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# Mass Transfer I

Assignment Problems
1. . (a) Derive the equation for mass transfer flux in a binary gas system under equimolar
counterdiffusion. . Give the graphical representation of concentration gradient.
(b) In an oxygen-nitrogen gas mixture at 1 std. atm !"
#
c the concentration of oxygen at ! places
!mm apart are 1\$ and !\$ vol % respectively. &alculate the flux of diffusion of the oxygen if nitrogen
is on-diffusing. (1 std. atm ' 1.\$1(( ) 1\$
"
*+m
!
). D,- '1..1 ) 1\$
-"
m
!
+s. (1!)
!. . /ydrogen and air are in equimolar diffusion 0ith each other. 1he total pressure is 1 atm and the
temperature is !"
\$
c. 2ass diffusivity of the mixture is \$.31\$ cm
!
+sec.4artial pressures at ! planes
\$." cm apart perpendicular to the direction of diffusion are1!\$ and 3\$ mm /g respectively.
&alculate the rate of diffusion of the mixture in gmoles+cm
!
.s. (5)
(.. ,mmonia gas (,) diffuses through nitrogen gas (-) under steady state conditions 0ith nitrogen non-
diffusing. 1he total pressure is 1.\$1( ) 1\$
"
4a and the temperature is !6. 7. 1he diffusion path is
\$.1"m. 1he partial pressure of ammonia at one point is 1." ) 1\$
3
4a and at the other point is " ) 1\$
(
4a. 1he D,- of the mixture is !.(\$ ) 1\$
-"
m
!
+s at 1.\$1( ) 1\$
"
4a and !6. 7. &alculate (a) the flux of
ammonia and (b) the equimolar counterdiffusion flux assuming that *! also diffuses.
,ns8 (a)5..9(\$ ) 1\$
-9
:mol+m
!
s (b) 5.1... ) 1\$
-9
:mol+m
!
s. (1\$)
3. ,mmonia gas (,) diffuses through a stagnant gas mixture consisting of one-third *itrogen (-) and t0o-
thirds /ydrogen (&) by volume. 1he total pressure is !\$5.. :*+m
!
and the temperature is "3
\$
c.&alculate
the rate of diffusion of ,mmonia through a film of gas \$."mm thic: 0hen the concentration change
across the film is 1\$% to "% by volume. 1he diffusivities at !\$\$
\$
c and one std. atm.pressure are
reported to be D,- ' ".(61 x 1\$
-3
m
!
+s and D,& ' 1.9(91 x 1\$
-3
m
!
+s. (15)
(*ov+Dec ;\$5)
". &arbon dioxide and oxygen filled in t0o large chambers in 0hch the species concentrations are
maintained at fixed values and connected by a circular tube 0hose length and diameter are 1m and "\$
mm respectively. 1he system is maintained at a total pressure of 1\$ atm and !"
\$
&. 1he partial pressure of
&<! at one end is 16\$ mm /g. =hile at the other end is 6" mm /g. (i) >stimate the rate of mass transfer.
(ii) ?ind the partial pressure of &<! at \$.9" m from the end 0here the partial pressure is 16\$ mm /g.
Diffusivity of &<!-<! at 1"\$ & is 1.66" x 1\$
-"
m
!
+s. (1\$) (,pr+2ay ;\$.)
5. 1here are t0o bulbs connected by a straight tube \$.\$\$1 m in diameter and \$.1" m in length. Initially
the bulb at end @1; contains nitrogen and the bulb at @!; contains hydrogen. 1he pressure and
temperature are maintained constant at 1 std. atm and !"
\$
&. ,t a certain time after allo0ing the diffusion
to occur bet0een the t0o bulbs the nitrogen content of gas at end @1; of the tube is .\$ mole % and at the
other end is !" mole%. If the diffusion coefficient is \$.9.3 cm
!
+s determine the rates and direction of
transfer of hydrogen and nitrogen. (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$")
9. Gas , diffuses through a non diffusing gas mixture of - and &. 1he partial pressure data on both sides
of the film of thic:ness \$.\$\$"m are p,1 ' \$.3 p-1 ' \$.3 p&1 ' \$.!A p,! '\$.1 p-! '\$.5 p&( '\$.(
respectively. 1he binary gas diffusivities are D,- ' !.! x 1\$
-"
m
!
+sA D,& ' 5." x 1\$
-"
m
!
+s and
D-&' 9." x 1\$
-"
m
!
+s. >stimate the rate of diffusion of gas ,. (15) (,pr + 2ay ;\$")

