Sie sind auf Seite 1von 86

Guide

Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only



2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 1 of 86

Product Name Confidentiality Level
WCDMA RNP For internal use only
Product Version
Total 86 pages
3.1


Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage
Design
(For internal use only)


Prepared by Chen Lei Date 2006-03-20
Reviewed by Xie Zhibin, Wu Zhong,
Hu Wensu, Yang Shijie,
and Ai Hua
Date
2006-03-22
Reviewed by Yao Jianqing
Date 2006-03-25
Approved by Date



Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All Rights Reserved.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 2 of 86

Revision History
Date
Revision
Version
Description Author
2002-12-30 1.00
Completed the first draft and revised
some contents according to review
comments.
Gu Jufeng
2004-10-29 2.00
Added the analysis on a
multi-system shared system,
preliminary analysis on an IRS, and
method of calculating the WCDMA
service thresholds by GSM signals.
Discussed handoff problems in an
indoor system. Supplemented and
perfected other projects according
to relevant data of project S and
domestic experimental offices.
Zhang Junhui
2004-12-10 2.01
Revised some contents according
to review comments.
Zhang Junhui
2006-3-20 3.00
Added the following chapters:
Planning concepts of an
indoor coverage system
Indoor and outdoor
interference control
Indoor and outdoor handoff
design
Design requirements of an
indoor distributed system
manufacturer
Review on the design scheme
of an indoor distributed system
Investment evaluation of an
indoor distributed system
Expansion and evolution of an
indoor distributed system
Cases of designing an indoor
distributed system
Revised some contents in other
chapters.
Chen Lei
2006-5-29 3.1
Added the following contents:
Indoor coverage strategy for
the HSDPA
Analysis on the coverage and
capacity influences of the
existing R99 network
Methods of indoor HSDPA
coverage
Liao Zhengzhong

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 3 of 86

Table of Contents
1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 10
2 Planning Concepts of an Indoor Distributed System .............................................................. 10
2.1 Design Flow of an Indoor Coverage System ...................................................................... 10
2.2 Key Issues in Different Phases of Indoor Coverage ........................................................... 12
2.3 How to Help Operators with the Design of an Indoor Coverage System ........................... 12
2.4 Comparison Between Intra-frequency and Inter-frequency Networking Solutions for an
Indoor Distributed System ........................................................................................................ 12
2.5 Planning Concepts of Different Application Scenarios ....................................................... 13
2.5.1 Airports, Bus Stations, and Docks ........................................................................... 13
2.5.2 Shopping Centers and Large Supermarkets............................................................ 14
2.5.3 Exhibition Centers, Convention Centers, and Gymnasiums .................................... 14
2.5.4 Office Buildings and Hotels ...................................................................................... 14
2.5.5 Government Offices and Companies ....................................................................... 15
3 Design for an Indoor Distributed System ................................................................................. 15
3.1 Collecting Coverage Target Information ............................................................................. 15
3.1.1 Collecting Coverage Information (Mandatory) ......................................................... 15
3.1.2 Collecting Service Information (Mandatory) ............................................................. 16
3.1.3 Collecting Capacity Information (Mandatory) ........................................................... 16
3.1.4 Analyzing Requirements of System Transmission Resources (Mandatory) ............ 16
3.2 Surveying and Testing the Indoor Distributed System ....................................................... 17
3.2.1 Surveying the Existing Network of the Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) ...... 17
3.2.2 Preparing Coverage Area Drawings (Mandatory) .................................................... 18
3.2.3 Surveying the Indoor Structure of a Building (Mandatory) ....................................... 18
3.2.4 Indoor CW Tests (Optional) ..................................................................................... 20
3.3 Estimating the Coverage and Capacity of an Indoor Distributed System........................... 20
3.3.1 Link Budget of an Indoor WCDMA Distributed System (Mandatory) ....................... 20
3.3.2 Estimating the Capacity of a Single Indoor WCDMA Distributed System (Mandatory)
........................................................................................................................................... 23
3.3.3 Link Budget of an Indoor WCDMA and DCS 1800 Shared Distributed System ...... 25
3.4 Choosing a Signal Source for an Indoor Distributed System ............................................. 27
3.4.1 Choosing a Proper Signal Source According to Capacity and Coverage
Requirements (Mandatory) ............................................................................................... 27
3.4.2 Repeater Influences on an Indoor Distributed System (a Key Issue) ...................... 27
3.5 Designing Indoor and Outdoor Handoffs ............................................................................ 30
3.5.1 Designing Intra-WCDMA System Handoffs (Mandatory) ......................................... 30
3.5.2 Planning Neighbor Cells for an Indoor Coverage System (Mandatory) ................... 31

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 4 of 86

3.6 Analyzing a Shared Indoor Distributed System and Control the Interference .................... 31
3.6.1 Analyzing a Shared Indoor Distributed System of the Operator (Mandatory) ......... 31
3.6.2 Controlling the Interference in a Shared Indoor Distributed System of the Operator
(Mandatory) ....................................................................................................................... 32
3.6.3 Analyzing an IRS a Shared Indoor Distributed System of Multiple Operators
(Optional) ........................................................................................................................... 37
3.6.4 Analyzing Interference Between WCDMA Systems of Different Operators (Optional)
........................................................................................................................................... 39
3.6.5 Methods of Controlling Indoor and Outdoor Interference (Mandatory) .................... 42
3.7 Designing Parameters of an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) ................................ 43
3.8 Choosing Components (Mandatory) ................................................................................... 43
3.8.1 Choosing a Combiner and a Filter for an Indoor Distributed System ...................... 43
3.8.2 Choosing Antennas for an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) ........................ 44
3.8.3 Choosing Feeders for an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) .......................... 47
3.8.4 Choosing a Power Splitter and a Coupler for an Indoor Distributed System
(Mandatory) ....................................................................................................................... 48
3.8.5 Choosing a Trunk Amplifier for an Indoor Distributed System ................................. 49
3.8.6 Choosing Feeder Connectors for an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) ......... 50
3.8.7 Replacing and Adding Components in an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) 50
3.9 Designing a Detailed Solution for an Indoor Distributed System ........................................ 51
3.9.1 Requirements on Design Reports of Indoor Distributed System Manufacturers
(Mandatory) ....................................................................................................................... 51
3.9.2 Reconstruction Concepts and a Schematic Diagram of an Indoor Distributed
System (Mandatory) .......................................................................................................... 51
3.9.3 Antenna Layout Plan of Floors in an Indoor Distributed System ............................. 52
3.9.4 Transmit Power Budget of Antenna Ports in an Indoor Distributed System
(Mandatory) ....................................................................................................................... 52
3.9.5 Detailed Network Topological Diagram of an Indoor Distributed System ................ 53
3.9.6 Detailed Cabling Diagram of an Indoor Distributed System .................................... 53
3.9.7 Material List of an Indoor Distributed System .......................................................... 54
3.10 Testing and Verifying an Indoor Distributed System and Improving the Solution (Optional)
.................................................................................................................................................. 57
3.11 Evaluating the Investment of an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) ........................ 58
3.11.1 Main Cases of the Investment of an Indoor Distributed System ............................ 58
3.11.2 Investment Model of an Indoor Distributed System ............................................... 59
3.11.3 Investment Estimate of an Indoor Distributed System ........................................... 61
3.12 Reviewing the Design Solution for an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory) ............... 62
4 Expansion and Evolution of an Indoor Distributed System ................................................... 63
4.1 Methods of Expanding the Capacity of an Indoor Distributed System ............................... 63
4.2 HSDPA Strategy in an Indoor Distributed System.............................................................. 63
4.2.1 Influences of HSDPA on the Original Indoor R99 Coverage ................................... 64

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 5 of 86

4.2.2 Influences of HSDPA on the Original Indoor R99 Capacity ..................................... 67
4.2.3 Design of HSDPA Indoor Coverage Solution ........................................................... 68
5 Optimization for an Indoor Distributed System ....................................................................... 72
5.1 Optimizing the Coverage of an Indoor Distributed System ................................................ 72
5.2 Optimizing the Handoff of an Indoor Distributed System ................................................... 73
5.3 Optimizing the Interference of an Indoor Distributed System ............................................. 73
6 Cases of Designing an Indoor Distributed System.................................................................. 73
6.1 Analyzing Target Determination for an Indoor Distributed System .................................... 73
6.1.1 Analyzing Coverage Targets .................................................................................... 73
6.1.2 Analyzing Service Requirements ............................................................................. 75
6.1.3 Analyzing Requirements of Transmission Resources ............................................. 75
6.2 Surveying and Testing an Indoor Distributed System ........................................................ 75
6.2.1 Surveying the Existing Network ............................................................................... 75
6.2.2 Surveying the Inside of the Building ......................................................................... 76
6.3 Making Link Budget and Estimating the Capacity of an Indoor Distributed System .......... 76
6.3.1 Making Link Budget for an Indoor WCDMA Distributed System.............................. 76
6.3.2 Estimating the Capacity of an Indoor Distributed System ........................................ 77
6.4 Choosing Signal Sources for an Indoor Distributed System .............................................. 79
6.5 Designing the Handoff of an Indoor Distributed System .................................................... 80
6.6 List of Newly-Added Main Devices of an Indoor Distributed System ................................. 80
6.7 Detailed Solution for an Indoor Distributed System ............................................................ 81
6.7.1 Concepts of Reconstructing an Indoor Distributed System ..................................... 81
6.7.2 Schematic Diagrams of the Networking of an Indoor Distributed System ............... 82
6.7.3 Detailed Network Topological Diagram of an Indoor Distributed System ................ 85
7 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 86
7.1 Improvement Based on V2.01 ............................................................................................ 86


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 6 of 86

List of Tables
Table 2-1 Comparison between intra-frequency and inter-frequency networking solutions for
an indoor distributed system ............................................................................................ 13
Table 3-1 Values of the distance loss coefficient of ITU-R.P 1238 model ............................... 22
Table 3-2 Values of the floor penetration loss coefficient of ITU-R.P 1238 model .................. 22
Table 3-3 Reference values of indoor WCDMA penetration losses ........................................ 23
Table 3-4 Service threshold calculation of an indoor WCDMA and DCS 1800 shared
distributed system ............................................................................................................ 25
Table 3-5 Design for Intra-frequency handoffs in and out of an elevator ................................ 30
Table 3-6 Analyzing spurious interference of GSM 900M BTS in the band of a WCDMA BTS
according to the protocol .................................................................................................. 35
Table 3-7 Analyzing spurious interference of DCS 1800M BTS in the band of a WCDMA BTS
according to the protocol .................................................................................................. 36
Table 3-8 Analyzing spurious interference of PHS BTS in the band of a WCDMA BTS
according to the protocol .................................................................................................. 37
Table 3-9 Example of IRS specifications ................................................................................. 38
Table 3-10 Estimated thresholds of the interference of operator B's macro cell BTS with
operator A's indoor distributed system ............................................................................. 40
Table 3-11 Estimated thresholds of the interference from operator A's own equipment ......... 42
Table 3-12 Antenna models of an indoor distributed system .................................................. 45
Table 3-13 Attenuation of feeders in an indoor distributed system ......................................... 47
Table 3-14 Parameter indexes of Kathrein coupler ................................................................. 48
Table 3-15 Parameter indexes of Kathrein power splitter ....................................................... 48
Table 3-16 A material list of an indoor distributed system ....................................................... 54
Table 3-17 Use scale model of devices and components of an indoor distributed system .... 59
Table 3-18 Example of calculating the reconstruction costs of a single-site indoor coverage
system .............................................................................................................................. 60
Table 3-19 Example of estimating Investments of an indoor distributed system .................... 61
Table 3-20 Key issues of a design review on the solution for an indoor distributed system ... 62
Table 4-1 Changes of dynamic power distribution in the case of the downlink load change of
indoor coverage................................................................................................................ 65
Table 4-2 Influences of HSDPA indoor coverage on the original R99 network coverage ....... 66

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 7 of 86

Table 4-3 Influences of HSDPA on the original R99 network capacity .................................... 67
Table 4-4 Merit and demerit comparison between independent networking and hybrid
networking ........................................................................................................................ 68
Table 4-5 Recommendation of networking solutions in various scenarios ............................. 69
Table 4-6 Merit and demerit comparison between the two modes of allocating power
resources in an indoor scenario ....................................................................................... 71
Table 4-7 Merit and demerit comparison between the two modes of allocating code resources
in an indoor scenario ........................................................................................................ 72
Table 6-1 Details about the floors in the coverage target........................................................ 74
Table 6-2 Elevators of the coverage target ............................................................................. 75
Table 6-3 GSM traffic and number of WCDMA users ............................................................. 78
Table 6-4 Service model .......................................................................................................... 78
Table 6-5 Traffic model values ................................................................................................. 78
Table 6-6 Distribution features of PS bearing types ................................................................ 79
Table 6-7 Indoor WCDMA traffic model ................................................................................... 79
Table 6-8 Choosing signal sources for an indoor distributed system ...................................... 80
Table 6-9 List of newly-added main devices of an indoor distributed system ......................... 80
Table 6-10 List of coverage areas of GSM and WCDMA signals ........................................... 82


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 8 of 86

List of Figures
Figure 2-1 Flow chart of designing an indoor distributed system ........................................... 11
Figure 3-1 Floor plan example of a building ........................................................................... 18
Figure 3-2 Example of an indoor photo .................................................................................. 20
Figure 3-3 Influence of a repeater on the noise floor of a BTS ............................................... 28
Figure 3-4 Interference between operator A's indoor distributed system and operator B's
outdoor BTS terminal ....................................................................................................... 40
Figure 3-5 Interference from operator A's own equipment ..................................................... 41
Figure 3-6 Sample of a combiner ............................................................................................ 44
Figure 3-7 Indoor antennas ..................................................................................................... 45
Figure 3-8 Leakage cables ..................................................................................................... 46
Figure 3-9 Log-per antennas .................................................................................................. 46
Figure 3-10 A power splitter and a coupler ............................................................................. 49
Figure 3-11 A trunk amplifier ................................................................................................... 50
Figure 3-12 A schematic diagram of reconstructing an indoor distributed system ................. 52
Figure 3-13 An antenna layout plan ........................................................................................ 52
Figure 3-14 Detailed network topological diagram of an indoor distributed system ............... 53
Figure 3-15 A detailed cabling diagram of an indoor distributed system ................................ 54
Figure 3-16 Example of an onsite test and verification in a floor ............................................ 57
Figure 6-1 Illustration of coverage targets .............................................................................. 73
Figure 6-2 Indoor photo of the building ................................................................................... 76
Figure 6-3 Calculation of indoor slow fading margin ............................................................... 77
Figure 6-4 Reconstructing an indoor distributed system ........................................................ 81
Figure 6-5 Part of the design for WCDMA signal sources (1) ................................................. 82
Figure 6-6 Part of the design for WCDMA signal sources (2) ................................................. 82
Figure 6-7 Vertical area coverage method of the small commodity market............................ 84
Figure 6-8 Detailed network topological diagram of an indoor distributed system ................. 86


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 9 of 86

Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design
Keywords
Design of indoor distribution system, signal source, link budget, interference analysis, IRS,
handoff, parts selection, and investment evaluation
Abstract
From the aspects of planning concept and design flow, this guide describes the planning
design process and attention points of an indoor distribution system as a reference of indoor
WCDMA distribution system project.
Acronyms and abbreviations
Abbreviation Full Spelling
BCCH Broadcasting Channel
DAS Distributed Antenna System
DCS 1800 Digital Cellular System at 1800 MHz
HSDPA High Speed Down Packet Access
IRS Integrated Radio System
POI Point of Interface
RRU Remote Radio Unit

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 10 of 86

1 Overview
This document is used to guide the planning design of an indoor WCDMA distributed
system.
The guide consists of the following chapters:
1 "Overview"
2 "Planning Concepts of an Indoor Distributed System"
3 "Design for an Indoor Distributed System"
4 "Expansion and Evolution of an Indoor Distributed System"
5 "Optimization for an Indoor Distributed System"
6 "Cases of Designing an Indoor Distributed System"
7 "Summary"
2 Planning Concepts of an Indoor Distributed
System
2.1 Design Flow of an Indoor Coverage System
The design for an indoor distributed system falls into the following three types:
Design for a single indoor WCDMA distributed system
Design for a multi-system shared indoor distributed system of a single telecom
operator
Design for an integrated radio system (IRS) of multiple telecom operators
This guide mainly describes the design scenario of the first type and briefs key design
points of the second and third types. Figure 2-1 shows the design flow based on the
key design points of an indoor distributed system.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 11 of 86

