The s e ar e us e d in fir e -e xt inguis hing e quipme nt . Some halons have an ODP t e n
t ime s highe r t han t hat of t he mos t pot e nt CFCs !
Anot he r che mical wit h a high ODP is me t hyl br omide , mainly us e d as an agr icult ur al
pe s t icide and t o fumigat e agr icult ur al commodit ie s .
The s e che micals ar e colle ct ive ly known as ozone -de ple t ing s ubs t ance s ( ODS) .
The y can be ide nt ifie d in a numbe r of ways :
Mos t at mos phe r ic ozone is found
in t he s t r at os phe r e 12-50 km above
t he Ear t h
PART I: ABOUT THE OZONE LAYER
40km
60km
20km
stratosphere
troposphere
by t he ir t r ade name s ( s uch as FREON )
by t he ir r e fr ige r ant code s ( s uch as CFC-113 or R-12)
by t he ir che mical name s ( s uch as 1,1,1-t r ichlor ot r ifluor oe t hane ) .
Mor e de t ails on ODS name s ar e pr ovide d in Par t V: Fur t he r infor mat ion.
What are the impacts of ozone-layer depletion?
As t he ozone laye r t hins , highe r dos e s of UV-B r adiat ion r e ach t he Ear t hs s ur face . This
would have wide s pr e ad e ffe ct s on human he alt h, agr icult ur e and e cos ys t e ms in
ge ne r al. The s e e ffe ct s include :
human s kin: mor e s unbur n and s kin cance r s
human e ye : mor e cas e s of cat ar act , s now blindne s s ( act inic kar at it is ) and ot he r
chr onic e ye dis e as e s .
immune s ys t e ms : r e duce d human and animal r e s is t ance t o infe ct ions and
dis e as e s including cance r s and alle r gie s , and dis e as e s s uch as malar ia,
le is hmanias is and he r pe s whe r e t he bodys major de fe nce s ys t e m is t he s kin
7
?
What is Ozone -de ple tion
Pote ntial ( ODP) ?
ODP is a measure of a
substances ability to destroy
stratospheric ozone. It
depends on the substances
atmospheric lifetime,
stability, reactivity and the
ozone-depleting elements it
contains such as chlorine
and bromine. All ODP values
are expressed in relation to
the baseline value of 1 for
CFC-11.
chlorine
radical
ozone
oxygen
molecule
chlorine
monoxide
CFCl
3
CFCl
2
oxygen
molecule
oxygen
atom
UV radiation
How ozone is de s t r oye d aft e r
ult r aviole t r adiat ion libe r at e s a
chlor ine r adical fr om an ozone -
de ple t ing s ubs t ance . One chlor ine
at om alone can t ake par t in as
many as 100 000 ozone -de s t r oying
r e act ions .
Destruction of stratospheric ozone by ODS
Major e ffe ct s of incr e as e d le ve ls
of UV-B r e s ult ing fr om damage t o
t he ozone laye r
cr ops : s malle r plant s , lowe r yie lds , pot e nt ial r e duct ions in nut r it ional value ,
ne e d t o s e ar ch for UV-B r e s is t ant cr ops
nat ur al e cos ys t e ms : alt e r e d plant for ms and change s in compe t it ive balance
be t we e n plant s , t he animals t hat e at t he m, and plant pat hoge ns and pe s t s
mar ine and aquat ic life : r e duce d pr oduct ion of phyt oplankt on, zooplankt on,
juve nile fis h, cr abs and s hr imps which will in t ur n t hr e at e n all mar ine life and
r e duce fis he r ie s pr oduct ivit y
man-made mat e r ials : fas t e r de gr adat ion of ce r t ain mat e r ials including many
paint s and plas t ics
incr e as e d global war ming and climat e change .
The combine d e ffe ct s of e xt r a UV-B r adiat ion on life on Ear t h ar e s hown in t he
char t be low.
Ove r t he pas t 20-30 ye ar s , s ufficie nt ODS have be e n r e le as e d int o t he at mos phe r e t o
caus e s e r ious damage t o t he ozone laye r ; pe ak ozone de ple t ion is e xpe ct e d ove r t he
ne xt fe w ye ar s . Ove r t he nor t he r n mid-lat it ude s , cumulat ive ozone los e s of 12-13
pe r ce nt ar e pr e dict e d in wint e r and s pr ing, while 6-7 pe r ce nt los s e s ar e e xpe ct e d in
t he s umme r and aut umn. Ove r t he s out he r n mid-lat it ude s , cumulat ive ozone los s e s
ar e pr e dict e d t o be ar ound 11 pe r ce nt all ye ar r ound.
The t our is m and hot e l indus t r y us e s ODS in var ie t y of applicat ions , and mus t t he r e for e
be a par t of t he pr oce s s t o halt t he de ple t ion of t he ozone laye r.
8
t
r
o
posphe
ric
ozone
ozone depletion effects
climate change increased UV-B radiation
reaching earths surface
damage to materials:
paint, plastic, rubber
direct human
health effects
di sease
accumulation of tropospheric
ozone and acid aerosols,
causing worsening air
pollution and acid rain
photochemical formation
of tropospheric ozone
environmental effects:
crop and forest
damage
human health effects:
respiratory illness and
heart problems
suppression of immunity:
increase in infectious
diseases, less effective
vaccination
rise in incidence of
skin cancer
eye damage: increased
incidence of cataracts and
blindness
terrestrial: reduced crop
yields, stunted plant
growth
aquatic: less ocean
plankton, lower fish
harvests
damage to biological
links in human food
chain
9
Whe n t he fir s t e vide nce of t he Ant ar ct ic ozone hole was publis he d in 1985, nat ions
conce r ne d about t he impe nding cr is is caus e d by t his ar t ificial t hinning of t he ozone laye r
e nt e r e d int o global ne got iat ions which le d t o t he adopt ion in Se pt e mbe r 1987 of t he
Mont r e al Pr ot ocol on Subs t ance s t hat De ple t e t he Ozone Laye r. This Pr ot ocol ide nt ifie d
t he major ODS and e s t ablis he d a t ime t able and le gal bas is for phas ing t he m out .
The Pr ot ocol e nt e r e d int o for ce in Januar y 1989; it r e quir e d Par t ie s t o t he Pr ot ocol t o
r e duce and t he n e liminat e ODS pr oduct ion and cons umpt ion t hr ough t he de ve lopme nt
of che mical s ubs t it ut e s , alt e r nat ive manufact ur ing pr oce s s e s , r e cycling, r e cove r y and
r e claiming pr oce dur e s . By t he e nd of 1997, mor e t han 160 count r ie s , of which t wo-
t hir ds ar e de ve loping count r ie s , had r at ifie d t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol.
The or iginal Pr ot ocol e s t ablis he d cont r ol me as ur e s for e ight ODS, known as
cont r olle d s ubs t ance s , which include d five CFCs and t hr e e halons . At fur t he r
me e t ings , he ld in London in 1990 and Cope nhage n in 1992, t he cont r ols we r e
e xt e nde d t o r e quir e de ve lope d count r ie s t o phas e out 15 CFCs , 3 halons , 34 HBFCs ,
car bon t e t r achlor ide and me t hyl chlor ofor m. At t he 7t h me e t ing of t he Par t ie s in
Vie nna in 1995, a longe r-t e r m r e duct ion s che dule le ading t o a comple t e phas e out of
40 HCFCs was agr e e d, and me t hyl br omide was adde d t o t he lis t of cont r olle d
s ubs t ance s ( s e e Par t V: Fur t he r infor mat ion) .
The Pr ot ocol made s pe cial pr ovis ions for de ve loping count r ie s , wit h t he ir r e cognize d
ne e d for e conomic de ve lopme nt and r e lat ive ly low us e of CFCs , giving t he m an e xt r a
t e n ye ar s t o imple me nt t he r e quir e d r e duct ion and phas e -out me as ur e s . Fur t he r mor e ,
t he Pr ot ocol pr ovide s t e chnical and financial as s is t ance t hr ough a Mult ilat e r al Fund
t o ODS pr ogr amme s in t he s e count r ie s , which ar e calle d Ar t icle 5 count r ie s ( s e e
Par t V: Fur t he r infor mat ion) .
Mor e t han US$ 600 million has be e n allocat e d t o Ar t icle 5 count r ie s unde r t he Pr ot ocol
as of De ce mbe r 1997. This as s is t ance will r e ach US$ 1 billion by t he e nd of 1999 as
ple dge d by t he de ve lope d count r ie s ( i.e . non-Ar t icle 5 count r ie s ) . As a r e s ult of t his
as s is t ance , 20,000 t onne s a ye ar of ODS have be e n phas e d out in de ve loping count r ie s
by pr oje ct s unde r t he Mult ilat e r al Fund, and a fur t he r 80,000 t onne s will be phas e d out
once all appr ove d pr oje ct s ar e imple me nt e d. Addit ionally, t he Fund has s uppor t e d t he
pr e par at ion of nat ional ODS phas e -out plans and t he e s t ablis hme nt of Nat ional Ozone
Unit s ( NOUs ) in ne ar ly 90 Ar t icle 5 count r ie s . The NOUs r e s pons ibilit ie s include
monit or ing Mult ilat e r al Fund pr oje ct s in t he ir count r y and as s is t ing bus ine s s e s
( including t he Tour is m Indus t r y) wit h t he phas e out of ODS. Cont act your count r ys
NOU t o de t e r mine what as s is t ance is available .
The Par t ie s t o t he Pr ot ocol agr e e d t o r e duce and e liminat e t he us e of ODS e ve n
be for e s ubs t it ut e s and alt e r nat ive t e chnologie s be came available . This s t r at e gy has
pr ove n s ucce s s ful. It has e ncour age d indus t r y t o de ve lop alt e r nat ive s ubs t ance s and
t e chnologie s for mos t if not all t he for me r us e s of ODS. As a r e s ult , CFCs , halons ,
car bon t e t r achlor ide and me t hyl chlor ofor m have alr e ady be e n phas e d out in
de ve lope d count r ie s , and t he gr owt h r at e s of CFCs and me t hyl chlor ofor m in t he
s t r at os phe r e have s lowe d down. This pos it ive t r e nd will cont inue as mor e bus ine s s e s
in Ar t icle 5 count r ie s , s uch as your s , join t he ODS phas e out pr oce s s .
How has the international community
responded?
Since 1991, UNEP IEs
OzonAction Programme
in Paris has be e n
s tre ngthe ning the
capacity of National
Ozone Units and indus try
in de ve loping countrie s
to make informe d
de cis ions on te chnology
and policy options that
will re s ult in cos t-
e ffe ctive ODS phas e -out
activitie s with minimal
e xte rnal inte rve ntion.
The Programme provide s
thos e targe t groups with
a range of ne e d-bas e d
s e rvice s , including
information e xchange ,
training, Ne tworking of
ODS Office rs , Country
Programme as s is tance
and Ins titutional
Stre ngthe ning proje cts .
Tour is m ope r at ions have a dir e ct impact on t he e nvir onme nt . This s t ar t s wit h t he
cons t r uct ion of ne w de ve lopme nt s and cont inue s dur ing daily manage me nt and
ope r at ions . Tour is m facilit ie s ar e r e s our ce int e ns ive : t he y ar e lar ge cons ume r s of
wat e r and e ne r gy, and ge ne r at e s ignificant volume s of was t e , e mis s ions and e fflue nt .
What is not oft e n r e alize d is t hat t he y als o cons ume and e mit ODS.
Re fr ige r at ion, air condit ioning, fir e -fight ing e quipme nt , foam ins ulat ion, s olve nt s zand
ae r os ol pr ope llant s all cont ain ODS and ar e wide ly us e d in t he hot e l and t our is m indus t r y.
The t our is m indus t r y has a gr e at e r ve s t e d int e r e s t t han mos t in pr ot e ct ing t he
global e nvir onme nt . Tour is m de s t inat ions r e ly on a cle an and he alt hy e nvir onme nt
for t he long-t e r m qualit y and viabilit y of t he pr oduct ; wit hout s uch e nvir onme nt al
qualit y, much t our is m would dis appe ar. Unle s s all t our is m ope r at or s , lar ge and s mall,
t ake act ion t o maint ain and e nhance e nvir onme nt al qualit y, t he fut ur e of t he indus t r y
is in je opar dy.
Tour is t s , e s pe cially t hos e who s e t out t o e njoy t he ple as ur e s of t he ope n air , will be
s ome of t he fir s t t o be conce r ne d about t he impact s of e xce s s ive UV r adiat ion. By
t aking e ar ly act ion t o phas e out ODS, you de mons t r at e t o your cus t ome r s gue s t s or
t our ope r at or s t hat you ar e a r e s pons ible ope r at or.
Why should the hotel and tourism
industry be concerned?
10
The days whe n pe ople s unbat he
for long pe r iods may we ll be
numbe r e d as t he r is ks of s uch
e xpos ur e be come wide ly known.
This will have s e r ious
cons e que nce s for many t our is m
pr oduct s and t he ir ope r at or s .
11
The r e ar e good r e as ons for addr e s s ing ODS phas e out at an e ar ly s t age :
pr oduct ion of ODS-cont aining pr oduct s may no longe r be allowe d unde r
int e r nat ional r e gulat ions
all count r ie s t hat have r at ifie d t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol have de ve lope d ( or will
de ve lop) and will e nfor ce r e gulat ions t o cont r ol ODS cons umpt ion
ODS che micals may be come mor e e xpe ns ive as e xis t ing s t ocks be come s car ce
ODS-cont aining e quipme nt and che micals may als o be come difficult t o find
in advance of a t ot al ban
alt e r nat ive s t hat ar e le s s har mful t o t he e nvir onme nt ar e alr e ady on t he mar ke t ,
and s ome of t he m ar e che ape r and mor e e ne r gy e fficie nt
ODS phas e out pr ovide s financial be ne fit s which will off-s e t s ome of
t he inve s t me nt r e quir e d cos t s avings will ar is e fr om pr e ve nt ing le akage s of
che micals ( and t his avoiding e xpe ns ive r e place me nt ) and fr om t he impr ove d
e ne r gy e fficie ncy offe r e d by many of t he ne we r, ze r o-ODP alt e r nat ive s
publicizing your e ffor t s t o r e duce t he us e of ODS may impr ove your mar ke t image .
Pr oact ive s olut ions , t aking act ion in advance of r e gulat ions , make s good bus ine s s
s e ns e . To r e alize t he full be ne fit s , ODS manage me nt is be s t imple me nt e d as par t of
an ove r all e nvir onme nt al manage me nt pr ogr amme . For infor mat ion on e nvir onme nt al
manage me nt , cons ult t he Environmental Action Pack for Hotelsand Case Studies on
Good Environmental Practice in Hotels(s e e Par t V: Fur t he r Infor mat ion) .
What are the benefits of managing ODS?
An ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme is a pr e ve nt at ive s t r at e gy and act ion plan t o r e duce ,
r e place and e liminat e ODS us e t hr oughout your ope r at ion. Act ion s hould be t ake n as a
par t of r out ine maint e nance and s e r vice , whe r e it s hould cont r ibut e t owar ds an ove r all
incr e as e in ope r at ing e fficie ncy.
How can ODS use be reduced and avoided?
ODS manage me nt cove r s t hr e e appr oache s :
Containment and Conservation
good hous e ke e ping me as ur e s t o avoid le akage or los s of e xis t ing ODS dur ing
e quipme nt ope r at ion and maint e nance
r e cove r y and r e -us e of or iginal r e fr ige r ant aft e r e quipme nt dis mant ling for
s e r vicing.
Retrofitting
conve r t ing e xis t ing e quipme nt t o ut ilize low ODP or ze r o-ODP che micals
t his ge ne r ally r e quir e s r e place me nt of e xis t ing e quipme nt par t s and/or a
change of lubr icat ing oil; in s ome ins t ance s , it may be pos s ible t o us e a dr op-
in r e place me nt ins t e ad of a comple t e r e t r ofit ( a dr op-in r e place me nt , as it
name s ugge s t s , e nt ails r e placing ODS wit h low- or non-ODP s ubs t it ut e s wit hout
modifying t he e quipme nt ) .
Replacement
pur chas ing ne w e quipme nt t hat us e s ze r o-ODP che micals whe n t he s e r vice life
of t he or iginal e quipme nt is ove r or t he or iginal che micals ar e no longe r
available and r e t r ofit t ing is not pos s ible .
PART II: WHAT IS AN ODS MANAGEMENT
PROGRAMME?
12
13
The mos t impor t ant us e s ar e in:
Refrigeration
r e fr ige r at or s , food and dr inks , cold s t or age , dis play cabine t s , fr e e ze r s , ice machine s
and mini-bar s
Air conditioning in buildings