.. , thin narro0 tube is used to measure the diffusivity of chloroform in air at !"
o
& and 1 atm. pressure.
,t the beginning of the experiments the chloroform surface 0as at ".\$ cm from the top of the tube and
after . hours the liquid surface has dropped to \$.3 cm from the initial conditions. If the concentration of
chloroform is Bero at the top of the tube estimate the gas diffusion coefficient of chloroform in air.
1he follo0ing data are available8
Ciquid density of chloroform is 1.3." g+ccA D4 at !"
o
c is !\$\$ mm /g. (15) (,pr + 2ay ;\$")
6. 1he diffusivity of the gas pair <! E&&l3 is determined by observing steady state evaporation of &&l3
(liquid) into a tube containing <!. 1he entire system is held at constant temperature and pressure.
-oth the gases are assumed to be ideal and <! is stationary. 1he distance bet0een the &&l3 liquid
level and the top of the tube is \$.191m. 1he total pressure on the system is 1\$\$.5". x 1\$
(
*+m
!
(99"
mm /g) and the temperature is !9( 7. 1he vapour pressure of &&l3 is 3.((6 x 1\$
(
*+ m
!
((( mm
/g) at that temperature. 1he cross sectional are of the tube is \$.\$.! x 1\$
-(
m
!
attained \$.\$!. x 1\$
-3
m
(
of &&l3 (liquid) is evaporated in (5 x 1\$
(
second period. =hat is the
diffusivity of the gas pair &&l3 E<!F ,ssume specific gravity of the liquid &&l3 as .1."6. (15)
(*ov+Dec ;\$.)
1\$., cylindrical 0ater tan: of diameter equal to 1 m has been :ept open to atmosphere. 1he 0ater level
in the tan: is maintained at the level 1 m belo0 the top of the tan:. If the dry air at (1( 7 is blo0n
across the top of the tan: ho0 many moles of 0ater 0ill be lost from the tan: per hourF
Data8 ?or air-0ater system D,- ' !.5 x 1\$
-"
m
!
+s at !6. 7.
Dapour pressure of 0ater8 (1( 7 ' 9.3 7* + m
!.
. (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$.)
11 ,n ethanol (,)-0ater (-) solution in the form of a stagnant film !mm thic: at !6(7 is in contact
at one surface 0ith an organic solvent in 0hich ethanol is soluble and 0ater is insoluble. ,t point 1
the concentration of ethanol is 19 0t % and the solution density is 69( :g + m
(
. ,t point ! the
concentration of ethanol is 9 0t % and density is 6.. :g + m
(
. 1he diffusivity of ethanol is \$.93 x 1\$
-6

m
!
+s. &alculate the steady state flux.

1!. &alculate the rate of diffusion of acetic acid (,) across a film of non-diffusing 0ater (-) solution 1
mm thic: at 19
\$
& 0hen the concentrations on the opposite sides of the film are 6 and ( 0eight %
respectively. Densities of 6 and ( 0t % solutions are 1\$1! and 1\$\$( :g + m
(
. 1he diffusivity of acetic
acid in the solution is \$.6" x 1\$
-6
m
!
+s.
1(. Godium chloride (*a&l) diffuses through a film of 0ater solution \$.! cm thic: at !\$
\$
c and 1 atm.
1he concentrations by 0eight on the ! sides of the film are 1!% and "% respectively. &alculate8
(i) 1he rate of diffusion of sodium chloride if its mass diffusivity in 0ater is 1."1 x 1\$
-"
cm
!
+sec.
(ii) If the sodium chloride and 0ater are under equimolar counter diffusion compute the diffusion
coefficient. (3 H 3 ' .)

13. &alculate the rate of diffusion of Godium chloride (*a&l) at 1.
\$
& through a stagnant film of 0ater
1.\$ mm thic: 0hen the concentrations are !\$ % and 1\$% by 0eight on either side of the film. Density
of !\$% and 1\$% *a&l by 0eight are 1.13.6 and 1.\$59 g +cc respectively. Diffusivity of *a&l in 0ater
is 1.!5 x 1\$
-5
m
!
+sec. (1!) (,pril ;69)
.
1". /ydrochloric acid (,) diffuses through a thin film of 0ater (-) 3 mm thic: at !.( 7. 1he
concentration of /&l at point 1 on one boundary of the film is 1! 0t. % (density ' 1\$5\$.9 :g + m
(
)
and on the other boundary at point ! is 3 0t. % (density ' 1\$!\$.1" :g + m
(
).1he diffusivity of /&l in
0ater is !." x 1\$
-6
m
!
+s. &alculate the flux of /&l 0hen (i) 0ater is stagnantA (ii) 0hen both are under
equimolal counterdiffusion.

