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(A comparative study)

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement
For the degree of M. Phil Islamic Studies


The Department of Seerah & Islamic History
Faculty of Islamic Studies

Date: ______________________


1. INTRODUCTION ....... 3
5. HYPOTHESIS ........ 9
6. METHODOLOGY ......... 9


Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) is, perhaps, the most
talked of person in the whole range of human history. His followers and critics have
vied with one another in writing from their different angles and view-points on the
various facets of his life and teachings. He has not only been the subject of great
respect, praise and veneration by countless millions of Muslims all over the world, but
has equally been the target of most bitter, hostile attacks by his critics throughout the

Throughout the centuries Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessing of Allah be
upon him) has been the target of hostile Judeo-Christian criticism the Christians
particularly playing the leading role in this hate campaign. In the early era of Islam and
the Middle Ages most of this criticism was due either to the ignorance of the Arabic
sources or due to sheer willful prejudice and hatred, Or both. However, in the modern
era this polemic attack on the Prophet of Islam is being carried on by his detractors of
the West quite willfully, with the full knowledge of the Arabic sources camouflaging
their ulterior motives under the loudly-proclaimed slogan of objective historical
research by sheer distortion and assumptions. And with the subtitle play of ingenious
hypotheses and assumptions. And the irony of the situation is that most of the
Orientalists, specializing in the study of the life of Prophet Muhammad and allied
subjects masquerade as professors and scholars. But in reality are mostly ordained
Christian priests and the people in general not knowing their antecedents and motives
are carried off their feet by their subtle propaganda technique and methodology. As
regards the Jewish scholars their hatred and enmity towards Islam and its Prophet is all
too well-known and need not be stressed.

During the last three centuries or so this criticism of the Prophet and Islam has
assumed alarming proportions and the work is being carried on mostly in the principal
language of Europe, viz. English, French, German Italian and Dutch. Even smaller
countries like Denmark, Sweden, and Belgium have also contributed their mite of

Qureshi, Zafar Ali, Prophet Muhammad and His Western Critics (Lahore: Idara Marif Islami,
Mansoora, March, 1992). preface.
Qureshi, Zafar Ali, Prophet Muhammad and His Western Critics (Lahore: Idara Marif Islami,
Mansoora, March, 1992). preface.

service in this nefarious task. And lately the United States of America and Canada have
also joined the fray.

Orientalism is the branch of scholarship that uses traditional Western methods as a
means of understanding and gathering knowledge pertaining to the Orient. The term
was also used by Edward Said (1978) to elucidate his own challenge to the validity of
such methods.

On the one hand, Orientalism has given us much of what we know about the
Oriental world at large. Late nineteenth-century authors are especially worthy of
consideration for their contributions to an understanding of foreign cultures and
peoples. On the other hand, however, several problems arise from the attitudes and
methods used in traditional Orientalist discourse, which in turn has had an impact -
often negative - upon Western consciousness. This influences and distorts the
framework through which the West approaches the Orient in general and Islam in

The Orient encompasses a far greater area than simply that of the Arabs and the
Muslim community; exotic images from India, China, Japan and Korea are conjured up
in the minds of Western people when they think of the Orient. However, Orientalism
has had a particular impact on the study and understanding of Islamic philosophy.
Many scholars' understanding of Islamic philosophy is, 'that Islamic civilization as we
know it would simply not have existed without the Greek heritage'.

According to my review, no primary academic work has been conducted in English
language, which is related to my chosen topic of research. However, some secondary
work has emerged, which can be considered as secondary work. A brief review of these
works is being cited in the following section.

Qureshi, Zafar Ali, Prophet Muhammad and His Western Critics (Lahore: Idara Marif Islami,
Mansoora, March, 1992) preface.
4 [reterived:02.12.2012]
5 [reterived:02.12.2012]
6 [reterived:02.12.2012]

1. Qureshi, Zafar Ali, Prophet Muhammad and His Western Critics,. March.1992
In this book Zafar Ali Qureshi briefly describe the critique of W. Montgomery Watt
and others Orientalists of the most highly reputed and valuable renowned scholars
who had made their professional skills and who has the depth in their inks greater
than the depth of seas. Here the author just mentions their short critique and their
literary work.
But in this book author didnt compare the English and American orientalists
scholars as the comparatively. And my topic is comparatively study of English and
American orientalists.

2. Fuad shaban, Islam and Arabs in early American Thought, 1991.
The work which has been presented in this book has very similarities to the above
mentioned book. While describing the history of American orientalists, he also gave
some account of biographies and the services of those scholars who have conducted
their knowledge and degrees from that American school and then they have serves
that school as professionalisms.