ge ne r al ame nit y ar e as , confe r e nce and me e t ing facilit ie s , individual r oom unit s
Air conditioning in vehicles
mobile unit s in car s and bus e s
Dry cleaning and degreasing
s olve nt s us e d in dr y cle aning and s pe cial cle aning applicat ions
Aerosols
s pot cle aning, bat hr oom and ot he r s ur face cle ane r s , s mall ar e a paint s , adhe s ive s ,
ins e ct icide s and pe s t icide s
Foams
food packaging, t r ays and cont aine r s , pipe ins ulat ion, s e at and back cus hions , he ad
r e s t s , be dding and ot he r uphols t e r y us e s , car pe t unde r lay, car and bus int e r ior s ,
pr ot e ct ive packaging for a wide var ie t y of goods
Fire extinguishers
halons ar e us e d in fixe d and por t able fir e e xt inguis he r s
Example s of t r ade name s unde r which ODS ar e s old ar e lis t e d in Par t V: Fur t he r
infor mat ion.
Where are ODS used in the hotel and
tourismindustry?
Refrigeration
CFCs , t he main ozone -de s t r oying che micals , ar e us e d as t he r e fr ige r ant s in dome s t ic
and comme r cial r e fr ige r at or s , e nclos e d cold s t or age s pace s , ice machine s and
mini-bar s .
Mos t olde r comme r cial r e fr ige r at or s cont ain CFC-12. Howe ve r, s ome e quipme nt als o
us e s R-502, which was int r oduce d in t he 1960s . The mos t common CFC r e fr ige r ant s
and t he ir s ubs t it ut e s ar e s hown in t he t able s be low.
14
Re frige ration:
us e s in the hote l and
touris m indus try
Food and drinks cold storage,
display cabinets, freezers, ice
machines, vending machines
and mini-bars.
Table 1 Common refrigerants
Symbol Refri gerant* Name/ composi ti on ODP* *
CFC- 11 R- 11 tri chl orofl uoromethane 1.0
CFC- 12 R- 12 di chl orofl uoromethane 1.0
CFC- 114 R- 114 1,2- di chl orotetrafl uoroethane 1.0
R- 500 Bl end of CFC- 12 and HFC- 152a 0.74
R- 502 Bl end of HCFC- 22 and CFC- 115 0.34
* Refri gerant nomencl ature establ i shed by the Ameri can Soci ety of Heati ng, Refri gerati ng and Ai r- condi ti oni ng Engi neers (ASHRAE)
* * Ozone- depl eti ng potenti al rel ative to CFC- 11
Table 2 Key substitutes for common refrigerants
Symbol Refri gerant* Name/ composi ti on ODP* *
HCFC- 22 R- 22 chl orordi fl uoromethane 0.05
HCFC- 123 R- 123 2,2- di chl oro- 1,1,1- tri fl uoroethane 0.020
HFC- 134a R- 134a 1,1,1,2 tetrafl uoroethane 0
R- 401A bl end of HCFCs 22/ 124 and HFC- 152a (53/ 34/ 13 wei ght %) 0.036
R- 401B bl end of HCFCs 22/ 124 and HFC- 152a (61/ 28/ 11 wei ght %) 0.040
R- 402A bl end of HCFC 22, HFC 125 and propane (38/ 60/ 2 wei ght %) 0.021
R- 402B bl end of HCFC 22, HFC 125 and propane (60/ 38/ 2 wei ght %) 0.033
R- 404A bl end of HFCs 125/ 134a/ 143a (44/ 4/ 52 wei ght %) 0
R- 406A bl end of HCFCs 22/ 142b and i sobutane (55/ 41/ 4 wei ght %) 0.057
R- 407A bl end of HFCs 32/ 125/ 134a (20/ 40/ 40 wei ght %) 0
R- 407C bl end of HFCs 32/ 125/ 134a (23/ 25/ 52 wei ght %) 0
R- 408A bl end of HCFC- 22 and HFCs 125/ 143a (47/ 7/ 46 wei ght %) 0.026
R- 409A bl end of HCFCs 22/ 124/ 142b (60/ 25/ 15 wei ght %) 0.048
R- 507 bl end of HCFC- 125 and HFC- 143a (50/ 50 wei ght %) 0
R- 717 ammoni a 0
R- 600a i sobutane 0
R- 290 propane 0
* Refri gerant nomencl ature establ i shed by the Ameri can Soci ety of Heati ng, Refri gerati ng and Ai r- condi ti oni ng Engi neers (ASHRAE)
* * Ozone- depl eti ng potenti al rel ative to CFC- 11
The l atest non- ODS equi pment uses HFC- 134a or bl ends of hydrochl orofl uorocarbons (HCFCs) and/ or hydrofl uorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs are a transi ti onal sol uti on (al though one that wi l l be avai l abl e for many years i n devel opi ng
countri es) whi l e HFCs wi th zero ODP are l ong- term substi tutes. The phase out schedul e for HCFCs and other ODS can be found i n Par t V: Fur ther Informati on
15
!
Cons ide rable progre s s has
be e n made in the us e of
hydrocarbons both as pure
re frige rants and in
mixture s , mainly of
propane and is obutane .
The te chnology is now
wide ly us e d in dome s tic
re frige ration and a
promis ing be ginning has
be e n made in the
comme rcial re frige ration
s e ctor.
!
Good Practice Tip:
e valuating ODP and
Global Warming Pote ntial
( GWP)
Some substitute refrigerants
are greenhouse gases
which contribute to global
warming. Much of the global
warming contribution of
refrigerators and air
conditioners, however,
comes from the CO
2
produced during the
generation of the electricity
needed to run them. When
choosing an alternative
refrigerant, you need to
evaluate its ODP, GWP and
energy efficiency so that you
minimize the equipments
contribution to ozone
depletion and global warming.
This will also have a direct
impact on your fuel bills.
A balance must therefore be
struck and this is one of the
factors to select the use of
substitutes.
Options for action
Containment and Conservation
At one t ime , ve nt ing r e fr ige r ant s t o t he air dur ing e quipme nt s e r vice was a s t andar d
pr act ice . Wit h t he ne e d t o limit t he e nvir onme nt al impact of e mis s ions , r e fr ige r ant
cons e r vat ion is now a major cons ide r at ion in s ys t e m de s ign, ins t allat ion and s e r vice .
Re fr ige r ant cons e r vat ion has t hr e e bas ic e le me nt s :
pr ope r de s ign and ins t allat ion of ne w e quipme nt t o minimize le aks ;
le ak t ight e ning of e xis t ing e quipme nt t o r e duce e mis s ions whe r e CFCs cont inue
t o be us e d or whe r e e quipme nt has be e n r e t r ofit t e d wit h HCFCs or HFCs ;
impr ove d s e r vice pr act ice s , including r e fr ige r ant r e cove r y, which allows
cont inue d s ys t e m ope r at ion and r e duce s t he ne e d t o t op-up.
The be s t e nvir onme nt al and bus ine s s opt ion in t he s hor t t e r m is t o e ns ur e t hat
e xis t ing e quipme nt is s e r vice d by t r aine d pe r s onne l who know how t o pr e ve nt los s e s
dur ing maint e nance and t o r e -us e t he r e fr ige r ant s . Spe cialis t r e cove r y e quipme nt is
available t o he lp r e duce los s e s dur ing s e r vicing. Unle s s you or your s t aff ar e
t hor oughly conve r s ant wit h t he lat e s t s e r vice t e chnique s , you s hould have t he
e quipme nt s e r vice d by pr ofe s s ional e ngine e r s . The s aving on pos s ible was t age of
che micals and cont inue d e fficie nt ope r at ion of t he e quipme nt s hould mor e t han offs e t
t he cos t of s e r vice .
Re gular che cks t o e ns ur e t he r e ar e no le aks in t he s ys t e m dur ing ope r at ion will he lp
t o cons e r ve e xis t ing r e fr ige r ant s and avoid t he ne e d t o t op-up or r e char ge . Che cks
s hould pr e fe r ably be done us ing e le ct r onic le ak de t e ct or s . Howe ve r t he s imple s oap
s olut ion als o wor ks : le aks can be de t e ct e d by applying s oapy wat e r t o r e fr ige r ant coils
and hos e s ( bubble s will appe ar whe r e t he r e ar e le aks ) .
If you ar e ope r at ing e quipme nt cont aining ODS, be awar e t hat r e placing t he
r e fr ige r ant s will be come mor e difficult and e xpe ns ive as t he s e che micals ar e
phas e d out .
If you ar e alr e ady us ing low- or ze r o-ODP r e fr ige r ant s , make s ur e t hat e quipme nt
is r e gular ly maint aine d t o pr e ve nt los s e s . St r inge nt maint e nance pr act ice s will
e ns ur e t hat t op-up or r e char ging wit hin t he s e r vice life of t he e quipme nt will not
be ne ce s s ar y.
Recycling
Re fr ige r ant s r e move d fr om a s ys t e m may be r e t ur ne d t o t he s ame s ys t e m at t he e nd
of t he s e r vice ope r at ion. Whe r e t he e quipme nt is t o be r e place d, t he r e fr ige r ant
s hould be s t or e d for r e -us e in ot he r e quipme nt on t he s ame s it e or offe r e d t o a local
r e cycling ce nt r e for r e -us e e ls e whe r e . In t his way, maximum us e can be made of t he
che mical. It may be ne ce s s ar y t o r e claim t he r e fr ige r ant be for e it is us e d in anot he r
s ys t e m t o make s ur e t hat t he r e ar e not e xce s s ive quant it ie s of cont aminant s which
might impair t he ope r at ion of t he alt e r nat ive e quipme nt .
Make s ur e diffe r e nt r e fr ige r ant s ar e not mixe d dur ing s e r vice ope r at ions .
Retrofitting
If t he or iginal r e fr ige r ant is unavailable or t oo e xpe ns ive t o t op up, it may be pos s ible
t o r e place t he che mical wit h an alt e r nat ive wit hout comple t e ly r e placing t he
e quipme nt ( s e e Table 2 above ) .
Some r e t r ofit t ing t e chnique s may r e quir e r e place me nt of e quipme nt par t s and/or
change of lubr icat ing oil. As k your s upplie r about de ve loping a r e t r ofit and/or
r e place me nt pr ogr amme .
Replacement
If your e quipme nt has r e ache d t he e nd of it s s e r vice life or if s ubs t it ut e r e fr ige r ant s do
not wor k in your e xis t ing e quipme nt , you s hould cons ide r pur chas ing ne w e quipme nt wit h
alt e r nat ive r e fr ige r ant s . Che ck t he availabilit y and cos t s of ze r o- and low-ODP r e fr ige r ant s
like HCFCs . Plan ahe ad s o t hat you dont have t o r e place all e quipme nt at t he s ame t ime .
In t his way you can s pr e ad t he cos t ove r a longe r pe r iod, de pe nding on t he local
availabilit y of r e fr ige r ant s and t he ir phas e -out s che dule s .
16
!
Vapour abs orption
s ys te ms
Some refrigeration systems
do not rely on mechanical
compressors and CFCs for
the cooling cycle but on a
system that depends on
electric heating and a gas
such as ammonia. Such
vapour absorption systems
are quieter and are often
found in small units such
as mini-bars. They offer a
viable alternative to CFC-
based equipment when it
needs to be replaced.
However, they are often
less efficient than modern
HFC-compression cycle
equipment.
17
!
Alte rnative s ys te ms
Some industrial air-
conditioning systems have
been adapted to larger
hotels. An example is the
lithium bromide vapour
absorption system, normally
installed in hospitals and
other situations where there
is waste heat, often steam. It
is less suitable for smaller
operations, except where
larger new developments or
entire building complexes
are to be refitted.
Air conditioning in buildings
Two kinds of air-condit ioning s ys t e ms ar e us e d in buildings .
Air-coole d s ys te ms
include duct e d and non-duct e d s ys t e ms , s t and-alone r oom air condit ione r s and
comme r cial s ingle and mult i-zone package d air condit ione r s which ope r at e by cooling
and de humidifying air cir culat e d by a fan. Ne ar ly all t he s e s ys t e ms us e HCFC-22 as t he
r e fr ige r ant .
Wate r-coole d s ys te ms
cool wat e r or a wat e r /glycol/br ine mixt ur e which is t he n pumpe d t hr ough a he at
e xchange r in an air-handle r t o cool and de humidify t he air. CFC-11 and CFC-12 we r e
us e d in lar ge ce nt r ifugal chille r s unt il r e ce nt ly. Now HCFC-22 is us e d in lar ge chille r s
wit h ce nt r ifugal compr e s s or s as we ll as in s mall chille r s wit h pos it ive dis place me nt
compr e s s or s .
Options for action
Containment and Conservation
As wit h r e fr ige r at ion, t he be s t pr oce dur e is t o e xt e nd t he s e r vice life of e xis t ing
e quipme nt as long as pos s ible by cor r e ct maint e nance and r e gular che cking for le aks .
Follow t he advice for cons e r vat ion and r e cycling of r e fr ige r ant give n in t he pr e ce ding
s e ct ion.
Retrofitting
It may be pos s ible t o r e place t he or iginal CFC-11 or CFC-12 r e fr ige r ant , whe n t his is
unavailable , wit h one of t he s ubs t it ut e s ( HCFC-123 or HFC-134a) che ck wit h your
s upplie r.
In wat e r-chille d s ys t e ms , HCFC-123 is be ing us e d as a r e t r ofit s ubs t it ut e for CFC-11
and HFC-134a as a r e t r ofit for CFC-12.
Re t r ofit s for HCFC-22 in r oom air condit ione r s ( i.e . unit ar y s ys t e ms ) ar e unde r
de ve lopme nt and ar e be ing us e d in limit e d cas e s .
Replacement
Once t he s e r vice life of e quipme nt is ove r and/or t he CFC r e fr ige r ant is no longe r
available , you will have t o buy ne w e quipme nt . Ne w e quipme nt has be e n int r oduce d in
which HCFC-123 is us e d as a r e place me nt for CFC-11 and HFC-134a for CFC-12.
Ze r o-ODP ble nds s uch as R-404A ar e als o be ing int r oduce d in ne w e quipme nt . As wit h
r e fr ige r at ion e quipme nt , if you plan ahe ad wit h your s upplie r you can s pr e ad t he
e xpe ns e ove r t ime .
Air conditioning in
buildings : us e s in the
hote l and touris m indus try
General amenity areas,
conference and meeting
rooms, individual room units.
Air conditioning in vehicles
The mos t common ODS us e d in olde r ve hicle s ys t e ms is CFC-12.
Options for action
Containment and Conservation
The be s t opt ion for e xis t ing ve hicle s bas e d on CFC-12 is t o r e duce le akage and los s
dur ing maint e nance , and t o e ns ur e t hat t he air-condit ioning s ys t e m r e mains
ope r at ional t hr oughout t he s e r vice life of t he ve hicle . Ens ur e all piping nut s ar e
r e gular ly t ight e ne d t o pr e ve nt los s of r e fr ige r ant t hr ough e ngine vibr at ion.
Many gar age s ar e e quippe d t o r e cove r and r e -us e t he CFC r e fr ige r ant whe n s e r vicing
ve hicle s ys t e ms . The y can als o r e cove r r e fr ige r ant fr om s cr appe d ve hicle s , t hus
e xt e nding local availabilit y of t he r e fr ige r ant . Che ck wit h your ve hicle s upplie r and/or
s e r vice age nt be for e ve hicle s ar e s e r vice d.
Retrofitting
Eve n whe n HFC-134a is compat ible wit h t he or iginal e quipme nt , it is us ually t oo
e xpe ns ive t o be us e d for r e t r ofit t ing olde r s ys t e ms .
Replacement
Mos t ne w ve hicle s will be e quippe d wit h t he mos t appr opr iat e r e fr ige r ant /s ys t e m,
bas e d on int e r nat ional and local r e gulat ions , and t he local availabilit y of r e fr ige r ant s
and s e r vice facilit ie s . HFC-134a is be ing us e d as an alt e r nat ive in many ne w ve hicle s .
Make s ur e t hat t he air-condit ioning s ys t e m can be s e r vice d wit h it s or iginal r e fr ige r ant
and/or r e t r ofit t e d wit h ne we r alt e r nat ive s dur ing it s s e r vice life .
As par t of your ove r all e nvir onme nt al s t r at e gy, as k whe t he r your ve hicle s r e quir e air
condit ioning. Ve hicle s wit hout air condit ioning ar e che ape r t o buy and t o r un.
18
Ve hicle air conditioning:
us e s in the hote l and
touris m indus try
Mobile units in cars, buses
and other hotel transport.
19
Dry cle aning and
de gre as ing: us e s in the
hote l and touris m indus try
Dry cleaning of clothes and
fabrics.
!
Good practice tip
Eliminate smaller units, and
combine loads into larger
units. You could also
contract out dry cleaning
operations to specialist
cleaners that can benefit
from economies of scale and
can therefore invest in
newer and cleaner
technologies.
Dry cleaning and degreasing
The pr incipal ODS us e d in t he dr y cle aning of clot he s and fabr ics is CFC-113. Anot he r