15. , crystal of &opper sulfate &uG<3." /!< falls through a large tan: of pure 0ater at !\$
\$
&. >stimate
the rate at 0hich the crystal dissolves by calculating the flux of &uG<3 from the crystal surface to
the bul: solution. 2olecular diffusion occurs through a film of 0ater uniformly \$.\$(\$" mm thic:
surrounding the crystal. ,t the inner side of the film adIacent to the crystal surface the concentration
of &uG<3 is \$.\$!!6 mole fraction &uG<3 (Density of solution ' 116( 7g+ m
(
). 1he outer surface of
the film is pure 0ater. 1he diffusivity of &uG<3 is 9.!6 x 1\$
-1\$
m
!
+s. (1\$) (2ay+June ;\$5)
19. /ydrogen gas at 1 std atm. and !"
o
& flo0s through a pipe made of unvulcaniBed *eoprene rubber 0ith
ID and <D of !" and "\$ mm respectively. If the concentration of /ydrogen at the inner surface
of the pipe is !.(9 x 1\$
-(
:mole /ydrogen+;m
(
and the diffusivity of /ydrogen gas through the rubber is
1.. x 1\$
-5
cm
!
+s estimate the rate of loss of /ydrogen by diffusion through a pipe of ! m length. 1he
outside air may be assumed to be free from /ydrogen. (.-1!) (2ay+June ;\$5) (,pril+2ay ;\$.)
1.. /ydrogen gas at ! std atm !"
\$
& flo0s through a pipe made of unvulcaniBed neoprene rubber 0ith
ID and <D of !" and "\$ mm respectively. 1he solubility of the hydrogen is reported to be \$.\$"(cm
(

(G14) +cm
(
.atm and the diffusivity of hydrogen gas through the rubber is 1.. x 1\$
-5
cm
!
+s.>stimate
the rate of loss of /ydrogen by diffusion per meter of pipe length.
16. 1he gas hydrogen at 19
\$
& and \$.\$1 atm. partial pressure is diffusing through a membrane of
vulcaniBed neoprene rubber \$." mm thic:. 1he pressure of /! on the other side of the neoprene is Bero.
&alculate the steady state flux assuming that the only resistance to diffusion is in the membrane. 1he
solubility @G; of /! gas in the neoprene at 19
\$
& is \$.\$"1 m
(
(at G14) + m
(
solid atm and the diffusivity
D,- is1.\$( x 1\$
-1\$
m
!
+s at 19
\$
& . Derive the equation used for the calculation of flux. (15)
(*ov+ Dec\$9).
!\$. , sphere of naphthalene having a radius of ! mm is suspended in a large volume of still air at (1. 7
and 1 atm. 1he surface temperature of the naphthalene can be assumed to be at (1. 7 and its vapor
pressure at (1. 7 is \$.""" mm /g. 1he D,- of naphthalene in air at (1. 7 is 5.6! x 1\$
-5
m
!
+s.
&alculate the rate of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface. Derive the equation used for the
calculation of rate. Gtate all the assumptions made. (15) (*ov+ Dec ;\$9).
!1. ,n open circular tan: of \$.!" m diameter contains -enBene at !.
\$
& . It is exposed to atmosphere
In such a manner that the liquid is covered by a stagnant air film of !.\$ cm high. 1he concentration
of -enBene beyond air film may be assumed negligible. 1he follo0ing data may be assumed8
Dapor pressure of -enBene at !.
\$
& ' 1\$\$ mm /g. D-enBene-,ir ' \$.\$6 cm
!
+s. K-enBene '..\$ :g + m
(
.
If the cost of -enBene is Ls. !\$ +C find the loss incurred per year. (1!) (,pril ;66).
,t \$
\$
& diffusivity D,- ' 5.1! x 1\$
-"
m
!
+s. =hat is the value of diffusivity D,- at 1\$\$
\$
&F , and -
are gaseous molecules. (!) (*ov+Dec ;\$9)

!!. In an experimental study of absorption of ammonia by 0ater in a 0etted 0all column. 1he overall gas
phase mass transfer coefficient 7G 0as estimated as !.9! x 1\$
-3
. :moles+m
!
atm. ,t one point in the
column the gas contained 1\$ mole % ammonia and the liquid phase concentration 0as 5.3! x 1\$
-!

:moles */( +m
(
of solution. 1emperature is !6( 7 and the total pressure is 1 atm. ."% of the
resistance to mass transfer lies in gas phase. If /enry;s la0 constant is 6.(" x 1\$
-(
atm. m
(
+:mole
calculate the individual film coefficient and the interphase composition. ,lso estimate the molar flux.
(15) (2ay+June ;\$5) (*ov+Dec ;\$5)
!(. , 0etted 0all to0er is fed 0ith 0ater as the 0all liquid and air- */( mixture as the central core gas.
,t a particular level in the to0er ammonia concentration in the bul: of the gas is \$.. mole fraction
and \$.\$" mole fraction in the bul: of the liquid. <peration is carried out at !"
\$
& and 1 atm. &ompute
the interfacial composition and mass transfer flux using overall coefficient or film coefficient.
?ilm coefficients are8 (5) (<ct ;69)
:moles :moles
:x ' \$."" ------------------------------------------------- M :y ' \$.3" ----------------------------------------------.
m
!
h (N mole fraction in liquid phase) m
!
h (N mole fraction in liquid phase)
>quilibrium data8
2ole fraction of */( in liquid x \$ \$.\$5 \$.1 \$.!" \$.(
2ole fraction of */( in gas y \$ \$.\$91 \$.1(" \$."6 \$.6!