Start the project
Determine the targets of the
distributed system:
1. Analyze and determine coverage
targets
2. Analyze and determine basic
services
3. Analyze and determine the system
capacity
4. Analyze transmission resources
Is it a single WCDMA system
Survey the existing network of indoor system
Prepare coverage area drawings
Survey the indoor structure
Confirm the propagation model of
indoor distributed system
Estimate the link budget and
capacity of the system
Choose a networking solution and
a signal source
Control system interference
Design the switching of the
distributed system
Choose components for the indoor
distributed system
Design a solution for the
distributed system:
1. Distribution of floor antennas
2. Budget of antenna port power
3. Detailed network topology
4. Cabling diagram of the
distributed system
Generate a material list for the
indoor distributed system
Analyze the investment of the
indoor distributed system
Review and improve the
solution
Complete the design of the indoor
distributed system
Implement the engineering
Is it an IRS
Survey the existing
network of indoor system
Confirm coverage areas
of the IRS
Ask the leader for the
specifications of the IRS
The IRS commitment
satisfies the design
Determine the IRS
solution
Generate a material list
for the indoor distribution
system
Survey the existing network of
indoor system
Analyze the existing antenna
distribution
Test the existing indoor signals
Test the switching of the existing
system
Survey the existing reference
network
Confirm the propagation model of
indoor distributed system
Estimate the link budget and capacity of
the system
Choose a networking solution for the shared
distribution system and a signal source
Control the interference of the shared
distribution system
Design the switching of the
distributed system
Choose and replace components
for the indoor distributed system
Design the reconstruction of
the indoor distributed
system
Generate a material list for
the indoor distributed
system
Analyze the investment of
the indoor distributed
system
Review and improve
the solution
Reset system targets
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
This flow chart consists of the following design scenarios of an
indoor distributed system:
1. Design for a single WCDMA system
2. Design for a shared IRS of multiple operators
3. Design for a multi-system shared system of a single operator
No
Flow Chart of Designing an Indoor Distributed System

Figure 2-1 Flow chart of designing an indoor distributed system

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 12 of 86

2.2 Key Issues in Different Phases of Indoor Coverage
Phase 1: In the phase of network design, the Ec of edge coverage is the main focus
point for the network design and acceptance.
Phase 2: In the phase of early network optimization, the Ec/Io of a pilot in indoor cells
is the main focus point.
Phase 3: In the phase of network operation and optimization, the soft handoff ratio of
edge areas or special areas is the main focus point.
2.3 How to Help Operators with the Design of an Indoor
Coverage System
1) Huawei Network Planning Department helps an operator and a design institute
prepare a networking solution, design report template, and review template for an
indoor WCDMA coverage system.
2) The concerned manufacturer designs an indoor distributed system accordingly.
3) Huawei Network Planning Department helps the operator and the design institute
review the design report of the indoor distributed system. The manufacturer
optimizes the system based on review comments.
4) The design report passing the review is sent to the operator for filling. Then the
operator declares the project implementation.
2.4 Comparison Between Intra-frequency and
Inter-frequency Networking Solutions for an Indoor
Distributed System
Suggested strategy: Control the interference and realize the coverage through a
dominant intra-frequency solution and a secondary inter-frequency solution.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 13 of 86

Table 2-1 Comparison between intra-frequency and inter-frequency networking
solutions for an indoor distributed system

Intra-frequency Coverage
Solution for Both Indoor and
Outdoor Systems
Inter-frequency Coverage
Solution for Both Indoor and
Outdoor Systems
Merits
Handoffs between entrances and
exits of a building or an elevator
entrance and exit are soft
handoffs. The soft handoff
success rate is high and the
spectrum resources are used
effectively.
Indoor and outdoor interference is
small and the system capacity is
large.
Demerits
In dense urban areas, the large
intra-frequency interference
between indoor and outdoor cells
in high buildings affect the quality
and capacity.
Additional frequencies must be
added. The hard handoff success
rate is lower than that of soft
handoff.
Applicable scenarios
Early phase of network
construtction
Low buildings
Indoor scenarios with small
intra-frequency
interference
Indoor scenarios with low
traffic
Terminals not supporting
inter-frequency hard
handoffs
High buildings
Scenarios with large
intra-frequency
Scenarios with heavy traffic
Scenarios with abundant
frequency resources
Strategy suggestions
In the early phase of network construction, the indoor and outdoor
intra-frequency interference is small and the traffic is also small.
Therefore, use the intra-frequency strategy.
Clear the intra-frequency interference by optimizing the network. Then
use the inter-frequency solution to control interference.
Use the inter-frequency coverage strategy for meeting capacity
requirements. In a mature network, this strategy can help solve indoor
or outdoor interference and capacity problems.

2.5 Planning Concepts of Different Application Scenarios
Design principles and attention points for an indoor distributed system vary with
different scenarios classified by user distribution and building functions.
2.5.1 Airports, Bus Stations, and Docks
Coverage scenarios
Airports, bus stations, and docks
Coverage features

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 14 of 86

Both the social value and the economic value of indoor coverage are high. The
traffic density is heavy. Dominant common voice service users move frequently
in such open places. VIP areas in such places as an airport require seamless
coverage of data services. Generally, outdoors BTSs cover these areas.
Key design points
Indoor coverage is a supplement of dead zones and hot spots covered by
outdoor BTSs. Interference control is a major problem in these areas. In outdoor
BTSs, cells with redundant capacity can be cascaded to an RRU to cover indoor
areas, thus making full use of CE resources and ensuring softer handoffs for
indoor and outdoor users.
2.5.2 Shopping Centers and Large Supermarkets
Coverage scenarios
Shopping centers and large supermarkets
Coverage features
CS users are dominant. The traffic is distributed regularly, that is, in evenings or
on the whole days of a vacation. The traffic density is large in peak hours.
Key design points
In scenarios of this type, the structure is complex and coverage is the main
problem. Handoffs between entrances and exits of a hall must be considered.
Generally, use RRUs or micro BTSs as the major signal source.
2.5.3 Exhibition Centers, Convention Centers, and Gymnasiums
Coverage scenarios
Exhibition centers, convention centers, and gymnasiums
Coverage features
The traffic is mainly triggered by events. Sufficient margins must be reserved
during capacity estimate.
Key design points
Capacity is a key point for the indoor design of the scenarios of this type. Do not
set handoff areas in traffic peak zones or auditoriums. Ensure good coverage
and smooth handoff for the entrances and exits of such places. Generally, use
macro cells to cascade RRUs for coverage, making full use of CE resources. A
news center may have many coverage requirements on the data service. Use
multi-cell and multi-carrier configuration or the HSDPA function.
2.5.4 Office Buildings and Hotels
Coverage scenarios
Office buildings and hotels
Coverage features

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 15 of 86

In scenarios of this type, high-end users are more. Mainly consider users'
requirements on the coverage of data services.
Key design points
In business areas and shopping areas, the traffic is larger, whereas the traffic is
smaller in guest rooms. Consider the differences. Generally, use RRUs or micro
BTSs as the signal source. The drip irrigation technique of the multi-antenna with
small power is commonly used in the scenarios of this type. Ensure the good
coverage of CS services in such places as elevators, entrances and exits of a
hall, and garages.
2.5.5 Government Offices and Companies
Coverage scenarios
Government offices and companies
Coverage features
Scenarios of this type requires excellent network coverage. Voice services are
dominant and high-end users take a large proportion.
Key design points
Ensure seamless coverage of voice services and the coverage of data services
in VIP areas. The coverage is crucial. Generally, use macro cells or RRU for
coverage.
3 Design for an Indoor Distributed System
3.1 Collecting Coverage Target Information
3.1.1 Collecting Coverage Information (Mandatory)
The operator offers opinions and the concerned manufacturer collects coverage
information.
1) Determine whether to build a new indoor coverage system or to reuse the original
one.
2) Determine the specific floor where the coverage target is located.
3) Determine the requirements of coverage probability.
For a specific coverage floor, specify coverage probability requirements, which vary
with different requirements of design margin.
If the indoor coverage probability is 90% and the standard deviation of shadow
attenuation estimated indoors is 6 dB, the relevant design margin is 5 dB.
After collecting coverage information, make a link budget for the indoor distributed
system.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 16 of 86

3.1.2 Collecting Service Information (Mandatory)
The operator offers suggestions. Comments offered by Huawei are for your reference.
1) Determine types of service object requirements
Requirements of WCDMA services vary in the service threshold and system
capacity. Therefore, during the design of an indoor distribution system, confirm
that the WCDMA services require seamless coverage.
2) Determine the service thresholds after making sure of basic service
requirements.
The collected service information is a reference of link budget and capacity
estimate of the indoor distributed system.
3.1.3 Collecting Capacity Information (Mandatory)
The concerned manufacturer collects capacity information according to the opinions
offered the operator or referring to Huawei calculation methods.
1) Collect the capacity information of a newly-built indoor WCDMA distributed
system.
a) Predict the number of users of the coverage target.
b) Decide the traffic model with the operator.
2) Collect the capacity information of a shared Indoor GSM distributed system.
For an existing indoor GSM distributed system, you can predict the capacity of
indoor WCDMA distributed system according to GSM traffic.
a) From the operator, obtain the traffic of the indoor GSM distributed system in
the building.
b) Get the traffic percentage by the ratio of the GSM traffic in the building to the
total GSM traffic in the area.
After collecting the capacity information, calculate the capacity of indoor distributed
system.
3.1.4 Analyzing Requirements of System Transmission Resources
(Mandatory)
The concerned manufacturer analyzes the requirements of system transmission
resources by referring to Huawei analysis methods.
1) Check whether E1 cables or optical fibers are used for the transmission of
WCDMA coverage in the building.
2) Decide whether transmission resources are properly used according to the
calculated capacity and the type of signal source.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 17 of 86

If transmission resources are limited due to the operator's transmission
conditions, duly communicate with the operator to prevent disputes caused by
transmission bottlenecks due to increased capacity.
3.2 Surveying and Testing the Indoor Distributed System
3.2.1 Surveying the Existing Network of the Indoor Distributed System
(Mandatory)
I. Outdoor WCDMA BTSs Covering Indoors
If the existing WCDMA network still covers around the building designed for indoor
coverage, the outdoor cells may interfere with the indoor distributed system later built.
The main interference is pilot pollution. Generally, the higher the floor is, the more
serious pilot pollution becomes.
Therefore, you need to test the pilot signals of outdoor BTSs in the indoor environment
and to record the quantity and strength of pilots and the distribution of pilot signals in
the building. The test result is a reference of edge field strength design of the indoor
distributed system. In actual engineering, the strength of pilot signals of dominant
indoor cells is higher in the design margin than that of the strongest pilot signals of
outdoor cells. The edge field strength of indoor cell signals is about 5 dB higher than
that of outdoor cell signals.
The test can be made selectively inside the building. For example, choose one or two
floors at the bottom of the building, one or two floors in the middle, and one or two
floors at the top. The test needs Agilent-E6474A or Huawei PROBE for indoor
measurement.
II. No Outdoor WCDMA BTSs Covering Indoors
If no WCDMA BTSs covers outdoors but a GSM distributed system covers the inside
of a building, record the coverage level of the indoor GSM distributed system, pay
attention to the places or floors with poor indoor GSM distributed coverage, and make
handoff tests relevant to the GSM system. During the design for an indoor WCDMA
system, refer to the results of GSM network tests.
Make GSM signal level tests in different areas. The test items include floor information,
location information of the floor, and CELL_ID, signal strength, and neighbor BCCH
frequency and signal strength of the serving cells of the test point. Make handoff tests
in major indoor and outdoor handoff areas, especially entrances of halls and elevators.
Record such information as signal strengths of main serving cells and neighbor cells,
and form a GSM signal distributed diagram or table for the reference of indoor
WCDMA coverage design.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 18 of 86

3.2.2 Preparing Coverage Area Drawings (Mandatory)
The operator or the indoor distributed system manufacturer provides coverage area
drawings.
Obtain detailed building drawings, including the floor plan for each coverage target
and elevational drawing of each direction. Try to obtain an electronic copy in the
AutoCAD format and a scanned copy of engineering blueprint.
In addition, obtain the construction drawings of electrical and communication
equipment rooms in the building and mark the locations of allowable cabling holes and
the available transmission lines.

Figure 3-1 Floor plan example of a building
3.2.3 Surveying the Indoor Structure of a Building (Mandatory)
The design institute and the indoor distributed system manufacturer jointly complete
an indoor survey of a building.
I. Main Tasks of an Indoor Survey
Prepare information for the planning design of an indoor distributed system. Through
indoor survey and communications with the concerned property management
company, fulfill the following tasks:
Decide the coverage scope and specify coverage requirements and differences
of the floors in the building.
Take enough digital photos to show the indoor structure and outline of the
building.
Decide the materials and thickness of the inner walls, floors, and ceilings to
estimate the penetration loss.
For the penetration loss, refer to Table 3-3.
Decide available transmission, power, and cabling resources and confirm the
construction requirements of the concerned property management company.
Four floors
Scale 1:500

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 19 of 86

Decide the installation space for the equipment room, antennas, and feeders
required by BTS equipment.
Know the usage of each floor and estimate the number of users on each floor.
If an indoor GSM distributed system already exists, check the original design
scheme during the indoor survey, using it as a reference of designing a shared
indoor distributed system.
II. Survey on Indoor Cabling Resources
During a survey on cabling resources, know the bearing capacity and curve radius of
the cabling environment. Pay attention to the following two points about the survey on
the curve radius:
III. If the property management company provides PVC pipelines for cabling,
know the curve radius at the corners of the PVC pipelines. Know the curve
radius from teh vertical cabling rack of the building to the cabling corner of
each floor. Indoor Structure Shooting
Choose model floors before taking photos indoors to ensure efficient photographic
tasks and to provide enough feature information of the building. Suppose that there
are 25 floors in the target building. According to the building structure and floor layout,
take the first floor as a model floor. Choose one as a model floor from floors 2 to 5,
which are of the same structure and layout. Similarly, choose one from floors 6 to 25,
which are of the same structure and layout.
After choosing model floors, begin to take indoor photos. The number of photos to be
taken for each model floor must meet the following requirements:
Two to four photos: Embody the floor layout.
One or two photos: Embody the structure of the ceiling.
One or two photos: Show the locations for antennas.
One or two photos: Embody the features of outer walls and windows.
One or two photos: Embody the features of corridors and elevators.
One or two photos: Show unusual structures such as large metal objects, and
unusual equipment rooms (possible interference sources).
One or two photos: Show the panorama and outline of the building.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 20 of 86


Figure 3-2 Example of an indoor photo
3.2.4 Indoor CW Tests (Optional)
Generally, the calibration of indoor propagation models is not recommended. The
current planning software cannot calibrate propagation models. You can use the
existing propagation models. If the operator requires CW tests on a typical building,
the indoor distributed system manufacturer and Huawei can jointly complete the tests.
Making an indoor CW test is to obtain the indoor propagation feature information of the
coverage target. After a CW test, analyze test data and obtain the penetration loss
values of separation walls, floors, and ceilings in the building.
You can use the GATOR signal source as the signal source of an indoor CW test. The
output power is about 5 dBm, which can meet the requirements of an indoor test. For
transmitting antennas, use common vehicle antennas.
In a CW test, transmitting antennas must be placed near the chosen locations for
antennas, where antennas may be installed in actual engineering.
For more details about a CW test, see WCDMA Test Guide.
3.3 Estimating the Coverage and Capacity of an Indoor
Distributed System
3.3.1 Link Budget of an Indoor WCDMA Distributed System (Mandatory)
The indoor distributed system manufacturer completes a link budget of an indoor
distributed system by referring to the operator's comments and the calculating
methods of Huawei.
I. Choosing an Indoor Propagation Model
Keenan-Motley indoor propagation model
Based on the free space propagation model, the Keenan-Motley model is added with
the penetration loss of walls and floors. This model uses the following formula:

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 21 of 86

( ) ( ) ( ) W P d f PL + + + = log 20 log 20 5 . 32 dB
f : frequency, its unit: MHz
d : distance between a UE and a transmitter, its unit: km
P : reference value of wall loss
W : number of walls
In this formula, multipath effects are not considered, the penetration loss is regarded
only as the product of the number of walls and the reference value of wall loss, and all
walls use the same penetration loss value. Therefore, the result of this formula is
inaccurate.
The following is another formula improved from the above one. A finer model
considers the penetration losses of walls and floors of different types.
( ) ( ) ( )

= =
+ + + + =
J
j
wj wj
I
i
fi fi
L k L k d f PL
1 1
log 20 log 20 5 . 32 dB

fi
k : number of type- i floors penetrated

wj
k : number of type- j walls penetrated

fi
L : penetration loss of type- i floors

wj
L : penetration loss of type- j walls
I : number of floor types
J : number of wall types
Relevant experiments show that the typical value of attenuation through floors is 12 dB
to 32 dB and the value of attenuation through walls depends on the type of separation
walls used. If typical soft separation walls are used, the attenuation value is 1 dB to 5
dB, whereas the value is 5 dB to 20 dB for hard separation walls.
ITU-R P.1238 indoor propagation model
Currently, the industry recommends the ITU-R P.1238 indoor propagation model.
This model divides the propagation scenarios into NLOS and LOS.
For NLOS, the model uses the following formula:
( ) ( )
( ) o
X dB 28 log log 20
ID
+ + +
n f
L d N f L

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 22 of 86

N : coefficient of distance losses
f : frequency, its unit: MHz
d : distance between an UE and a transmitter, its unit: m, m 1 > d

( ) n f
L : coefficient of floor penetration losses

o
X : slow fading margin, whose value is relevant to the coverage probability
requirements and the standard deviation of indoor slow fading
For LOS, the model uses the following formula:

o
X dB d f PL
LOS
+ + = 28 ) log( 20 ) log( 20
The applicable frequency range of the model is 1800 MHz to 2000 MHz.
Table 3-1 Values of the distance loss coefficient of ITU-R.P 1238 model
Coefficient of Distance Losses N
Frequency (GHz)
Residences Offices Shops
1.8-GSMHz 28 30 22

Table 3-2 Values of the floor penetration loss coefficient of ITU-R.P 1238 model
Coefficient of floor Penetration Losses
( ) n f
L
Frequency Residences Offices Shops
900 MHz -
9 (1 floor)
19 (2 floors)
24 (3 floors)
-
1.8-GSMHz 4 n 15 + 4 (n - 1) 6 + 3 (n - 1)
Note: "n" denotes the number of the floors to be penetrated, larger than or equal to 1.