ODS, me t hyl chlor ofor m, is us e d in ce r t ain adhe s ive s , ae r os ol pr oduct s , paint s and
pe s t icide s . Howe ve r, t he us e of t he s e mat e r ials in hot e ls is minimal.
Options for action
Containment and Conservation
Pr oble ms may ar is e wit h olde r e quipme nt pr one t o le akage and los s of che mical.
Ne we r dr y cle aning machine s have s ys t e ms for r e cove r y and r e us e of t he s olve nt .
Pr ovide d t he r e ar e no le aks , dr y cle aning s olve nt s ar e not a major t hr e at t o t he ozone
laye r, and you can cont inue t o us e t he m unt il t he e nd of t he ir s e r vice life nor mally
12 15 ye ar s . Howe ve r, pr oble ms will ar is e if t he s olve nt r e quir e s t opping up as a r e s ult
of le akage or los s dur ing s e r vice , and s upplie s ar e no longe r available . In or de r t o
avoid pr e mat ur e r e place me nt of e quipme nt , e ns ur e t hat t he machine is we ll
maint aine d and che cke d fr e que nt ly for le aks .
Retrofitting
Olde r dr y cle aning machine s oft e n us e only one s olve nt and it may not be e as y t o
conve r t t he m t o ope r at e wit h alt e r nat ive s .
Replacement
Alt e r nat ive che micals for r e placing CFC-113 in dr y cle aning include pe r chlor oe t hyle ne
and whit e s pir it ( St oddar d s olve nt ) . Howe ve r, t he us e of pe r chlor oe t hyle ne t o r e place
CFC-113 in dr y cle aning has give n r is e t o he alt h and s afe t y conce r ns .
Whe n r e placing or pur chas ing ne w e quipme nt , cons ide r s ome of t he ne we r
t e chnologie s including we t cle aning as an alt e r nat ive t o conve nt ional dr y cle aning.
Aerosols
Many ae r os ol cans us e CFCs s uch as CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-114 as t he pr ope llant t o
conve r t t he liquid ingr e die nt int o a fine s pr ay.
Options for action
Replacement
The main alt e r nat ive non-CFC pr ope llant s ar e bas e d on hydr ocar bons ( pr opane ,
but ane and pe nt ane ) , dime t hyl e t he r and compr e s s e d gas e s s uch as car bon dioxide .
Non-CFC pr ope llant s t e nd t o be cle ar ly labe lle d as s uch. If in doubt , as k your s upplie r.
Non-ae r os ol pr oduct s , s uch as pump-dis pe ns e r s , ar e als o available for s ome
applicat ions . Many ar e e qually e ffe ct ive , le s s e nvir onme nt ally damaging and che ape r.
Some ( s uch as r oom and bat hr oom cle aning pr oduct s ) may be r e fille d fr om bulk
cont aine r s t hus r e ducing packaging was t e and pr oducing addit ional s avings . Whe r e no
s uch alt e r nat ive e xis t s , s pe cify non-CFC ae r os ols for all pur chas e s .
Foams
A numbe r of CFCs , including CFC-11, CFC-113, CFC-12, and CFC-114, ar e us e d as
blowing age nt s in t he manufact ur e of plas t ic foam pr oduct s . In ope n ce ll foams , t he
CFCs ar e r e le as e d dur ing manufact ur e ; in clos e d ce ll foams , t he CFCs ar e r e le as e d
s lowly ove r a pe r iod of t ime . Ot he r t ype s , including ins ulat ing foam in r e fr ige r at or s
and fr e e ze r s , r e le as e CFCs only whe n t he e quipme nt is br oke n up at t he e nd of it s
s e r vice life .
Options for action
Replacement
Whe n pur chas ing ne w mat e r ials , s pe cify pr oduct s t hat have be e n pr oduce d wit hout
CFCs , or wit h lowe r ODP alt e r nat ive s . Ens ur e t hat pr oduct s ar e dis pos e d of cor r e ct ly
aft e r us e .
You can als o s wit ch t o alt e r nat ive s , par t icular ly whe r e local and/or nat ur al compone nt s
ar e available , for e xample in uphols t e r y and fur nis hings . Non-plas t ic pr oduct s for food
and ot he r pur chas e s may be che ape r and pr oduce le s s was t e .
20
Ae ros ols : us e s in the
hote l and touris m
indus try
Spray cans containing spot-
cleaning liquids, bathroom
and other surface cleaners,
small area paints, adhesives,
pest and other plant sprays.
Foams : us e s in the hote l
and touris m indus try
Food packaging, trays and
containers; pipe insulation;
seat and back cushions,
head rests, bedding and
other upholstery uses; carpet
underlay; car and bus
interiors; protective
packaging for goods.
Fire extinguishers
The mos t commonly us e d ODS us e d in fir e -fight ing applicat ions ar e t he halons s hown
in t he t able be low.
Hand-he ld halon-bas e d fir e e xt inguis he r s , nor mally cont aining halon-1211 or -2402,
have be e n s pe cifie d in ar e as hous ing e le ct r ical e quipme nt , in comput e r r ooms , and in
ve hicle s . Halon-1301 may be s pe cifie d for t ot al flooding s ys t e ms in e nclos e d r ooms
s t or ing s e ns it ive e quipme nt .
21
Fire -fighting e quipme nt:
us e s in the hote l and
touris m indus try
Hand-held fire extinguishers
in buildings and vehicles;
automatic systems in
buildings.
!
Many countrie s have
e s tablis he d halon banks
to re cove r halons from
de commis s ione d or
re dundant e quipme nt .
The y the n make the
re cove re d halon available
for e s s e ntial us e s s uch
as fire prote ction in
aircraft.
Table 3 Halons used in fire fighting
Name ODP*
hal on- 1211 3.0
hal on- 1301 10.0
hal on- 2402 6.0
* Ozone- depl eti ng Potenti al rel ative to CFC- 11
Options for action
Containment and Conservation
Halon-cont aining fir e e xt inguis he r s ar e no dange r t o t he ozone laye r while not in us e ,
pr oviding t he y do not le ak. Once dis char ge d, t he ir cont e nt s ar e r e le as e d int o t he
at mos phe r e and t he y ne e d t o be r e char ge d. Re char ging appliance s will be come
incr e as ingly difficult as phas e out pr oce e ds de s pit e local pr ogr amme s t o r e cove r and
r e cycle halons fr om non-e s s e nt ial e quipme nt .
Che ck r e gular ly for le akage s ( for hand-he ld de vice s t his is nor mally done by che cking
t he cont e nt s me t e r if one is fit t e d or by we ighing and r e fe r r ing t o t he or iginal s upplie d
we ight ) . Als o e ns ur e t hat appliance s ar e ne it he r dis char ge d accide nt ally, nor us e d
dur ing r out ine fir e pr act ice .
Replacement
Re place wit h non-halon alt e r nat ive e quipme nt at t he e nd of s e r vice life , or s oone r if
your s upplie r will t ake e quipme nt back for r e cycling.
Alt e r nat ive e xt inguis he r s , which us e dr y powde r , car bon dioxide and foam, ar e now
available . Spe cialis t applicat ions , s uch as aut omat ic fir e s uppr e s s ion in comput e r
r ooms , can als o be conve r t e d t o car bon dioxide or fine wat e r mis t , wit h
cor r e s ponding oxyge n r e duct ion alar ms . Cons ult a fir e pr ot e ct ion s pe cialis t for t he
mos t s uit able t ype in e ach fir e -fight ing s it uat ion. Ne ve r t ake t he r is k of having
inade quat e or incor r e ct e quipme nt .
Act ion on ODS is be s t t ake n as a par t of an ove r all e nvir onme nt al pr ogr amme . If you
have an e nvir onme nt al pr ogr amme alr e ady in place , you will r e cognize much of t he
following ge ne r al advice for achie ving s ucce s s . If you do not , t his may be an ide al
oppor t unit y t o be gin one . Addit ional infor mat ion on e nvir onme nt al manage me nt can be
found in anot he r publicat ion, Environmental Action Pack for Hotels( s e e Par t V:
Fur t he r infor mat ion) .
An out line of an ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme is give n be low. A de t aile d dis cus s ion on
e ach s t e p follows .
Preparation
make t he commit me nt
appoint a t e am
che ck t he r e gulat ions
ide nt ify ar e as whe r e ODS ar e us e d
r e gis t e r e quipme nt and pr oduct s
de t e r mine pr ior it y act ions
de t e r mine budge t
Action
r e fr ige r at ion
air condit ioning in buildings
air condit ioning in ve hicle s
dr y cle aning and de gr e as ing
ae r os ols
foams
fir e e xt inguis he r s
Support measures
infor m and t r ain s t aff
infor m clie nt s about your achie ve me nt s
r e por t t o s t ake holde r s
Suppliers
infor m t he m about your ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme
inquir e about s ubs t it ut e s
Review progress
ide nt ify and s olve pr oble ms
ke e p infor me d
PART III: HOWTO CARRY OUT AN ODS
MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME
22
23
Make a commitment
The s ucce s s of your pr ogr amme de pe nds on t he pe r s onal commit me nt of t op
manage me nt . ODS phas e out may alr e ady fe at ur e in your e nvir onme nt al policy
s t at e me nt . If it doe s nt , incor por at e it now as a s imple s t at e me nt s uch as :
We will s e e k t o minimize or e liminat e t he e ffe ct s of all our ope r at ions on t he
s t r at os phe r ic ozone laye r .
Appoint a team
Appoint s ome one t o be r e s pons ible for t he pr ogr amme . It could be t he owne r or
manage r in a s malle r e s t ablis hme nt . Lar ge r e s t ablis hme nt s may s e le ct a cor e t e am of
pe ople fr om ke y de par t me nt s t o coor dinat e t he pr ogr amme . The r e may alr e ady be a
t e am in place for your ove r all e nvir onme nt al manage me nt pr ogr amme .
The ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme will involve t he collabor at ion of s t aff fr om diffe r e nt
de par t me nt s , as s hown in t he following t able .
Check the regulations
You s hould be awar e of nat ional r e gulat ions on t he phas e out of ODS.
The Mont r e al Pr ot ocol cont r ols ODS at t he int e r nat ional le ve l and count r ie s t hat ar e
Par t y t o t he Pr ot ocol e s t ablis h nat ional r e gulat ions t hat confor m, or e xce e d, t he
Pr ot ocols r e quir e me nt s ( s e e Par t V: Fur t he r infor mat ion) . Many nat ional and local
aut hor it ie s have t he r e for e e s t ablis he d phas e -out policie s , and your act ion pr ogr amme
mus t confor m, as a ve r y minimum, t o t he s e local cont r ols .
Re fe r t o t he appr opr iat e gove r nme nt aut hor it y, your Nat ional Ozone Unit or your
Chambe r of Comme r ce . If you do not know t o whom t o s pe ak, cont act t he UNEP IE
OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme .
Preparation
refri gerati on ai r condi ti oni ng dry cl eani ng aerosol s foams fi re exti ngui shers
housekeepi ng
mai ntenance
purchasi ng
transpor t
food and beverage
front desk and offi ce
admi ni strati on
Sector Note Yes No Dont know
Refrigeration and air conditioning
Do you have refri gerators and freezers Each appl i ance shoul d have the refri gerant type pri nted on the
that use ODS as the refri gerant? speci fi cati on pl ate al ong wi th such i nformati on as the model
and seri al numbers, and power rati ng
Do you have ai r condi ti oners i n bui l di ngs Each appl i ance shoul d have the refri gerant type pri nted on the
that use ODS as the refri gerant? speci fi cati on pl ate al ong wi th such i nformati on as the model
and seri al numbers, and power rati ng
Do you have ai r condi ti oners i nstal l ed i n Detai l s can be found i n the vehi cl e regi strati on book
vehi cl es that use ODS as the refri gerant?
Dry cleaning and degreasing
Are any of the cl eani ng fl ui ds used for The chemi cal s shoul d be stated on the product l abel s
dr y cl eani ng or other degreasi ng operati ons
based on ODS?
Aerosols
Do you use spray cans that contai n CFCs? The contents of the spray can are usual l y pri nted on the can l abel .
Look for the type of propel l ant used. Non- ODS aerosol products often carr y a safe for the ozone l ayer
l abel
Foams
Do you purchase furni ture and beddi ng Ask your suppl i er for detai l s about whether the products
products that contai n pl asti c foam contai n CFCs
manufactured usi ng CFCs?
Fire extinguishers
Does any of your appl i ances contai n hal ons? If cyl i nders are yel l ow or green, or marked as BCF, BTM,
1211 or 1301, they probabl y contai n hal ons
Identify areas where ODS are used
De cide which ar e as of your ope r at ions t o include in t he pr ogr amme by comple t ing t he
following pr e liminar y che cklis t . This will be a good pr e par at ion for mor e de t aile d
analys is in t he ne xt phas e of t he pr ogr amme .
Preliminary checklist
If you ans we r ye s or dont know t o t he following que s t ions , you s hould inve s t igat e
fur t he r.
24
25
Register equipment and products
Aft e r t he pr e liminar y che cklis t , dr aw up a r e gis t e r of all e quipme nt and pr oduct s us e d
in t he ar e as ide nt ifie d for act ion. The r e gis t e r s hould include :
t he t ype s of che micals us e d
t he s upplie r
t he age of t he e quipme nt
t he s e r vice r e cor d.
If in doubt , r e fe r t o t he ins t r uct ion manual or cont act t he manufact ur e r or s upplie r.
This r e gis t e r will be ve r y us e ful in t he ne xt act ion phas e .
An e xample of an e quipme nt r e gis t e r is s hown be low.
Type of unit Cold store Packaged air conditioner Fire extinguisher
Supplier Name Refrigeration Heating & Air National Fire, Inc.
Solutions, Ltd. Conditioning, Ltd.
Location Main kitchen Conference room Front reception
Chemical type R-12 R-22 halon-1301
Approx. contents 4500 2000 7700
when full (g)
Date purchased 1985 1990 1987
Hours run 52 000 23 100 na
Normal service life 2015 2010 2005
due to end
Date last serviced 1/98 sealed unit - no servicing 5/97
Top-up at last service (g) 50 - Total recharge
Table 4 ODS equipment register
26
Define priority action areas
Having comple t e d t he pr e liminar y che cklis t and e quipme nt r e gis t e r, you will now be
able t o de t e r mine t he be s t ar e as for act ion. De fining whe r e t o be gin will var y fr om one
count r y and fr om one facilit y t o anot he r, and will de pe nd on:
t he numbe r of appliance s in ope r at ion
t he s e r vice life of t he s e appliance s
t he ODP of t he che mical pr oduct in us e
nat ional ODS phas e -out r e gulat ions
t he alt e r nat ive s available and r e lat e d cos t s .
Good hous e ke e ping me as ur e s s uch as r e gular s e r vicing and maint e nance s hould be
t he fir s t pr ior it y. Ne xt , look int o t he no-cos t , low-cos t opt ions s uch as pur chas ing
alt e r nat ive s for ODS-bas e d ae r os ol s pr ay cans , and foam packaging mat e r ials .
De cis ions on r e t r ofit t ing and r e placing mus t be t ake n bas e d on t he r e maining s e r vice
life of t he e quipme nt , t he opt ions and cos t s of r e t r ofit t ing wit h low-ODP, and t he cos t s
of ne w ze r o-ODP e quipme nt . The s e we r e dis cus s e d unde r What is an ODS
Manage me nt Pr ogr amme .Determine budget
Determine Budget
The budge t s hould cons is t of:
for e cas t of e xpe ndit ur e on low or ze r o-ODP alt e r nat ive s , ne w e quipme nt and
ins t allat ion cos t s
e s t imat e d s avings on ope r at ion cos t s and maint e nance for ne w and r e t r ofit t e d
e quipme nt
s t aff and manage me nt t ime .
Many of t he e xample s of good pr act ice include a r e fe r e nce t o t he e xpe ndit ur e and pay-
back pe r iods for t he ir ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme s .
27
Us e t he following flow char t s t o guide you t hr ough t he opt ions available .
Refrigeration
CHECK ACTION