!3. , 0etted 0all to0er is fed 0ith 0ater as the 0all liquid and air- */( mixture as the central core gas.
,t a particular level in the to0er ammonia concentration in the bul: of the gas is \$.. mole fraction
and in the bul: of the liquid \$.\$" mole fraction . 1he operation is carried out at !5
\$
& and 1 atm and the
film coefficients are :x ' \$."(\$6 :gmole + hr.m
!
. mole fraction :y ' \$.3!6( :mole + hr.m
!
.mole
fraction. &ompute the interfacial compositions and mass transfer flux using the overall mass
transfer coefficient. 1he equilibrium data at !5
\$
&8 2ole fraction of */(

in liquid x \$ \$.\$5 \$.1 \$.!" \$.(
in gas y \$ \$.\$9\$9 \$.1(39 \$."6 \$.6!
(15) (*ov+Dec ;\$.)
!". Gulphur dioxide is absorbed from air into 0ater in a pac:ed absorber to0er. ,t a certain location in the
to0er the mass transfer flux is \$.\$!9 :mole G<! +m
!
h. and the liquid phase concentrations in mole
fractions of G<! are \$.\$\$!" and \$.\$\$\$( respectively at the t0o phase interface and the bul: liquid.
If the diffusivity of G<! in 0ater is 1.9 x 1\$
-6
m
!
+s determine the mass transfer coefficient :& and
film thic:ness. (1\$) (,pr+2ay ;\$.)
!5. In an apparatus for absorptionof G<! in 0ater at one point in the column the concentration of G<! in
gas phase 0as 1\$% G<! by volume and 0as in contact 0ith a liquid containing \$.3% G<! by 0eight.
4ressure and temperature are 1 atm and (!( 7 respectively. 1he overall gas phase mass transfer
coefficient is 9.(5 x 1\$
-1\$
:mole +m
!
.s(* + m
!
). <f the total resistance 3"% lies in gas phase and ""%
in the liquid phase. >stimate the molar flux based on the overall and individual film coefficients.
7g G<! + 1\$\$ :g 0ater \$.! \$.( \$." \$.9
4artial pressure of G<! mm /g. !6 35 .( 116
(15) (*ov+Dec ;\$")
!9. , large volume of pure 0ater at !5.1
\$
& flo0ing past a flat plate of solid benBoic acid at a velocity of
\$.11 m + s. 1he length of the plate C in the direction of flo0 is \$.!33 m. 1he solubility of benBoic acid
in 0ater is \$.\$!63. :mol + m
!
. 1he diffusivity of benBoic acid in 0ater is 1.!3" x 1\$
-.
m
!
+s. ?or mass
transfer in a fluid flo0ing parallel to flat plates the correlation given belo0 holds good8
JD ' \$.66 *Le C
-\$."

0here *Le C ' K C u + O . 1he viscosity O and density of 0ater at !5.1
\$
& are ..91 x 1\$
-3
4a.s and
665 :g + m
(
respectively. ,ssuming dilute solutions calculate8 (i) mass transfer coefficient (ii) rate
of dissolution of benBoic acid per square meter area of the plate. (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$9)
!.. ,ir is flo0ing through a hollo0 tube made of naphthalene at a velocity of !( m +s. 1ube is circular in
cross-section 0ith a diameter of 1 cm. ,ir is at atmospheric pressure and the surface of the tube is at
(\$
\$
&. Dapor pressure of naphthalene is \$.16" mm of /g. Density of air is 1.1!" g + Citre and its
viscosity is \$.\$1.5 cp. 1he D,- of naphthalene in air at (\$( 7 is 5.6! x 1\$
-5
m
!
+s.>stimate the rate of
mass transfer by using any ! analogies.
Pse the equation8 (5) (,pril ;65)