II. Estimating the Indoor Edge Field Strength and the Antenna Transmit Power
Estimating the indoor edge field strength if outdoor BTSs are built
According to the results of indoor pilot tests, design the edge field strength of
indoor cell signals higher than the indoor pilot Ec of outdoor cells by 5 dB, which
is regarded as an experience reference value. In addition, consider the Ec and
Ec/Io requirements of the lowest access thresholds of a service. Considering the
above two points, determine the indoor edge field strength.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 23 of 86

Estimating the indoor edge field strength if outdoor BTSs are not enabled
According to the results of outdoor BTS coverage prediction, input the longitude
and latitude where the building with an indoor distributed system to be built is
located into the coverage predication result diagram. Then you can see the pilot
Ec of outdoor cells outside the building. Design the edge field strength of indoor
cell signals higher than the pilot Ec of outdoor cells outside the building by 5 dB,
which is regarded as an experience reference value. In addition, consider the
Ec and Ec/Io requirements of the lowest access thresholds of this service.
Considering the above two points, determine the indoor edge field strength.
III. Deciding the Path loss According to the Chosen Indoor Propagation Model
IV. Getting the Transmit Power of Antenna Port by Adding the Path Loss and
the Design Value of Edge Field Strength
V. Statistic Reference Values of Indoor Penetration Loss Tests
Table 3-3 Reference values of indoor WCDMA penetration losses
Item
Signal
type
Reference
value
Theoretical value or
industrial empirical
value
Unit
Penetration loss through an
elevator door
WCDMA 22.6 2030 dB
Average of the penetration
loss through an indoor brick
separation wall
WCDMA 710 10 dB
Average of the penetration
loss through a reinforced
concrete wall
WCDMA About 20 1530 dB
Penetration loss through thin
glass (on an ordinary glass
window)
WCDMA About 1 1 dB
Penetration loss through thick
glass (
WCDMA About 3 3 dB

3.3.2 Estimating the Capacity of a Single Indoor WCDMA Distributed System
(Mandatory)
The indoor distributed system manufacturer estimates the capacity of a single indoor
distributed system by referring to the operator's comments and the calculating
methods of Huawei.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 24 of 86

I. Estimating the Capacity of a Newly-Built Indoor WCDMA Distributed System
1) During a building survey, predict the number of users in the coverage target and
the traffic model confirmed by the operator (busy hour traffic and throughput of a
single user).
2) Calculate the number of CEs, number of uplink and downlink demodulation
boards, and number of E1 links required by a single site according to the
single-site CE calculation by using the RND tool.
The calculated numbers of CEs and uplink and downlink demodulation boards
required by a site of an indoor distributed system can be taken as a reference of
choosing a signal source of the indoor distributed system. Compare the calculated
number of E1 links with the original transmission resources of the operator. If the
transmission resources are limited, remind the operator in time.
II. Estimating the Capacity of a Shared Indoor GSM Distributed System
If the operator regards that the percentage of the indoor GSM traffic to the total GSM
traffic is the same as the percentage of the indoor WCDMA traffic to the total WCDMA
traffic in the same building, use the following calculating methods. Otherwise, predict
the number of users in the coverage target before other tasks.
1) Determine the building that needs a shared distributed system.
2) From the operator, obtain the traffic of the indoor GSM distributed system in the
building.
3) Traffic of the indoor GSM distributed system / Total GSM traffic in the area =
Percentage of the traffic of the indoor GSM distributed system to the total traffic
4) Total predicted number of WCDMA users in the area x Percentage of the traffic of
the indoor GSM distributed system to the total traffic = Number of WCDMA users
of the indoor distributed system
5) Determine with the operator the traffic model of the indoor distributed system
(busy hour traffic and throughput of a single user).
6) Calculate the number of CEs, number of uplink and downlink demodulation
boards, and number of E1 links according to the single-site CE calculation by
using the RND tool.
The calculated numbers of CEs and uplink and downlink demodulation boards
required by a site of an indoor distributed system can be taken as a reference of
choosing a signal source of the indoor distributed system. Compare the calculated
number of E1 links with the original transmission resources of the operator. If the
transmission resources are limited, remind the operator in time.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 25 of 86

3.3.3 Link Budget of an Indoor WCDMA and DCS 1800 Shared Distributed
System
When making a link budget for an Indoor WCDMA and DCS 1800 shared distributed
system, consider the frequency loss differences between different systems and the
insertion loss differences during the access to a shared distributed system.
This section describes the reuse of the existing DCS 1800 system, covering the
differences of WCDMA and DCS 1800 shared distributed system. Figure out the
BCCH receiving level relevant to the DCS 1800 system required for satisfying the
service access thresholds of WCDMA system. That is, through the BCCH receiving
level test of the existing DCS 1800 system, you can evaluate whether the system can
satisfy the service threshold requirements after direct WCDMA signal combination in
the future.
Table 3-4 Service threshold calculation of an indoor WCDMA and DCS 1800 shared
distributed system
Minimum SigLvl requirements based on link budget
Voice CS64k PS64/384 PS128/384 PS144/384 PS384/384
max CL in UL (dB)
a
142.7 137.4 137.7 134.9 134.4 130.2
max CL in DL (dB)
b
144.1 138.8 139.1 136.3 135.8 131.6
Tx Power P-CPICH
c
33 33 33 33 33 33
minimum P-CPICH
RSCP
requirements
(dBm)
d=c-b
-111.1 -105.8 -106.1 -103.3 -102.8 - 98.6
design margin (dB)
e
5 5 5 5 5 5
indoor coverage
P-CPICH target
(dBm)
F=d+e
-106.1 -100.8 -101.1 -98.3 -97.8 -93.6
Tx Power of BCCH
of co-site GSM BTS
(dBm)
g
39 39 39 39 39 39

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 26 of 86

Minimum SigLvl requirements based on link budget
Voice CS64k PS64/384 PS128/384 PS144/384 PS384/384
Coupling loss
difference between
UMTS and
GSM1800 band
(dB)
h
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Additional loss to
connect NodeB into
existing GSM DAS
(dB)
i
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Min BCCH target
(dBm)
j=f+g-c+h+i
-97.1 -91.8 -92.1 -89.3 -88.8 -84.6

In Table 3-4, the parts in pink are output results, those in green are input values, and
those colorless are constant items. To get the link budget values in Table 3-4, we
suppose as follows:
The Tx Power P-CPICH of the BTS in the indoor WCDMA system is 33 dBm.
The Tx Power of BCCH of the co-site GSM BTS in an indoor GSM system is 39
dBm.
The coupling loss difference between UMTS and GSM1800 band refers to the
uplink frequency loss difference.
The additional loss to connect NodeB into existing GSM DAS refers to the
insertion loss caused by the combiner when the WCDMA signal source is
introduced into the indoor GSM distributed system.
The maximum transmit power of GSM BTS signals must be set according to facts.
By referring to the actually-tested level of the indoor GSM distributed system, you can
know whether the indoor GSM distributed system can meet the access threshold
requirements of WCDMA services if the WCDMA and DCS 1800 systems combine
directly. If not, reconstruct the indoor distributed system accordingly.
This link budge is for the reference of calculating the WCDMA service threshold levels
by using the existing the GSM system.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 27 of 86

3.4 Choosing a Signal Source for an Indoor Distributed
System
3.4.1 Choosing a Proper Signal Source According to Capacity and Coverage
Requirements (Mandatory)
The indoor distributed system manufacturer chooses a proper signal source by
referring to the operator's comments and Huawei solution.
According to coverage and capacity requirements in different scenarios, choose
relevant devices for the signal source of an indoor distributed system.
Choosing indoor coverage signal sources of small buildings
A small building is lower than 10 floors and its total area is smaller than 10,000 m
2
.
If coverage and capacity requirements are met, use the microcell BTS3801C to
combine with the original system and reconstruct the combined system.
Choosing indoor coverage signal sources of medium sized buildings
A medium sized building is of 10 to 20 floors and its total area is smaller than
20,000 m
2
. If coverage and capacity requirements are met, use one BBU3806 and
two RRU3801Cs to combine with the original system and reconstruct the
combined system.
Choosing indoor coverage signal sources of large sized buildings
A large sized building is of 20 to 30 floors and its total area is smaller than 30,000
m
2
. If coverage and capacity requirements are met, use one BBU3806 and three
RRU3801Cs to combine with the original system and reconstruct the combined
system.
Choosing indoor coverage signal sources of ultra-large buildings
An ultra-large building is of over 30 floors, having skirt buildings. Its total area is
larger than 30,000 m
2
. If coverage and capacity requirements are met, use two
BBU3806s and multiple RRU3801Cs or one BBU and multiple pico RRUs to
combine with the original system and reconstruct the combined system.
Choosing signal sources for both indoor and outdoor coverage scenarios
For the scenarios requiring both indoor and outdoor coverage, use one BBU plus
one RRU or a macro BTS plus one RRU to make full use of CE resources of
signal sources.
3.4.2 Repeater Influences on an Indoor Distributed System (a Key Issue)
The indoor distributed system manufacturer chooses a proper signal source by
referring to the comments of the operator and Huawei.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 28 of 86

Restrict the use of repeaters and trunk amplifiers in an indoor distributed system to
control the interference and to reduce the influence on the capacity of the system.
I. Merits, Demerits, and Use Suggestions of a Repeater
Radio frequency (RF) repeater
Merits: Requires no transmission resources.
Demerits: Insufficient isolation between the donor antenna and the service
antenna may cause self-excitation. The repeater causes pilot pollution easily,
thus affecting the network quality. It may also increase the noise level of donor
BTS receiver, thus reducing the capacity and the coverage radius of the system.
In addition, the repeater affects RRM algorithms such as power control, handoff,
and admission algorithms.
Fiber repeater
Merits: Transmitting signals through fibers, a fiber repeater is stabler than an RF
repeater. Tx and Rx isolation does not need to be considered and self-excitation
does not occur easily.
Demerits: A fiber repeater may increase the noise level of donor BTS receiver,
thus reducing the capacity and the coverage radius of the system. It may cause
longer delay, thus affecting the location service. In addition, the repeater affects
RRM algorithms such as power control, handoff, and admission algorithms.
Suggestions: Do not use an RF repeater as a signal source of an indoor
distributed system in urban areas. A fiber repeater can be used only in the
scenarios with low capacity requirements, such as a close underground parking
garage.
II. Repeater Influences on the Noise Floor Rise of a Donor BTS

Figure 3-3 Influence of a repeater on the noise floor of a BTS
BTS noise increment
Cascade noise
increment of a repeater

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 29 of 86

In Figure 3-3, the x-axis is the noise increment factor
rise
N
(dB) and the y-axis is the
noise increment (dB) including the BTS noise increment
rise BTS
F

A
and the repeater
noise increment
rise REP
F

A .
) 10 1 lg( 10
10
) (dB N
rise BTS
rise
F + = A

dB (1)
) 10 1 lg( 10
10
) (dB N
rise REP
rise
F

+ = A dB (2)
) ( ) (
d REP BTS REP rise
L G F F N + = dB (3)
REP
F Noise coefficient (dB) of a repeater
BTS
F Noise coefficient (dB) of the donor BTS
REP
G Uplink gain (dB) of the repeater
d
L Path loss (dB) from the uplink Tx port of the repeater to the Rx port of the
donor BTS, including the cable loss, antenna gain, and space path loss
) (
d REP
L G Net gain (dB)
Formulas (1) and (2) show that a repeater can increase the uplink noise floor of the
donor BTS by 3 dB when the noise increment factor
rise
N
is 0. Meanwhile, the noise
floor of the repeater also increases by 3 dB. The noise floor increase means the
decrease of the receiving sensitivity, increase of the UE transmit power, and reduction
of the uplink coverage radius.
A repeater can increase the noise floor of both the donor BTS and the repeater itself.
The noise floor is balanced when
rise
N
is 0.
The key factor of a repeater to the noise increase of the donor BTS is the uplink gain
of the repeater. Reducing the uplink gain of the repeater may reduce the noise
increase of the donor BTS. Because uplink losses cannot be totally made up, however,
the noise floor of the repeater itself increases. UEs in the repeater coverage area must
increase the transmit power to make up the loss difference value.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 30 of 86

3.5 Designing Indoor and Outdoor Handoffs
3.5.1 Designing Intra-WCDMA System Handoffs (Mandatory)
I. Designing Handoffs Between the Entrances and Exits of a Hall
The size of an handoff area at the entrances and exits of a hall depends on the
settings of handoff parameters and the Ec and Ec/Io of the edge field strength.
Generally, use Huawei default settings of the baseline parameters. To avoid too
much indoor signal leakage, ensure that the pilot Ec outdoors five to seven
meters away from the door is smaller than -95 dBm.
Generally, the handoff area at the entrance and exit of a hall is within the range of
five to seven meters outdoors away from the hall door. The handoff area cannot
be close to the road or deep indoors.
II. Designing Handoffs at the Entrance and Exit of an Indoor Elevator
For the entrance and exit of an elevator, use intra-frequency soft handoffs. If you use
the indoor and outdoor inter-frequency solution, use the inter-frequency coverage
solution for the entire building.
Table 3-5 Design for Intra-frequency handoffs in and out of an elevator
Building Design for elevator coverage and handoff
Small building (of less
than 10 floors)
Use a directional antenna at the top of the elevator shaft.
Vertically downward, the antenna directly covers the elevator
shaft. No handoff exists in a same cell.
Medium sized building (of
10 to 20 floors)
Install a small directional antenna every several floors in the
elevator shaft to vertically cover the elevator shaft. If the
building is covered by two cells, use the cell signals of lower
floors to cover the elevator shaft. On lower floors or at the exit of
the elevator on the first floor, UEs are in a same cell. Therefore,
no handoff is triggered.
Large building (of 20 to 30
floors)
The signals of two cells are introduced to cover the elevator
shaft. It is recommended that the system cover the elevator
shaft by different segments, which are the same as the floors.
During the moving of the elevator, soft handoffs between two
cells are performed in the elevator.
Ultra-large building (of
over 30 floors)
Cover the elevator shaft by segments, which are the same as
the floors. Soft handoffs are performed in the elevator. You can
also use leakage cables for elevator coverage.