YES

NO
Action
Re frige ration:
us e s in the hote l and
touris m indus try
Food and drinks cold storage,
display cabinets, freezers, ice
machines, vending machines
and mini-bars.
Doe s the unit
contain CFC-12?
Doe s the unit contain
HFC-134a, ble nds
s uch as R-404A,
R-407C, R-507,
propane , is obutane
or ammonia?
Discuss system
characteristics with
supplier to determine
if specification
requires action as
above. Alternatively,
contact your National
Ozone Unit or other
local sources of
information.
Doe s the unit
contain R-502 ?
Imme diate : Inspect for leaks and repair.
Establish routine servicing schedule to prevent
future losses and extend operating life of
equipment as long as possible.
Me dium te rm: Discuss with supplier possible
retrofitting with R-401A or B when original
refrigerant is no longer available for topping
up.
Long te rm: Replace failed units with new
equipment containing zero-ODP refrigerants
such as HFC-134a, hydrocarbons or ammonia.
Imme diate : Inspect for leaks and repair.
Establish routine servicing schedule to prevent
future losses and extend operating life of
equipment as long as possible.
Me dium te rm: Discuss with supplier possible
retrofitting with R-404A as replacement for R-
502 when original refrigerant is no longer
available for top-up.
Long te rm: Replace failed units with new
equipment containing zero-ODP refrigerants
such as HFC-134a, R-404A, R-404C, R-507,
hydrocarbons or ammonia.
Imme diate : Your equipment does not contain
ODS but inspect for leaks. Establish routine
servicing schedule to prevent future leaks.
Me dium te rm: No replacement needed.

YES

NO

YES

NO
28
Air conditioning in buildings
CHECK ACTION

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO
Air conditioning in
buildings : us e s in the
hote l and touris m
indus try
General amenity areas,
conference and meeting
rooms, individual room
units.
Doe s the
unit/s ys te m contain
CFC-11 or CFC-12
( s ome large wate r-
chille d s ys te ms ) ?
Non ODS
Doe s the unit/
s ys te m contain
HFC-134a or HFC
ble nds ?
Discuss system
characteristics with
supplier to determine
if specification
requires action as
above. Alternatively,
contact your National
Ozone Unit or other
local sources of
information.
Doe s the unit/s ys te m
contain HCFC-22
( mos t s malle r
comme rcial unitary
s ys te ms , s mall wate r
chille rs and ve ry
large chille rs with
ce ntrifugal
compre s s ors ) ?
Imme diate : Inspect for leaks and repair.
Establish routine servicing schedule to prevent
future losses and extend operating life of
equipment as long as possible.
Me dium te rm: Discuss with supplier possible
retrofitting with HCFC-123 or HFC-134a with
any necessary change of mechanical parts
leakage of original refrigerant occurs and
when original refrigerant is no longer available
for topping up.
Long te rm: Replace failed units with new
equipment containing zero-ODP refrigerants
such as HFC-134a.
Imme diate : Inspect for leaks and repair.
Establish routine servicing schedule to prevent
future losses and extend operating life of
equipment as long as possible.
Long te rm: Replace failed units with new
equipment containing zero-ODP refrigerants
such as HFC blends when HCFC-22 equipment
is no longer available and/or if HCFC-22 is
phased out during the expected service life of
the new equipment.
Imme diate : Your equipment does not contain
ODS but inspect for leaks. Establish routine
servicing schedule to prevent future leaks.
Me dium te rm: No replacement needed.
29
Air conditioning in vehicles
CHECK ACTION

YES

NO

YES

NO
Ve hicle air conditioning:
us e s in the hote l and
touris m indus try
Mobile units in cars, buses
and other hotel transport.
Doe s the s ys te m
contain CFC-12?
Doe s the s ys te m
contain HFC-134a ?
Imme diate : Ensure that the vehicle system is
serviced only by qualified personnel so that
leaks can be identified and losses prevented
during routine maintenance operations.
Me dium te rm: In the event of leakage of
original refrigerant, discuss with qualified
service agent possible retrofitting with an
appropriate blend, if remaining service life of
vehicle justified the expense.
Long te rm: Purchase only vehicles with
systems based on HFC-134a.
Imme diate : Your equipment does not contain
ODS but ensure that the vehicle system is
serviced only by qualified personnel so that
leaks can be identified and losses prevented
during routine maintenance operations.
Me dium te rm: No replacement needed.
Discuss system characteristics
with supplier to determine if
specification requires action
as above. Alternatively, contact
your National Ozone Unit or
other local sources of
information.
Dry cleaning and degreasing
CHECK ACTION

YES

NO
30
Dry cle aning and
de gre as ing us e s in the
hote l and touris m indus try
Dry cleaning of clothes and
fabrics.
Do your ope rations
us e CFC-113 or
me thyl chloroform?
Discuss system characteristics
with supplier to determine if
specification requires action
as above. Alternatively, contact
your National Ozone Unit or
other local sources of
information.
Imme diate : Eliminate leakages and follow
proper maintenance procedures to ensure that
solvent recovery and recycling systems are
operational. Consider alternatives such as
white spirit ( Stoddard solvent) .
Future : Consider contracting out dry cleaning
to specialist cleaners who employ the latest
techniques that do not use ODS. Where loads
justify installation of new equipment, purchase
only zero-ODP systems, including newer
technologies such as wet cleaning.
Aerosols
CHECK ACTION

YES

NO
Ae ros ol us e s in the hote l
and touris m indus try
Spray cans containing spot-
cleaning liquids, bathroom
and other surface cleaners,
small area paints, adhesives,
pest and other plant sprays.
Do the s pray cans
contain CFCs ? ( re fe r
to product labe l)
Imme diate : If possible cease using existing
stock and check with supplier if there is a
system in place locally for the return and safe
disposal of contents.
Future : Change purchasing specifications to
non-CFC alternatives or non-aerosol products
altogether. Discuss with supplier alternative
bulk purchasing of products which can make
use of refillable containers, including pump-
action dispensers.
No action required
31
Foams
CHECK ACTION

YES

NO
Foam us e in the hote l and
touris m indus try
Food packaging, trays and
containers; pipe insulation;
seat and back cushions,
head rests, bedding and
other upholstery uses; carpet
underlay; car and bus
interiors; protective
packaging for goods.
No action required
Do any of the
products in the s e
are as make us e of
CFCs in
manufacture ?
Imme diate : No action for existing stocks.
Ensure proper disposal of products ( such as
refrigerator cabinets) using closed-cell foam
insulation. Dont burn any foams during
disposal operations.
Future : Change purchasing specifications for
all new stock. Consider non-plastic
alternatives, including local natural products.
Fire extinguishers
CHECK ACTION