3. Buaben, Jabal Muhammad, Image of the Prophet Muhammad in the West, 1996.
This is the book in which the author Jabal Muhammad Buaben records the
English and American orientalists. Who had provided the foundational stones to
the English and American schools. So the idea of the personality which I have
chosen as my case of study is also among the list of those brilliant orientalists
scholars i.e. Muir, Margoliouth and Watt.
Author didnt tell us about the English and American orientalists and I have
deceived as my topic that is partial and impartial English and American

4. Nadvi, Abu al-Hasan Ali, (Islmiyt and Western
As the name of this book refers that this book has been written specially upon the
Western orientalists and their research work in all their life time, And this book
comprises and deals approximately with all aspects of orientalists which give us the
complete sketch of their achievements.


5. Maryam Jameela. Islam and orientalists. Lahore.1971.
In this book the author gathered the chapters on the orientalists. They are belong to
European and American school of thought and author write the works of the
orientalists. Mryam Jameela didnt describe the particularly English and American
orientalists. And my topic is about the English and Americans schools of thought.

Three impartial American Orientalists and their works.
Fair-minded and impartial non-Muslim American thinkers tell us about the
Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam:
In the eyes of the American orientalists:
1- Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 November 28, 1859)
Iring is largely credited as the first American Man of Letters, and the
first to earn his living solely by his pen. Eulogizing Irving before the
Massachusetts Historical Society in December 1859, his friend, the poet
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, acknowledged Irving's role in promoting
American literature.

Book relevant to my topic: Mahomet and His Successors (1850)
On this book author describe the biography of prophet Muhammad. And
Washington Irving is a fair-minded American orientlist. It is shown in his book.
For example,
Washington Irving, said, Muhammad, (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), was
the final and greatest Prophet that Allaah sent to call people to worship Him
alone. (Excerpted from Qaaloo an Al-Islam (What They Said About Islam)
by Professor Imaad Ad-deen Khaleel)

2- Michael H. Hart (April 28, 1932)
Introduction: Michael H. Hart is a Professor of astronomy, physics and the
history of science. Michael H. Hart has written three books on history and
controversial articles on a variety of subjects. Hart describes himself as a


Jeffersonian liberal, while his critics call him a conservative and a racial
Michael H. Harts first book was The 100: A Ranking of the Most
Influential Persons in History, which has sold more than 500,000 copies and
been translated into 15 languages. What mainly surprised readers in this book
was the first person on Hart's list (Hart, 1992). Hart decided to choose
Muhammad over Jesus or Moses. Hart attributes this to the fact that
Muhammad was "supremely successful" in both the religious and secular
realms. He also accredits the authorship of the Qur'an to Muhammad, making
his role in the development of Islam far more influential than Jesus'
collaboration in the development of Christianity. He attributes the
development of Christianity to St. Paul, who played a pivotal role in the
dissemination of Christianity.
Michael H. Harts book relevant to my topic: The 100.
On this book author said:
"My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential
persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was
the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and
secular level." [The 100: A Ranking of The Most Influential Persons In History,
New York, 1978, p. 33]

3- John William Draper (May 5, 1811 January 4, 1882)
Introduction: John William Draper is an American scientist, philosopher, and
historian, physician, chemist and photographer. He was also the first president
of the American Chemical Society (187677) and a founder of the New York
University School of Medicine. One of Draper's books, History of the Conflict
between Religion and Science, received worldwide recognition and was
translated into several languages, but was banned by the Catholic Church.
John William Drapers book relevant to my topic: History of the Conflict between
Religion and Science, 1874.
On this book author said, Four years after the death of Justinian, A.D. 569, was born at
Mecca, in Arabia the man who, of all men exercised the greatest influence upon the
human race . . . Mohammed." [A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe,
London, 1875, vol.1, pp. 329-330]

Identify three partial American Orientalists and their works.
1- Frank R.Freemon, a neurosurgeon of Nashville (U.S.A) in a recent article,
A Differential Diagnosis of the inspirational Spells of Mohammed, the
Prophet of Islam, gives a scientific justification for it. He claims that the
most reasonable explanation of Muhammads condition is psychomotor or
complex partial seizures of temporal lobe ecilepsy, though, as he readily
admits, the findings are unproven and forever improvable.
2- J.E. Royster, (January.22, 1868. Feb. 06. 1955) Alabama, U.S.A
J.E. Royster writes the article, The study of Muhammad: A survey of approaches
from the perspective of the history and phenomenology of religion.
3- Arthur Jeffery (18 October 1892 in Melbourne 2 August 1959)
Introduction: Arthur Jeffery was a Professor of Semitic Languages at
Columbia University and at Union Theological Seminary in New York.
Jeffery wrote many articles and books during his career and conducted
extensive research, searching the Middle East for manuscripts. His most
important works include Materials for the history of the text of the Qur'an,
the old codices... and The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur'an, which traces
the origins of 275 foreign (non-Arabic) words found in the Qur'an,
Eclecticism in Islam, Arthur Jeffery, 1922.
Arthur Jefferys books: The Quest of the Historical Muhammad, 1926.
Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur'an, 1936.
A Variant Text of the Fatiha, 1939.
The Orthography of the Samarqand Codex, 1943.
The Textual History of the Qur'an, 1946.
Arthur Jefferys book relevant to my topic: Islam: Muhammad and His
Religion, 1958.


What are views of the impartial orientalists about Muhammad ?
Which sources established the impartial views of the orientalists?
What are the reasons of impartial views of the orientalists about Muhammad ?
What are views of the partial orientalists about Muhammad ?
Which sources established the partial views of the orientalists?
What are the reasons of the partial views of the orientalists about Muhammad ?
What is the major difference in the views of impartial and partial orientalists?
What is the major difference in the views of American orientalists?

This research expects to contribute the factual understanding of the impartiality and
partiality of American orientalists about Prophet Muhammad in their writings.

The impartial views in the writings of the orientalists about Muhammad may
possibly be the result of their access to authentic classical sources; and the partial views
of the orientalists may perhaps have been established on unauthentic sources.

The approach of this study will be impartial. The methodology pursued during the
course of this study will be historical and comparative. The primary sources will be
based on library; and the secondary sources on and internet sources. To achieve a
high standard of this research, guidance from historians of repute will possibly be
taken through discussions and questions by e-mails.
This research will produce a brief introduction of Orientalism and its motives;
introduction of the American School of Orientalism; most important attributes of
American Orientalism; three writing samples of impartial American Orientalists;
three writing samples of impartial American Orientalists.
A comparison between the two schools of orientalism; conclusion and important
results of the research will also be written.



Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Orientalism: introduction; history; reasons; objectives
1.2 Literature review
1.3 Research question
1.4 Research objective
1.5 Hypothesis
1.6 Methodology

Chapter 2: The American School of Orientalism
2.1 Significant attributes of American Orientalism
2.2 Introduction of three impartial American Orientalists
2.3 Writing samples of three impartial American Orientalists
2.4 Introduction of three partial American Orientalists
2.5 Writing samples of three partial American Orientalists

Chapter 3: Comparison between American Imparital Orientals Schools
4.1 Conclusion of the study
4.2 Findings of the study
4.3 Recommendations of the study
4.4 Suggestions for further research

Transliteration Table


1- Chapel Hill, Douglas Little, American Orientalism, the United States
and the Middle East since 1945. 2008.
2- William Muir, Life of Mahomet, London, Smith, Elder And co., 65,
Cornhill, 1861.
3- Essad Bey, Mohammed, London, Darf Publishers, limited, 1985
4- Fred Dallmayr Beyond Orientlasim., State University of New York
Press, Albany, 1996.
5- Fuad shaban, Islam and Arabs in early American Thought, the roots of
Ornientalism, an America. Published in Association with Duke
University Islamic and Arabian Development Studies, the Acorn press
Durham, North Carolina, 1991.
6- Edward W. Said, Orintalisim, Vintage books, a division of Random
House, New York. (U.S.A), October, 1979.
7- Wilfred Cantwell Smith, Islam and Modern History, Princeton
University Press, Princeton New Jersey, 1957.
8- Philip K. Hitti, Islam and the West, as Historial, Cultural Survey, van
Nostrard co. inc., Princeton New Jersey, 1962.
9- Qureshi, Zafar Ali, Prophet Muhammad and His Western Critics
(Lahore: Idara Marif Islami, Mansoora, March, 1992.
10- Buaben, Jabal Muhammad, Image of Prophet Muhammad in the West,
The Islamic Foundation, Markfield Dawah Centre, Ratby Lane,
Markfield, Leicester LE67 9RN, United Kingdom, 1996.
11- Qureshi, Zafar Ali, Prophet Muhammads wives and orientalists,
Lahore, Feroze sons, Urdu bazaar, Lahore, 1996.
12- John, William, A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe,
London, 1875.
13- Kimbiz GhancaBassiri, A History of Islam in America, Cambride
University Press, New York, USA. 2010.
14- Zakira, Hashim Zakria, (Al mstsrqun ua laslam), 1965.
15- (Al mstsrqun ua laslam), 1970.
16- 2341 , 2 , .
17- Watt, W. Montgomory, Muhammad at Mecca, Oxford, London, 1953.
18- Hashim, Zakria, , (Al mstsrqun ua laslam) 1965.

19- Ali, Muhammad Mohar, Sirat al-Nabi and the Orientalists, 1977.
20- Professor Imaad Ad-deen Khaleel , What They Said About Islam.