Le
((! . \$
!
=
f
C
!6. It is proposed to absorb a pure gas in a fresh solvent. -ased on the experimental results it 0as found
that the transfer mechanism follo0s penetration theory. Initially the transport rate is limited by the rate
at 0hich the gas molecules can reach the surface. 1he maximum possible rate of transfer of gas at
ambient conditions (!\$
o
& and 1 atm.) is "\$ m
(
+m
!
.s.
(i) If the gas solubility is \$.\$3 :mol+m
(
estimate the equivalent resistance.
(ii) If the diffusivity in the liquid phase is 1.. x 1\$
-6
m
!
+s at 0hat time after the initial exposure
0ill the resistance attributable to access of gas be equal to 1\$% of the total resistance of the
transferF (15) (,pr + 2ay ;\$")
(\$. ,cetone has a vapor pressure of (\$\$ mm /g. If the relative humidity of acetone in air is 3\$%
>stimate the humidity and % humidity at 95\$ mm /g total pressure. (5) (<ct ;69)
(1. 1he temperature of air in a room is 3\$.!
\$
& and the total pressure is 1\$1.( :4a abs. 1he air contains
=ater vapor 0ith a partial pressure 4, ' (.93 :4a. &alculate (i) the humidity (ii) the saturation
humidity and percentage humidity and (iii) the percentage relative humidity. (1!) (<ct ;6.)
(!. ,ir at a temperature of (\$
\$
& and a pressure of 1\$\$ :4a has a relative humidity of .\$%.
(i) &alculate the molal humidity of air.
(ii) (ii) &alculate the molal humidity of this air if its temperature is reduced to 1"
\$
& and its
pressure increased to !\$\$ :4a condensing out some of the 0ater.
(iii) &alculate the 0eight of 0ater condensed from 1\$\$ m
(
of the original 0et air in cooling
to 1"
\$
& and compressing to !\$\$ :4a.
(iv) &alculate the final volume of the 0et air of part (iii).
Data8 Dapor pressure of 0ater at (\$
\$
& ' 3.!3 :4a
Dapor pressure of 0ater at 1"
\$
& ' 1.9\$ :4a. (3 x 3) (2ay+June ;\$5)
((.(i) ?or the atmospheric air of 5\$% humidity at (\$
\$
& temperature 0hat are the values of dry bulb 0et
bulb de0 point and adiabatic saturation temperatureF (.)
(ii),tmospheric air given in (i) is preheated to 9"
\$
& and passed through a drier 0here it is
adiabatically saturated. 1he air leaves 0ith 9"% humidity. =hat is the temperature and humidity of
exit airF (.) (*ov+Dec ;\$.)
(3. 1he temperature of air in a room is ""
\$
& and the total pressure is 1.\$1( x 1\$
"
* + m
!
abs. 1he
air contains 0ater vapor 0ith a partial pressure ' 355\$ * + m
!
. &alculate (i) the humidity
in mass and molar terms (ii) the saturation humidity and de0 point (iii) percentage humidity and the
percentage relative humidity (vapor pressure of 0ater at ""
\$
& is 11. mm /g). (3 H! H! ' .)
,lso find out from psychrometric chart8 (iv) humid volume and (v) enthalpy. Gtate the equations to
obtain them mathematically. (3 H 3 ' .)
(". ?or a certain process requiring air at controlled temperature and humidity there is needed 5.\$3 7g of
dry air per hour at !\$% humidity and "3.3
\$
c. 1his air is to be obtained by conditioning air at !\$ %
humidity and !1.1
\$
c by first heating then humidifying adiabatically to the desired humidity and
finally reheating the humid air to "3.3
\$
c. 1he humidifying step is to be conducted in a spray chamber.
,ssuming the air leaving the spray chamber is to be !.!!
\$
c 0armer than the adiabatic saturation
temperature
(i) 1o 0hat temperature should the air be preheatedF
(ii) ,t 0hat temperature should the air leave the spray chamberF (*ov+Dec ;\$5)
(iii) /o0 much heat 0ill be required for pre and reheatingF
(iv) =hat should be the volume of spray chamber if hya ' 1".( =+m
!
-
\$
c F (3 x 3 ' 15)
(5.?resh air at !"
\$
& in 0hich partial pressure of 0ater vapor is 1" mm /g is blo0n initially through a
preheater at a rate of !1" m
(
+hr and then adiabatically saturated in a spray chamber to 1\$\$% saturation
and again reheated. 1his reheated air has a humidity of \$.\$!3 :g 0ater+:g dry air. It is assumed that the
fresh air and the air leaving the reheaters have the same percentage humidity. Determine the
temperature of air after preheater spray chamber and reheater and heat requirements for preheating and
reheating. (1\$) (2ay+June ;\$5)
(9. ?resh air at !3
\$
& in 0hich partial pressure of 0ater vapor is \$.\$11. atm is blo0n at a rate of
!1\$ m
(
+hr first through a preheater and then adiabatically saturated in a spray chamber to 1\$\$%
saturation and again reheated. 1his reheated air has a humidity of \$.\$!3 :g 0ater+:g dry air. It may
be assumed that the fresh air and the air leaving the reheater have the same percentage humidity.
Determine (i) the temperature of air after preheater spray chamber and reheater (ii) heat requirements
for preheating and reheating. (1!) (,pril ;66)
(.., plant requires cooling 0ater to flo0 through the distillation equipment condensers. 1he 0ater 0ill
leave the condensers at "\$
\$
&. It is planned to design a countercurrent cooling to0er in order to cool
this 0ater to (\$
\$
& from "\$
\$
& for reuse by contact 0ith air. ,ir is available at (\$
\$
& D-1 and !3
\$
&
=-1. (\$% excess air 0ill be used and the ma:e up 0ater 0ill enter at 1"
\$
& . ?or the pac:ing to be used
the value of the mass transfer coefficient is expected to be !"\$\$ :g + m
!
h.(Ny;) provided the minimum
liquid rate and gas rate are 1!\$\$\$ and 1\$\$\$\$ :g + m
!
h respectively. >stimate the height of cooling
to0er. (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$")
(6. , pac:ed countercurrent 0ater cooling to0er using a gas flo0 rate of G ' 1("5 :g dry air +m
!
.s
and a 0ater flo0 rate of C ' 1("5 :g 0ater +m
!
.s is to cool the 0ater from 1C! ' 3(.(
\$
& to
1C1 ' !6.3
\$
&. 1he entering air at !6.3
\$
&. has a 0et bulb temperature of !(.6
\$
&. 1he mass
1ransfer coefficient 7Ga is estimated as 1.!\$9 x 1\$
-9
:gmoles + m
!
.4a and hCa + 7Ga 2-4 as
3.1.9 x 1\$
3
J + 7g 7. &alculate the height of pac:ed to0er. 1he to0er operates at a pressure
of 1.\$1( x 1\$
"
4a. (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$9)
3\$.1he air supply for a drier has D-1 of !5
\$
& and a =-1 of 19
\$
&. It is heated to ."
\$
& by heating
coils and introduced into the drier. In the drier it cools along the adiabatic cooling line and leaves the
drier fully saturated.
(i) =hat is the humidity initially and after heatingF
(ii) =hat is the de0 point of initial airF
(iii) /o0 much 0ater 0ill be evaporated per 1\$\$ cubic metre of entering airF
(iv) /o0 much heat is needed to heat 1\$\$ cubic metre air to ."
\$
&F
(v) ,t 0hat temperature does the air leave the drierF (1!) (,pr+2ay ;\$.)
31. It is proposed to recover acetone 0hich is used as a solvent in an extraction process by evaporation
into a stream of nitrogen. 1he nitrogen enters the evaporator at a temperature of (\$
\$
& containing
,cetone such that its de0 point is 1\$
\$
&. It leaves at a temperature of !"
\$
& 0ith a de0 point of !\$
\$
&.
1he barometric pressure is constant at 9"\$ mm /g.
(i) &alculate the vapor concentrations of the gases entering and leaving the evaporator in moles of
vapor+ moles of vapor free-gas.
(ii) &alculate the moles of acetone evaporated per mole of vapor
free gas passing through the evaporator. mole of vapor free gas.
(iii) &alculate the 0eight of acetone evaporated per 1\$\$ m
(
of gases entering the reactor.
(iv) &alculate the volume of gases leaving the evaporator per 1\$\$ m
(
entering. (1!) (,pril ;6.)