YES

NO
Fire -fighting e quipme nt
us e d in the hote l and
touris m indus try
Hand-held devices in
buildings and vehicles;
automatic systems in
buildings.
No action required
Do any of the
appliance s contain
halons ( 1211,1301
or 2402) ?
Imme diate : These do not pose a threat to the
ozone layer as long as they remain unused.
Check regularly for possible leakages.
Ensure they are not accidentally discharged
nor used during routine fire practices.
Future : When appliances have been
discharged or reach the limit of their service
life, discuss with your specialist supplier
possible alternative systems with equal fire-
extinguishing capability, including CO
2
, dry
powder and foam. Ensure that redundant
appliances are returned so that their contents
can be recycled through a local halon bank.
Check with NOU.
32
Informand train staff
Inform and train s taff
The s ucce s s of your ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme de pe nds of t he par t icipat ion of
your s t aff. Make s t aff awar e fr om t he be ginning of what you plan t o do, why you ne e d t o
do it , and how t he y can par t icipat e t o achie ve t he de s ir e d r e s ult s .
Mos t pe ople r e s pond pos it ive ly t o change s in t he wor k place r e lat ing t o e nvir onme nt al
is s ue s , e s pe cially if t he y unde r s t and t he impor t ance of t he ir own cont r ibut ion, and t hat
t he y ar e s uppor t ing int e r nat ional act ion on a global e nvir onme nt al is s ue .
Ar r ange t r aining for all s t aff involve d in ne w ope r at ing me t hods , us ing ne w e quipme nt
and che micals . Supplie r s of ne w e quipme nt can us ually pr ovide on-s it e or r e mot e
dis t ance t r aining pr ogr amme s .
Give all s t aff r e gular pr ogr e s s r e por t s t o maint ain t he ir int e r e s t and s uppor t t hr ough:
infor mat ion bulle t ins on not ice boar ds
s t aff me e t ings
ar t icle s in t he s t aff ne ws le t t e r.
This will e ncour age s t aff t o par t icipat e act ive ly in t he pr ogr amme and will als o boos t
s t aff mor ale s t aff will s e e how t he ir act ions cont r ibut e t o e nvir onme nt al
impr ove me nt . Your e mploye e s ar e oft e n your be s t ambas s ador s in cons t ant cont act
wit h your clie nt s and t he out s ide wor ld. The y will s pr e ad t he good ne ws ( and t he bad!)
Make s ur e you ke e p t he m infor me d.
Informclients about your achievements
Once your e nvir onme nt and ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme is unde r way, it is impor t ant
t o t e ll your clie nt your e ffor t s and t he r e s ult s achie ve d. Many of your clie nt s will
appr e ciat e your pr oact ive appr oach, and r e war d you for your e ffor t s . The hot e l and
t our is m indus t r y has be e n s ur pr is e d by t he pos it ive fe e dback r e ce ive d by it s clie nt s on
t he ir e nvir onme nt al act ivit ie s .
Lar ge r t our ope r at or s may have be gun e nvir onme nt al manage me nt pr ogr amme s
t he ms e lve s , and will r e s pond pos it ive ly t o your e ffor t s . Some t our ope r at or s ar e in t he
pr oce s s of ide nt ifying gr e e n facilit ie s , and giving t he m s pe cial cove r age in t he ir
de s t inat ion br ochur e s .
Infor mat ion of your ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme can be communicat e d t hr ough
gue s t infor mat ion br ochur e s , vide os , in-hous e t e le vis ion, s pe cial not ice s on ozone
laye r fr ie ndly appliance s ( s uch as air condit ione r s and mini-bar s ) in gue s t r ooms .
Support measures
!
Good practice tip
Some hotels organize
competitions, and reward
the staff members with the
best green ideas for
environmental improvement.
Many tourism companies
have included their
environmental programme
on staff induction agendas,
and give bonus points for
active participation in
environmental activities
during performance
evaluation.
!
Good practice tip
Some hotels provide their
visitors with an
environmental newsletter
which covers their
environmental programme,
local environmental news
and issues, and sometimes,
a did you know column or
quiz.
Report to stakeholders
De pe nding on t he s ize of your bus ine s s , you may have a wide audie nce of int e r e s t e d
par t ie s , or s t ake holde r s , t hat include s your bank and ins ur e r s , local aut hor it ie s , t he
local communit y and local e nvir onme nt al gr oups . The y e ach have an int e r e s t in your
e nvir onme nt al pe r for mance and may be mor e pos it ive t owar ds your ope r at ions if t he y
know about your achie ve me nt s .
For e xample , you may find it e as ie r t o s e cur e bank loans and pr e fe r e nt ial r at e s of
ins ur ance . Local aut hor it ie s may look mor e favour ably on bus ine s s e xpans ion plans if
your e s t ablis hme nt is e nvir onme nt ally r e s pons ible . Local communit ie s and
e nvir onme nt al gr oups may als o vie w your ope r at ion mor e pos it ive ly.
33
!
Dos and donts in communication
Do refer to your environmental actions in promotional literature and
other such materials.
Do include environmental information in guest room and front desk
information. Unlike energy efficiency or water conservation, your
clients cannot participate in the ODS management programme, but
they will certainly be impressed with the steps you have taken to save
the ozone layer.
Do participate in local seminars and meetings, and invite local schools
and colleges to become involved by using your management
programme as a case study.
Do keep your communication simple.
Dont be tempted to go public about what you intend to do, but rather,
on what you have already done. Remember actions speak louder than
words.
Dont indulge in green washing making claims about your
programmes which cannot be substantiated or which are merely based
on superficial actions.
34
Suppliers
As r e it e r at e d t hr oughout t his guide , ODS manage me nt r e quir e s act ive dialogue and
collabor at ion wit h your s upplie r s . Infor m t he m of your ODS manage me nt policy, and
as k t he m for advice on alt e r nat ive s . For e xample , as k t he m t o pr ovide s ample s of
ae r os ol pr oduct s and it e ms cont aining foams for t e s t ing.
Als o, inquir e about r e place me nt s t o HCFCs if you ar e alr e ady us ing t he m or if you ar e
cons ide r ing HCFCs as a pos s ible s ubs t it ut e for CFCs .
Review progress
Ke e p your ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme unde r cont inuous r e vie w. This will he lp
ide nt ify ar e as whe r e cor r e ct ive me as ur e s ar e ne e de d, and make ce r t ain t hat t he
obje ct ive s ar e be ing r e alize d. Maint ain r e cor ds on imme diat e cont ainme nt and
r e t r ofit t ing; t he y will be us e ful whe n pur chas ing ne w e quipme nt and whe n
e xpanding ope r at ions .
Ke e p infor me d of on-going change s in t he phas e out of t he ODS us e d in your
e s t ablis hme nt . Re me mbe r t hat r e gulat ions will be r e vie we d as mor e alt e r nat ive s
be come available . Cont act your Nat ional Ozone Unit t o r e ce ive r e gular advice and
updat e s on your count r ys nat ional s t r at e gy.
?
Did you know that you
can e ncourage s upplie rs
to make e nvironme ntally-
frie ndly alte rnative s
more acce s s ible on the
marke t? Se ve ral touris m
facilitie s have found that
the ir e nvironme ntal
purchas ing policie s have
prompte d s upplie rs to
de ve lop a range of
compe titive ,
e nvironme ntally-frie ndly
products and s e rvice s .
The s e are now be ing
bought not only by the
hote l and touris m
indus try but als o by
s e ve ral othe r comme rcial
and re s ide ntial
e s tablis hme nts .
35
Mos t of t he following e xample s of s ucce s s ful ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme s we r e
s e le ct e d fr om applicat ions t o t he Int e r nat ional Hot e ls & Re s t aur ant s As s ociat ions
( IH&RA) annual Gr e e n Hot e lie r Envir onme nt al Awar d. Some we r e als o t ake n fr om
cas e s t udie s pr ovide d by DuPont and Elf At oche m.
UNEP IE we lcome s s ubmis s ions of fur t he r e xample s , e s pe cially fr om s malle r
e s t ablis hme nt s and t hos e in de ve loping count r ie s , t o be include d in fut ur e e dit ions of
t his publicat ion.
Refrigeration
Hote l Inte rcontine ntal, Nairobi, Ke nya
In t he e ar ly 1990s , e ve n be for e t he int r oduct ion of nat ional ODS r e gulat ions , t he hot e l
init iat e d an ODS manage me nt pr ogr amme . This was pr incipally le d by t he ne e d t o
upgr ade t he cold s t or age e quipme nt which was fr e que nt ly br e aking down.
ODS manage me nt be gan by r e placing half of t he e xis t ing CFC-12 bas e d s ys t e ms wit h
HCFC-22, and r e placing t he r e maining 50 pe r ce nt ove r t he ne xt five ye ar s .
The de cis ion t o s wit ch t o HCFC-22 was t ake n for t wo r e as ons :
it was e xpe ct e d t hat HCFC-22 would be available unt il 2025, be yond t he s e r vice
life of t he ne w e quipme nt
HCFC-22 was r e adily available in Ke nya and che ape r t han HFC-134a.
At t he s ame t ime , t e chnical impr ove me nt s we r e made bot h t o e xis t ing and ne w
e quipme nt t o pr e ve nt vibr at ion and t he r e by le s s e n t he r is k of pipe fr act ur e and
r e s ult ing r e fr ige r ant le akage s .
The hot e l calculat e d t hat t he pay-back pe r iod for t he fir s t phas e would be jus t unde r
four ye ar s , t aking int o cons ide r at ion t he pr e vious cos t of food s poilage , r e fr ige r ant
r e place me nt and r e pair cos t s . By t he t ime t he s e cond phas e r e place me nt s we r e
comple t e d, incr e as e s in e quipme nt cos t s had r ais e d t he pay-back pe r iod t o five ye ar s .
The CFC-12 bas e d mini-bar s we r e r e place d wit h ne w ammonia abs orption units .
The s e cons ume 60 pe r ce nt le s s powe r and pos e no t hr e at t o t he ozone laye r.
Int e r cont ine nt al Hot e ls has be gun a company-wide e nvir onme nt al manage me nt
pr ogr amme . The Nair obi hot e l has imple me nt e d a compr e he ns ive e nvir onme nt al
pr ogr amme , wit h s pe cial e mphas is on e ne r gy e fficie ncy. Inve s t me nt in t he ODS
manage me nt pr ogr amme be ne fit e d fr om financial s avings made t hr ough t he ove r all
e nvir onme nt al pr ogr amme .
The Re gional Engine e r as s is t s ot he r s malle r e s t ablis hme nt s in t he r e gion by
s har ing his e xpe r ie nce s and publis hing pr act ical guide s on e nvir onme nt al
manage me nt in hot e ls .
PART IV: EXAMPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
36
The Fairmont Hote l, San Jos e , California, Unite d State s
The hot e l has r e t r ofit t e d a lar ge me dium-t e mpe r at ur e CFC-12 chille r wit h R-409A
( Forane 409A) which s e r vice s bot h walk-in coole r s and unde r-t he -count e r coole r s .
R-409a is compat ible wit h mine r al and alkylbe nze ne oils , and no oil change was
r e quir e d. In t his way t he hot e l has e xt e nde d t he life of t he or iginal e quipme nt , s aving
on t he cos t of r e place me nt . Fur t he r cos t s s avings we r e achie ve d be caus e R-409a was
che ape r t han CFC-12.
We lcomgroup Maurya, She raton Hote l & Towe rs , Ne w De lhi, India
All gue s t r oom CFC-12 mini-bar s have be e n r e place d by ne w unit s bas e d on vapour
abs orption. The r e s ult ant s avings in e le ct r icit y amount e d t o 50 000 kilowat t -hour s a
ye ar, e quivale nt t o US$7000, wit h a pay-back pe r iod of s ix ye ar s .
The Re ge nt Hote l, Sydne y, Aus tralia
As par t of it s ove r all e ne r gy-s aving pr ogr amme , t he hot e l pur chas e d ne w r e fr ige r at or s .
As compr e s s or s be came fault y on e xis t ing e quipme nt , t he hot e l conve r t e d all me dium-
t e mpe r at ur e s ys t e ms bas e d on CFC-12 t o R-401A ( SUVA MP39) and all low-
t e mpe r at ur e s ys t e ms bas e d on R-502 t o R-404A ( SUVA HP80) .
The r e t r ofit t ing r e quir e d a change of compr e s s or s and lubr icat ing oil but cons ide r ably
incr e as e d t he e fficie ncy of t he e quipme nt . The conve r s ion of t he e quipme nt caus e d no
dis r upt ion t o t he hot e ls ope r at ions .
The Granary Re s taurant ( Forte plc, now Granada) ,
Gatwick Airport, London
The cold s t or e is e quippe d wit h a duple x r e fr ige r at ion s ys t e m compr is ing t wo
Pr e s t cold MALQ 20X B1-75 conde ns ing unit s . A s ingle t he r mos t at maint ains a cold
r oom t e mpe r at ur e of -22 C.
The r e fr ige r at ion plant , or iginally commis s ione d wit h R-502, was fir s t r e t r ofit t e d t o
R-404A and EMKARATE 32S polyole s te r. It was lat e r conve r t e d t o R-407A
( KLEA 407A) as a mor e viable long-t e r m opt ion.
The only change t o t he s ys t e m was r out ine r e place me nt of t he dr ye r. The or iginal
compr e s s or oil was r e us e d.
Hote l DuPont, Wilmington, De laware , Unite d State s
The hot e l r e t r ofit t e d all 45 r e fr ige r at ion unit s in it s main kit che ns as par t of a company-wide
CFC phas e -out pr ogr amme . The pr oje ct involve d r e moving CFC-12 and R-502 r e fr ige r ant s ,
and r e char ging wit h HCFC/HFC ble nds including R-401A, R-401B, R-402A and R-402B.
Dur ing t he r e t r ofit , no s ys t e m flus hing was ne e de d as t he r e place me nt r e fr ige r ant s
ar e compat ible wit h t he alkylbe nze ne mine r al oils us e d for all t he compr e s s or s . Of t he
45 unit s r e t r ofit t e d, only 3 r e quir e d adjus t me nt s t o t he t he r mos t at ic e xpans ion valve s .
The hot e l e s t imat e s t hat t he r e t r ofit has r e duce d e le ct r icit y cons umpt ion by t he
compr e s s or s by 35 pe r ce nt , wit h a pay-back pe r iod of le s s t han four ye ar s . The high
le ve l of e ne r gy e fficie ncy can be at t r ibut e d t o t he hot e ls int e ns ive maint e nance
37
pr ogr amme which include s cle aning and ins pe ct ing e ach compr e s s or and it s
as s ociat e d wat e r-cooling e quipme nt at le as t once a mont h. Ne ve r t he le s s , r e t r ofit s of
t his t ype can r e duce e le ct r icit y cons umpt ion by 15 20 pe r ce nt as a r e s ult s imply of
mor e e fficie nt compr e s s or ope r at ion.
Emil Villas Hickry Pit Re s taurants , California, Unite d State s