III. Designing Handoffs at the Indoor Windows of a High Building
Outdoor cell signals are easy to get into the windows of a high building. As a result,
pilot pollution and ping-pong handoffs occur, which cause call drop easily. Therefore,

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 31 of 86

the pilot power at the antenna port near the windows of a high building must be
designed 5 dB margin higher than the signals of outdoor cells for the control of
handoffs between indoor and outdoor cells of the high building.
3.5.2 Planning Neighbor Cells for an Indoor Coverage System (Mandatory)
For the neighbor planning of an indoor distributed system, because an indoor
coverage area is relatively closed, consider the signal strength of the actual handoff
area when setting the neighborship. The basic principle is that the neighborship must
be as simple as possible.
I. Choosing Neighbor Cells in Indoor and Outdoor Intra-frequency and
Inter-frequency Cases
Make a choice according to the planning emulation results and the neighborship of the
co-site indoor GSM distributed system.
If outdoor BTSs are built, take the site survey results as a reference and choose the
outdoor cells with good and stable Ec and Ec/Io as mutual neighbors of indoor cells.
II. Choosing Neighbor Cells for the Cells of a High Building
Planning phase
In this phase, it is hard to tell stable cells with strong signals from unstable cells
with weak signals. Considering the complexness of indoor environment and the
uneven distribution of indoor signals of a same outdoor cell, Huawei recommends
two-way neighbor planning based on the results or logical relations of an indoor
signal survey.
Optimization phase
A one-way neighbor solution is that the indoor cells of a high building are not used
as neighbors of the outdoor cells. After an indoor distributed system comes into
operation, if it is found during optimization that the large fluctuation of outdoor
signals of a high building causes frequent indoor and outdoor handoffs and thus
affects the network quality, you can use the one-way neighbor solution as an
optimization means.
3.6 Analyzing a Shared Indoor Distributed System and
Control the Interference
3.6.1 Analyzing a Shared Indoor Distributed System of the Operator
(Mandatory)
The indoor distributed system manufacturer analyze the shared indoor distributed
system by referring to the comments of the operator and Huawei.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 32 of 86

Generally, the operator may choose a shared indoor distributed system to save costs.
The following are the key points for a shared indoor distributed system:
Reducing influences on the original system
Try to reduce changes and influences on the original system. According to the
results calculated by the detailed topological diagram of the system design, the
indoor distributed system manufacturer evaluates influences on the original
system. The network reconstruction must try to solve such problems as serious
signal leakage or coverage insufficiency of the original system.
Referring to the design of the original system
For the design of a new system, refer to the solution and actual test data of the
original system. Refer to the design solution of the original system and offer the
most proper reconstruction ideas. In the new system, avoid such problems as
handoff failure, call drop, and interference occurring in the indoor tests of the
original system
Transforming components
Reuse the passive components of the original system that have good
performance and satisfy frequency requirements. The combiner must meet the
requirements of isolation and intermodulation perforation index. Try to use trunk
amplifiers less. Mainly, use 1/2-inch feeders. For some trunks or distribution
cables with large losses, use 7/8-inch feeders.
Choosing signal sources
According to the coverage and capacity requirements in the system design,
choose a proper signal source. For urban areas, be careful to choose a repeater
as the signal source of the indoor coverage system.
Controlling costs
Try to save costs in engineering reconstruction. State reasons before replacing
or adding components.
3.6.2 Controlling the Interference in a Shared Indoor Distributed System of
the Operator (Mandatory)
Interference in a shared indoor distributed system involves three aspects:
Congestion interference
Intermodulation interference
Spurious interference
To clear outband interferences, the simplest way is to add a filter to the receiver. To
clear inband interference, however, you may reduce the power of the transmitter or
add a filter to the transmitter. Space isolation is effective for spurious interference,
receiver congestion, and intermodulation interference. The isolation size depends on

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 33 of 86

the maximum isolation required by various interferences. For an indoor distribution
system, to reduce transmitting intermodulation interference and suppress spurious
interference is to add a filter to the transmitter.
For more details about interference control, see Guide to WCDMA Antenna and
Feeder Design-20060323-A-3.0.
I. Congestion Interference
Definition:
If interference signals are too strong, they may congest the WCDMA receiver and
exceed the working scope of the amplifier and the frequency mixer, thus making the
receiver fail to demodulate signals normally and interfering with the operation of the
receiver. Congestion falls into inband congestion and outband congestion. Congestion
interference has fewer impacts on the system.
Solution:
To relieve inband congestion, add a filter to the transmitter. To relieve outband
congestion, add a filter to the receiver. For the requirements of filter isolation, see the
methods of calculating isolation in the following examples.
For example:
Calculate the inband congestion interference caused by the spurious signals of
GSM 900M BTS in bands 1920 MHz to1980 MHz.
Spurious signals of GSM 900M BTS in non-GSM frequency band: -30 dBm / 3
MHz
Maximum transmit power of a GSM 900M BTS: 46 dBm / 200 KHz
Required congestion of a WCDMA receiver: s -40 dBm (inband)
s -15 dBm (outband)
s -16 dBm (GSM and DCS inband)
Because the spurious signals of GSM 900M BTS in the WCDMA receiving
frequency band is -30 dBm / 3 MHz (equal to -29 dBm / 3.84 MHz) and the
WCDMA inband congestion is required equal to or less than -40 dBm, the
isolation of an antenna must be: -29 dBm / 3.84 MHz (-40 dBm / 3.84 MHz) =
11 dB
Calculate the inband congestion interference caused by the spurious signals of
DCS 1800M BTS in bands 1920 MHz to1980 MHz.
Spurious signals of DCS 1800M BTS in non-DCS frequency band: -30 dBm / 3
MHz
Maximum transmit power of a DCS 1800M BTS: 46 dBm / 200 KHz
Required congestion of a WCDMA receiver: s -40 dBm (inband)

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 34 of 86

s -15 dBm (outband)
s -16 dBm (GSM and DCS inband)
Because the spurious signals of DCS 1800M BTS in the WCDMA receiving
frequency band is -30 dBm / 3 MHz (equal to -29 dBm / 3.84 MHz) and the
WCDMA inband congestion is required equal to or less than -40 dBm, the
isolation of an antenna must be:
-29 dBm / 3.84 MHz (-40 dBm / 3.84 MHz) = 11 dB
Calculate the inband congestion interference caused by the spurious signals of
PHS BTS in the band of a WCDMA BTS.
Required congestion of a WCDMA receiver: s -40 dBm (inband)
Strictly, the maximum transmit power of a PHS BTS is 27 dBm. Then, the
required isolation of an antenna is calculated as follows:
27 (-40) = 67 dB
If the adjacent channel interference is considered when a WCDMA BTS works in
band 1920 MHz, the adjacent-channel congestion signal allowed by the WCDMA
receiver is -52 dBm. The isolation between the systems that meets the
congestion condition is:
27 (-52) = 79 dB
II. Intermodulation Interference
Definition:
If multiple systems coexist, intermodulation products may be generated between
different frequencies of different systems, thus causing interference. If the antenna
system uses improper components, when signals of different frequencies pass
through the components, intermodulation occurs. Due to the nonlinearity of a
transmitter, the signals generate intermodulation products together with transmitting
signals of the transmitter. The transmission of intermodulation products and useful
signals together through an antenna may cause interference with the receiver.
Solution:
A rational frequency plan can reduce intermodulation interference to a tolerable scope.
For component intermodulation interference, restrain it through component index
selection and engineering standards, or clear it by replacing the components with
lowered performance. To relieve inband intermodulation interference, add a filter to the
transmitter. To relieve outband intermodulation interference, add a filter to the receiver.
For the requirements of filter isolation, see the methods of calculating isolation in the
following examples.
For example:

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 35 of 86

Calculate the isolation according to the intermodulation interference arising from
other WCDMA signals and the spurious signals of GSM 900M BTS in bands 1920
MHz to 1980 MHz.
Interference signals in the band of a receiver required by the WCDMA receiving
intermodulation features: s -48 dBm
Spurious signals of GSM 900M BTS in bands 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz, stipulated
in the protocol: -30 dBm / 3 MHz
Therefore, the required isolation is:
-30 dBm / 3MHz (-48 dBm / 3.84 MHz) + (10log (3.84 MHz / 3 MHz)) = 19 dB
Calculate the isolation according to the intermodulation interference arising from
other WCDMA signals and the spurious signals of DCS 1800M BTS in bands
1920 MHz to 1980 MHz.
Interference signals in the band of a receiver required by the WCDMA receiving
intermodulation features: s -48 dBm
Spurious signals of DCS 1800M BTS in bands 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz,
stipulated in the protocol: -30dBm/3MHz
Therefore, the required isolation is:
-30 dBm / 3 MHz (-48 dBm / 3.84 MHz) + (10log (3.84 MHz / 3 MHz)) = 19 dB
III. Spurious Interference
Definition:
The unideal features and broadband noises of the frequency mixer, filer, and power
amplifier in a transmitter may generate many useless outband signals, called spurious
signals. When transmitted from an antenna, spurious signals interfere with the
receiver of another system. Spurious interference affects the system most greatly.
Solution:
To relieve inband spurious interference, add a filter to the transmitter. To relieve
outband spurious interference, add a filter to the receiver. For the requirements of filter
isolation, see the methods of calculating isolation in the following examples.
For example:
Calculate the isolation and the spurious interference of GSM 900M BTS in the
receiving band of WCDMA BTS.
Table 3-6 Analyzing spurious interference of GSM 900M BTS in the band of a
WCDMA BTS according to the protocol
Value Description
Spurious
interference value
-29
-30 dBm / 3
MHz (required

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 36 of 86

(dBm / 3.84 MHz) by the
protocol)
Permissible
value (dB) of
sensibility drop of
the interfered
system
< 0.1
dB
< 0.8 dB
< 3
dB
< 6 dB
< 10
dB
-
Permissible
interference value
(dBm / 3.84 MHz)
of the interfered
system
-121 -112 -105 -100 -96
-105 dBm /
3.84 MHz
(noises)
Required isolation
between systems
92 83 76 71 67 -

Calculate the isolation and the spurious interference of DCS 1800M BTS in the
receiving band of WCDMA BTS.
Table 3-7 Analyzing spurious interference of DCS 1800M BTS in the band of a
WCDMA BTS according to the protocol
Value Description
Spurious
interference
value (dBm /
3.84 MHz)
-29
-30 dBm / 3 MHz
(required by the
protocol)
Permissible
value (dB) of
sensibility drop
of the interfered
system
< 0.1
dB
< 0.8
dB
< 3
dB
< 6 dB
< 10
dB
-
Permissible
interference
value (dBm /
3.84 MHz) of the
interfered
system
-121 -112 -105 -100 -96
-105 dBm / 3.84
MHz (noises)
Required
isolation
between
systems
92 83 76 71 67 -

Calculate the isolation and the spurious interference of PHS BTS in the receiving
band of a WCDMA BTS.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 37 of 86

Table 3-8 Analyzing spurious interference of PHS BTS in the band of a WCDMA BTS
according to the protocol
Value Description
Spurious
interference
value (dBm /
3.84 MHz)
-38 dBm
-26 dBm / 60
MHz
(required by
the protocol)
Permissible
value (dB) of
sensibility drop
of the interfered
system
< 0.1 dB < 0.8dB < 3 dB
< 6
dB
< 10 dB -
Permissible
interference
value (dBm /
3.84 MHz) of
the interfered
system
-121 -112 -105 -100 -96
-105 dBm
/3.84 MHz
(noises)
Required
isolation
between
systems
83 74 67 62 58 -

3.6.3 Analyzing an IRS a Shared Indoor Distributed System of Multiple
Operators (Optional)
Operators choose the mode of a shared indoor distributed system. There is a special
phenomenon about the indoor coverage outside China: Multiple operators share an
indoor distributed system, antenna system, and equipment room, due to too expensive
expenses such as rents and property management fees. They call such a site IRS. We
rarely see such a case in China. Each IRS has a leader operator, who manages the
shared parts. Other operators pay the leader operator and directly connect their
feeders and cables to the POI. The leader operator is responsible for the rest,
including commissioning and guarantee. Generally, an IRS connects with multiple
systems, such as GSM, DCS, CDMA, and WCDMA.
With fiercer competition in mobile communications, more operators will consider using
an IRS to build their networks for cost saving. Especially, because the property
problem is hard to be solved, more and more IRSs will come forth. This document
takes an indoor WCDMA distributed system outside China as an example, indicating
the issues to be considered when a signal source is introduced into an IRS.
Generally, different system signals of different operators are led into the IRS through
POIs. Currently, POIs fall into two types from the aspect of application: passive POI
and active POI. An active POI is relevant to signal amplification. That is, it is added

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 38 of 86

with a power amplifier. A passive POI is simpler in design, similar to a more complex
multi-system combiner. A POI system designer needs to consider the influence that
the noise coefficient of an active POI may have on the sensitivity of the system, as well
as the spurious and congestion interference between systems. Let us describe the
issues to be considered for designing and using a POI system from the following two
angles:
As the leader of the POI system
When designing the POI system, consider the POI selection first. Such materials
are scare currently. Generally, assume various conditions to deduce the threshold
levels of services. Secondly, consider dividing the transmission and reception of
the whole POI system. If many signals are introduced, spurious interference and
intermodulation interference become unpredictable. To maximally reduce
intermodulation and spurious interference, do consider dividing transmission and
reception when designing a POI system.
As a user of the POI system
The leader completes the design of the POI system. What a user does is to
introduce signals according to the POI specifications provided by the leader.
Generally, the design results meet the requirements of service threshold levels in
the POI specifications. Table 3-9 lists the WCDMA IRS specifications that
operator A provides for operator B.
Table 3-9 Example of IRS specifications
Specifications of WCDMA IRS
Downlink Requirement
Item Description Data Unit
DL-1 Data Rate 384 kbps
DL-2 Maximum no. of carriers 3 no.
DL-3 Cut-in Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) power per carrier 30 dBm
DL-4 Maximum composite power to POI 43 dBm
DL-5 Minimum Carrier-to-Intermodulation 45 dBc
DL-6
Minimum CPICH signal level* (MinDownLev) at user terminal per
carrier
-85 dBm
DL-7 Minimum percentage of time of measurements > MinDownLev 90 %
DL-8 Minimum percentage of area of measurements > MinDownLev 90 %
Uplink Requirement
Item Description Data Unit
UL-1 Data Rate 384 Kbps

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 39 of 86

UL-2 Transmit power at user terminal 21 dBm
UL-3
Maximum noise received power level at no load at 3840kHz at
POI
-98 dBm
UL-4 Minimum Carrier-to-Intermodulation 33 dBc
UL-5 Minimum uplink signal level** (MinUpLev) at POI -90 dBm
UL-6 Minimum percentage of time of measurements > MinUpLev 90 %
UL-7 Minimum percentage of area of measurements > MinUpLev 90 %

In the above example, operator B's WCDMA signal sources are introduced into
operator A's IRS. If the pilot power of each carrier of operator B's WCDMA input
signals is ensured to be larger than 30 dBm but less than 43 dBm, the downlink
receiving Ec for PS384K services can be larger than -85 dBm and the uplink receiving
Ec of the BTS larger than -90 dBm within 90% of the time in 90% of the coverage
areas. During the design of an IRS, the main task for a user is to analyze whether the
IRS specifications provided by the leader can meet users' requirements.
3.6.4 Analyzing Interference Between WCDMA Systems of Different
Operators (Optional)
Surely, the existing network does not have only one WCDMA operator. Therefore, the
problem of interference between systems of different operators must be considered
during the design phase of an indoor distributed system. Generally, consider the
interference between two operators' systems in adjacent bands.
Suppose that operator A and operator B are in the adjacent bands. When designing
operator A's indoor distributed system, analyze how to mitigate interference in each of
the following three scenarios:
Between operator A's indoor distributed system and operator B's outdoor macro
cell BTS, the former may receive the uplink interference from operator B's
outdoor BTS terminal.
Scenario 1:

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 40 of 86


Figure 3-4 Interference between operator A's indoor distributed system and operator
B's outdoor BTS terminal
In such a scenario, consider the minimum coupling loss between operator B's terminal
and operator A's indoor distributed system, including the first adjacent channel
leakage ratio (ACLR) and the second ACLR. Operator A can try to avoid the first
adjacent channel interference (ACI) to obtain better network quality. When analyzing
and deciding the ACI, you can calculate the WCDMA interference thresholds
according to the test signal levels of operator A's existing GSM system. For details,
see Table 3-10.
Table 3-10 Estimated thresholds of the interference of operator B's macro cell BTS
with operator A's indoor distributed system



Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 41 of 86

In Table 3-10, the noise rise tolerated (30 dB) is derived from section 7.2 of protocol
TS 25.104. The parameter describes the dynamic receiving scope of a NodeB receiver.
The suggested maximum interference tolerated in the protocol is -73 dB. That is, the
noise rise tolerated above the noise floor is 32 dB. Conservatively, set the noise rise
tolerated to 30 dB.
Based on Table 3-10, we can conclude: According to the actual signal test results of
the indoor GSM distributed system, if the BCCH receiving level exceeds the point of
-23.5 dBm, the distributed system may be interfered. In this case, change the
configuration, that is, enlarge the minimum coupling loss.
Operator A's terminal may interfere in operator A's indoor distributed system.
Scenario 2:

Figure 3-5 Interference from operator A's own equipment
If a UE of operator A is close to the antenna of its own indoor distributed system, the
noise rises suddenly at the receiving end of NodeB. Within the minimum transmit
power, the UE cannot restrict noise rise through power control. Therefore, pay
attention to the minimum coupling loss that may affect the system. You can judge
possible influences through the equivalent GSM signal receiving level to the minimum
WCDMA coupling loss. For details, see Table 3-11.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 42 of 86

Table 3-11 Estimated thresholds of the interference from operator A's own equipment


A UE farer away from the antenna has a larger path loss. Therefore, suppose that
such a UE has a power margin of 3 dB to overcome the burst interference from a UE
closer to the antenna. Based on the supposition, the noise rise tolerated is 3 dB. If the
estimated power margin is larger than the assumed one, the data calculated through
the GSM signal level is more acceptable. Generally, if the level of GSM signals
distributed right below the antenna is less than -19 dBm, no interference occurs.
Conclusion:
For satisfying the minimum coupling loss, the antenna is generally installed in a high
location in actual engineering. In this way, the pilot power of antenna port is equal to or
less than 5 dBm. On a lower building, the antenna is generally installed a little farer
away from the places where UEs are often used.
3.6.5 Methods of Controlling Indoor and Outdoor Interference (Mandatory)
Controlling too many outdoor signals to go indoors
In actual engineering, the edge field strength of indoor cell signals must be about
5 dB higher than that of outdoor signals.
A: Adjust the downtilt and azimuth angles of the antenna of an outdoor NodeB to
control the strength of outdoor NodeB signals going indoors.
B: Reconstruct the indoor distributed system or add an indoor antenna to enhance
the strength of indoor signals.
C: Use a rational handoff solution and set handoff parameters properly. For
example, use the indoor and outdoor inter-frequency solution.
Controlling too many indoor signals to leak outdoors
A: Lay out antennas rationally and allocate the antenna port power rationally to
prevent too many indoor signals from leaking outdoors.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 43 of 86