3!. , countercurrent cooling to0er is to be designed to cool 1\$\$\$ :g + min of 0ater from 5\$
\$
& to (\$
\$
&.
,ir is available at (\$
\$
& D-1 and !3
\$
& =-1. 1he air used 0ill be 1." times the minimum air flo0
Late. &alculate the height of the to0er if the gas phase mass transfer coefficient is !"\$\$ :g+h.m
!
.(Ny).
t
\$
& !" (\$ (" 3\$ 3" "\$ 5\$
/ :cal + :g of dry air 16 !3 (! 31 "1 5( ."
(1!) (<ct ;69)
3(. It is desired to dehumidify 1.! m
!
+s of air available at (.
\$
c dry bulb temperature and (\$
\$
c 0et bulb
temperature of 1"
\$
c in a countercurrent to0er using chilled 0ater at

1\$
\$
c. 1he dry air flo0 rate is 1.!"
:g+m
!
.s. , liquid flo0 rate of 1." times the minimum is used. =hat 0ill be the temperature of outlet
0aterF &alculate the no. of transfer units if the liquid phase resistance to heat transfer is negligible.
(15) (*ov+Dec ;\$5)
33. , porous solid is dried in a batch drier under constsnt drying conditions. 9 hours are required to
Leduce the moisture content from ("% to 1\$%. 1he critical moisture content and equilibrium
moisture content are !\$% and 3% respectively. ,ll the moisture contents are on the dry basis.
,ssuming that the rate of drying during the falling rate perid is proportional to the free moisture
&ontent ho0 long should it ta:e to dry a sample of the same solid from ("% to "% under the same
drying conditionsF (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$5)
3". , batch of solids is to be dried from !.% to 5% moisture on 0et basis. 1he initial 0eight of the solid
is (.\$ :g and the drying surface is \$.\$(m
!
+s :g dry 0eight. 1he critical moisture content is 1.% (dry
basis) and the constant rate drying is \$.(! :g+(m
!
.h) ?or the falling rate period the follo0ing data is
available8
% moisture content
(dry basis)
!" !1.
6
16 15 1(.
5
11 ..! 9." 5.3
Late of drying :g+
(m
!
.h)
\$.( \$.!
9
\$.!
3
\$.!
1
\$.1
.
\$.1
"
\$.\$
9
\$.\$3
3
\$.\$!"
>stimate the time needed for drying. (1\$) (2ay+June ;\$5)
35. 1\$\$\$ :g dry 0eight of non porous solid is dried under constant drying conditions 0ith an air velocity
of 1.\$ m+s so that the area of drying surface is 5\$ m
!
. 1he critical moisture content of the material
may be ta:en as \$.1!" :g 0ater + :g dry solid.
(a) If the initial rate of drying is \$.( g+m
!
.s. ho0 long 0ill it ta:e to dry the material from \$.1"
to \$.\$!" :g 0ater + :g dry solidF
(b) If the air velocity is increased to 3.\$ m+s 0hat 0ould be the anticipated saving in time if surface
evaporation is controllingF (15) (*ov + Dec ;\$")
39. 1\$\$\$ :g dry 0eight of non porous solid is dried under constant drying conditions 0ith an air velocity
of \$.9" m+s so that the area of drying surface is "" m
!
. 1he critical moisture content of the material
may be ta:en as \$.1!" :g 0ater + :g dry solid.
(a) If the initial rate of drying is \$.( g+m
!
.s. ho0 long 0ill it ta:e to dry the material from \$.1"
to \$.\$!" :g 0ater + :g dry solidF
(b) If the air velocity is increased to ".\$ m+s 0hat 0ould be the anticipated saving in time if surface
evaporation is controllingF (15) (,pr+2ay ;\$.)
3.. During the batch drying test of a 0et slab of material \$.(" m
!
and 9 mm thic: the falling rate * 0as
expressed as \$.6" ( )-\$.\$1) 0here * is the drying rate in 7g+m
!
.s and ) is the moisture content
in 7g moisture + 7g dry solid. 1he constant drying rate 0as \$.(. 7g+m
!
.s and slab 0as dried from
one side only 0ith the edges sealed. Density of the dry material is 1!\$\$ :g+m
(
. It is desired to reduce
the moisture content from ("% to "% on 0et basis. =hat is the time needed for dryingF (1\$)