This is a popular chain of 12 r e s t aur ant s in t he San Fr ancis co Bay ar e a. It has
conve r t e d all e quipme nt bas e d on CFC-12 ( walk-in coole r s , fr e e ze r s , dis play cabine t s
and count e r s , ice make r s and dr ink coole r s ) , ave r aging 9-12 unit s pe r r e s t aur ant , t o
R-401A ( SUVA MP39) for me dium-t e mpe r at ur e e quipme nt , and t o R-401B
( ( SUVA MP66) for low-t e mpe r at ur e e quipme nt .
Ot he r low-t e mpe r at ur e s ys t e ms bas e d on R-502 have be e n conve r t e d t o R-402A
( SUVA HP80) .
The r e t r ofit s we r e e as y t o pe r for m. It was ne ce s s ar y only t o change t he oil in t he
compr e s s or s fr om mine r al oil t o an alkylbe nze ne lubr icant . The CFCs r e move d we r e
r e t ur ne d t o t he manufact ur e r for r e cycling.
The ne w e quipme nt ope r at e s mor e e fficie nt ly and has r e s ult e d in e ne r gy s avings .
The unit s r e ach t he ir t ar ge t t e mpe r at ur e s mor e quickly, e ve n on ve r y hot days .
We lcomgroup Park She raton Hote l and Towe rs , Madras , India
The hot e l or iginally ope r at e d e ight cold s t or age and fr e e ze r unit s s e r ve d by t wo
r e cipr ocat ing chille r plant s bas e d on HCFC-22. Aft e r 15 ye ar s of ope r at ion t he r e we r e
fr e que nt r e fr ige r ant le akage s and me chanical br e akdowns . Obt aining par t s for t he s e
mode ls had als o be come difficult . As capacit y was inade quat e and e ne r gy cons umpt ion
was e xce s s ive , t he hot e l de cide d t o r e place all t he e quipme nt .
The or iginal 8 unit s we r e r e place d wit h 11, all bas e d on R-404A. The t ot al cos t of t he
r e place me nt e quipme nt was US$200 000. As a r e s ult of gr e at e r e ne r gy e fficie ncy and
r e duce d food s poilage , t he hot e l e xpe ct s t o s ave almos t US$40 000 pe r ye ar in
ope r at ing cos t s , giving a pay-back pe r iod of five ye ar s .
The CFC-12 mini-bar s have be e n r e place d wit h vapour abs orption mode ls giving a
34 pe r ce nt s aving in e ne r gy cons umpt ion.
Mane le Bay Hote l, Lanai, Hawaii, Unite d State s
Thr e e walk-in cold s t or e s we r e conve r t e d fr om CFC-12 t o R-401A ( SUVA MP39)
wit hout major t e chnical modificat ions . Lubr icat ing oil was change d fr om mine r al oil
t o alkylbe nze ne . A s wit ch fr om R-401A t o R-406A for fut ur e CFC-12 conve r s ions will
e liminat e t he ne e d t o change fr om t he s t andar d lubr icat ing oil.
A numbe r of s malle r r e fr ige r at ion unit s we r e s imilar ly conve r t e d fr om CFC-12 t o
R-401B ( SUVA MP66) and fr om R-502 t o R402A ( SUVA HP80) .
Thr e e Manit owoc 1200 ice machine s we r e change d fr om R-502 t o R-402B ( SUVA
HP81) r e s ult ing in a 10 pe r ce nt incr e as e in ice pr oduct ion and r e duce d e ne r gy cos t s .
38
Hote l Nikko, Hong Kong, China
The hote l curre ntly us e s a range of re frige ration and air-conditioning units , containing R-11,
R-12, R-22 and R-502. The re maining s e rvice life of the s e units is approximate ly e ight ye ars .
The hote l the re fore de cide d to continue ope rating the e xis ting e quipme nt with gre ate r
e mphas is on a containme nt policy. This include s s ys te matic mainte nance to pre ve nt
le akage s , and optimization of ope rating e fficie ncy. This policy will e nable the e quipme nt to be
ope rate d during its re maining s e rvice life with the re frige rants that we re originally s pe cifie d.
Towar ds t he e nd of t his pe r iod, t he e quipme nt will be r e place d in phas e s . The hot e l
plans t o re cove r the re frige rant fr om t he r e place d unit s and t o us e it t o ke e p t he
r e maining unit s ope r at ional.
This s t r at e gy is pos s ible be caus e cur r e nt le gis lat ion cont r ols only t he pr oduct ion of
CFCs , not t he ir us e . The s t r at e gy is r e gular ly r e vie we d, t aking int o cons ide r at ion age of
e quipme nt , ope r at ional pr oble ms and change s t o ODS phas e -out r e gulat ion.
The hot e l has a compr e he ns ive e nvir onme nt al manage me nt pr ogr amme for which it was
awar de d t he IH&RA Cor por at e Gr e e n Hot e lie r of t he Ye ar Awar d, 1995. The pr ogr amme
include s wat e r and e ne r gy e fficie ncy init iat ive s which pr oduce d s avings of 30 pe r ce nt in
wat e r cons umpt ion, 6 pe r ce nt in e le ct r icit y and 9 pe r ce nt in fue l oil. In as s ociat ion wit h
t he Hong Kong Polyt e chnic Unive r s it y, t he Ge ne r al Manage r publis he d a guide calle d
Energy and Water Conservation in Hotels. It cont ains me t hodologie s for e nvir onme nt al
audit s , bas e d on e xpe r ie nce s of audit ing hot e ls in Hong Kong.
The s t aff ar e t r aine d t o apply good hous e ke e ping me as ur e s dur ing t he ir daily t as ks .
Spe cial t r aining is als o give n t o e ngine e r ing and maint e nance s t aff who ar e involve d in
impr oving t he ope r at ing e fficie ncy of all e quipme nt .
The Impe rial Que e ns Park Hote l, Bangkok, Thailand
Four HVAC air-condit ioning unit s us ing CFC-11 have be e n conve r t e d t o HCFC-123.
Sanga Saby Confe re nce and Study Ce ntre , Svarts jo, Swe de n
The ce nt r e s he at pump s ys t e m has be e n r e novat e d, changing fr om CFCs t o mor e
e fficie nt pumps bas e d on propane .
39
Air conditioning
Hote l Inte rcontine ntal, Nairobi, Ke nya
Whe n t he hot e l was e xpande d fr om 220 t o 440 r ooms in 1976, no pr ovis ion was made
for a cor r e s ponding incr e as e in air-condit ioning capacit y. This le d t o nume r ous
complaint s . In 1992, t he 20-ye ar old CFC-12 s ys t e ms we r e r e place d wit h e quipme nt
us ing HCFC-22. All t he ne w chille r s we r e fit t e d wit h comput e r cont r ols t o pr ovide
opt imum e ne r gy e fficie ncy, a ke y fe at ur e t hr oughout t he hot e l. The r e place me nt has
incr e as e d cooling e fficie ncy and gue s t s at is fact ion.
The hot e l is in t he pr oce s s of ins t alling an infra-re d le ak de te ction s ys te m in t he
air-condit ioning and r e fr ige r at ion machine r ooms at a cos t of US$7500.
ODS manage me nt is als o a par t of r out ine s t aff t r aining
ANA Hote l, Singapore
As a par t of it s Gr e e n & Cool pr ogr amme , t he hot e l inve s t e d S$1.8 million ( about
US$1.15 million) in ne w cooling t owe r s and ce nt r alize d air-condit ioning chille r s , bas e d
on HFC-134a. The s e s ys t e ms ar e 20-25 pe r ce nt mor e e fficie nt t han t he olde r one s ,
and t he hot e l e xpe ct s t o s ave S$30 000 ( about US$19 000) a ye ar in r e duce d e ne r gy
bills .
The Gr e e n & Cool pr ogr amme include s e ne r gy-s aving r e s t r ooms , gr e e n s uit e s
cont aining air and wat e r filt r at ion s ys t e ms , biode gr adable bat hr oom ame nit ie s ,
r e cycling of was t e pr oduct s and r e us e of laundr y r ins e wat e r. The hot e l was t he
winne r of t he Gr e e ning of Bus ine s s Tour is m Awar ds at 10t h EIBTM Exhibit ion in 1997.
We lcomgroup Maurya, She raton Hote l & Towe rs , Ne w De lhi, India
A lithium bromide vapour abs orption s ys te m has be e n ins t alle d as a
r e place me nt for t he or iginal r e cipr ocat ing compr e s s or s ys t e m bas e d on CFC-12.
This has r e s ult e d in s avings in e le ct r icit y cons umpt ion of 1.6 million kilowat t -hour s a ye ar,
e quivale nt t o mor e t han US$200 000. At t his r at e , pay back is e xpe ct e d in le s s t han 1.5 ye ar s .
She raton Fiji Re s ort, Fiji
As par t of a company-wide pr ogr amme , t he hot e l has e liminat e d CFC r e fr ige r ant s fr om
it s t wo air-condit ioning chille r s . This involve d a r e t r ofit fr om CFC-12 t o R-134a wit h a
cor r e s ponding change of lubr icat ing oil and r e cove r y of t he or iginal r e fr ige r ant for
r e t ur n t o t he manufact ur e r for r e cycling. The r e t r ofit t ook t hr e e we e ks pe r chille r at
an ove r all cos t of US$70 000 e ach. This compar e s wit h a pur chas e pr ice for ne w
e quipme nt of US$200 000 pe r chille r.
40
The Re ge nt Hote l, Sydne y, Aus tralia
The hot e l r e t r ofit t e d it s 14-ye ar-old CFC-bas e d HVAC air condit ioning s ys t e m t o
HCFC-123. The r e fur bis he d chille r s ar e now manage d t hr ough an Int e gr at e d Sys t e ms
Ne t wor k which has he lpe d maximize e fficie ncy, cont r ol and accur acy, e nabling s t aff t o
r e act fas t e r t o t e mpe r at ur e change s , and made pos s ible r e mot e monit or ing of t he
plant s ope r at ion. The r e t r ofit has le d t o a s ignificant r e duct ion in e ne r gy cos t s , and
t he hot e l e s t imat e s t he pay-back pe r iod will be e ight ye ar s .
To r e duce CFC, HCFC and HFC e mis s ions , t he hot e l has ins t alle d a s e ns ing and alar m
s ys t e m t o de t e ct r e fr ige r ant los s e s . The s ys t e m us e s a Spe ct r oline HVAC
Fluore s ce nt Le ak De te ctor t hat can locat e t he s our ce of e ve r y air-condit ioning
and r e fr ige r at ion le ak, making s e r vicing fas t e r, cle ane r and e as ie r. The s ys t e m is
e ffe ct ive wit h all commonly us e d r e fr ige r ant s , including R-134a.
Aerosols
We lcomgroup Park She raton Hote l and Towe rs , Madras , India
The hot e l has comple t e ly phas e d-out ae r os ols us ing CFC pr ope llant s . Room
fr e s he ne r s have be e n change d fr om pr e s s ur ize d unit s t o pump action dis pe ns e rs .
She raton Abu Dhabi Re s ort & Towe rs , Abu Dhabi, Unite d Arab Emirate s
Plas tic bottle s have r e place d ae r os ols whe r e ve r pos s ible . For e xample , t he hot e l
now us e s Dive r s e y R5A air fr e s he ne r s .
41
Fire extinguishers
We lcomgroup Park She raton Hote l and Towe rs , Madras , India
All halon-bas e d fir e e xt inguis he r s in office s have be e n r e place d wit h e xt inguis he r s
us ing CO
2
or dry powde r.
We lcomgroup Maurya, She raton Hote l & Towe rs , Ne w De lhi, India
Por t able hand-he ld e xt inguis he r s bas e d on halon-1211 have be e n r e place d by
e xt inguis he r s us ing dry powde r.
Mane le Bay Hote l, Lanai, Hawaii, Unite d State s
The comput e r r oom at ce nt r al s e r vice s has be e n conve r t e d fr om t he e xis t ing halon
s ys t e m t o an Ine rge n s ys te m us ing nit r oge n, ar gon and CO
2
. This gas mixt ur e is
che ape r t han halon.
The Impe rial Que e ns Park Hote l, Bangkok, Unite d State s
Fir e e xt inguis he r s in hot e l gue s t r ooms have be e n s wit che d fr om halon-1211 t o dry
powde r.
She raton Abu Dhabi Re s ort & Towe rs , Abu Dhabi, Unite d Arab Emirate s
Halon fir e e xt inguis he r s have be e n phas e d out in favour of CO
2
appliance s .
42
ANA Hot e l
Amy Ang, Public Re lat ions Manage r, 16 Nas s im Hill, Singapor e , 258467
fax: + 65 735 3538
Gr anada Cat e r ing Se r vice s
Tim Gar dine r, He at hr ow Air por t , Houns low TW6 1PG, Unit e d Kingdom
fax: + 44 181 564 7376
Hot e l Int e r cont ine nt al
Var una Fe r nando, Re gional Chie f Engine e r, PO Box 30353, Nair obi, Ke nya
fax: + 254 2 210675
Hot e l Nikko Hong Kong
Je an-Mar ie Le cle r cq, Ge ne r al Manage r, 72 Mody Road, Ts ims hat s ui Eas t , Kowloon,
Hong Kong, China
fax: + 852 2311 1710
Par k She r at on Hot e l & Towe r s
Mr s A. Ge or ge , Exe cut ive Hous e ke e pe r, TTK Road, Madr as , 600018, India
fax: + 91 44 499 7201
Sanga Saby Kur s and Konfe r e ns
Jimmy Sjoblom, Mar ke t ing and e nvir onme nt , S-179 96 Svar t s jo, Swe de n
fax: + 46 8 560 427 44
She r at on Abu Dhabi Re s or t & Towe r s
Fr ance s co Bor r e llo, Ge ne r al Manage r, PO Box 640, Abu Dhabi, Unit e d Ar ab Emir at e s
fax: + 971 2 773333
She r at on Fiji Re s or t
Nat war Pat e l, Chie f Engine e r, PO Box 9761, Nadi Air por t , Fiji
fax: + 679 750 066
The Impe r ial Que e ns Par k Hot e l
Char int r Sir iboot r, Chie f Engine e r, 199 Sukhumvit Soi 22, Bangkok 70170, Thailand
fax: + 662 261 9530
The Lanai Company Inc.
Gigi M. Valle y, Public Re lat ions Manage r, PO Box 310, 1233 Fr as e r Ave nue , Lanai Cit y,
Hawaii 96763, Unit e d St at e s
fax: + 1 808 565 3881
The Re ge nt Sydne y
Philip McEndr ick, Dir e ct or of Engine e r ing, 199 Ge or ge St r e e t , Sydne y, NSW 2000, Aus t r alia
fax: + 61 2 9251 3682
We lcomgr oup Maur ya She r at on Hot e l & Towe r s
Mr Nakul Anand, Ge ne r al Manage r, Diplomat ic Enclave , Ne w De lhi, 110021, India
fax: + 91 11 302 3020
Hotel contacts
43
Glossary
Article 5 countrie s Par t ie s t o t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol t hat ar e cons ide r e d de ve loping
count r ie s . Ar t icle 5 count r ie s ar e e ligible t o r e ce ive t e chnical
and financial as s is t ance fr om t he Mult ilat e r al Fund t o phas e out
cons umpt ion of ODSs .
Carbon te trachloride CCl
4
, us e d as a cle ane r and in t he pr oduct ion of CFCs , a
s ubs t ance cont r olle d unde r t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol.
Chlorofluorocarbons A family of che micals t hat cont ains chlor ine , fluor ine and
car bon, and which ar e us e d as r e fr ige r ant s , ae r os ol pr ope llant s ,
cle aning s olve nt s and in t he manufact ur e of foam. One of t he
main caus e s of ozone de ple t ion.
Dime thyl e the r A flammable pr ope llant wide ly us e d in air r e fr e s he r s pr ays , hair
s pr ays and ins e ct icide s .
Environme ntal policy A s t at e me nt by a company of it s pr inciple s and int e nt ions in
r e lat ion t o it s ove r all e nvir onme nt al pe r for mance . It e s t ablis he s
a fr ame wor k for act ion and for s e t t ing e nvir onme nt al obje ct ive s
and t ar ge t s .
Environme ntal Manage me nt The act ions s t e ps , r e s our ce s , s che dule s and r e s pons ibilit ie s
Programme r e quir e d t o achie ve e nvir onme nt al obje ct ive s .
Gre e nhous e gas A gas t hat t r aps he at in t he Ear t hs at mos phe r e , cont r ibut ing t o
t he gr e e nhous e e ffe ct . CFCs and HCFCs ar e gr e e nhous e gas e s .
Global warming The t he or y t hat gr e e nhous e gas e s e mit t e d by human act ivit ie s
will war m t he Ear t hs at mos phe r e , le ading t o climat e change .
CFCs and HCFCs cont r ibut e t o t he gr e e nhous e e ffe ct .
Global Warming Pote ntial The pot e nt ial impact on global war ming of a che mical wit h
r e fe r e nce t o car bon dioxide , t he GWP of which is de fine d as 1.0.