B: Use the technique of drip irrigation coverage with multiple small-power
antennas to prevent too many indoor signals from leaking outdoors.
3.7 Designing Parameters of an Indoor Distributed System
(Mandatory)
When designing an indoor distributed system, generally use Huawei default settings of
baseline parameters.
3.8 Choosing Components (Mandatory)
3.8.1 Choosing a Combiner and a Filter for an Indoor Distributed System
By using the calculating methods described in section 3.6.2 "Controlling the
Interference in a Shared Indoor Distributed System of the Operator (Mandatory)",
calculate the isolation required by the components of an indoor distributed system.
Then accordingly, choose a proper combiner and filter. When choosing a combiner
and a filter, note that the component performance indexes include the following key
indexes:
Frequency range
Insertion loss
Isolation
Power tolerance
Standing wave ratio (SWR)
Duplex filters are used in an actual indoor distributed system. If a duplex filter cannot
meet the isolation requirements, add a filter to increase the isolation.
A cross band coupler is a dual-band combiner commonly used in an indoor distributed
system. The main performance indexes to be considered are:
Isolation between systems
Insertion loss
Third-order cross modulation
The insertion loss cannot be too large; otherwise, the loss may greatly affect the
original system.
A multi-band combiner and a POI are also indoor combiners. Currently, in the
application of an indoor distributed system, a combiner falls into three types:
Ordinary two-in-one combiner
All-in-one combiner
Mixed combiner
Figure 3-6 shows a sample of a two-in-one combiner.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 44 of 86


Figure 3-6 Sample of a combiner
3.8.2 Choosing Antennas for an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory)
Indoor antennas differ from outdoor ones because of the following factors:
Close coverage
Restrictions by transmit power
Restrictions by installation space
Restrictions by visual pollution
Antennas of an indoor distributed system are usually applied in the following
application scenarios:
Indoors
In subways and tunnels
In elevators and supermarkets
I. Indoor Scenarios
Due to the characteristics of indoor coverage, antennas used indoors have smaller
gains, without detailed requirements on the half power width of the beam. In a
scenario with a smaller coverage area, use omni-directional antennas. In a long and
narrow open area, use directional antennas. If multiple systems share an antenna, use
a broad frequency antenna.
In an indoor application scenario, generally use ceiling mount omni-directional
antennas, which are of a smaller size and a smaller gain (below 5 dBi). This type of
antenna is attractive in appearance.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 45 of 86


Figure 3-7 Indoor antennas
In Figure 3-7, the first two are ceiling mount omni-directional antennas, the third and
fourth are flat directional antennas, and the fifth is a stick omni-directional antenna.
Table 3-12 Antenna models of an indoor distributed system
Model Frequency Range
Antenna
Description
Azimuth Gain Manufacturer
800 10137
876960/1710250
0 MHz
Ceiling mount
antenna of
vertical
polarization
and N female
connector
360
2
dBi
Kathrein
TS-IAOMT-800/
2400
806960/1420240
0 MHz
Ceiling mount
antenna of
vertical
polarization
and N female
connector
360
2
dBi
Telestone
TQJ-SA800/25
00-3
824960/
17102500 MHz
Ceiling mount
antenna of
vertical
polarization
and N female
connector
360
2
dBi
Guangdong
Shenglu

II. Subway and Tunnel Scenarios
In special indoor coverage scenarios such as subways or tunnels, leakage cables are
applied in some long and narrow indoor coverage areas with limited antenna
installation space, for example, a subway, road railway tunnel, underground market,
and underground parking garage. Leakage cables are relatively expensive (100
RMB/m typically). They are hard to install.


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 46 of 86


Figure 3-8 Leakage cables
III. Scenarios of Elevators and Some Large Warehouse Supermarkets
In such application scenarios as an elevator, large warehouse supermarket, and
tunnel, two types of narrow-beam directional antennas are used, that is, Yagi and
log-per antennas. They are often installed in places with little attention to indoor
decoration, for example, in an elevator or a large warehouse supermarket.
A Yagi antenna is a narrowband antenna with a cheap price and a large gain (larger
than 10 dBi). A log-per antenna is a broadband antenna with a higher price and a
smaller gain (less than 10 dBi). Note that a Yagi antenna is recommended for a single
WCDMA system while a log-per antenna is recommended for the multi-system
combination of an operator.

Figure 3-9 Log-per antennas
IV. Installation of an Indoor Antenna
The selection of an indoor antenna depends on the installation location and coverage
target range of the antenna, and the requirements of the concerned property
management company on the antenna (to avoid visual pollution and to ensure that the
antenna is in tune with the decoration near its location). The selection principles are as
follows:

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 47 of 86

Wall-against installation: Choose a flat directional antenna for intra-floor
coverage.
Ceiling mounted installation: Choose a ceiling mount omni-directional antenna
tightly against the ceiling to cover a whole floor or even the lower floor.
Concealed installation: Choose a stick omni-directional antenna installed above
the ceiling to cover the whole floor or even the upper floor. In such a case, the
penetration loss of the ceiling is introduced.
Elevator shaft: Choose a Yagi antenna or a log-per antenna, installed at the top of
the elevator shaft. That is because the bottom of an elevator is of a full steel
structure, hard to penetrate. The antenna lobe goes downwards to cover the
entire elevator shaft.
Large warehouse supermarket: Because the indoor decoration of such a place is
not important, install a Yagi antenna, log-per antenna, or wall-mounted antenna
for coverage.
3.8.3 Choosing Feeders for an Indoor Distributed System (Mandatory)
In the design of an indoor distributed system, feeders are used for connecting all
components. Generally, use the following two types of feeders:
1/2-inch feeder: large-loss, low-cost, easy to bend, applicable to distribution cable
connection of each floor
7/8-inch feeder: small-loss, high-cost, hard to bend, applicable to trunk
connection between floors
Table 3-13 Attenuation of feeders in an indoor distributed system
WCDMA GSM
Specification
(m)
1/2-inch feeder
(dB)
7/8-inch feeder
(dB)
1/2-inch feeder
(dB)
7/8-inch feeder
(dB)
5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.2
10 1.1 0.6 0.7 0.4
15 1.6 0.9 1.1 0.6
20 2.1 1.2 1.5 0.8
25 2.7 1.5 1.9 1.1
30 3.2 1.8 2.2 1.3
35 3.7 2.1 2.6 1.5
40 4.3 2.4 3.0 1.7
45 4.8 2.7 3.3 1.9
50 5.4 3.1 3.7 2.1
55 5.9 3.4 4.1 2.3

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 48 of 86

WCDMA GSM
60 6.4 3.7 4.4 2.5
65 7.0 4.0 4.8 2.7
70 7.5 4.3 5.2 2.9
75 8.0 4.6 5.6 3.2
80 8.6 4.9 5.9 3.4
85 9.1 5.2 6.3 3.6
90 9.6 5.5 6.7 3.8
95 10.2 5.8 7.0 4.0
100 10.7 6.1 7.4 4.2

3.8.4 Choosing a Power Splitter and a Coupler for an Indoor Distributed
System (Mandatory)
The selection of a power splitter and a coupler for an indoor distributed system is
relatively simple. Check that the component performance indexes meet the
requirements of bandwidth and isolation. Table 3-14 and Table 3-15 list some
performance parameters of optional components.
Table 3-14 Parameter indexes of Kathrein coupler
Model
Coupling
Attenuation
Insertion
Loss
VSWR
dBcThird Order
Intermodulation
(dBc)
MHzBand
(MHz)
K 63 23 6061 7.0 / 1.0 dB < 0.05 dB
<
1.15
< -150 8002200
K 63 23 6101 10.4 / 0.4 dB < 0.05 dB <1.15 < -150 8002200
K 63 23 6151 15.1 / 0.1 dB < 0.05 dB <1.15 < -150 8002200

Table 3-15 Parameter indexes of Kathrein power splitter
Model
Number
of Output
Ports
Power Split
Attenuation
Insertion
Loss
VSWR
Third order
intermodula
tion
Band
K 737 303 2 3 dB
< 0.05
dB
< 1.5 < -150 dBc
8002200
MHz
K 737 305 3 4.8 dB
< 0.05
dB
< 1.5 < -150 dBc
8002200
MHz
K 737 307 4 6 dB
< 0.05
< 1.5 < -150 dBc
8002200

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 49 of 86

dB MHz

Both couplers and power splitters are power distribution components. The main
difference is that a power splitter performs even power distribution while a coupler
performs uneven power distribution. Therefore, couplers and power splitters are used
in different scenarios. To distribute power to different antennas within a same floor, use
a power splitter. To distribute power from a trunk to distribution cables on different
floors, use a coupler.
Using a coupler and a power splitter together is to distribute the transmit power of a
signal source to antenna ports of the system as evenly as possible; that is, to make
the same transmit power of each antenna in the distributed system.

Figure 3-10 A power splitter and a coupler
3.8.5 Choosing a Trunk Amplifier for an Indoor Distributed System
Be cautious to use a trunk amplifier in the design of an indoor distributed system. In an
indoor WCDMA distributed system, some tributaries may have large losses due to
long feeders. They need trunk amplifiers to make up the losses of long distance
transmission and distribution. A trunk amplifier is a bi-directional amplifier. Its main
indexes are:
Noise coefficient
Maximum output power
Gain
Intermodulation
A trunk amplifier is an active component. In an indoor distributed system using a trunk
amplifier, consider the influence of the noise coefficient of the trunk amplifier on the
downlink sensitivity and the uplink noise rise of the distributed system. Pay special
attention to the uplink and downlink gain adjustment of the trunk amplifier. Ensure that
the uplink gain is proper not affecting the system performance and the uplink gain can
amplify the effective transmission power of the tributary antenna port. Meanwhile,
make sure that the uplink and downlink gain adjustment is proper to keep the up and
down links balanced.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 50 of 86


Figure 3-11 A trunk amplifier
3.8.6 Choosing Feeder Connectors for an Indoor Distributed System
(Mandatory)
Feeder connectors are used on both ends of a feeder to connect equipment with
components. The connector selection is based on the component selection.
Component connectors are female and feeder connectors are male.
Currently, connector types include the N type, 7-16 DIN type, and SMA type. Take
Kathrein 1/2 power splitter as an example. K 737 303 is an N-type connector and K
737 304 is a connector of 7-16 DIN type.
According to Huawei component procurement specifications, N-type connectors are
used in the future new component procurement. For feeder connectors, only N-type
male connectors are required. For old components not using N-type connectors,
choose relevant feeder connectors or conversion connectors.
3.8.7 Replacing and Adding Components in an Indoor Distributed System
(Mandatory)
Before reconstructing a multi-system shared indoor distributed system, be sure to
understand the specifications and models of the components in the existing system.
Check whether the specifications of all components meet the requirements of a
WCDMA system. If yes, remain the components. If no, replace them. During the
reconstruction, replace the components whose original system performance is
reduced or damaged and state the reasons in the design report.
The principles of replacing or adding components are:
New components must meet the input requirements of all coexisting systems in
the indoor distributed system.
Meet the system index requirements by replacing as few components as
possible.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 51 of 86

I. Replacing an Antenna
If a single-band antenna that does not support a WCDMA band is used in the original
system, replace it with an antenna supporting dual bands.
II. Replacing a Power Splitter and a Coupler
If the power splitter and coupler in the original system do not support a WCDMA band,
replace them with components supporting dual bands. If the intermodulation
suppression performance index of the power splitter and coupler is reduced or the
components are damaged in the original system, replace them.
III. Replacing a Feeder
If the feeder in the original system has a too large loss, failing to meet the power
requirements of antenna port design, replace the feeder with a 7/8-inch feeder that
has a smaller loss.
IV. Adding a Combiner and a Filter
According to the interference calculating methods of a shared system described above,
add a combiner and a filter that meet the isolation requirements.
3.9 Designing a Detailed Solution for an Indoor Distributed
System
3.9.1 Requirements on Design Reports of Indoor Distributed System
Manufacturers (Mandatory)
Unify a template for the design report of indoor distributed system manufacturers to
facilitate the review of operators and design institutes. The template describes our
requirements on the creation or reconstruction of an indoor distributed system. For the
format and contents in the template, see the nested document below.
Report on the
Design for the Indoor WCDMA Distributed System in XXX Building.doc

3.9.2 Reconstruction Concepts and a Schematic Diagram of an Indoor
Distributed System (Mandatory)
An indoor distributed system manufacturer must offer its creation or reconstruction
concepts and a simple schematic diagram of an indoor WCDMA distributed system at
the beginning of the design report.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 52 of 86


Figure 3-12 A schematic diagram of reconstructing an indoor distributed system
3.9.3 Antenna Layout Plan of Floors in an Indoor Distributed System
Determine the antenna quantity on each floor. Draw up an antenna layout plan based
on the floor plan and mark new and reused antennas in different colors on the layout
plan. Decide the rationality of antenna locations according to the layout plan.

Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office
Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Lounge Lounge
Toilet
Toilet
Toilet
Electricity
Communi
cation
Water
Boardroom Lounge
90 m
30 m
1F-8F

Figure 3-13 An antenna layout plan
3.9.4 Transmit Power Budget of Antenna Ports in an Indoor Distributed
System (Mandatory)
Based on the determined edge field strength and indoor propagation model, decide
the transmit power at an antenna port. Within the output pilot power range of a signal
source, distribute power to antenna ports as required. Pay attention to the following
points:
Even distribution of pilot power at the antenna ports of different floors
If there is no special requirement, try to evenly distribute pilot power at the
antenna ports of different floors.
Antenna port power meeting the electromagnetic radiation standards as specified
by the State

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 53 of 86

In an indoor WCDMA distributed system, the pilot transmit power must be equal
to or less than 5 dBm.
Reference range (empirical value) of antenna port transmit power
If the indoor structure is relatively simple and antennas can be installed in the
corridors according to link budget, the transmit power at the antenna ports must
be 0 to 5 dBm. If the indoor structure is complex and antennas must be installed
indoors according to link budget, the transmit power at the antenna ports must be
-10 dBm to 0.
3.9.5 Detailed Network Topological Diagram of an Indoor Distributed System
Requirements: Mark newly-added and replaced feeders and components in different
colors on the detailed network topological diagram provided by the concerned indoor
distributed system manufacturer. Moreover, mark the power loss of the original system
at the power loss points of each component and each segment of the feeders. In this
way, you can judge the influences of reconstruction on the original system.

Figure 3-14 Detailed network topological diagram of an indoor distributed system
3.9.6 Detailed Cabling Diagram of an Indoor Distributed System
After finishing a network topological diagram, draw a detailed vertical and horizontal
cabling diagram based on the architectural drawing. In the diagram, mark the feeder

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 54 of 86

length of each segment and the installation locations of connectors, power splitters,
and couplers, as shown in Figure 3-15.

Figure 3-15 A detailed cabling diagram of an indoor distributed system
3.9.7 Material List of an Indoor Distributed System
By now, the hardware design of an indoor distributed system is finished on the whole.
A Material List of an Indoor Distributed System is an output document of the hardware
design. We must generate such a list as a basis of engineering implementation. For a
detailed list, see Table 3-16.
Table 3-16 A material list of an indoor distributed system
Component
Type
Component Model Connector
Quantity
Needed
Description
Antenna
800 10137
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Ceiling mount antenna
of vertical polarization
TS-IAOMT-800/2400
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Ceiling mount antenna
of vertical polarization
Corridor
corner
Corridor
corner
15 m
15 m
28 m
Elevator
entrance
45 m
45 m

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 55 of 86

Component
Type
Component Model Connector
Quantity
Needed
Description
TQJ-SA800/2500-3
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Ceiling mount antenna
of vertical polarization
Cable
SYV-50-7-1 /
According to
the concerned
solution
Add the length specified
in the solution.
LDF5-50A-7/8" /
According to
the concerned
solution
Add the length specified
in the solution.
1/2-inch super
flexible cable
/
According to
the concerned
solution
Add the length specified
in the solution.
Leakage cable /
According to
the concerned
solution
Add the length specified
in the solution.
Coupler
7 dB
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
10 dB
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
15 dB
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Power
splitter
One split to two
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
One split to three
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Combiner
Two in one
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Three in one
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Duplexer
GSM/WCDMA
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
DCS/WCDMA
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Filter GSM filter
N-type According to Give descriptions

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 56 of 86

Component
Type
Component Model Connector
Quantity
Needed
Description
female the concerned
solution
according to facts.
WCDMA filter
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Trunk
amplifier
GSM trunk amplifier
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
WCDMA trunk
amplifier
N-type
female
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Load
50 W
N-type
male
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
100 W
N-type
male
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Connector
N-type female
connector
-
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
N-type male
connector
-
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
DIN-type female
connector
-
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
DIN-type male
connector
-
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
N-type female
connector to
SMA-type female
connector
-
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Heat shrink
tube
Heat shrink tube -
|30
-
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.
Heat shrink tube -
|30
-
According to
the concerned
solution
Give descriptions
according to facts.