36. 1\$\$\$ :g dry 0eight of non porous solid is dried under constant drying conditions 0ith an air velocity
of \$.9" m+s so that the area of drying surface is "" m
!
. 1he critical moisture content of the material
may be ta:en as \$.1!" :g 0ater + :g dry solid.
(a) If the initial rate of drying is \$.( g+m
!
.s. ho0 long 0ill it ta:e to dry the material from \$.1" to
\$.\$!" :g 0ater + :g dry solidF
(b) If the air velocity is increased to 3.\$ m+s 0hat 0ould be the anticipated saving in time if surface
evaporation is controllingF (15) (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$")
"\$. , rotary drier is used to dry "\$ :g + h of salt containing 1\$ % of 0ater to \$."% of 0aer. ,ir is
passed through the drier countercurrently 0hich enters at 95\$ mm /g. ("
\$
& and 9\$% humidity.
=hat flo0 rate of air must be maintainedF (.) (,pril ;69)
"1. "\$ :g of granular solids containing (\$% moisture is to be dried in a tray drier to 1\$ % moisture by
passing a current of air at ("\$ 7 tangentially across its surface at a velocity of ! m+s. If the constant
rate of drying under these conditions is \$.. g + m
!
.s and the critical moisture content is 6 %
calculate approximately the drying time. ,ssume the drying surface to be \$.\$( m
!
+ :g dry 0eight.

(1!) (<ct ;69)
"!., continuous countercurrent drier is used to dry 3!".5 :g dry solid + h containing \$.\$(" :g total
moisture + :g dry solid. 1he granular solid enters at !"
\$
& and leaves at 5\$
\$
&. 1he heating medium
is air 0hich enters at .3.!
\$
& and has a humidity of \$.\$19" :g moisture+ :g dry air and leaves at
(!..
\$
&. &alculate the air flo0 rate and the outlet humidity assuming the heat losses from the drier
to be 6(\$\$ :J + h. 1he constant heat capacity of the dry solid is 135" :J +:g 7. (1!) (,pril ;6.).
"(. It is desired to dry a certain type of fiberboard in sheets \$.1(1 m x \$.15! m x \$.\$91 m from "6%
to 3% moisture (=et basis) content. 1he rate of drying at constant rate period 0as found to be
..\$ :g+ m
!
h. 1he critical moisture content 0as !3..% and the equilibrium moisture content 0as
1.\$ %. 1he fiberboard is to be dried from one side only and a bone dry density of !66 :g +m
(
.
Determine the time required for drying. ,ssume the falling rate is linear. (1!) (,pril ;66).
"3. In a textile mill 0et cloth passes through a hot air drier. 1he cloth enters 0ith 6\$% moisture regain
and leaves at 5 % moisture regain at a speed of 1.1" m+s. 1he 0idth of the cloth is 1!\$ cm and its
density on bone dry basis is \$.\$6" :g + m
!
. 1he temperature of the cloth leaving the drier is (5. 7
(6"
\$
&). 1he ambient air enters the drier at (\$( 7 ((\$
\$
&) D- and !6.7 (!"
\$
&) =- 0hile the hot
air leaves the drier at (6(7 (1!\$
\$
&) D- and (!. 7(""
\$
&) =- . &alculate 8
(i) the bone dry production of the drier (ii) evaporation ta:ing place in the drier and
(iii) air circulation rate. (1!) (<ct ;6.)
"". , material 0as dried in a tray type batch drier using constant drying conditions. =hen the initial
free moisture content 0as \$.!. :g free moisture + :g dry solid 5.\$ hr 0as required to dry the
material to a free moisture content of \$.\$. :g free moisture + :g dry solid. 1he critical free moisture
content is \$.13..,ssuming a drying rate in the falling rate region 0here the rate is a straight line
from the critical point to the origin predict the time to dry a sample from a free moisture content
of \$.(( to \$.\$3 :g free moisture + :g dry solid. (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$9)
"5. , salt solution 0eighing 1\$\$\$\$ 7g 0ith (\$% *a!&<( (by 0eight) is cooled to !6( 7. 1he salt
crystalliBes as the decahydrate (*a!&<(./!<). =hat 0ill be the yield of *a!&<(./!< crystals if
solubility is !1." 7g anhydrous *a!&<( per 1\$\$ 7g of total 0aterF ,ssume that (% of the total
0eight of the solution is lost by evaporation of 0ater in coolingF (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$5)
"9. , batch of saturated *a!&<( solution of 1\$\$ 7g is to be prepared at "\$
\$
&. 1he solubility is 3.3.
gmoles + 1\$\$\$ g /!< at "\$
\$
&. If the monohydrate 0ere available ho0 many 7g of 0ater 0ould be
required to form the solutionF If the decahydrate is available ho0 many 7g of salt 0ill be requiredF
(.) (2ay+June ;\$5)
".. , ("% solution of *a!&<( 0eighing 5\$\$\$ :g is cooled to !\$
\$
& to yield crystals of *a!&<( .1\$ /!<.
During cooling 3% by 0eight of original solution is lost due to evaporation. ?ind out the 0eight of
crystals formed. Data8 Golubility at !\$
\$
& ' !1." g of *a!&<( + 1\$\$ g of 0ater. (15) (*ov+Dec ;\$")

