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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in

response to a change in temperature.


[1]

When a substance is heated, its particles begin moving more and thus
usually maintain a greater average separation. Materials which contract with
increasing temperature are unusual; this effect is limited in size, and only
occurs within limited temperature ranges (see examples below). The degree
of expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the material's
coefficient of thermal expansion and generally varies with temperature.
Linear expansion
To a first approximation, the change in length measurements of an object
("linear dimension" as opposed to, e.g., volumetric dimension) due to thermal
expansion is related to temperature change by a "linear expansion
coefficient". It is the fractional change in length per degree of temperature
change. Assuming negligible effect of pressure, we may write:
Volume expansion
For a solid, we can ignore the effects of pressure on the material, and the
volumetric thermal expansion coefficient can be written:
[5]


where is the volume of the material, and is the rate of change of
that volume with temperature.
This means that the volume of a material changes by some fixed fractional
amount. For example, a steel block with a volume of 1 cubic meter might
expand to 1.002 cubic meters when the temperature is raised by 50 C. This
is an expansion of 0.2%. If we had a block of steel with a volume of 2 cubic
meters, then under the same conditions, it would expand to 2.004 cubic
meters, again an expansion of 0.2%. The volumetric expansion coefficient
would be 0.2% for 50 K, or 0.004% K
1
.
If we already know the expansion coefficient, then we can calculate the
change in volume

where is the fractional change in volume (e.g., 0.002) and is the
change in temperature (50C).
They are equal at -40 (minus 40 degrees). ...because if we convert the
readings of Celsius and Fahrenheit, we will have: Celsius to Fahrenheit (-40C
x 9/5) +32 = -72 + 32 = -40F Fahrenheit to Celsius (-40F - 32) x 5/9 = (-72
)x 5/9 = -40C Algebraically (for the numerical value T) The formula for some
identical temperature T would beT(F) = T(C) and T = (9/5 T + 32) yields
4/5 T = -32 and T = -40 (see related question)
Zoo: The Parts and Function of the Urinary System
Our body is like a machine . Machine needs oil or gasoline to work. Our
body needs food in order to carry out its activities. Once the food has
reached the body systems, they are quickly used for energy. In the
process, wastes materials are produced which need to be removed
from the body. The solid waste material comes out through the anus,
while the fluid material is eliminated through the urinary system.
The Urinary System and Its Major Parts
1. Kidneys- the kidneys are two brownish, bean shaped organs
about the size of a fist, they weigh about 5 ounces. They are located in
the upper right and left back part of the abdominal cavity. Each kidney
contains about 1,200,000 microscopic filters called nephrons.
Nephrons are smaller than the smaller dots.
The main function or the kidneys are to maintain the water balance
and to eliminate waste materials from the blood.
2. Ureters the left and the right ureters are long muscular tubes.
They are about 12 inches long with a diameter 2 to 3 millimeters.
The ureters connect pelvis of each kidney to urinary bladder. They
carry urine from each kidney to the urinary bladder.
3. The Urinary Bladder the urinary bladder is a muscular sac that
holds urine. It is located in front the pelvis and behind the pubis. As
the bladder fills walls stretch signaling the desire to urinate.
4. The Urethra- the urethra is a muscular tube which carries urine
from the bladder to the outside part of the body. In the female, it is a
one inch long from the bladder to the cleft of the labia. In the male, it
is several inches long from the prostate gland to the penis. When one
is about to urinate, a value in the urethra relaxes to allow the urine to
flow out.
The Urinary System Cleans the Blood
Waste Products
During normal activity of the body, waste product are formed. The
chief waste of the body are carbon dioxide, water, urea and salts.
Carbon dioxide is eliminated through the lungs while water, urea and
salts are eliminated through the urine. Urea is a product resulting from
the breakdown of protein foods and of protoplasm. It is excreted
mainly but the kidneys.
Urinary Systems Mechanism
1. Glomerulus each nephron is composed of a glomerulus. The
glomerulus is surrounded by hollow capsule known as Bowmans
Capsule. The capillaries in the glomerulus filters the waste materials
of the blood except protein and the cells.
2. Filtered Fluid the filtered fluid enters the bowmans capsule,
where it flow down through its twisted tubes. The walls of the tubes
absorb back in to the blood the needed water and blood chemicals.
3. Pathway of Unwanted Chemicals Unwanted chemicals are
discharged. The unwanted chemicals are the waste products. They
come out in the form of urine. The urine passes into the ureter and on
to the urinary bladder. And the urethra which releases it to the outside
of the body. Urine gives valuable clues to the body. Sugar in the urine
is an indication of diabetes. Albumen may signify that the kidneys are
not functioning properly.
Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master gland" because of
its great influence on the other body organs. Its function is complex
and important for overall well-being. It produces hormones that act
directly on the body and that stimulate other endocrine glands to
produce their own hormones. The anterior pituitary (the front part of
the pituitary) produces several types of hormones:
Prolactin: stimulates milk production from a woman's breasts
after childbirth. In pregnant and breastfeeding women, prolactin
helps prevent ovulation (the release of eggs from the ovaries).
Growth hormone (GH): GH stimulates growth in childhood and is
important for maintaining a healthy body composition. In adults it
is also important for maintaining muscle mass and bone mass.
GH also affects fat distribution in the body.
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH): ACTH stimulates production of
cortisol by the adrenal glands. Cortisol, a so-called "stress
hormone," is vital to survival. It helps maintain blood pressure
and blood glucose levels, among other effects.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): TSH stimulates the thyroid
gland to make thyroid hormones, which, in turn, control
(regulate) the body's metabolism, energy, growth and
development, and nervous system activity.
Luteinizing hormone (LH): LH regulates testosterone in men and
estrogen in women.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): FSH stimulates the ovaries to
release eggs (ovulate) in women. LH and FSH work together to
allow normal function of the ovaries or testes, including sperm
production.
The posterior pituitary (back part of the pituitary) produces two
hormones:
Oxytocin: Oxytocin causes milk to be released in nursing
mothers and contractions during childbirth.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): ADH, also called vasopressin,
regulates water balance. If ADH is not secreted in the right
amount, this can lead to too much or too little sodium (salt) and
water in the bloodstream.
Read about pituitary disorders.

Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is part of the brain that lies just above the pituitary
gland. It releases hormones that start and stop the release of pituitary
hormones. The hypothalamus controls hormone production in the
pituitary gland through several "releasing" hormones. These include:
growth hormone-releasing hormone, or GHRH (controls GH
release)
thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or TRH (controls TSH release)
corticoptropin-releasing hormone, or CRH (controls ACTH
release)
Another hormone made by the hypothalamus is gonadotropin-releasing
hormone (GnRH). It tells the pituitary gland to make luteinizing
hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which are
important for normal puberty and reproduction.
Thymus
The thymus is a gland needed early in life for normal immune function.
It is very large just after a child is born and weighs the most when a
child reaches puberty. Then its tissue is replaced by fat. The thymus
gland secretes hormones called humoral factors. These hormones help
to develop the immune system, which is important in fighting bacteria
and viruses.
Pineal Gland
Scientists are still learning how the pineal gland works. It makes at
least one hormone: melatonin. Melatonin may stop the action of the
hormones that produce gonadotropin, which causes the ovaries and
testes to develop and function. It also influences when people get
sleepy at night.
Testes The testes (testicles) produce the hormone testosterone.
During puberty, testosterone helps to bring about the physical changes
that turn a boy into an adult male, such as growth of the penis and
testes, growth of facial and pubic hair, deepening of the voice,
increase in muscle mass and strength, and increase in height.
Throughout adult life, testosterone helps maintain sex drive, sperm
production, male hair patterns, muscle mass, and bone mass.
Ovaries
The two most important hormones produced by the ovaries are
estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are responsible for breast
development, ovulation, and menstrual periods, as well as maintaining
a pregnancy. The ovaries also produce inhibin, a protein that inhibits
the release of FSH from the pituitary and helps control egg
development.
Thyroid
The thyroid is a small gland in front of the neck. Thyroid hormones
control your metabolism, which is the body's ability to break down
food and store it as energy and the ability to break down food and use
or store it as energy. The thyroid produces two hormones, T3 (called
tri-iodothyronine) and T4 (called thyroxine).
Adrenal Glands
Each adrenal gland is actually two endocrine organs. The outer portion
is called the adrenal cortex. The inner portion is called the adrenal
medulla.
The adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids (such as cortisol) that
help the body control blood sugar, increase the burning of protein and
fat, and respond to stressors like fever, major illness, and injury. It
also makes mineralcorticoids (such as aldosterone) which control
blood pressure by acting on the kidneys to help them hold onto enough
salt and water. The adrenal cortex also produces some androgens
(hormones that act like testosterone), and contribute to pubic and
underarm hair and adult body odor in both men and women.
The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine (adrenaline), which
increases the heart rate, opens airways to improve oxygen intake, and
increases blood flow to muscles, usually when a person is scared,
excited, or under stress. Norepinephrine also is made by the adrenal
medulla, but this hormone is more related to maintaining normal
activities as opposed to emergency reactions.
Parathyroid
Located behind the thyroid gland are four tiny parathyroid glands.
These glands make hormones that help control calcium and
phosphorous levels in the body. The parathyroid glands are necessary
for proper bone development. They also maintain normal blood calcium
levels, which is important for normal heart, muscle, and nerve
function. When blood calcium levels are low, the parathyroid glands
make parathyroid hormone which takes calcium from bones so that it
will be available in the blood for important body functions.
Pancreas The pancreas is a large gland behind your stomach that
helps the body to maintain healthy blood sugar (glucose) levels. The
pancreas secretes insulin, a hormone that helps glucose move from
the blood into the cells where it is used for energy. The pancreas also
secretes glucagon when the blood sugar is low. Glucagon tells the
liver to release glucose that is stored in the liver into the bloodstream.
Family planning allows individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their
desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. It is
achieved through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of
involuntary infertility. A womans ability to space and limit her pregnancies
has a direct impact on her health and well-being as well as on the outcome
of each pregnancy.




Nuclear Family
The nuclear family is the traditional type of family structure. This
family type consists of two parents and children.
Single Parent Family
The single parent family consists of one parent raising one or more
children on his own. Often, a single parent family is a mother with her
children, although there are single fathers as well.
Extended Family
The extended family structure consists of two or more adults who are
related, either by blood or marriage, living in the same home. This
family includes many relatives living together and working toward
common goals, such as raising the children and keeping up with the
household duties.
Childless Family
While most people think of family as including children, there are
couples who either cannot or choose not to have children. The
childless family is sometimes the "forgotten family," as it does not
meet the traditional standards set by society.
Stepfamily
Over half of all marriages end in divorce, and many of these individuals
choose to get remarried. This creates the stepfamily, which involves
two separate families merging into one new unit. It consists of a new
husband and wife and their children from previous marriages or
relationships. Stepfamilies are about as common as the nuclear family,
Grandparent Family
Many grandparents today are raising their grandchildren for a variety
of reasons. One in twelve children is raised by his grandparents, and
the parents are not present in the child's life