Table 3-16 lists the components commonly used in the past indoor distributed systems.
By referring to Huawei inventory about an indoor distributed system in the preliminary
design phase, determine the component models and quantity needed to meet the

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 57 of 86

design objectives of the system. Then fill in the table according to the facts of the
system design.
3.10 Testing and Verifying an Indoor Distributed System and
Improving the Solution (Optional)
After designing a solution for an indoor coverage system, test and verify it on the spot.
Tests and verification play an important role in the planning of an indoor distributed
system. It is mainly because the wireless propagation environments of indoor
scenarios differ a lot and thus the standard deviation of path loss is relatively large
despite link budget by using the known propagation models. By testing and verifying
the design solution on the spot, we can ensure the final coverage effects of the indoor
distributed system. You can make tests and verification in the specified model
floors. Figure 3-16 is an example of a test and verification in a floor. Make tests as
follows:
1) Install the antennas chosen according to the solution.
2) Let each antenna in the floor transmit continuous waves based on the expected
power level.
3) Choose enough test points for signal level tests.
4) If conditions permit, make an indoor drive test.
After completing the tests, analyze test data and check whether the design solution
meet the coverage requirements. If not, take relevant measures to improve the original
coverage solution.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 58 of 86


Figure 3-16 Example of an onsite test and verification in a floor
3.11 Evaluating the Investment of an Indoor Distributed
System (Mandatory)
3.11.1 Main Cases of the Investment of an Indoor Distributed System
There are three construction cases of an indoor WCDMA distributed system.
Reconstruct an indoor distributed system a little.
The original indoor GSM distributed system has a large coverage margin and its
edge field strength is higher than XX dBm. A little reconstruction can make the
system meet the WCDMA requirements of edge field strength XX dBm. The
reconstruction scale of the antenna system is less than 30%.
Reconstruct an indoor distributed system partially.
The original indoor GSM distributed system has no coverage margin and its edge
field strength is below XX dBm. Partial reconstruction can make the system meet
the WCDMA requirements of edge field strength XX dBm. The reconstruction
scale of the antenna system is larger than 30%.
Build a new indoor distributed system.
Build a new indoor GSM/WCDMA distributed system.
Location
1
Location
2
Transmitting antenna
Test point

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 59 of 86

3.11.2 Investment Model of an Indoor Distributed System
Based on the comparison with the original indoor GSM distributed system, set up a use scale model of different devices and components for
the WCDMA reconstruction according to the three cases described in section 3.11.1 "Main Cases of the Investment of an Indoor
Distributed System."
Table 3-17 Use scale model of devices and components of an indoor distributed system
Category
Signal
Source
Device
Trunk
Amplifier
Combiner
Passive
Component
Antenna Feeder
GSM XXX sets XXX sets XXX sets XXX sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
WCDMA XXX sets XXX sets XXX sets XXX sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
Reconstruct
ion scale
XX% XX% XX% < 30% < 30% < 30%

According to the model statistics, calculate the costs needed for the indoor coverage system and equipment reconstruction of a single site.


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 60 of 86

Table 3-18 Example of calculating the reconstruction costs of a single-site indoor coverage system
Site Name
Combi-
ner
Trunk Amplifier
(2 W)
Antenna Passive Component Feeder
GSM WCDMA GSM
Added in
WCDMA
System
Recon-
struc-
tion
Scale
GSM
Added in
WCDMA
System
Reconstruction
Scale
GSM
Added in
WCDMA
System
Reconstruction
Scale
XXX building
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XX%
XXX
sets
XXX sets XX%
XXX
sets
XXX sets XX%
Unit
price in
the
industry
(Yuan)
GSM - XXX sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XXX
X
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
WCDMA
XXX
sets
XXX sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XXX
X
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
Total
(Yuan)
GSM - XXX sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XXX
X
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
WCDMA
XXX
sets
XXX sets
XXX
sets
XXX
sets
XXX
X
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
XXX
sets
XXX sets XXXX
Total costs (Yuan) of
the original main
GSM equipment
XXXX
Total costs (Yuan) of
the main WCDMA
equipment
XXXX


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 61 of 86

3.11.3 Investment Estimate of an Indoor Distributed System
Total investment costs
- Equipment costs, including the costs of main equipment and installation
related materials (IRM)
- The IRM costs are calculated according to 15% of the main equipment costs.
Engineering design and construction costs
This part of costs is calculated according to 15% of the equipment costs. Costs of
each square meter
According to the total costs and coverage areas of each site, estimate the
construction costs of each square meter.
Costs of each user
Estimate the number of people in the site coverage area according to the site
type. According to XX% of the people having a mobile phone and XX% of
operator XX's users, estimate the number of mobile users in the site coverage
area. According to the total costs of each site, estimate the costs of each user.
Table 3-19 Example of estimating Investments of an indoor distributed system
Item Price
Main equipment costs
Original GSM XXXX Yuan
WCDMA
reconstruction
XXXX Yuan
IRM costs
Original GSM XXXX Yuan
WCDMA
reconstruction
XXXX Yuan
Total equipment costs
Original GSM XXXX Yuan
WCDMA
reconstruction
XXXX Yuan
Engineering design and
construction costs
Original GSM XXXX Yuan
WCDMA
reconstruction
XXXX Yuan
Total investment costs
Original GSM XXXX Yuan
WCDMA
reconstruction
XXXX Yuan
Total coverage areas of all
sites
Original GSM
XXXX m
2

WCDMA
reconstruction
Total number of users of all
sites
Original GSM
XXXX users
WCDMA
reconstruction
Costs of each square meter Original GSM XXXX Yuan

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 62 of 86

Item Price
WCDMA
reconstruction
XXXX Yuan
Costs of each user
Original GSM XXXX Yuan
WCDMA
reconstruction
XXXX Yuan
Maintenance costs -
XXXX
Yuan/set/month

3.12 Reviewing the Design Solution for an Indoor Distributed
System (Mandatory)
After all the above steps are completed, the design institute, Huawei, and indoor
distributed system manufacturer must jointly review the design report. Prepare a
review form according to the format of Table 3-20. In Table 3-20, the descriptions on
the left are key issues of the review.
Table 3-20 Key issues of a design review on the solution for an indoor distributed
system
Description
Location
(Page/Sec/All)
Defect/
Query
Defect
Severity
Problem
Confirmation
Problem
Correction
Whether the reconstruction
solution considers meeting the
coverage requirements but
reusing the original system as
much as possible and reducing
the addition of equipment to avoid
influences on the original system
XXXX Query General XXXX XXXX
Whether the isolation and
insertion loss of GSM/WCDMA
combiner meet the requirements
and whether the choice of signal
source is proper
XXXX Query General XXXX XXXX
Whether the solution states the
reasons for newly-added
antennas in the reconstruction and
whether the locations and quantity
of antennas are rational
XXXX Defect Suggest XXXX XXXX
Whether the design of pilot power
at antenna ports of different floors
is rational and meets the
electromagnetic radiation
standards as specified by the
State
XXXX Defect Suggest XXXX XXXX

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 63 of 86

Description
Location
(Page/Sec/All)
Defect/
Query
Defect
Severity
Problem
Confirmation
Problem
Correction
Whether relevant solutions are
considered for the locations
suffering known GSM problems
such as serious signal leakage or
coverage insufficiency in the
WCDMA reconstruction and
whether the designer has referred
to the test results of the original
system
XXXX Defect General XXXX XXXX
Whether good coverage in key
areas is ensured, penetration loss
is considered, and the settings of
handoff area are rational
XXXX Defect General XXXX XXXX
... ... ... ... ... ...

4 Expansion and Evolution of an Indoor
Distributed System
4.1 Methods of Expanding the Capacity of an Indoor
Distributed System
Refer to Capacity Expansion Guide.
4.2 HSDPA Strategy in an Indoor Distributed System
The introduction of HSDPA is an important issue to be considered for indoor coverage.
That is because:
If an indoor distributed system exists, the indoor propagation environment is
relatively close, neighbor interference is smaller, and the possibility that a line of
sight (LOS) exists between a transmitter and a receiver is greater. Therefore, the
indoor wireless propagation environment is better than the outdoor one. Indoors,
the signal strength can be ensured. Indoor signal interference is relatively less.
The CQI value of HSDPA data channel is higher, which can greatly improve the
edge throughput and cell throughput of HSDPA users. Therefore, the HSDPA can
give full scope to its technical advantages.
According to NTT DoCoMo statistics on the use of mobile phones in various
scenarios, almost 70% of the use occurs indoors. It is estimated that the data
traffic of a large scale of HSDPA users arises indoors. Therefore, introducing the
HSDPA indoors is more necessary than outdoors.
By right of the application of such new technologies as 16QAM, AMC, fast scheduling,
and HARQ, the HSDPA greatly improves the efficiency and data transmission rate of
wireless network. For the areas where the indoor coverage design predicts large PS
traffic and many data card users, consider using the HSDPA strategy. In the early
phase of network construction, the traffic in most indoor areas is relatively small,
except some hot spots such as high-class office buildings, four-star or higher-level

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 64 of 86

hotels, and airports. It is recommended that you use hybrid HSDPA/R99 to share a
carrier network. Through rational power distribution and code resource allocation,
such a network can bring the HSDPA efficiency into full play and increase the
throughput of cells. For indoor hot spots with many data card users, consider directly
introducing the second carrier of HSDPA. In the mature network phase, with the
increase of the whole network capacity for indoor areas, consider introducing the
second carrier of HSDPA for capacity expansion.
An indoor coverage solution includes the following points:
Key areas
Determine HSDPA-required areas in a target building. In view of the continuity of
users' feeling in a building and the simpleness of RRM algorithm, perform full
HSDPA coverage for key buildings.
Partition coverage
According to the features of a building, estimate the coverage and capacity and
plan different partitions for coverage of one or multiple cells. In places where
users are massive but an antenna system is not easy to install, use a pico RRU
for separate coverage.
Inter-frequency recommendation
For a high building, considering larger outdoor interference and higher capacity
requirements, divide the building vertically into two parts: Use the same
frequency as outdoor HSDPA for the lower floors and inter-frequency for the
medium and higher floors. In this way, ensure the handoff success rate when
going into and out of the building and reduce mutual interference between indoor
higher areas and the outdoor network.
4.2.1 Influences of HSDPA on the Original Indoor R99 Coverage
The previous chapters describe the design of a newly-built indoor WCDMA distributed
system and the upgrade from a 2G indoor distributed system to a WCDMA one. After
being introduced, the HSDPA and the R99 coexist indoors. Therefore, this section lays
stress on the influences on the original indoor R99 coverage after the introduction of
HSDPA. The following are analyses in terms of the two networking modes of HSDPA
and R99.
I. Networking of HSDPA and R99 Sharing a Carrier
Analyzing the influence on the downlink coverage of the R99 network
Suppose that the downlink target load of the original R99 network is 75%. After
the introduction of HSDPA, the downlink target load can be set in either of the
two ways:
- The total power threshold of HSDPA cells remains as 75%, the designed
target load of the original R99 network.
In this way, do not need to make any adjustment on the power of CCHs like
pilot channels and the power of R99 TCHs. The R99 coverage is not
affected.
- Control the cell power threshold of R99 to 75% but raise the total cell power
threshold to 90%.
If the total cell power threshold rises to 90%, the downlink interference
increases, thus causing bad effects on the downlink coverage results of the
original network. The downlink coverage quality is measured by the Ec/Io
distribution in the coverage areas. When the downlink load rises from 75%
to 90%, the rise of I0 is about 0.8 dB, that is, 10log (90% / 75%). Therefore, if
the system load rises from 75% to 90%, the Ec/Io penalty of the points in the
coverage areas is about 0.8 dB. To ensure that the Ec/Io distribution in the

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 65 of 86

coverage areas remains unchanged, raise the power distribution of CCHs by
0.8 dB. To ensure no influence on the R99 coverage, adjust the parameters
relevant to the power of CCHs like pilot channels and the power of R99
TCHs. For detailed changes, see Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 Changes of dynamic power distribution in the case of the downlink load
change of indoor coverage
Downlink load (%) 75% 90%
Rate of CCH power 20% 24%
Rate of DPCH power 30% 36%
Load occupied by HSDPA 25% 30%


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 66 of 86

( )
CL NF N
P f
NoiseRise
o
max DL

+
+ =
q o 1
1
Note:
To calculate the rise of downlink interference margin resulting from the increase of cell
load, use the following formula:
(1)

In the formula, is the downlink orthogonal factor, is the neighbor interference
factor, is the downlink load, is the maximum downlink transmit power,
is the background thermal noise, is the terminal noise coefficient, and
is the coupling loss between a BTS output port and a terminal.
For a user in a specific location, it is regarded that the , , , , and
are unchanged. The downlink cell load rises from 75% to 90%. The downlink receiving
power spectrum density rises by about 0.8 dB. Viewed from actual tests, after HSDPA
users are accessed, the downlink cell load rises from 75% to 90%. After the increase
of the pilot power by 0.8 dB, the pilot coverage keeps the same on the whole.

Analyzing the influence on the uplink coverage of the R99 network
The introduction of HS-DPCCH over the uplink of HSDPA may have a few
influences on the uplink Eb/No of the original indoor R99 network, thus affecting
the uplink receiving sensitivity. However, the load threshold is set to 50% in
uplink planning. Therefore, if the actual uplink load does not exceed the planned
load threshold, the uplink R99 coverage is not affected.
II. Networking of HSDPA and R99 Using Independent Carriers
For independent networking of HSDPA, inter-frequency is recommended. The HSDPA
does not affect the CCH and TCH coverage of R99 frequency. However, the cell power
of R99 may change in some cases. For example, the original R99 uses a 20 W power
amplifier. If the same power amplifier is used without any addition after the introduction
of HSDPA frequency, the maximum power of R99 and HSDPA is 10 W only. Thanks to
the good wireless propagation environment and small coverage distance in an indoor
scenario, the loss of 3 dB is acceptable. Moreover, with multiple antennas and small
power, the drip-irrigation distributed system recommended by Huawei can well solve
the coverage problem.
Table 4-2 Influences of HSDPA indoor coverage on the original R99 network
coverage

Independent
Networking
Hybrid Networking Comparison
Influences on the
downlink coverage of
R99
No
influence.
A few influences, depending on
the rationality of power
resource allocation.
Independent
networking is a
little superior.
Influences on the
uplink coverage of
R99
No
influence.
No influence.
Almost the same.

o
f
DL
q
max
P
o
N
NF CL
o
f
max
P
o
N
NF

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 67 of 86

4.2.2 Influences of HSDPA on the Original Indoor R99 Capacity
I. Networking of HSDPA and R99 Sharing a Carrier
If the R99 and HSDPA share a carrier for networking, consider the services carried by
R99 channels and those carried by HSDPA channels in the network capacity planning,
and rationally reserve code resources and power resources for the HSDPA. In the
capacity planning, calculate the system capacity according to the code resources and
power resources of the R99 and HSDPA. Therefore, code resources and power
resources must be rationally and scientifically allocated to the R99 and the HSDPA so
that the cell capacity meets the design requirement.
Analyzing the influence on the uplink capacity of R99
- When the HSDPA and R99 share a carrier, the HSDPA greatly increases
the downlink rate and occupies downlink code resources and power
resources, thus affecting the uplink capacity of R99.
- When the HSDPA and R99 share a carrier, the introduction of HS-DPCCH
into the uplink may affect the uplink Eb/No slightly, thus causing slight
effects on the uplink capacity.
After being introduced, however, the HSDPA bears most of the original R99
services. Therefore, the introduction of HSDPA has few influences on the uplink
capacity of R99 on the whole.
Analyzing the influence on the downlink capacity of R99
- After being introduced indoors, the HSDPA needs to occupy extra downlink
power resources. Different from an outdoor network, however, in a scenario
of an indoor distributed system, the coupling loss between a NodeB and a
UE is smaller. For the R99, the downlink code resources are often limited
before the downlink power resources, especially in the current case of
HSDPA UE CAT 12. You can omit the influence of HSDPA on the downlink
power resources of R99.
- After being introduced indoors, the HSDPA needs to occupy extra downlink
code resources to allocate to the HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH. The SF of
HS-SCCH is 128. Configure two or three HS-PDSCHs according to the
number of indoor HS-PDSCH code words allocated. It is recommended that
you use dynamic allocation for HS-PDSCH code words to improve the
utilization of code words and to ensure the priority of R99 services.
Considering that the HSDPA bears most of non-real time PS services of the
R99 after being introduced, you can omit the influence of HSDPA on the
downlink code resources of R99, by allocating code resources rationally.
II. Networking of HSDPA and R99 Using Independent Carriers
When using an independent carrier, the HSDPA does not affect the original R99
capacity but increase the total capacity due to the high bearing efficiency of HSDPA.
Table 4-3 Influences of HSDPA on the original R99 network capacity

Independent
Networking
Hybrid Networking Comparison
Influences on the
downlink capacity
of R99
No
influence.
A few influences, depending on
the rationality of code resource
allocation.
Independent
networking is a
little superior.
Influences on the
uplink capacity of
R99
No
influence.
No influence. Almost the same.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 68 of 86