"6. , solution of *a!&<( containing "\$% by 0eight of *a!&<( and 0eighing 3\$\$\$ :g is cooled
Glo0ly to yield crystals of *a!&<( . 1\$ /!< at !"
\$
&. Golubility of *a!&<( at !"
\$
& is !( parts of
anhydrous salt per 1\$\$ parts of 0ater. Determine the 0eight of crystals formed if there is no loss
due to evaporation during cooling. (5) (,pril ;65)
5\$. , solution of *a!&<( contains 3\$% by 0eight of *a!&<( and 0eighing 1\$\$ :g is cooled to !5
\$
&.
>stimate the yield of *a!&<( 0hich forms *a!&<( . . /!< at that temperature. Golubility of
*a!&<( at !5
\$
& is !" parts of anhydrous salt per 1\$\$ parts of 0ater. (5) (<ct ;69)
51. , saturated solution of 2gG<3 at ("( 7 (.\$
\$
&) is cooled to (\$( 7 ((\$
\$
&) in a crystalliBer.
During cooling 3% solution is lost by evaporation of 0ater. &alculate the quantity of the original
saturated solution to be fed to the crystalliBer per 1\$\$\$ :g crystals of 2gG<3.9/!<. Golubilities of
of 2gG<3 at (\$( 7 and ("( 7 are 3\$.. and 53.! :g + 1\$\$ :g of 0ater respectively. (1!) (,pril ;6.).
5!. , solution consisting of (\$% 2gG<3 and 9\$% /!< is cooled to !\$
\$
&. During cooling "% of the
total 0ater in the system evaporates. /o0 many :ilograms of crystals are obtained per :ilogram
of original mixtureF 2other liquor is containing !3.3 % of anhydrous 2gG<3. &rystals are
2gG<3.9/!<. (5) (,pril ;69).
5(. , solution of *a!G<3 in 0ater is saturated at a temperature of 3\$
\$
&. &alculate the 0eight of crystals
and the percentage yield obtained by cooling 1\$\$ :g of this solution to a temperature of "
\$
&.
1he solubilities are as follo0s8 at 3\$
\$
&8 (!.5% *a!G<3 A at "
\$
&8 ".9"% *a!G<3.
*ote8 ,t a temperature of "
\$
& the decahydrate 0ill be the stable crystalline form. (1!) (<ct ;6.)
53. , crystalliBer is charged 0ith 1\$\$\$\$ :g of aqueous solution at 1\$3
\$
& containing (\$% by 0eight of
anhydrous *a! G<3 . 1he solution is then cooled to !\$
\$
&. During this operation 1\$% is lost by
evaporation. Glauber salt crystalliBes out. ?ind the yield of crystals.
Golubility at !\$
\$
& ' 1\$3 g *a!G<3 + 1\$\$ g 0ater. (1!) (,pr+2ay ;\$.)
5". 2other liquor after crystalliBation has a solute content of 36.. :g of &a&l! per 1\$\$ :g of 0ater. ?ind
<ut the 0eight of this solution needed to dissolve 1\$\$ :g of &a&l!. 5 /!< at !"
\$
&. Golubility at
!"
\$
& is .1.6 :g of &a&l! + 1\$\$ :g of 0ater.