Halons Br ominat e d che micals r e lat e d t o CFCs t hat ar e us e d in fir e
fight ing, and have ve r y high ODPs .
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC. Afamily of che micals r e lat e d t o CFCs , which cont ain
hydr oge n as we ll as chlor ine , fluor ine and car bon. The hydr oge n
r e duce s t he ir at mos phe r ic life t ime , making HCFCs le s s damaging
t han CFCs in t he longe r t e r m.
Hydrofluorocarbons A family of che micals r e lat e d t o CFCs , which cont ain hydr oge n,
fluor ine and car bon but no chlor ine and which t he r e for e do not
de ple t e t he ozone laye r.
Hydrocarbons Commonly us e d as a s ubs t it ut e for CFCs in ae r os ol pr ope llant s .
Hydr ocar bons ar e als o volat ile or ganic compounds , and t he ir
us e may be r e s t r ict e d or pr ohibit e d in s ome ar e as .
Low-volume ODS Ar t icle 5 count r ie s t hat cons ume le s s t han 360 we ight e d t onne s
cons uming countrie s a ye ar of ODS.
Me thyl bromide A che mical compos e d of car bon, hydr oge n and br omine , which is
us e d mainly as an agr icult ur al pe s t icide and fumigant , and has
s ignificant ODP.
Me thyl chloroform A che mical compos e d of car bon, hydr oge n and chlor ine , which is
us e d as a s olve nt and blowing age nt and has an ODP about one -
t e nt h t hat of CFC-11.
PART V: FURTHER INFORMATION
Montre al Protocol Signe d in 1987, t he Pr ot ocol commit s Par t ie s t o t ake me as ur e s
t o pr ot e ct t he ozone laye r by fr e e zing, r e ducing or e nding
pr oduct ion and cons umpt ion of ODS.
National Ozone Unit The gove r nme nt office r e s pons ible for imple me nt ing t he
nat ional ODS phas e -out s t r at e gy. The focal point s hould be able
t o pr ovide addit ional infor mat ion about t e chnical and financial
as s is t ance . UNEP IE OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme can pr ovide you
wit h t he cont act of your count r ys NOU.
Ozone A gas whos e mole cular s t r uct ur e cons is t s of t hr e e oxyge n
at oms . Ozone par t ially filt e r s out ce r t ain wave le ngt hs of UV light
e mit t e d by t he s un. Ozone is a de s ir able gas in t he s t r at os phe r e
but it is t oxic t o living or ganis ms at gr ound le ve l.
Ozone de ple tion The pr oce s s by which s t r at os phe r ic ozone is de s t r oye d by man-
made che micals , le ading t o a r e duct ion in it s conce nt r at ion.
Ozone De ple tion Pote ntial A me as ur e of a s ubs t ance s abilit y t o de s t r oy s t r at os phe r ic
ozone , bas e d on it s at mos phe r ic life t ime , s t abilit y, r e act ivit y and
it s cont e nt of e le me nt s s uch as chlor ine and br omine t hat at t ack
ozone . All ODP ar e bas e d on t he r e fe r e nce me as ur e of 1.0 for
CFC-11. If a s ubs t ance has an ODP of 0.5, a give n we ight of t he
s ubs t ance in t he at mos phe r e would, in t ime , de ple t e half t he
ozone t hat t he s ame we ight of CFC-11 would de ple t e .
Ozone De ple ting Subs tance Any che mical t hat can de ple t e t he ozone laye r. Mos t ODS ar e
cont r olle d s ubs t ance s unde r t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol.
Ozone laye r A laye r in t he s t r at os phe r e , at an alt it ude of appr oximat e ly 10-50
km, whe r e a r e lat ive ly high conce nt r at ion of ozone filt e r s out
har mful ult r aviole t r adiat ion be for e it r e ache s t he Ear t hs
s ur face .
Party Acount r y t hat s igns and/or r at ifie s an int e r nat ional le gal
ins t r ume nt , indicat ing t hat it agr e e s t o be bound by t he r ule s s e t
out t he r e in. Par t ie s t o t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol ar e count r ie s t hat
have s igne d and r at ifie d t he Pr ot ocol.
Pe rchloroe thyle ne Aze r o-ODS chlor inat e d s olve nt , an e ffe ct ive s ubs t it ut e for CFC-
113 and me t hyl chlor ofor m. Howe ve r, t he r e ar e pot e nt ial he alt h
pr oble ms as s ociat e d wit h it s us e , which make s it impor t ant t o
e nact s t r ict he alt h and s afe t y me as ur e s t o pr ohibit e xce s s ive
e xpos ur e t o t he che mical.
Phas e out The e nding of all pr oduct ion and cons umpt ion of a che mical
cont r olle d unde r t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol.
Stratos phe re The por t ion of t he at mos phe r e appr oximat e ly 10-50 km above
t he Ear t hs s ur face whe r e t he bulk of at mos phe r ic ozone
r e s ide s .
Ultraviole t radiation Radiat ion fr om t he Sun wit h wave le ngt hs be t we e n vis ible light and
X-r ays . UV-B ( 280 320 nm) is har mful t o life on t he Ear t h, and is
mos t ly abs or be d by t he ozone laye r.
44
45
Publications from the OzonAction Programme
General Awareness Materials
TheOzonAction Newsletter
Aquar t e r ly ne ws le t t e r de dicat e d t o s t r at os phe r ic ozone pr ot e ct ion and t he phas e -out of ODS. The
ne ws le t t e r cont ains t he mos t r e ce nt infor mat ion on ozone pr ot e ct ion act ivit ie s s uch as indus t r y
updat e s , ne w pr oduct s , ODS phas e -out and s ucce s s s t or ie s . UNEP IE. Available in Ar abic, Chine s e ,
Englis h, Fr e nch, Por t ugue s e and Spanis h.
FiveSteps for RaisingAwareness on OzoneDepletion: AHandbook for National OzoneUnits
This handbook will he lp ODS Office r s t o plan focus e d e ffor t s , aime d at t he public and indus t r y, t o
r ais e awar e ne s s on ozone -de ple t ion is s ue s . A five -s t e p planning cycle is pr e s e nt e d. Each s t e p is
illus t r at e d by e xample s of awar e ne s s -r ais ing act ivit ie s on ozone de ple t ion is s ue s fr om de ve loping
count r ie s . UNEP IE, 1996, 30 pp. Available in Englis h, Fr e nch and Spanis h. US$25.
SavingtheOzoneLayer Every Action Counts: Video Booklet
This bookle t accompanie s SavingtheOzoneLayer: EveryAction Counts, an 18-minut e vide o e xplaining
why t he s t r at os phe r ic ozone laye r is t hr e at e ne d, what t he implicat ions of ozone de ple t ion ar e and what
we can do t o pr e ve nt it . The bookle t is de s igne d t o he lp maximize t he e ffe ct ive ne s s of t he vide o by
pr oviding mat e r ial t hat can be us e d in a pr e s e nt at ion be for e or aft e r vie wing, or in mode r at ing a gr oup
dis cus s ion. UNEP IE, 1996, 30 pp. Available in Englis h, Fr e nch and Spanis h. US$25 ( pr ice for bookle t only) .
Technical Brochures
Te chnical Br ochur e s for Pr ot e ct ing t he Ozone Laye r ar e t e chnical publicat ions t hat he lp t o ide nt ify
alt e r nat ive s t o ODS, and e xplain how t o us e t he m t o facilit at e t he phas e out of ODS. The s e ar e e as y
t o r e ad s ummar ie s of t he UNEP Te chnical Opt ions Commit t e e Re por t s . Available in Englis h, Fr e nch,
Spanis h and Chine s e .
ProtectingtheOzoneLayer Volume1: Refrigerants, 1992, UNEP IE, 40 pp. US$30
ProtectingtheOzoneLayer Volume2: Solvents Coatings and Adhesives, 1992, UNEP IE, 40 pp., US$30
ProtectingtheOzoneLayer Volume3: FireExtinguishingSubstances, 1992, UNEP IE, 40 pp., US$30
ProtectingtheOzoneLayer Volume4: Foams, 1992, UNEP IE, 1994, 40 pp., US$30
ProtectingtheOzoneLayer Volume5: Aerosols, sterilants, carbon tetrachlorideand miscellaneous
uses, 1992, UNEP IE, 50 pp., US$30
Training Manuals
TrainingManual on Chillers and Refrigerant Management
This t r aining manual is int e nde d t o be us e d by Ozone Office s in de ve loping count r ie s , in t he ir
cont inue d e ffor t s t o t r ain t e chnical pe r s onne l in indus t r y. Available in Englis h. Fr e nch, Spanis h and
Chine s e ve r s ions , UNEP IE, 1994, US$85
TrainingManual on Good Practices in Refrigeration
This t r aining manual is int e nde d t o be us e d by t e chnical manage r s and ins t r uct or s fr om t e chnical
t r aining ins t it ut e s in de ve loping count r ie s , who will pr ovide t he t r aining t o unit ar y and mobile air
condit ioning and r e fr ige r at ion pr act it ione r s . UNEP IE, 1994, available in Englis h, Fr e nch, Spanis h and
Chine s e , US$80
Publications
!
UNEP IE publications can
be orde re d from:
SMI ( Dis tribution
Se rvice s ) Ltd.
PO Box 119
Ste ve nage
He rtfords hire SG1 4TP
Unite d Kingdom
fax: + 44 1438 748844
e -mail: anthony@s mibooks .com
SavingtheOzoneLayer: Guidelines for UN Offices
Pr act ical s t e ps t o phas e out t he us e of ODS on Unit e d Nat ions pr e mis e s . Include s a five -s t e p act ion
plan and a cas e s t udy of t he UN Office s in Nair obi, Ke nya. Of pot e nt ial us e t o manage r s in t he hot e l
and t our is m indus t r y. UNEP IE, 1997, 24 pp.
Sourcebooks of Technologies for Protecting the Ozone Layer
Sourcebooks of Technologies for ProtectingtheOzoneLayer give infor mat ion about whe r e t o obt ain
s pe cific t e chnologie s , as we ll as guidance about how t o s e le ct an appr opr iat e alt e r nat ive . Available in
Englis h only.
Sourcebook of Technologies for ProtectingtheOzoneLayer, Aerosols, Sterilants, Miscellaneous Uses
and Carbon Tetrachloride, UNEP IE, 1996 updat e , US$85
Sourcebook of Technologies for ProtectingtheOzoneLayer, Flexibleand Rigid Foams, UNEP IE, 1996
updat e , US$85
Sourcebook of Technologies for ProtectingtheOzoneLayer, Refrigeration, Air-conditioningand Heat
Pumps, UNEP IE, 1996 updat e , US$100
Sourcebook of Technologies for ProtectingtheOzoneLayer, Specialized Solvent Uses, UNEP IE, 1996
updat e , US$70
Guidebooks and Guidelines
Practical Guideto Policy Guidelines for Industry on theManagement of PhaseOut of ODS
The s e guide line s will as s is t s mall and me dium-s ize companie s , gove r nme nt and ot he r or ganizat ions
in de ve loping count r ie s in ide nt ifying whe r e ODS ar e found in t he plant and give infor mat ion on ne w
alt e r nat ive pr oce s s e s and t e chnologie s . The y als o pr ovide infor mat ion on whe r e t o ge t t e chnical and
financial as s is t ance . UNEP IE, 1994, available in Englis h only, US$45
Publications from the UNEP IE Touris m Programme :
CaseStudies on Environmental Good Practicein Hotels
The publicat ion fe at ur e s t he e nvir onme nt al manage me nt pr ogr amme s of 15 hot e ls , bot h
inde pe nde nt hot e ls and int e r nat ional chains , in Afr ica, As ia, Eur ope and Nor t h Ame r ica. Act ion ar e as
include e nvir onme nt al policy, de s ign and cons t r uct ion, wat e r, e ne r gy, was t e , e mis s ion, pur chas ing,
s t aff t r aining and communicat ion. The cas e s t udie s we r e s e le ct e d fr om applicant s t o t he IH&RA
annual Envir onme nt al Awar d.
A UNEP/Int e r nat ional Hot e ls & Re s t aur ant As s ociat ion ( IH&RA) publicat ion, 1997.
FF250/US$50, 52 pp. ( or de r r e fe r e nce : UNEP IE T7)
Environmental Action Pack for Hotels
Comple t e wit h che cklis t s , pr act ical t ips and e xample s , t he Environmental Action Pack for Hotels is
an e s s e nt ial guide for e nvir onme nt al manage me nt in hot e ls . It cove r s : how t o pe r for m
e nvir onme nt al audit s and ide nt ify t he be s t ar e as for act ion; t aking act ion unde r t he focus ar e as
( wat e r, e ne r gy, s olid was t e , e fflue nt and e mis s ions , cont r act or s and s upplie r s and monit or ing
pr ogr e s s ) ; and how t o int e gr at e e nvir onme nt al act ion int o daily ope r at ions .
A UNEP/Int e r nat ional Hot e ls As s ociat ion/Int e r nat ional Hot e ls Envir onme nt Init iat ive publicat ion,
1995. FF200/US$40, 64 pp. ( or de r r e fe r e nce : UNEP-IE T5)
46
47
Ozone prote ction contacts
Multilateral Fund Secretariat
Dr Omar El Ar ini, Chie f Office r
Se cr e t ar iat of t he Mult ilat e r al Fund for t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol
27t h Floor, Mont r e al Tr us t Building
1800 McGill Colle ge Ave nue
Mont r e al
Que be c H3A 6J6
Canada
t e l: + 1 514 282 1122
fax: + 1 514 282 0068
e -mail: mle yva@unmfs .or g
ImplementingAgencies
Mr s Jacque line Alois i de Lar de r e l, Dir e ct or
Mr Raje ndr a She nde
UNEP IE OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme
39-43, quai Andr e Cit r o n
75739 Par is Ce de x 15
Fr ance
t e l: + 33 1 44 37 14 50
fax: + 33 1 44 37 14 74
e -mail: ozonact ion@une p.fr
ht t p://www.une pie .or g/ozonact ion.ht ml
Mr Fr ank Pint o, Pr incipal Te chnical Advis e r and Chie f
Dr Sue ly Car valho
Mont r e al Pr ot ocol Unit
Unit e d Nat ions De ve lopme nt Pr ogr amme
1 Unit e d Nat ions Plaza
Unit e d Nat ions
Ne w Yor k, N.Y. 10017
Unit e d St at e s
t e l: + 1 212 906 5042
fax: + 1 212 906 6947
e -mail: fr ank.pint o@undp.or g
ht t p://www.undp.or g/s e e d/e ap/mont r e al
Mr Ange lo DAmbr os io, Managing Dir e ct or
Mr S. M. Si Ahme d
Indus t r ial Se ct or s and Envir onme nt Divis ion
Unit e d Nat ions Indus t r ial De ve lopme nt Or ganizat ion
Vie nna Int e r nat ional Ce nt r e
P.O. Box 300
A-1400 Vie nna
Aus t r ia
t e l: + 43 1 211 31 3782
fax: + 43 1230 7449
e -mail: mwat hie @unido.or g
Contacts
48
Mr Ke n Ne wcombe
Ms Je s s ica Poppe le
Wor ld Bank
1818 H St r e e t N.W.
Was hingt on, D.C. 20433
Unit e d St at e s
t e l: + 1 202 473 1234
fax: + 1 202 522 3256
e -mail: kne wcombe @wor ldbank.or g
UNEP OzoneSecretariat
Mr K. M. Sar ma, Exe cut ive Se cr e t ar y
UNEP Ozone Se cr e t ar iat
PO Box 30552
Nair obi
Ke nya
t e l: + 254 2 623 855
fax: + 254 2 623 913
e -mail: madhava.s ar ma@une p.no
ht t p://www.une p.or g/une p/s e cr e t ar /ozone /home .ht m
Environme ntal manage me nt in the hote l and touris m indus try
Infor mat ion on e nvir onme nt al manage me nt in t he hot e l and t our is m indus t r y can be obt aine d fr om:
Int e r nat ional Hot e ls and Re s t aur ant s As s ociat ion
251 r ue de Faubour g Saint -Mar t in
75010 Par is , Fr ance
fax: + 33 1 40 36 73 30
e -mail: infos @ih-r a.com
ht t p://www.ih-r a.com
Int e r nat ional Hot e ls Envir onme nt Init iat ive
15-16 Cor nwall Te r r ace , Re ge nt s Par k
London NW1 4QP, Unit e d Kingdom
fax: + 44 171 467 3620
e -mail: IHEI@pwblf.or g.uk
EcoNETT ( an e nvir onme nt al dat abas e for t he t our is m indus t r y, a pr oje ct of t he Wor ld Tr ave l and
Tour is m Council, s uppor t e d by DG XXIII of t he Eur ope an Commis s ion)
20 Gr os ve nor Place
London SW1X 7TT
Unit e d Kingdom
fax: + 44 171 235 2445
e -mail: 106316.2226@compus e r ve .com
ht t p://www.wt t c.or g
49
Countries operating under Article 5
of the Montreal Protocol