4.2.3 Design of HSDPA Indoor Coverage Solution
I. Determining HSDPA Coverage Information
1) Determine whether to build a new indoor distributed system or reuse the old one.
If the existing 2G indoor distributed system can meet the HSDPA coverage
requirements after the reconstruction with smaller costs, reuse the 2G indoor
distributed system. If there is no 2G distributed system indoors, build a new
indoor R99 and HSDPA distributed system.
2) Determine coverage areas.
Deploy the indoor HSDPA by area. Divide indoor areas according to traffic and
importance. Lay stress on the HSDPA deployment of key areas, such as a hotel
lobby, boardroom, and VIP room. In these areas, the traffic is larger and the
requirements of data services are more. (For a detailed coverage area solution
the operator offers it and Huawei gives comments for reference.)
3) Collect service information.
Decide the HSDPA service bearing rate and the edge coverage probability after
the introduction of HSDPA into a building. It is recommended that the operator
provides them.
4) Collect capacity information.
The operator provides capacity information or the indoor distributed system
manufacturer collects capacity information by referring to Huawei calculation
methods.
No matter whether to build a new indoor distributed system or to reuse the
existing 2G indoor distributed system, the introduction of HSDPA is based on or
keeps pace with the R99. Therefore, you can refer to section 3.1.3 "Collecting
Capacity Information (Mandatory)." The difference is that the PS traffic in the
original WCDAM traffic model is further fractionized according to the two bearing
solutions of R99 and HSDPA.
II. Surveying and Testing the Existing Indoor Distributed System
The survey and test contents and outputs are the same as those for the design of an
indoor R99 distributed system. For details, see section 3.2 "Surveying and Testing
the Indoor Distributed System."
III. Determining a Coverage Networking Mode
After the introduction of HSDPA, the coverage networking modes fall into independent
networking and hybrid networking.
Table 4-4 Merit and demerit comparison between independent networking and hybrid
networking
Networking Mode Merit Demerit
Independent
networking
High assurance of
resource use for HSDPA
services
Low resource utilization
Hybrid networking High resource utilization
Lower assurance of
resource use for HSDPA
services


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 69 of 86

Table 4-5 lists the networking solution suggestions for some common indoor scenarios
for your reference. For a detailed coverage solution, the operator decides it and
Huawei provide comments for reference.
Table 4-5 Recommendation of networking solutions in various scenarios
Scenario
Type
Scenario Features Networking Suggestions
High building
Large traffic
Large data traffic
Very high importance
Use the networking mode of
R99+HSDPA/HSDPA, fully considering
the development of future services.
Large-scale
venue
Large traffic
High importance
In the early phase, use the mode of
R99/R99+HSDPA, ensuring the access
of R99 services. In the later phase,
upgrade carrier 1 to R99+HSDPA with
the increase of data. In the case of a
sharp rise of data services during a
large-scale game or activity, flexibly set
the R99 access threshold to meet the
requirements of HSDPA services.
Subway and
tunnel
Long and narrow space
Small traffic
High pedestrian flow
R99+HSDPA
Underground
parking
garage
Large space
Small penetration loss
Small traffic
Due to low data requirements, configure
the R99 generally. The operator
provides a detailed solution.
Other types
of building
-
According to the actual building and
traffic features in the coverage area,
determine a relevant solution by
referring to those in the scenarios
described above.

IV. Estimating the Coverage and Capacity of an Indoor Distributed System
After the Introduction of HSDPA
Link budget
- Choose an indoor propagation model.
Determine an indoor propagation model for the HSDPA in the same way as
you do for the R99. You can directly use the propagation model in the design
of an indoor R99 distributed system.
- Estimate the indoor edge field strength and the transmit power of an
antenna.
According to the service rate requirement in the target coverage area and
the size of transmission block relevant to the service rate, determine the CQI
needed for satisfying the service rate. If such parameters as maximum cell
transmit power, pilot power, orthogonal factor, and neighbor interference
factor are specified, the value of CQI depends on the Ec/Nt or Ec/Io of pilot.
For indoor coverage, the signal propagation environment is simple, there are
many LOSs, and the orthogonalization of codes is good. Therefore, after the
introduction of HSDPA, you can refer to the indoor coverage requirement of
the current highest-rate service of the R99 to meet the power requirement of

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 70 of 86

Ec. In some areas with poor Ec/Io, solve the problem by the means like
dividing antennas.
Capacity estimate
After being introduced, the HSDPA bears most of the PS services. The service
model for the design of the original R99 system is changed. According to the
number of HSDPA users in the target coverage area determined during indoor
survey and the service model decided by the operator, re-estimate the capacity
by unifying the R99 and HSDPA service models.
According to the single-site CE calculation by using the RND tool, calculate the
number of uplink and downlink CEs, number of demodulation boards, and
number of E1 links, and HSDPA and R99 traffic at the lub interface required by a
single site.

Note:
After the introduction of HSDPA, in theory, the uplink associated channels occupy CE
resources. Currently, however, the single-site calculation by the RND does not
consider the CE resources that the DPCCH needs to consume. This problem is
expected to be solved in a later version.

V. Choosing Signal Sources
The principle of choosing a signal source is to aim at different building features.
Because the HSDPA often shares a distributed system with the R99, see section 3.4
"Choosing a Signal Source for an Indoor Distributed System" for the choice of signal
sources. In principle, if there are optical fibers, try to use the signal source of
BBU+RRU. In this way, you can make full use of the flexibility of RRU distribution,
reduce unnecessary coupling loss, and reduce the use of active devices such as a
trunk amplifier and optical fiber repeater. For supplementary coverage in partial hot
spots or important areas, use a pico NodeB as a signal source. In a building with a
close wireless environment and small coverage area, use a repeater as a signal
source. Determine the power requirement of a signal source as follows:
Exactly predict the number of indoor users and their service requirements. Then
make a link budget for the power requirement of each antenna port. For details,
see section 6.3 "Making Link Budget and Estimating the Capacity of an Indoor
Distributed System."
- According to the power requirements of antenna ports and the structure of
the existing distributed system, infer the power requirements of signal
sources. Take the maximum value from the inference of each antenna port
as the design requirement value of the power of a signal source. If the power
requirement of some antenna port or the distribution loss between an
antenna port and a signal source is too large, take a relevant measure in this
area, such as: Add antennas to reduce the power at the Eirp port.
VI. Change the structure of the indoor distributd system. Replace the feeder
with another having a small loss. Changing the Design for an Indoor
Distributed System
Change the design for an indoor R99 distributed system following the principle below:
If the HSDPA is used in an indoor distributed system, a cell should cover a proper
number of the floors in a building to avoid power rise resulting from coupling between
antennas. In an area that an indoor distributed system cannot meet the coverage

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 71 of 86

requirement or a very important area such as a presidential suite, use a pico NodeB
for coverage to meet service quality requirements with acceptable costs.
VII. Allocating Power and Code Resources
Allocating power resources
If the HSDPA uses an independent carrier, no power resource allocation is
involved. All power resources except CCHs belong to the HSDPA.
If the HSDPA and R99 share a carrier, allocate power resources in either of the
two modes:
- Dynamic allocation: The HSDPA power is equal to Power
HS-PDSCH
plus
Power
HS-SCCH
. Set the HSDPA power to the same as the maximum cell power.
Use 75% of the maximum cell transmit power as the R99 admission control.
- Static allocation: Set the HSDPA power to a value less than the maximum cell
power. Set the R99 admission control to 75% of the value got by subtracting
the power distributed to the HSDPA from the total cell power.
Table 4-6 Merit and demerit comparison between the two modes of allocating power
resources in an indoor scenario
Allocation mode Merit Demerit
Dynamic allocation
High efficiency of power
use
Low assurance of power
use for the HSDPA due
to high admission
threshold and high
priority of R99 services
Static allocation
Higher assurance of
power use for the
HSDPA due to lower
admission threshold of
R99 services
Low efficiency of power
use

In either of the two modes, the R99 with a higher priority can seize the power for
the HSDPA. The difference lies in the admission threshold of R99 users. In the
early phase after the introduction of HSDPA, using the dynamic allocation mode
can ensure the priority of R99 services and available power and make good use
of the total cell transmit power.
The power resource allocation of HS-SCCH supports fixed transmit power and
power offset of relative associated DPCH. The setting of a fixed transmit power is
simple. It is set to 3% indoors. However, the consumption is large because the
power is set for CCHs. The setting of power offset for a relative associated DPCH
is more complex. Compared with fixed power resource allocation, power offset
saves power.
Allocating code resources
If the HSDPA uses an independent carrier, you do not need to consider code
resource allocation. If the HSDPA and R99 share a carrier, allocate code words
dynamically or statically.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 72 of 86

Table 4-7 Merit and demerit comparison between the two modes of allocating code
resources in an indoor scenario
Allocation mode Merit Demerit
Static allocation
The simple fixed allocation
can ensure the number of
code resources provided for
HSDPA users.
The efficiency of using
code resources is low.
Dynamic
allocation
The efficiency of using code
resources is high. The mode
can fully ensure the priority of
R99 users.
In this complex mode,
HSDPA users is
provided with the
minimum number of
code resources.

For an indoor distributed system with the HSDPA and R99 sharing a carrier, set
five HS-PDSCH codes in the early phase of network construction to ensure the
number of codes for normal use of R99 services. In the later phase, you can
change the number of code resources reserved for the HSDPA at any time or use
the dynamic allocation for code resources according to traffic statistic results or
operation and maintenance requirements (for example, long-term average data
throughput). Set the HS-SCCH codes according to the available power and the
number of code resources of HS-PDSCH. For UE CAT 12, the configuration is as
follows:
- If the HS-PDSCH has five codes, configure two HS-SCCHs.
- If the HS-PDSCH has 10 codes, configure 3 HS-SCCHs.
- If the HS-PDSCH has 14 codes, configure 4 HS-SCCHs.
In actual design for an indoor distributed system, configure three HS-SCCHs for
an area with a large HSDPA capacity. For an area with a lower requirement on
the HSDPA capacity, configure two HS-SCCHs to save code resources.
5 Optimization for an Indoor Distributed System
This chapter describes the engineering optimization for an indoor distributed system
after the engineering construction. The next task following optimization is acceptance.
5.1 Optimizing the Coverage of an Indoor Distributed System
After an indoor distributed system is built, if it is found during tests and verification not
meeting the requirements of service thresholds, optimize the indoor coverage, that is,
reconstruct the indoor distributed system.
Consider methods from the following two aspects:
Coverage problems in a small range Replace antennas with those having a higher
gain or add antennas and re-lay out the antennas.
Weak signals in a large range of a tributary
Add trunk amplifiers to this tributary.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 73 of 86

5.2 Optimizing the Handoff of an Indoor Distributed System
See Optimization Guide. For a handoff problem failing to be solved by using Huawei
default baseline parameters, optimize the indoor and outdoor handoff by adjusting
such parameters as pilot power configuration at antenna ports, event thresholds,
handoff hysteresis, delay triggering time, and filter coefficient.
5.3 Optimizing the Interference of an Indoor Distributed
System
If re-distributing power or changing antenna locations cannot solve the problem of
large signal leakage in an indoor distributed system, add attenuators directly at the
connections of feeders and antennas to control leakage of indoor signals.
If suppressing outdoor signals cannot control the interference from too many outdoor
signals going indoors, increase the pilot transmit power of the antenna in the area
suffering larger interference.
6 Cases of Designing an Indoor Distributed
System
Take an indoor distributed system in XXX Small Commodity Market as an example to
describe the process of designing an indoor distributed system.
6.1 Analyzing Target Determination for an Indoor Distributed
System
6.1.1 Analyzing Coverage Targets

Figure 6-1 Illustration of coverage targets
The Phase-2 engineering of Futian Market is located in the E district of the planning
garden of Futian Market, Yiwu city. It is at the north of Yiwu Futian Market Phase-1, to
the west of Jiangbinbei Road, and at the east of Chouzhoubei Road. The building area
of the engineering is 1,000,000,000 m
2
. The Phase-2 engineering of Yiwu Futian

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 74 of 86

Market covers areas F, G, and H. It is 1.5 km long, in the shape of "Z", coordinated
with the Phase-1 Market.
The building unit of Futian Market Phase-2 engineering is designed as a main market
including three transaction areas, two star hotels, and four office buildings. The main
market is of a structure with one floor underground and five floors on the ground. The
main transaction area is 830,000,000 m
2
, designed with 12,000 standard booths. In
the market, there are many commercial units:
Shopping and tourism center
Multi-function commodity sales exhibition hall
Small commodity museum
Multi-function network information and e-business system
Large parking lot with more than 8,000 parking spots
After being built, Futian Market Phase-2 links up with the Phase-1 market, forming a
very large market with a business area of 1,300,000 m
2
and 23,000 commercial
booths. It becomes the largest commodity supermarket in the world.
The operator has the following requirements on indoor WCDMA coverage:
An indoor distributed system covers 95% of the areas in the building.
The CS64K service has a continuous coverage.
The Ec of edge pilot signals in the coverage areas is larger than or equal to -90
dBm and the Ec/Io is larger than or equal to -12 dB.
The indoor Ec field strength at 10 m outdoors is less than -95dBm.
Table 6-1 Details about the floors in the coverage target
Yiwu Futian Market Phase-2
Geographical location of the
market
District E of the planning garden of Futian Market,
Yiwu city
Name Function Area (m
2
)
Area F
B1F
Garage and equipment
room
40000
13F Shop 120000
4F
For commercial use and
parking
40000
5F
For commercial use and
parking
20000
Area G
B1F
Garage and equipment
room
40000
13F Shop 120000
4F For commercial use 40000
5F
For commercial use and
parking
20000
Area H
B1F
Garage and equipment
room
70000
13F Shop 210000
4F For commercial use 70000

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 75 of 86

Yiwu Futian Market Phase-2
Geographical location of the
market
District E of the planning garden of Futian Market,
Yiwu city
Name Function Area (m
2
)
5F
For commercial use and
parking
40000
Total - - 830000

Table 6-2 Elevators of the coverage target
Elevators
No. Function Quantity Floors stopping
Location of
equipment
room
Area F: 13
Passenger
elevator
3 B15F 6/F
Area G: 13
Passenger
elevator
3 B15F 6/F
Area H: 15
Passenger
elevator
5 B15F 6/F
Total 11

6.1.2 Analyzing Service Requirements
Predicted by the operator, the WCDMA services in this small commodity market focus
on voice and VP services. PS services are secondary, which occupy a certain
proportion.
6.1.3 Analyzing Requirements of Transmission Resources
The optical fiber transmission resources are abundant.
6.2 Surveying and Testing an Indoor Distributed System
6.2.1 Surveying the Existing Network
For Yiwu Futian Market Phase-2, the GSM signal coverage uses an indoor distributed
system, covering all areas including weak signal areas and dead zones. The coverage
area is about 830,000 m
2
. The GSM signal coverage uses macro BTS+optical fiber
repeater as the signal source. The system is equipped with 332 ceiling mount
omni-directional antennas and 6 wall-mounted directional antennas (for areas F and G
and union body 1). The existing network is in good coverage.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 76 of 86

6.2.2 Surveying the Inside of the Building

Figure 6-2 Indoor photo of the building
Indoors, rectangle shops are distributed in a strip shape. GSM antennas are installed
on the ceilings in the corridors. The shops are of a simple glass structure. The whole
building has a clear structure and good signal propagation conditions.
6.3 Making Link Budget and Estimating the Capacity of an
Indoor Distributed System
6.3.1 Making Link Budget for an Indoor WCDMA Distributed System
Use the LOS indoor propagation model of ITU-R P.1238.

o
X dB d f PL
LOS
+ + = 28 ) log( 20 ) log( 20
f : frequency, its unit: MHz. In the example, the value is 2110 MHz.
d : distance between a UE and a transmitter, m 1 > d

o
X
: slow fading margin, whose value is relevant to the coverage probability
requirements and the standard deviation of indoor slow fading. Calculated by the
formula of calculating area coverage probability in the RND tool, the slow fading
margin is 10.1 dB.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 77 of 86


Figure 6-3 Calculation of indoor slow fading margin
According to the above calculation of indoor propagation model, the path loss is
calculated by:
LOS
PL (dB) = 66.5 + 20*lg(d) 28 dB + 10.1 dB = 48.6 + 20*lg(d)
In different cases, the signal path loss is:
One meter away from an antenna
Ls1 = 48.6 + 20lg1 = 48.6 dB
10 meters away from an antenna
Ls25 = 48.6 + 20lg10 = 68.6 dB
15 meters away from an antenna
Ls25 = 48.6 + 20lg15 = 72.1 dB
20 meters away from an antenna
Ls25 = 48.6 + 20lg20 = 74.6 dB
25 meters away from an antenna
Ls25 = 48.6 + 20lg25 = 76.6 dB
30 meters away from an antenna
Ls25 = 48.6 + 20lg30 = 78.1 dB
By analysis on the existing indoor GSM distributed system, the maximum radius of the
coverage is about 20 m. Because indoors are simple rooms in glass structure, the
penetration loss is about 10 dB. Therefore, the maximum path loss is estimated as
84.6 dB.
To ensure good coverage of indoor services, design the Ec of edge pilot signals in the
floors larger than -90 dBm. Then the minimum pilot power for an antenna port is:
-90 dBm + 84.6 dB = -5.4 dBm
That is, to ensure that the WCDMA signal coverage of the indoor distributed system in
Futian Phase-2 Small Commodity Market meets the design requirement, the power of
WCDMA pilot signals outputted from the antenna ports of different floors must be
larger than -5.4 dBm.
6.3.2 Estimating the Capacity of an Indoor Distributed System
Use the method of estimating the capacity of a shared indoor GSM distributed system.
I. Predicting WCDMA Users
1) Gain the traffic of an indoor GSM BTS by analyzing the statistics on the traffic
data (early and late busy-hour traffic in running seven days) of the existing
network of the indoor GSM distributed system in the small commodity market.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 78 of 86

2) Traffic of the indoor GSM BTS / Total GSM traffic in the area = Percentage of the
traffic of the indoor GSM distributed system to the total traffic
3) Total predicted number of WCDMA users in the area x Percentage of the traffic of
the indoor GSM distributed system to the total traffic = Number of WCDMA users
of the indoor distributed system
Table 6-3 GSM traffic and number of WCDMA users
Area GSM traffic
Traffic
percentage
Planned number of
WCDMA users
Futian
Phase-2
88.91 38.38% 2665

II. Determining an indoor WCDMA Traffic Model
Determine the traffic model of the indoor distributed system with the operator.
Specially plan several services such as the voice service of CS12.2 Kbit/s, video
phone of CS64 Kbit/s, email of PS64 Kbit/s, Web browse of PS128 Kbit/s, and video
stream of PS384 Kbit/s, as listed in Table 6-4.
Table 6-4 Service model
Service main
category
Service type
Typical bearing rate
(Kbit/s uplink/downlink)
Session
AMRVoice 12.2/12.2
VideoPhone 64/64
Background Email 64/64
Interaction Web browse 64/128
Stream Video stream 64/384

The operator predicts the target throughput values of the services. The proportion of
uplink and downlink throughput of PS data services is 1:4. Table 6-5 lists the planned
target values of traffic.
Table 6-5 Traffic model values
Traffic Targets of Dense and Ordinary Urban Areas
Service
type
Traffic (Erl) of a
single user
Average throughput (Kbyte) of a single user
(specific to the 67% WCDMA users)
Voice
service
0.02 -
Video
phone
0.002 -
PS uplink - 28.125
PS
downlink
- 112.5

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 79 of 86


In addition, the operator predicts the distribution proportion of PS services in various
scenarios to guide service prediction, as listed in Table 6-6.
Table 6-6 Distribution features of PS bearing types
Service Type Dense Urban Areas Ordinary Urban Areas
PS64K 50.00% 55.00%
PS128K 35.00% 35.00%
PS384K 15.00% 10.00%

Futian Phase-2 is an ordinary urban area in this planning. The PS bearing proportions
are based on those for ordinary urban areas. The maximum uplink network load is
59%. The maximum downlink network load is 75%. Table 6-7 lists the indoor WCDMA
traffic model in this scenario.
Table 6-7 Indoor WCDMA traffic model
UL DL
Number of users/NodeB 2665
AMR12.2 (Erl) 0.02 0.02
CS64 (Erl) 0.002 0.002
PS128 (Kbit) 78.75 315
PS384 (Kbit) 22.5 90
PS64 (Kbit) 123.75 495

III. Analyzing CE and Demodulation Board Resources of Signal Sources
Calculate the number of CEs, number of uplink and downlink demodulation boards,
and number of E1 links by putting the indoor WCDMA traffic model to the single-site
CE calculation in the RND tool. According to the coverage requirements, the whole
small commodity market requires 19 RRUs for coverage. We can use the optical fiber
cascading mode only. Each BTS3812E can be cascaded with six RRUs through
optical fibers. Considering that the market will be extended in the future, use four
BTS3812Es as the signal source. According to the calculated numbers of CEs and
uplink and downlink demodulation boards and the coverage requirements, four
BTS3812Es are enough, each of which is configured with an uplink and a downlink
demodulation boards.
6.4 Choosing Signal Sources for an Indoor Distributed
System
For the indoor WCDMA signal coverage in Yiwu Fitian Phase-2 Market, use the
solution for an indoor RRU and GSM shared distributed system. Based on the results
of estimating the coverage and capacity, use the devices listed in Table 6-8 to meet
the requirements.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 80 of 86

Table 6-8 Choosing signal sources for an indoor distributed system
SN Device (Set) Location
Coverage
Area
Transmission
Mode
Power
1 BTS3812E/4
In the mobile
equipment room
in floor 4 of area
F4
- Optical fiber 20 W
2 RRU3801C/19
In the
communication
equipment rooms
Floors B1
to 5
Optical fiber 20 W

6.5 Designing the Handoff of an Indoor Distributed System
According to the analysis on a shared distributed system, divide the whole into 14
coverage areas. Areas 1 to 4 covered by the six RRUs cascaded with NodeB 1Areas 5
to 8 covered by the five RRUs cascaded with NodeB 2Areas 9 to 12 covered by the
four RRUs cascaded with NodeB 3Areas 13 and 14 covered by the two RRUs
cascaded with NodeB 4 There is no handoff on each vertical layer of the 14 areas.
They are covered by a same RRU. Softer handoffs occur between two different areas.
This is a maximum ratio combining (MRC), having a higher gain. A same RRU covers
the elevators and a same vertical layer, where there is no handoff. Handoffs between
areas 4 and 5 and between areas 8 and 9 are soft handoffs between different NodeBs.
Soft handoffs also occur between the entrance of the first floor of an area and the
NodeB for outdoor coverage.
Rationally set the reselection and handoff thresholds and the hysteresis between
indoor coverage areas to avoid ping-pong handoffs between the areas. Exactly
calculate the output power of antenna ports to prevent signals from leaking and
interfering with outdoor signals. Rationally set the handoff threshold and hysteresis
between outdoor macro cells and indoor coverage cells to ensure smooth signal
handoffs at the entrance of each first floor and to avoid ping-pong handoffs and call
drop resulting from untimely handoffs.
6.6 List of Newly-Added Main Devices of an Indoor
Distributed System
The WCDMA system has been considered during the design of a GSM system.
Therefore, almost all the components and feeders meet the requirements and the
system needs only a few changes. Table 6-9 lists some of the main devices newly
added. The list of others is provided by the indoor distributed system manufacturer.
Table 6-9 List of newly-added main devices of an indoor distributed system
SN Name Model Quantity Unit Manufacturer
1
WCDMA signal
source
BTS3812E 4 Set Huawei
2 RRU RRU3801C 19 Set Huawei
2 Combiner 793363 19 Set Kathrein


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 81 of 86

6.7 Detailed Solution for an Indoor Distributed System
6.7.1 Concepts of Reconstructing an Indoor Distributed System
In this planning, introduce Huawei RRU3801C (transmit power: 20 W) as the WCDMA
signal source. We need to reconstruct the existing indoor distributed system, as shown
in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-4 Reconstructing an indoor distributed system
To reduce influences on the original network, add a combiner on the backbone in each
building in the vertical areas. After combination and filtering, WCDMA and GSM
signals go into tributaries and reach antenna ports. Based on site survey, all
engineering constructions can be implemented in the communication equipment
rooms. For detailed design and calculation of each floor, see the schematic diagram of
the system.
Remote
device
Combiner
Power splitter or coupler
Ceiling mount omni-
directional antenna

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 82 of 86

6.7.2 Schematic Diagrams of the Networking of an Indoor Distributed
System

Figure 6-5 Part of the design for WCDMA signal sources (1)

Figure 6-6 Part of the design for WCDMA signal sources (2)
Table 6-10 List of coverage areas of GSM and WCDMA signals
Area
No.
Coverage Area
Local
device (Set)
Remote
device
(Set)
RRU (Set)
1
F1 and basement of area
1 2 2
Optical fibers
Optical fibers
Cover F1, installed in communication
equipment room 2 on floor 1 of F1
Cover area F basement, installed in
communication equipment room 3 in the
basement of area F
Cover F2, installed in communication
equipment room 3 on floor 3 of F2
Note:
Cover F3, installed in communication
equipment room 4 on floor 3 of F3
Cover F4, installed in communication
equipment room 5 on floor 3 of F4
Cover union body 1, installed in
communication equipment room 1 on floor
1 of union body 1
Cover G1, installed in communication
equipment room 1 on floor 3 of G1
Cover area G basement, installed in
communication equipment room 3 in the
basement of area G
Cover G2, installed in communication
equipment room 3 on floor 3 of G2
Cover G3, installed in communication
equipment room 5 on floor 3 of G3
Cover G4, installed in communication
equipment room 7 on floor 3 of G4
NodeB 1 and NodeB 2 are on floor 4 of area F4, together with the
GSM macro BTSs.
RRUs and remote devices of repeaters are installed in a same
communication equipment room.
NodeB 1
NodeB 2
Optical fibers
Optical fibers
Cover H1 and union body 1, installed in
communication equipment room 1 on
floor 2 of H1
Cover H3, installed in communication
equipment room 5 on floor 3 of H3
Note:
Cover H4, installed in communication
equipment room 7 on floor 3 of H4
Cover H5, installed in communication
equipment room 9 on floor 3 of H5
Cover union body 3, installed in
communication equipment room 1 on floor
1 of union body 3
Cover area H basement, installed in
communication equipment room 5 in the
basement of area H
NodeB 3 and NodeB 4 are on floor 4 of area F4, together with the GSM macro BTSs.
RRUs and remote devices of repeaters are installed in a same communication
equipment room.
Cover H2, installed in communication
equipment room 3 on floor 3 of H2
Cover H6, installed in communication
equipment room 11 on floor 3 of H6
NodeB 3
NodeB 4

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 83 of 86

Area
No.
Coverage Area
Local
device (Set)
Remote
device
(Set)
RRU (Set)
F
2 F2 1 1 1
3 F3 1 1 1
4 F4 and union body 1 1 2 2
5
G1 and basement of area
G
1 2 2
6 G2 1 1 1
7 G3 1 1 1
8 G4 1 1 1
9 H1 and union body 2 1 1 1
10 H2 1 1 1
11 H3 1 1 1
12 H4 1 1 1
13 H5 1 1 1
14
H6, union body 3, and
basement of area H
1 3 3


Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 84 of 86


Figure 6-7 Vertical area coverage method of the small commodity market
Both WCDMA and GSM signals use a vertical area division method for coverage. The
area division is in the same way. There are 14 areas totally. RRUs and remote devices
of repeaters are installed in a same communication equipment room for the signal
coverage of a same area. For the reconstruction of backbones, add such components
as combiners, filters, couplers, and power splitters as required in the design. This part
of reconstruction is implemented in communication equipment rooms. The tributaries
basically remain unchanged.
1) Uses seven four-carrier macro BTSs as the GSM signal source, placed in the
mobile equipment room on floor 4 of area F4. Place remote terminal A of the
indoor optical fiber repeater in the same room. Each BTS has two cells, each
including four carriers. The coverage uses the vertical area division method. The
whole building is divided into 14 signal cells. You can flexibly configure the
carriers of each cell for better traffic sharing. In a special case, you can also
expand the capacity.
2) Use four NodeBs as the WCDMA signal source, also placed in the mobile
equipment room on floor 4 of area F4. According to a site survey, the rest place in
the equipment room is enough for four Huawei BTS3812Es. Each of them can be
connected with four to six RRUs. Similar to GSM signals, WCDMA signals also
use the vertical area division method for coverage. The whole building is divided
into 14 signal cells. By using the RF and optical fiber remote radio technology,
place a RRU and the remote terminal of a repeater in a same communication
equipment room to cover a same floor. Each RRU is configured with a carrier.
3) GSM macro BTSs are all placed in the mobile equipment room on floor 4 of area
F4, using optical fiber repeaters to cover the whole Futian Market. The local
devices of repeaters are installed in 19-inch racks, also placed in the mobile
Area
14
Area
13
Area
12
Area
11
Area
10
Area
9
Union body 2 Union body 3
Union body 1
Area 1 Area 2 Area 3
Area 4
Area 5 Area 6 Area 7 Area 8

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 85 of 86

equipment room. Local devices extract some signals from macro BTSs and
transmit the signals through optical fibers to remote devices. After being amplified,
the signals cover all the floors of the market.
4) WCDMA macro BTSs are also placed in the equipment room on floor 4 of area F4.
Outputted from the optical interface board of a macro BTS, signals are
transmitted through optical fibers to an RRU. Going through the RF subsystem in
the RRU, the signals go from the RRU BTS output port into the main feeder and
cover the floors.
5) The original GSM system in Futian Market uses ceiling mount omni-directional
antennas:
143 in area F
160 in area G
260 in area H
17 in union body 1
6 in union body 2
14 in union body 3
All the antennas installed is applicable to signals at WCDMA and GSM bands.
The WCDMA system can share most of the antennas with the GSM system.
6) The original GSM system uses directional antennas for elevator coverage, each
elevator shaft installed with one antenna:
Area F: three
Area G: three
Area H: five
All the directional antennas used support signal transmitting at WCDMA and
GSM bands. The WCDMA system can shard the antennas with the GSM system.
7) Use an indoor GSM and WCDMA shared distributed system for the GSM and
WCDMA signal coverage to satisfy the GSM and WCDMA service requirements
in the market. Based on the detailed calculation, reconstruct the backbones and
components like couplers, power splitters, and combiners. Reuse the tributaries
and antennas of the original network. In this way, the actual transmit power of the
WCDMA signals reaching antenna ports meets the design requirement.
8) For the convenience of future maintenance, install all combiners, power splitters,
and couplers in communication equipment rooms, except those in elevator
shafts.
6.7.3 Detailed Network Topological Diagram of an Indoor Distributed System
We can see from the output power of pilot signals of antenna ports at different floors,
the output power of WCDMA pilot signals of all antenna ports is larger than -5.4 dBm,
ensuring the design requirement of WCDMA signal coverage of the indoor distributed
system in the small commodity market. Figure 6-8 shows a detailed network
topological diagram of an indoor distributed system.

Guide
Guide to Indoor WCDMA Coverage Design For internal use only

2014-06-26 All rights reserved. Page 86 of 86

Remote
device 06
RRU
Communication equipment
room 1 on floor 1 of 1#
+33dBm
0.4dB
+32.6dBm
Legends:
Micro-strip coupler
Micro-strip power
splitter
5 dB (T00-00F)
PS00-00F
Ceiling mount omni-
directional antenna
Yagi directional antenna
7/8" feeder
1/2" feeder
10dB
(T01-1#/02F)
20m/2.1dB
5m/0.5dB
15dB
(T01-1#/01F)
10m/1.1dB
Combiner
5dB
(T01-1#/03F)
10m/1.1dB
20m/2.1dB
10m/1.1dB
PS02-1#03F
5m/0.5dB
5m/0.5dB
15m/1.6dB
+3dBm
ANT01-1#/05F
10dB
(T01-1#/05F)
10m/1.1dB
60m/6.4dB
+0.9dBm
ANT02-1#/05F
5dB
(T02-1#/05F)
10m/1.1dB
30m/3.2dB
+0.8dBm
ANT03-1#/05F
5dB
(T03-1#/05F)
65m/7dB
+0.2dBm
ANT04-
1#/05F
5m/0.5dB
15m/1.6dB
+3.4dBm
ANT01-1#/04F
10m/1.1dB
60m/6.4dB +0.3dBm
ANT02-1#/04F
5dB
(T02-1#/04F)
10m/1.1dB
30m/3.2dB
5dB
(T03-1#/04F)
65m/7dB
+0.8dBm
ANT04-
1#/04F
10dB
(T01-1#/04F)
+1.2dBm
ANT03-1#/04F
15m/1.6dB
+4.2dBm
ANT01-1#/03F
10m/1.1dB
60m/6.4dB
+1.1dBm
ANT02-1#/03F
5dB
(T03-1#/03F)
10m/1.1dB
30m/3.2dB
5dB
(T04-1#/03F)
65m/7dB
+1.6dBm
ANT04-
1#/03F
10dB
(T02-1#/03F)
+2dBm
ANT03-1#/03F
15m/1.6dB
+4.9dBm
ANT01-1#/02F
15m/1.6dB 5dB
(T02-1#/02F)
35m/3.7dB
-0.1dBm
ANT02-1#/02F
65m/7dB 5dB
(T03-1#/02F)
-1.3dBm
ANT03-
1#/02F
50m/5.4dB
+0.6dBm
ANT02-
1#/01F
+0.9dBm
ANT01-1#/01F
20m/2.1dB
5dB
(T02-1#/01F)
1#

Figure 6-8 Detailed network topological diagram of an indoor distributed system
7 Summary
7.1 Improvement Based on V2.01
Compared with V2.01, the following contents are added:
Indoor coverage solutions for HSDPA
Analysis of influences on the coverage and capacity of the existing R99 network
Methods of indoor HSDPA coverage
List of references:
Agilent, Indoor Getting Started Guide, Agilent Technologies, 2000/09/26
S. Y. Seidel and T. S. Rappaport, 914 MHz Path Loss Prediction Models for
Indoor Wireless Communications in Multifloored Buildings, IEEE Trans. on Ant. &
Prp., Vol. 40 No.2, 1992
Miao Jiashu, Guide to Wireless Network Estimate of WCDMA RNP, departmental
document, 2002/10/29
Wang Mingmin, Detailed Design Specifications for Link Budge Tool, Monographic
Technical Studies of WCDMA RNP, departmental document, 2002/08/17
Wei Jian, Report on the Planning for Jinmao Intranet of WCDMA RNP,
departmental document, 2002/12/04
Charles and Wan Lilong, Report on Indoor and Outdoor Co-coverage,
departmental document, 2006/02/15