The s e count r ie s ( as of 31 De ce mbe r 1997) ope r at e unde r Ar t icle 5 par agr aph 1 of t he Mont r e al
Pr ot ocol and ar e t he r e for e e ligible t o r e ce ive as s is t ance unde r t he Mult ilat e r al Fund. Each count r y
has a Nat ional Ozone Unit ( NOU) or ot he r focal point t hat can as s is t bus ine s s e s , including t hos e in
t he hot e l and t our is m s e ct or, wit h t he phas e out of ODS. If you do not know t he NOU in your count r y,
ple as e cont act t he OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme .
Alge r ia
Ant igua and Bar buda
Ar ge nt ina
Bahamas
Bahr ain
Banglade s h
Bar bados
Be nin
Bolivia
Bos nia and He r ze govina
Bot s wana
Br azil
Br une i Dar us s alam
Bur kina Fas o
Bur undi
Came r oon
Ce nt r al Afr ican Re public
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comor os
Congo
Congo, De mocr at ic Re public of
Cos t Rica
Ct e dIvoir e
Cr oat ia
Cuba
Cypr us
Dominica
Dominican Re public
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Et hiopia
Fe de r at e d St at e s of
Micr one s ia
Fiji
Gabon
Gambia
Ge or gia
Ghana
Gr e nada
Guat e mala
Guine a
Guyana
Hondur as
India
Indone s ia
Ir an, Is lamic Re public of
Jamaica
Jor dan
Ke nya
Kir ibat i
Kor e a, De mocr at ic Pe ople s
Re public of
Kuwait
Le banon
Le s ot ho
Libe r ia
Libyan Ar ab Jamahir iya
Mace donia, For me r Yugos lav
Re public of
Madagas car
Malawi
Malays ia
Maldive s
Mali
Malt a
Mar s hall Is land
Maur it ania
Maur it ius
Me xico
Moldova
Mongolia
Mor occo
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Ne pal
Nicar agua
Nige r
Nige r ia
Pakis t an
Panama
Papua Ne w Guine a
Par aguay
Pe r u
Philippine s
Qat ar
Re public of Kor e a
Romania
Saint Kit t s & Ne vis
Saint Lucia
Samoa
Saudi Ar abia
Se ne gal
Se yche lle s
Singapor e
Slove nia
Solomon Is lands
Sr i Lanka
St . Vince nt and t he
Gr e nadine s
Sudan
Sur iname
Swaziland
Syr ian Ar ab Re public
Tanzania, Unit e d Re public of
Thailand
Togo
Tr inidad and Tobago
Tunis ia
Tur ke y
Tuvalu
Uganda
Unit e d Ar ab Emir at e s
Ur uguay
Vanuat u
Ve ne zue la
Vie t Nam
Ye me n
Yugos lavia
Zambia
Zimbabwe
ODS phase-out schedule
50
The phas e -out t ime t able for Ar t icle 5 and non-Ar t icle 5 count r ie s agr e e d at t he 9t h
Me e t ing of t he Par t ie s t o t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol, Mont r e al, 15 17 Se pt e mbe r 1997.
Article 5 countries
1 July 1999 Fr e e ze of Anne x A CFCs at 1995-97 ave r age le ve ls
7
1 Januar y 2002 Fr e e ze of halons at 1995-97 ave r age le ve ls
7
Fr e e ze of me t hyl br omide at 1995-1998 ave r age le ve ls
1 Januar y 2003 Anne x B CFCs r e duce d by 20 pe r ce nt fr om 1998-2000
ave r age cons umpt ion
8
Fr e e ze in me t hyl chlor ofor m at 1998-2000 ave r age le ve ls
1 Januar y 2005 Anne x A CFCs r e duce d by 50 pe r ce nt fr om
1995-97 ave r age le ve ls
7
Halons r e duce d by 50 pe r ce nt fr om 1995-97
ave r age le ve ls
7
Car bon t e t r achlor ide r e duce d by 85 pe r ce nt fr om
1998-2000 ave r age le ve ls
Me t hyl chlor ofor m r e duce d by 30 pe r ce nt fr om
1998-2000 ave r age le ve ls
1 Januar y 2007 Anne x A CFCs r e duce d by 85 pe r ce nt fr om
1995-97 ave r age le ve ls
7
Anne x B CFCs r e duce d by 85 pe r ce nt fr om 1998-2000
ave r age le ve ls
8
1 Januar y 2010 CFCs , halons and car bon t e t r achlor ide phas e d out
me t hyl chlor ofor m r e duce d by 70 pe r ce nt fr om 1998-
2000 ave r age le ve ls
1 Januar y 2015 Me t hyl chlor ofor m and me t hyl br omide phas e d out
1 Januar y 2016 Fr e e ze of HCFCs at bas e line figur e of ye ar 2015
ave r age le ve ls
1 Januar y 2040 HCFCs phas e d out
51
Note s
1
Annex A: CFCs 11, 12, 113,
114 and 115
2
Annex B: CFCs 13, 111,
112, 211, 212, 213, 214,
215, 216 and 217
3
halons 1211, 1301 and
2402
4
34 hydrobromofluoro-
carbons
5
40 hydrochlorofluoro-
carbons
6
With exemptions for
essential uses. Consult
the Handbook on Essential
UseNominations prepared
by the Technology and
Economic Assessment
Panel, 1994, UNEP, for
more information
7
calculated level of
production of 0.3 kg/capita
can also be used for
calculation, if lower
8
calculated level of
production of 0.2 kg/capita
can also be used for
calculation, if lower
Non-Article 5 countries
1 July 1989 Fr e e ze of Anne x A
1
CFCs
1 Januar y 1992 Fr e e ze of halons
1 Januar y 1993 Anne x B CFCs
2
r e duce d by 20 pe r ce nt fr om 1989 le ve ls
Fr e e ze of me t hyl chlor ofor m
1 Januar y 1994 Anne x B CFCs r e duce d by 75 pe r ce nt fr om 1989 le ve ls
Anne x A CFCs r e duce d by 75 pe r ce nt fr om 1986 le ve ls
Halons
3
phas e d out
6
Me t hyl chlor ofor m r e duce d by 50 pe r ce nt
1 Januar y 1995 Car bon t e t r achlor ide r e duce d by 85 pe r ce nt fr om
1989 le ve ls
Me t hyl br omide fr oze n at 1991 le ve ls
1 Januar y 1996 HBFCs
4
phas e d out
6
Car bon t e t r achlor ide phas e d out
6
Anne x A and B CFCs phas e d out
6
Me t hyl chlor ofor m phas e d out
6
HCFCs
5
fr oze n at 1989 le ve ls of HCFC + 2.8 pe r ce nt of
1989 cons umpt ion of CFCs ( bas e le ve l)
1 Januar y 1999 Me t hyl br omide r e duce d by 25 pe r ce nt fr om 1991 le ve ls
1 Januar y 2001 Me t hyl br omide r e duce d by 50 pe r ce nt fr om 1991 le ve ls
1 Januar y 2003 Me t hyl br omide r e duce d by 70 pe r ce nt fr om 1991 le ve ls
1 Januar y 2004 HCFCs r e duce d by 35 pe r ce nt be low bas e le ve ls
1 Januar y 2005 Me t hyl br omide phas e d out
1 Januar y 2010 HCFCs r e duce d by 65 pe r ce nt
1 Januar y 2015 HCFCs r e duce d by 90 pe r ce nt
1 Januar y 2020 HCFCs phas e d out allowing for a s e r vice t ail of up t o
0.5 pe r ce nt unt il 2030 for e xis t ing r e fr ige r at ion and
air-condit ioning e quipme nt
Examples of Trade names of Annex A
Substances
52
The CFCs include d unde r Anne x A of t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol t oge t he r wit h t he ir common t r ade name s
ar e de t aile d be low. A comple t e lis t of ODS t r ade name s can be obt aine d fr om UNEP IE.
Name Che mical name Common trade name s
CFC-11 t r ichlor ofluor ome t hane As ahifr on R-11 , Ge ne t r on 11 ,
Daiflon 11 , Fr e on-11 , Ar ct on 11 , For ane 11 , Mafr on
11 , Kor fr on 11
CFC-12 dichlor odifluor ome t hane Algofr e ne 12 , Ar ct on 12 ,
As ahifr on R-12 , As ahifr on R-500 , Daiflon 12 , Flor on 12 ,
For ane 12 , Fr e on-12 , Fr iogas 12 , Ge ne t r on 12 , Is ce on
12 , Mafr on 12 , Tais ot on 12
CFC-113 1, 1, 1-t r ichlor ot r ifluor oe t hane Ar klone L , Ar klone P ,
Ar klone
1, 1, 2-t r ichlor ot r ifluor oe t hane PSM , Ar klone K , Ar klone
EXT , Ar klone AM , Ar klone AS , Ar klone W , Ar klone
AND , As ahifr on R-113 , CG Tr iflon ES , CG Tr iflon EE ,
CG Tr iflon EC , CG Tr iflon FD , CG Tr iflon M , CG Tr iflon
Wl , CG Tr iflon MES , CG Tr iflon E35 , CG Tr iflon P , CG
Tr iflon , CG Tr iflon E , CG Tr iflon C1 , CG Tr iflon A , CG
Tr iflon D3 , CG Tr iflon CP , CG Tr iflon Dl , Daiflon S3-
ES , Daiflon S3-HN , Daiflon S3-MC , Daiflon S3-P35 ,
Daiflon S3-W6 , Daiflon S3-EN , Daiflon S3 , Daiflon S3-
A , Daiflon S3-E , Flon Showa FS-3MS , Flon Showa FS-
3A , Flon Showa FS-3M , Flon Showa FS-3P , Flon Showa
FS-3E , Flon Showa FS-3 , Flon Showa FS-3D , Flon Showa
FS-3ES , Flon Showa FS-3W , Fr e on TES , Fr e on TF ,
Fr e on T-E35 , Fr e on T-E6 , Fr e on T-DFCX , Fr e on TE ,
Fr e on C , Fr e on S , Fr e on PCA , Fr e on MCA , Fr e on
SMT , Fr e on TA , Fr e on T-P35 , Fr e on T-WD602 , Fr e on T-
DFC , Fr e on TF , Fr e on TP35 , Fr e on TWD 602 ,
Fr e on S , Fr e on C , Fr e on T-DECR , Fr e on TES ,
Fr e on MCA , Fr e on TDF , Fr e on T-DEC , Fr e on SMT ,
Fr e on T-DA35X , Fr e on T-DA35 , Fr e on TA , Fr e on T-B1 ,
Fr ons olve AES , Fr ons olve AM , Fr ons olve AMS , Fr ons olve
AD-7 , Fr ons olve AE , Fr ons olve AP , Fr ons olve ,
Fr ons olve AD-9 , Fr ons olve AD-l9 , Fr ons olve AD-17 ,
Magicdr y MD 203 , Magicdr y MD 202 , Magicdr y MD-E35 ,
Magicdr y MD 201
CFC-115 monochlor ope nt afluor oe t hane Ar ct on 115 , As ahifr on R-
502 , For ane 502 , Fr e on-502
A mor e e xt e ns ive lis t is available on t he Int e r ne t at
ht t p://www.une pie .or g/ozonact ion.ht ml
About UNEP IEs OzonAction and Tourism
Programmes
53
The OzonAction Programme
Nat ions ar ound t he wor ld ar e conce r ne d about t he e mis s ions of man-made CFCs , halons , car bon
t e t r achlor ide , me t hyl chlor ofor m, me t hyl br omide and ot he r ODS t hat have damage d t he
s t r at os phe r ic ozone laye r a s hie ld ar ound t he Ear t h which pr ot e ct s life fr om dange r ous
ult r aviole t r adiat ion fr om t he Sun. Mor e t han 160 count r ie s have commit t e d t he ms e lve s unde r t he
Mont r e al Pr ot ocol t o phas e out t he us e and pr oduct ion of t he s e s ubs t ance s . Re cognizing t he s pe cial
ne e ds of de ve loping count r ie s , t he Par t ie s t o t he Pr ot ocol als o e s t ablis he d a Mult ilat e r al Fund and
appoint e d imple me nt ing age ncie s t o pr ovide t e chnical and financial as s is t ance t o e nable t he
de ve loping count r ie s t o me e t t he ir commit me nt s unde r t he t r e at y. UNEP is one of t he Funds
imple me nt ing age ncie s ; t he ot he r s ar e UNDP, UNIDO and t he Wor ld Bank.
Since 1991, t he UNEP IE OzonAct ion Pr ogr amme in Par is has be e n s t r e ngt he ning t he capacit y of
gove r nme nt s ( e s pe cially Nat ional Ozone Unit s ) and indus t r y in de ve loping count r ie s t o make
infor me d de cis ions on t e chnology and policy opt ions t hat will r e s ult in cos t -e ffe ct ive ODS phas e -out
act ivit ie s wit h minimal e xt e r nal int e r ve nt ion. The Pr ogr amme accomplis he s t his by de live r ing a r ange
of ne e d-bas e d s e r vice s , including:
Information Exchange
t o e nable de cis ion make r s t o t ake infor me d de cis ions on policie s and inve s t me nt s . Infor mat ion and
manage me nt t ools alr e ady pr ovide d for de ve loping count r ie s include t he OzonAct ion Infor mat ion
Cle ar inghous e ( OAIC) dis ke t t e and Wor ld Wide We b s it e , a quar t e r ly ne ws le t t e r, s e ct or-s pe cific
t e chnical publicat ions for ide nt ifying and s e le ct ing alt e r nat ive t e chnologie s , and policy guide line s .
Training and Ne tworking
t hat pr ovide plat for ms for e xchanging e xpe r ie nce s , de ve loping s kills , and t apping t he e xpe r t is e of
pe e r s and ot he r e xpe r t s in t he global ozone pr ot e ct ion communit y. Tr aining and ne t wor k wor ks hops
build s kills for imple me nt ing and managing phas e -out act ivit ie s , and ar e conduct e d at t he r e gional
le ve l ( s uppor t is als o e xt e nde d t o nat ional act ivit ie s ) . The Pr ogr amme cur r e nt ly ope r at e s s e ve n
r e gional and s ub-r e gional Ne t wor ks of ODS Office r s compr is ing mor e t han 80 count r ie s , which have
r e s ult e d in me mbe r count r ie s t aking e ar ly s t e ps t o imple me nt t he Mont r e al Pr ot ocol.
Country Programme s and Ins titutional Stre ngthe ning
t hat s uppor t t he de ve lopme nt of nat ional ODS phas e -out s t r at e gie s and pr ogr amme s , e s pe cially
for low-volume ODS-cons uming count r ie s . The Pr ogr amme cur r e nt ly as s is t s 74 count r ie s in t he
de ve lopme nt of t he ir Count r y Pr ogr amme s and imple me nt s Ins t it ut ional-St r e ngt he ning pr oje ct s
for mor e t han 50 count r ie s .
Ple as e contact us to le arn more about our programme :
UNEP IE Ozonact ion Pr ogr amme
39-43 quai Andr Cit r o n
75739 Par is Ce de x 15
Fr ance
t e l: + 33 1 44 37 14 50
fax: + 33 1 44 37 14 74
e -mail: ozonact ion@une p.fr
ht t p://www.une pie .or g/ozonact ion.ht ml
About the UNEP IE Touris m Programme
The UNEP IE Tour is m Pr ogr amme he lps de cis ion make r s in gove r nme nt and indus t r y t o de ve lop and
imple me nt policie s and s t r at e gie s for e nvir onme nt ally s ound t our is m. It focus e s on e nvir onme nt al
manage me nt in t our is m facilit ie s , e xample s of good pr act ice s and de ve lopme nt and manage me nt of
t our is m in s e ns it ive ar e as .
Mos t act ivit ie s ar e imple me nt e d in collabor at ion wit h int e r nat ional or ganizat ions , indus t r y
as s ociat ions and non-gove r nme nt al or ganizat ions . The pr ogr amme wor ks t hr ough t he publicat ion of
guide line s and handbooks , t he dis s e minat ion of s ucce s s ful e xpe r ie nce s , wor ks hops and s e minar s ,
and t he que r y r e s pons e s e r vice of UNEP IE.
Main cur r e nt act ivit ie s include a publicat ion on e colabe ls for t our is m, an infor mat ion package on
e cot our is m and an e nvir onme nt al t r aining pack for hot e l and t our is m s chools .
54
UNEP IE
UNEP e s t ablis he d it s Indus t r y and Envir onme nt office ( UNEP IE) in 1975 t o br ing indus t r y and
gove r nme nt t oge t he r t o pr omot e e nvir onme nt ally-s ound indus t r ial de ve lopme nt . UNEP IE is
locat e d in Par is . It s goals ar e :
t o e ncour age t he incor por at ion of e nvir onme nt al cr it e r ia in indus t r ial
de ve lopme nt plans ;
t o facilit at e t he imple me nt at ion of pr oce dur e s and pr inciple s for t he
pr ot e ct ion of t he e nvir onme nt ;
t o pr omot e pr e ve nt ive e nvir onme nt al pr ot e ct ion t hr ough cle ane r
pr oduct ion and ot he r pr o-act ive appr oache s ; and
t o s t imulat e t he e xchange of infor mat ion and e xpe r ie nce t hr oughout t he
wor ld.
To achie ve t he s e goals , UNEP IE has de ve lope d t he following main pr ogr amme e le me nt s :
Accide nt Pr e ve nt ion ( APELL) , Cle ane r Pr oduct ion, Ene r gy, OzonAct ion, Indus t r ial Pollut ion
Manage me nt and Tour is m. UNEP IE or ganize s confe r e nce s and s e minar s , and unde r t ake s
t r aining and coope r at ive act ivit ie s backe d by r e gular follow-up and as s e s s me nt . To pr omot e t he
t r ans fe r of infor mat ion and t he s har ing of knowle dge and e xpe r ie nce , UNEP IE has de ve lope d
t hr e e comple me nt ar y t ools : t e chnical r e por t s , t he quar t e r ly Industry and Environment r e vie w
and a t e chnical que r y-r e s pons e s e r vice .
39-43, QUAI ANDRE CITROEN
75739 PARIS CEDEX 15 - FRANCE
TEL : (33) 01 44 37 14 50
FAX : (33) 01 44 37 14 74
E-MAIL : unepie@unep.fr
http://www.unepie.org/home.html
UNEP
INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME