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EndNote X6

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Thomson Reuters EndNote X6 Help User Guide

Trademarks
Copyright2012ThomsonReuters
Allrightsreservedworldwide.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,transmitted, transcribed,storedinaretrievalsys-
tem,ortranslatedintoanylanguageinanyformbyanymeans,withoutwrittenpermissionfromThomsonReuters.
ThisproductincludessoftwaredevelopedbytheApacheSoftware Foundation(http://www.apache.org/).
MicrosoftWindowsand ActiveSyncareregisteredtrademarksofMicrosoftCorporation.
OpenOffice.orgisatrademark ofOpenOffice.org.
PDFtechnologyinEndNoteispoweredbyPDFNet SDKcopyrightPDFTron SystemsInc.,2001-2010,anddistributedby
ThomsonReutersunderlicense. Allrightsreserved.
Allotherproductandservicenamescitedinthishelpfilemaybetrademarks orservicemarksoftheirrespectivecompanies.
Notice regarding legal use of downloaded reference data
EndNotegivesyouthecapabilitytoimportreferencesfromonlinedatabases andstoretheminyourpersonalEndNotelibraries.
Someproducersofonlinereferencedatabasesexpresslyprohibitsuchuseandstorageoftheirdata;otherschargeanextrafee
foralicensetousethedatainthisway. Beforeyoudownloadreferencesfromadatabase,besuretocheck thecopyrightandfair
usenoticesforthedatabase.Notethatdifferentdatabasesfromthesameprovidermayhavevaryingrestrictions.
Introduction
Overview of Thomson Reuters EndNote
WelcometoEndNoteX6-thecompletereferencesolution!
EndNote is an online search tool
Youcansearchonlinebibliographicresourcesandretrievereferencesdirectlyinto yourEndNotelibrary.Youcan
alsoexportreferencestoEndNotefrom yourfavoriteonlineresource(seeDirectExportProvidersinEndNote
Help).
EndNote is a reference and full text organizer with a collaborative Web tool
Yourpersonalreferencelibrarywill saveyoucountlesshoursoforganizingyourresearch.
l Groupreferences accordingtoyourresearchprojectsandattachupto45filesper recordformanagingrelated
materials.
l Locatefulltext PDFfilesforyouorcreateareferencewhenimportingaPDFfile. Synchronizereferencesand
fileattachmentswithyourEndNoteWebaccount.
l SharegroupswithotherEndNoteuserseasilyandmanageyourResearcherID publicationlist.
EndNote is a bibliography maker
CiteWhileYouWritetakesthepainoutofcitingandformattingreferencesinMicrosoftWord,andOpe-
nOffice.org Writer3forWindows.Youcanalsocreate bibliographies forotherwordprocessorsusingFormatPaper
(RTFfiles).Thereis simplynobettertoolthanEndNoteforhandlingdiversebibliographic stylerequirements.
EndNoteandEndNoteWebarecollaborativetoolstosimplifyworking withcolleagues.
See the following help topics for more information.
l SeeWhat's NewinEndNoteX6foralistofthemostrecentfeaturesadded toEndNote.
l Fordocumentationupdatesandcorrectionnotes forthisrelease,refertotheReadme.txt fileinstalledintheEndNote
folder.
l For late-breakingnewsandupdates,goto: http://www.endnote.com/support.
l ForacompletelistofprintableEndNoteHelptopicsforWindows,go to http://-
endnote.com/support/helpdocs/EndNoteX6WinHelp.pdf.
What's New in EndNote X6?
ThecurrentreleaseofEndNoteincludesthefollowingnewfeatures.
l Updateandsynchronize yourreferencesinEndNotedesktopandEndNoteWebbytheclickofabutton.Maintainandsyn-
chronizethereferencesinyour EndNotelibrarywiththereferencesinyourEndNoteWeblibraryevenacrossmultiplecom-
puters.
l ChangeLayoutoptionstomatchyourmonitorandpreferences, suchasshowingthePreview,Reference,andPDFViewer
panelsontherightsideofthescreentofitwidescreenmonitors.
l OpenPDFsinaseparatetabbedReference/PDFwindowforviewingreferencesorannotatingPDFfiles.
l Applyaratingtoeachofyourreferences.SearchyourEndNotelibrarybyselecting theRatingoptionfromtheFieldlist.
l ApplyaReadorUnread tagtoyourreferencesfromtheLibrarywindowortheReferencewindowinorder totrackwhichref-
erencesyouhavereviewedduringyourresearch.SetratingpreferencestohaveEndNoteautomaticallymarkreferences
asreadafterviewingintheReference,Preview,andPDFViewerpanelsorafterchangingtheratingofareference.
l CopyorMovethe contentsofonefieldtoanotherfieldwithoutlosingtheoriginaltextformattingstyle.
l ChangethecaseoffielddatafromtheReferencewindow.OptionsincludeSentencecase,lowercase,UPPERCASE,
EveryWord, andtOGGLEcASE.
l Changethecaseoffield dataforallreferencescurrently"showing"intheLibrary windowbyusingtheChange/Move/Copy
Fieldscommand.
l Selectdifferentauthornameformatsforshortformsoffullreferencefootnotes.
l Editfullreferencefootnotecitationstoexcludeauthorname,year,or author/year.
l E-maila selectedreferencewithorwithoutfileattachmentstoyourcolleagues.
l RetrieverecordsinXML formatfromonlinesearchdatabases.
For more information about these features, see:
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
Read/UnreadPreferences
ResolveSyncConflicts
SyncPreferences
TheLibraryWindow
UnfiledGroups
EndNote X6 Display Fonts
Bydefault,EndNotedisplaystherecommendedsystemfontspecifiedforyourversionofWindows.SeeDisplayFontsPref-
erencesifyouwanttochangethefontandfontsizeonyourcomputerwhenworkinginEndNoteX6.
Note:IfyouareupgradingfromEndNoteX5orearlier,youwillnoticethefontsettingswillchangewiththisversion.Thisistopro-
videthebestexperiencefornewdisplayfeatures.
View Our Whats New Video
ThomsonReuters recommendsthatyouviewourWhatsNewvideoatwww.endnote.com/trainingoronourYouTubechannelat
www.youtube.com/endnotetraining.
View Features Added in Earlier Versions of EndNote
l FeaturesAddedtoEndNoteX3
l FeaturesAddedtoEndNoteX4
l FeaturesAddedtoEndNoteX5
Top 10 Things to Remember about EndNote
1. EndNotedoesnotreplacethestylemanual.Itwillmakeiteasiertofollowthemanual,butyouwillstillneed themanual.
2. Garbagein,garbageout.Socheckyourimportresults,especiallywhenworkingwithsourcessuchasGoogleScholarthat
mayhaveinconsistent data.
3. UseoneEndNotelibraryforallofyourwriting. Itwillmakeyourlifeeasierinthelongrun.
4. UsetheEditCitationcommandtomakechangesto citationsindocuments.Tryingtomakechangesonthescreenrisks
corruptingtheEndNotecitations.
5. Ifyouareusingfootnotestyles,yourwordprocessor controlsthenumberingandplacementofthefootnoteandEndNote
controls theformatting.Soyouwillfirstneedtoinsertthefootnote usingyourwordprocessor,theninserttheEndNotecita-
tionintothatfootnote.
6. EndNoteprovidesfivewaysofimportingreferences:
l Onlinesearch
l Directexport
l Importingtextfiles
l ImportingPDFfiles
l ThroughtheCapturebuttoninEndNoteWeb, whichcanimportonerecordatatimeintoeitheranEndNoteor anEnd-
NoteWeblibrary
Themethodyouusewilldependonwhichdatabasesyouneedtowork with.Talktoyourlibrarianaboutsearchingonline
databases.They cantellyouwhichdatabasesyouhaveavailabletoyouandthebest wayofsearchingthem.
7. OnlinesearchusestheZ39.50Internetprotocol, astandardprotocolthatwasdevelopedjustforsearchingandretrieving
bibliographicdata.Ithaslimitations.
l Itdoesnotworkthroughproxyservers.
l Itdoesnotusethesameportyourbrowser uses.
l Itisnotthesameprotocolyourbrowser uses.
8. EndNotecanbecustomized.
9. Forcollaboration,usetheEndNoteWebfeature setinEndNotetostorereferencesonlinewhereyourentireprojectteam
canaccessthem.
10. BackupyourEndNoteLibraries.
About ResearcherID
ResearcherID.comisafreelyavailableresourcefortheglobal,multi-disciplinary scholarlyresearchcommunity.Afterregistering,
youareassignedanindividual IDnumberthatstayswithyouoverthecourseofyourcareer,regardless ofnamechangesor
changeininstitutionaffiliation.
ResearcherIDallowsyoutocreateanonlineProfileforshowcasingyour publicationhistory.Itisdesignedtoassociateyouwith
yourscholarlywork,thusassuringanaccuraterecordofoutputandattribution. Italso providesagatewayforcolleaguesto
quicklylocateyourpublishedworkandtoidentifyyouasapotentialcollaborator.
ResearcherID Features
AtResearcherID.com, youcan:
l Updateyourbiographical(Profile)information atanytime;
l BuildyourpublicationlistbyusingWebofKnowledge, WebofScience,DistinctAuthorsets,orbyuploadingafile;
l ManageyourpublicationlistwithEndNoteWeb;
l ControlwhetheryourProfileispublicorprivate,muchlikepeopledoonFacebookandotherWebsites;
l Viewcitationmetricsforarticlesfoundinthe WebofScience;and
l Searchtheregistrytofindcollaborators,reviewpublicationlists,andexplorehowresearchisusedaroundtheworld.
ResearcherID Tools
Inaddition,ResearcherIDincludesaninteractiveLabsenvironmentforexplorationofauthor-levelmetrics.Thesetoolsallow for
visualanalysisofresearchnetworksbasedon:
l SubjectCategory
l Country/Territory
l Institution
l AuthorName
l PublicationYear
l GeographicLocation
Thetoolsinclude:
l Citing Articles Network-Visuallyexplorewhoiscitingyourarticles.
l Collaboration Network-Visuallyexploreyourcollaborationassociates.
l Badge- PlaceanimagegraphiconanyWebsitetoshowyourmembershipin ResearcherID.Thebadgedisplaysareal-
timesummaryofyourProfile andpublicationsonmouse-hover.
Would You Like to Know More?
l GotoResearcherID.com
l MoreinformationaboutResearcherID
Contacting Thomson Reuters
Customer Service
ContactSalesforgeneralproductinformation, pricing,quantitydiscounts,andreferralstodealers.
ContactCustomerServicetoordernewcopies orupgradesofEndNote,tocheckbilling/shippingstatus,andtoregister yoursoft-
ware.
Sales Information
Phone:1-800-722-1227 (TollFree)
Phone:7604385526(countrycodeis01)
Fax:7604385573(countrycodeis01)
Web/E-mail:http://www.endnote.com/contact
Customer Support (Orders, Billing, and Shipping)
Phone:8003364474(country codeis01)
Fax:2153862911 (countrycodeis01)
Web/E-mail:http://www.endnote.com/contact
Support
ContactTechnicalSupportifyouencounterproblemswhileusingEndNote. Whenyoucontactus,pleasehaveacleardescription
oftheproblemand knowtheversionofyourWindowsoperatingorMacintoshsystem,EndNote, andwordprocessor.Tofindthe
EndNoteversionandserial number,startEndNoteandselectAboutEndNotefromtheEndNotemenu(Macintosh)or theHelp
menu(Windows).
Forweb/e-mailorphonecontact,includinghoursandholidayclosures, pleasegoto:http://www.endnote.com/contact
Technicalsupporttipsarealsoavailablefromthehttp://science.thomsonreuters.com/techsupport/hours/ siteandtheEndNote
DiscussionForum(seethesectionsthatfollowinthismanual).
International Customer and Technical Support
ForcustomersupportortechnicalsupportoutsideofNorthAmerica, visitourWebsitetocheckforalocaldistributor.
Gotohttp://www.endnote.com/distributors tofindcontactinformationforyourlocalEndNotesupport.
EndNote Web Site
TheEndNoteWebsite(http://www.endnote.com) containsfreetrainingoptionsincludingonlinevideosandWebclasses, atech-
nicalsupportknowledgebase,andinformationonthelatestversions ofEndNote.Youcanalsofindupdatedstyles,filters,and
connection filesavailablefordownload.
EndNote Discussion Forums
IfyouwishtojoinanongoingforumofEndNoteuserslikeyourself, gotohttp://www.endnote.com/forum.Youcanbrowseseveral
EndNotemessagelists,easilysearchfortopics, andjointoaddmessages.
JointheEndNotesocialnetworkat:
l www.facebook.com/EndNote
l www.twitter.com/EndNoteNews
l www.youtube.com/endnotetraining
Technical Support & Services
GotoTechnicalSupport&Servicesfor alistoffrequentlyaskedquestions wereceiveaboutEndNote.
Other Resource Contacts
EndNote Training
ToviewourEndNote tutorialsortodownloadupdates,output styles,import filters,documenttemplates,andmore,gotoourProd-
uct Trainingpage.
Product Suggestions
Tooffersuggestiononhowwecanimprove uponEndNote,gotoProductSuggestions.
Windows Printable Help File
For acompletelistofprintableEndNoteHelptopics,gotohttp://endnote.com/support/helpdocs/EndNoteX6WinHelp.pdf.
Features Added to EndNote X3
EndNoteX3includesthesenewfeatures:
l Usegroupsetstobetterorganize yourEndNotereferences.Savereferencesingroupsandthensavesets ofgroupsin
groupsets.Youcancollectbothcustomgroupsandsmart groupswithinthesamegroupset.SeeAbout GroupsandGroup
Sets.
l Createaseparatebibliography foreachsectioninasingleMicrosoftWorddocument.SeeCreating MultipleBibliographies
inaSingleDocumentandSections.
l InMicrosoftWord,multiple citationsthataregroupedunderasinglenumbercanbedifferentiated withletters.SeeNum-
bering Citations.
l Findevenmorefulltextdocuments withFindFullText.UseOpenURLLinkresolversandproxysystems tofind,down-
load,andautomaticallyattachfulltextPDFfilesalong withcorebibliographicdata.SeeFinding FullTextforaReference.
l Easilysaveacopyofanattached file.SeeSavingaCopyofanAttachedFile.
l Useexpandedandupdatedbibliographic outputstyles,import filters,andconnectionfiles.
l UseadditionalAppleScript commandstoautomateEndNotetasks.SeeAppleScript andAppleScriptExamples.
l
CiteWhileYouWritewiththefreeOpenOffice.orgWriterwordprocessor.SeeHowtoCiteWhileYou WritewithOpe-
nOffice.orgWriter.
l UseEndNotewithfullcompatibilitywith64bit versionsofMicrosoftWindows.
Features Added to EndNote X4
EndNoteX4addsthesefeatures:
l ImportandcreatenewrecordsfromPDFfiles.WhetheryouareimportingasinglefileorafolderofPDFfiles, EndNote
usesmetadataandDOIinformation tocreateanewreferenceandattachthesourcePDF.Basicbibliography information
willbeaddedautomaticallyformostjournalarticles,conferenceproceedings,conferencepapers,andreports.
l SearchthecontentsofattachedPDFfiles. YouwillfindanewoptiononthefieldlisttosearchPDFfilesseparately,orin
combinationwiththereferencedata.
l Createnewgroupsbycomparing,combiningorsuppressingexistinggroups.Thenewsmartgroupsareupdateddynam-
ically asyourlibrarygrows.
l Transferupto10,000referencesbetweenthedesktopandEndNoteWebtoshareonlinegroupswithotherEndNote users.
SharedgroupsarenowincludedwhenyouCiteWhileYouWrite fromEndNoteWeb.
l Editreferenceswhencomparingduplicatescopy/paste andsavechangesintheside-by-sideview.
CiteWhileYouWritenewfeaturesinclude:
l Addhyperlinksbetweenin-textcitationsandthebibliographyreferenceinMicrosoftWordusinganyjournalstyle.
l Useexpandedfunctionalitywheneditingcitationstrackusageandmore.
l MeetthecompleteAPA6thstylerequirements includingspecifichandlingofreferenceswitheightormoreauthors,hyphen-
atedfirstnamesandDOIdata.
l ImprovedfootnotehandlingfortheChicago ManualofStyleandsimilarfootnote-basedbibliographicstyles.
l TravelingLibraryenhancementsrecognizereferences whensharingWorddocumentsforbettercollaboration.
l Getaquickcitationreportofreferencescited inaMicrosoftWorddocumentwithanewauto-groupintheEndNote library.
What's New in EndNote X5?
ThecurrentreleaseofEndNoteincludesthefollowingnewfeatures:
l EasilyconvertyourReferenceManagerdatabasestoEndNotedatabases.ThisfeaturesisavailabletousersofReference
Manager,versions11and12.
l WithinCiteWhileYouWrite,younowhavetheoptiontoconvertReferenceManagercitationsandbibliographiestoEnd-
Notecitationsandbibliographies.ThisfeatureassumesthatyouhaveconvertedyourReferenceManagerdatabasetoan
EndNotedatabase.
l AddandtransferfileattachmentstoreferencesinyourEndNoteWebaccountforgreatermobility.
l ViewandannotatePDFfilesintheEndNotelibrary.UpgradeorcreateyourWebaccountwith yourX5licensetoreceive
thisexpandedfeature.
l FindReferenceUpdatesontheRecordEditwindow toretrieveadditionalonlinedatasuchasthePMCIDrequiredforNIH
grants.
l SelectanewcitationoptionAuthor(Year) withintheFind&InsertMyReferencesdialoginCiteWhile YouWrite.
l Savetimewithnewconditional formatting substituteemptyfieldswithalternatessuchasVolumeandPages withDOI.
SupportincludesDOI,PMCID,andEditor/Translatorconditions.
l Reviewduplicatereferencesquicklywithnewauto-highlightsforeachfieldwheredifferencesarefound.
l ViewnewDatasetandMusicreferencetypesas wellasnewfieldsforNIHMSIDandArticleNumber.
l Selectfromanexpandedsetofbibliographicstyles,importfilters,andconnectionfilesinstalledbydefault oraddmore
throughcustomizing.
Note: ThomsonReuters recommendsthatyouviewourWhatsNewvideoatwww.endnote.com/training oronyourEndNoteX5
CD.
SeethefollowingHelptopicsformoreinformationaboutthesenewfeatures inEndNote.
l Finding DuplicateReferences
l Updating References
l Field Substitutions(BibliographyandFootnotes)
l ConvertingaReferenceManagerDatabasetoEndNote
Note: ThomsonReuters recommendsthatyouviewourWhatsNewvideoatwww.endnote.com/training fordetailedinformation
aboutthenewfeaturesinEndNote.
IfyouhaveupgradedfromanearlierversionofEndNote,youmaywanttoseethefollowingtopicsinEndNoteHelp.
l Features AddedtoEndNoteX3
l Features AddedtoEndNoteX4
The EndNote Library
About the EndNote Library
Back Up Your Libraries
YourEndNotelibrarybecomesincreasinglyvaluabletoyouasyouadd referencestoit.Consequently,itisimperativethatyou
backupyour libraries,alongwithanyotherimportantdocuments.Eachlibraryismade upofafilewiththeextension.ENLplusa
corresponding.DATAfolder.Alwaysbackupboththe.ENLfileandthe.DATAfolder.
YoucanusetheSavea CopycommandoroneoftheCompressedLibrarycommandstosaveacopy ofyourlibrarytoaremov-
abledisk(orelsewhere)forsafekeeping. SeeBackingUpYour EndNoteFilesformoreinformationaboutmakingbackupcopies
ofyour files.
Related Topics:
Backing UpYourEndNoteFiles
ImportantFilestoBackup
ImportantPointsAboutLibraries
LibrarySummary
Savea CopyofaLibrary
Important Points About Libraries
Listedbeloware someimportantpointsabouttheEndNotelibrary.Detailedinformation abouteachoftheseitemsfollows.
l There isnolimittothenumberofreferencesyoucancreateinanEndNotelibrary.Itisrecommendedthatthenumbernot
exceed50,000tomaintainefficientperformancemanagingthedatabase.
l Thereisnolimit tothenumberoflibrariesyoucancreate,assumingthatyouhave thediskspacetostorethem.Werec-
ommendthatyoukeepallthereferences youciteinyourpapersinoneprimarylibrary.
l You canselectdefaultlibrariestoopenautomaticallywhenEndNoteis started.
l You canopenmorethanonelibraryatatime.
l Librariescreatedwith theWindowsversionofEndNotecanbeusedbytheMacintoshversion ofEndNoteandviceversa
(seeTransferring LibrariesAcrossPlatforms).
l Eachlibrarycanbe independentlymoved,copied,renamedordeletedusing theWindowsExplorer(orbyopening"MyCom-
puter") .Alwaysmove,copy, renameordeleteboththemain.ENLfileandthe.DATAfolder; otherwise,youcanloseref-
erencedata.
l Figures,Groups,andothersignificantfiles arestoredina[libraryname].DATAfolderwhichisinthesamefolder asyour
mainlibraryfile.Thisfolderisanextensionofthelibrary, soremembertomove,copy,rename,ordeletetheassociated
DATAfolder alongwiththemainlibraryfile.
l Libraryfilenamesincludetheextension.ENL.Ifyourlibraryfilenamedoesnotincludean.ENLextension,Windows
Explorermaynotbedisplayingfileextensions.YoucanchangethissettinginWindowsExplorerifyouwish.
l The Librarywindowcanberesizedandthedisplayfontcanbechangedtoanyfontorsizethatyouprefer.
l TheLibrarywindowdisplaysamulti-columnreference list.Bydefault,thefirstcolumnshowsaRead/Unreadindicatorfol-
lowedby:
l Author
l Year
l Title
l Rating
l Journal(orsecondarytitle)
l ReferenceType
l URL
l LastUpdated
Youcanchangetheorderofthefields,addfields,removefields,orchangethenameofafieldinthecolumnheadingsof
theLibrarywindow.SeeDisplayFieldsPreferencesformoreinformation.
Related Topics:
BackUp YourLibraries
Creating aNewLibrary
LibrarySummary
OpeningaLibrary
The LibraryWindow
Transferring LibrariesAcrossPlatforms
Library Summary
Toseeasummaryofstatisticsaboutthecurrentlyopenlibrary,go totheToolsmenuandselectLibrarySummary.
Ifyouwishtosaveandprintthisinformation, usethe"Copytext toclipboard"buttonandthenpastethetextintoawordprocessor
document.
Foralistofstatisticsabout aspecificreference,seeRecord Summary.
The Library Window
The Library Window
WhenyoufirstopenalibraryinEndNote,youseeaLibrarywindow madeupoffourdifferentpanels.
l TheGroupsPanel
l ThePDFViewerPanel
l TheReferenceListPanel
l TheSearchPanel
l TheTabsPanel
You canclickonapaneltomakeitactiveorpressF6tojumpfromonepanelto another.
Theselectionofgroupsandmenucommandsdependsonthedisplaymodethatyouselect.SeeTheDisplayModes.
The Library Toolbar
TheLibrarytoolbarprovidesvariouscommandsthatallowyouto manageyourreferences.Foradescriptionofeachcommand,
seeTheLibrary Toolbar.
Selecting the Sync Feature
YourpurchaseofEndNoteX6entitlesyoutoatwo-yearfreesubscriptiontoEndNoteWebouronlineversionofEndNotedesk-
top.
TheSyncfeatureallowsyoutosynchronizethereferencesin yourEndNotelibrarywiththereferencesinyourEndNoteWeb
library. YoumustregisterandhaveanactiveEndNoteWebaccountto initiatetheSyncprocess.
I Already Have an EndNote Web Account
1. ClicktheSyncbuttoninthetoolbartogotoanEndNoteWebLogindialog.
2. EnteryourEndNoteWebe-mailaddress.
3. EnteryourEndNoteWebpassword.
4. ClickOK.
TheSyncprocessshouldautomaticallybeginsynchronizingyour EndNotedesktopreferenceswithyourEndNoteWebref-
erencessothat anexactmatchexistsinbothlibraries.
SinceyoualreadyhaveanEndNoteWebaccount,EndNotepopulates thefieldsontheSyncPreferencespagewiththee-mail
addressand passwordthatyouenteredontheEndNoteWebLogindialog.Later youcanchangethedatainthesefieldsifyou
everchangeyour e-mailaddressorpassword.
Note:TheSynclibrarythatyoudefinedinSync PreferencesmustbeopenandcurrentlyactivetoperformtheSyncprocess.
Moreover,youcannot initiatetheSyncprocesswhileinOnlineMode.
I Do Not Have an EndNote Web Account
SinceyoudonothaveanEndNoteWebaccount,youmustcreateone. Registrationisfastandeasyandactivatesyourtwo-year
EndNoteWeb accountwhencompleted.
1. ClicktheSyncbuttonintheLibrarytoolbartogotoan EndNoteWebLogindialog.
2. ClicktheSignUpbuttontogotoaUserRegistrationdialog.
3. Enteryoure-mailaddressintheUserRegistrationdialog.Retypeyoure-mailaddress,andthenclicktheContinuebutton.
4. Enteryourpersonalinformationintherequiredfieldson thenextUserRegistrationform.Forexample,enteryourname, a
password,atitle,andfillintheremainingfields.
5. ClicktheIAgreebuttontocompletetheregistrationprocessandtobeginsynchronizingyourEndNoteWeblibrarywithyour
EndNotelibrary.
OnceyoucreateyourEndNoteWebaccount, EndNotepopulatesthefieldsontheSyncPreferencespagewithyoure-mail
addressandpasswordthatyouenteredduringregistration.Lateryoucanchangethedatainthesefieldsifyoueverchangeyour
e-mailaddressorpassword.
Note:Werecommendthatyoucreateacompressed librarybackupthefirsttimethatyouinitiatetheSyncprocess.SeeSaving
aCompressedCopyofaLibraryformoreinformation.
SeeSyncPreferencesandOverviewoftheSyncProcessformoreinformationaboutthisfeature.
Selecting a Layout Mode
ClicktheLayoutbuttoninthelowerright-handcornerofthe Librarywindowtodisplayamenuthatlistssevendifferentlayout
options.
Groups Panel
Left / Off:Thislayoutallowsyouto hideorshowtheGroups panel.Youcanusethisoptionincombinationwithany
oftheother layoutoptions.
Reference Panel
Right:ThislayoutallowsyoutocombinetheReference,Preview,andPDFViewertabsas onepanel totherightof
theReferencelistinacolumnararrangement. Thisisthe defaultlayoutoption.
Right - Split:Thislayoutallows youtoarrangetheReference/PreviewtabsandthePDFViewerpanelto theright
oftheReferencelistinacolumnararrangement.
Bottom:Thislayoutallows youtocombinetheReference/PreviewtabsandthePDFViewertabina splitarrange-
mentbelow theReferencelist.
Bottom - Split:Thislayoutallowsyou tocombinetheReference,Preview,andPDFtabsinonepanelbelow the
Referencelist.
Off:Thislayoutallows youtohidetheReference,Preview,andPDFViewerpanels.EndNote displaysonlythe
GroupspanelandtheReferencelistside- by-side.
Selecting the Search Panel
TheSearchpaneldisplaysatthetopoftheEndNotewindowregardlessofwhichlayout optionyouselect.
TobeginasearchofyourEndNotelibrary,selectthegroupof referencesyouwanttosearchandthenselectSearchLibraryfrom
the Toolsmenu.YoucanalsoclicktheShowSearchPanelbuttontodisplaytheSearchpanelandtheHideSearchPaneltohide
theSearchpanel.
Tobeginasearchofanonlinedatabase,clickonthedatabasename intheGroupspanelunderOnlineSearchorgototheTools
menuandselect OnlineSearch.SeeTheSearchPanelformoreinformation.
Selecting a Display Mode
YoucanchoosefromthreedifferentdisplaymodesintheLibrarywindow.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode:Allgroupsandcommandsareavailable.Whenyoudownloadreferencesfroman
onlinedatabase.EndNote savestheminyouropenlibrary.
Local Library Mode:Displaysautomatic groups,customgroups,andsmartgroups.OnlineSearch groupsarenotavailable.
Online Search Mode:Searchanddownloadreferencesfromonlinedatabases.Inthismode,only OnlineSearchgroupsareavail-
able. References aredownloadedintoatemporarylibrary.TheyareremovedwhenyoucloseEndNote.
Toswitchbetweenthesemodes, clickontheappropriatetoolbar button.
Formoreinformation, seeThe DisplayModes.
Resizing the Library Window
YoucanresizetheLibrarywindowbyclickingthewindowborderinthelowerrightwindowcorneranddraggingtothedesired size
orbyclickingthemaximize/minimizebuttonsintheuppercorneroftheLibrarywindow.
EndNoteremembersthenewsizeoftheLibrarywindowaswellasits locationonthescreen.ThenexttimeyouopenEndNote,
thelibraryappears withthesamedimensionsandinthesamelocationaswhenyoulastclosed it.EachEndNotelibrarycanhave
itsownuniquedimensionsandscreen location.
Changing the Library Display Font
Bydefault,EndNotedisplaystherecommendedsystemfontspecified foryourversionofWindows.
Youcanselectadifferentfontandsizeforthetextdisplayedin theLibrary windowbyusingEndNotespreferences.Thelistofref-
erencesintheLibrary windowusesthefontandfontsizeasdefinedfromtheLibrarytabinDisplay Fontspreferences.
ThePreviewtabontheTabspanelusestheGeneraldisplayfont.Changes madetothedisplayfontsapplytoallEndNote
librariesopenedonthat computer.
SeeDisplayFonts Preferencesforinstructionsonhowtochangethedisplayfont.
Note:Changingthedisplayfontsdoesnot affectthefontEndNoteuseswhen itcreatesabibliography.EndNoteusesthefontof
yourpaperforthe bibliography.
Changing the Display Fields
Bydefault,thefirstcolumnintheLibrarywindowdisplaysaRead/Unreadindicatorfollowedby:
l FileAttachments
l Author
l Year
l Title
l Journal/SecondaryTitle
l Rating
l ReferenceType
l URL
l LastUpdated
Youcanchangetheorderofthefields,addfields,removefields, orchangethenameofafieldinthecolumnheadingsofthe
Library window.SeeDisplayFieldsPreferencesforinstructiononhowtochangethedisplayfields.
Onceyouhavesetthedesireddisplayfields,youcanadjust thecolumn widthsbydraggingthebarbetweencolumnheadings.
Changing the Reference List Sort Order
Bydefault,thereferenceslistedintheLibrarywindowaresorted bythefirstauthorslastname.
Youcanchangethesortorderbyselecting SortLibraryfromtheToolsmenuorbyclickingthecolumnheadings.Whenyou sorta
library,thatsortorderisretainedevenafteryoucloseandreopena library.SeeSorting theLibraryformoreinformationaboutsort-
ing.
Related Topics:
DisplayFieldsPreferences
DisplayFontsPreferences
ImportantPointsAboutLibraries
Navigating intheLibraryWindow
RecordSummary
Showing aReferencePreview
The Library Window Display Modes
YoucanchoosefromdifferentdisplaymodesintheLibrarywindow.You maywanttoalwaysworkinIntegrated Library &
Online Search Mode,whereallgroupsandcommandsareavailable.Whenyoudownloadreferencesfromanonlinedatabase,
theyaresaveddirectlyintoyouropenlibrary.
Theotheroptionistoworkprimarily inLocal Library Modeandswitch toOnline Search Modewhenyouwanttosearchand
downloadreferencesfromanonlinedatabase.InLocalLibraryMode,theOnlineSearchgroupsare notavailable;onceyouselect
theOnlineSearchcommandfromtheToolsmenu,youareautomaticallyswitchedtoOnlineSearchMode.InOnline Search
Mode,onlytheOnlineSearchgroupsareavailable, andreferences aredownloadedintoatemporarylibrary.Thisallowsyouto
downloadreferencesfromonlinedatabaseswithoutaffectingyourlocallibrary.Manylibrary commandsarenotavailableinOnline
SearchMode.
Toswitchbetweenthesemodes, clicktheappropriatetoolbarbutton.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode
Whenyoufirstcreatealibrary,IntegratedLibrary&OnlineSearch Modeisineffect.Allgroupsandmenucommandsareavail-
able.Whenyou performanonlinesearch,thefoundreferencesaredownloadeddirectly intothecurrentlyopenlibrary.
WhenyouclosealibrarywithIntegratedmodeineffect,thatsettingisretained;whenyouopenthelibraryagain, allgroupsare
available.
Local Library Mode
LocalLibraryModedoesnotdisplayOnlineGroups.Itdisplaysautomatic groups,customgroups,andsmartgroups.Itkeeps you
frominadvertentlysearchinganonlinedatabaseanddownloadingreferencesintoyourcurrentlyopenlibrary.
WhenyougototheToolsmenuandselectOnlineSearch,orclickthe OnlineSearchModeicononthetoolbar,EndNoteswitches
intoOnlineSearch Mode.
WhenyouclosealibrarywithLocalLibraryModeineffect,thatsetting isretained;whenyouopenthelibraryagain,onlylocal
librarygroups areavailable.
Note:Youcanstill useFindFullText,usetheImportcommand,ordirectdownloadreferences intoyourlocallibrary.Onlyan
OnlineSearchcommandswitchestoOnline SearchMode.
Online Search Mode
SelectOnlineSearchModeifyoudonotwanttoautomaticallydownload foundreferencesdirectlyintoyouropenlibrary.Youmay
prefer toperusethedownloadedreferencesandthencopyonlyspecificreferences intoyourpermanentEndNotelibrary.
WhenOnlineSearchModeisineffect,theonlygroupsavailableinthe LibrarywindowareOnlineSearches,aswellastheauto-
maticgroupsOnlineReferencesandOnlineTrash.Whenyouretrievereferencesfromanonline databaseinOnlineSearch
Mode,thereferencesaredownloadedintoatemporary library.Ifyouwanttosavethereferencesyouhavedownloaded,youmust
copythemtoanexistingEndNotelibrary.
WhenOnlineSearchModeisineffect,manymenuitemsaredisabled. Youcannotsavechangestoanindividualreferenceor
makeglobalchanges toreferences.
WhenyouclosealibrarywithOnlineSearchModeineffect,thatsetting isnotretained;whenyouopenthelibraryagain,Local
LibraryModeisineffect,withonlylocalgroupsavailable.
Related Topics:
About theLibraryWindow
ImportantPointsAboutLibraries
TheGroupsPanel
TheReference ListPanel
TheTabsPanel
The Groups Panel
Groupsaresubsetsofreferencessavedforeasyretrieval.Theleft paneloftheLibrarywindowlistsseveralgroupsetsthat
includevarious typesofgroups:automaticgroups,customgroups,smartgroups,Online Searchgroups,andFindFullText
groups.Eachisdescribedbelow.
AnewlibrarymaydisplayonlythepermanentAllReferences, Unfiled,andTrashgroups.Todisplayagroupofreferencesinthe
ReferenceListpanel,clickthegroupname.
Note:Ifyoufind thatnotallgroupsareavailable,seeThe LibraryWindowDisplayModes.
Group Sets
GroupsetsareindicatedbygroupsetheadingsintheGroupspanel. Somegroupsetsarepermanent,andcannotberemoved.
TheseincludeOnline SearchandFindFullText,whicharedescribedbelow.A newlibrarybeginswithonegroupset:MyGroups.
Youcanrename itatanytime.Youcanalsocreateanynumberofadditionalcustomgroup sets.Groupsetscancontainanycom-
binationofcustomgroupsand smartgroups,asdescribedbelow.
Expandorcollapsethelistofgroupsunderagroupsetheading byclickingtheplus(+)orminus (-)button.Clickanddragagroup
setheadingtomove thegroupsettoanewlocation.
Formoreinformationaboutgroupsets,seeUsingGroupSets.
Automatic Groups
Automaticgroupsincludebothpermanentandtemporarygroups,arelisted atthetopoftheGroupspanelintheLibrarywindow,
andcannot bechanged.
Thepermanentgroupsare:
All References: Thisdisplays allofthereferencesinthecurrentlibrary.Ifyouhighlightasubset ofreferencesinthisgroupand
thendisplayonlythoseselectedreferences,thenameofthegroupchangestoShowingReferences.Thestatuslinealongthebot-
tomofthewindowwillalwaystellyouhowmayreferencesyouare viewingplusthetotalnumberofreferencesinthelibrary.
Sync Status:Thisisnotreallyagroup.TheSyncStatusbuttonallowsyoutoopentheSyncStatsdialogtoreviewinformation
abouttheEndNotelibrarythatyouselectedto synchronizewithyourEndNoteWeblibrary.Thedialogtellsyouthenumberofref-
erencesandthenumberoffileandfigureattachmentsthatEndNoteupdatedduringthelastSyncprocess.A"Copytexttoclip-
board"buttonallowsyoutocopythetexttoaclipboard,andthenpastethetextinatextfile.
Sync Conflicts Group:Thisgroupcontainsallofthe referencesforwhichEndNotehasidentifiedaconflict betweenanEndNote
referenceandEndNoteWeb reference.
Unfiled:Thisgroupcontains thosereferencesthatarenotpartofacustomgroup(andoptionallynot partofasmartgroup).Right-
clickUnfiledtodisplayacontextsensitive menuandtogglethesetting"ExcludeSmartGroupsinUnfiled/Include SmartGroups
inUnfiled".
Trash:ThisgroupcontainsthereferencesyouhaveremovedfromthelibrarybyselectingMoveReferencestoTrashfromtheRef-
erencesmenu.Whilethereferencesareofficiallynolongerinyourlibrary(theywillnotappearinanyothergrouporreferencelist,
theyarenotincludedinyourreferencecount, andthey cannotbesearchedorcited),theyarenotcompletelydeleteduntilyou go
totheReferencesmenuandselectEmptyTrash. UntilyouselectEmptyTrash, youcanstilldragreferencesfromtheTrashgroup
backtoyouractivelibrary.
Temporary Groups
Copied References: Thistemporarygroupdisplaysthelastgroupofreferencesthatwereretrieved inOnlineSearchModeand
thencopiedintoyourpermanentlibrarywiththeReferences>CopyReferences Tocommand.
Duplicate References:This temporarygroupdisplaystheresultsofduplicatedetectioninyourlibrary. Youcanrunduplicate
detectionwiththeReferences >DetectDuplicatescommand. SeeFinding DuplicateReferences.
Imported References: Thistemporary groupdisplaysthelastsetofreferencesimportedintothelibrarywith theFile>Import
command. SeeGeneralImportingInstructions.
Search Results:Thistemporarygroupdisplaysthemostrecentsearchresults.Eachtimeyourunanother searchonthelibrary,
thisgroupisreplaced.SeeSearching forReferences.
Find Full Text groupsarealso automaticandtemporary,buttheyappearunderaFindFullTextgroup set,describedbelow.
Note:Whenyou closealibrary,alltemporarygroupsaredeleted.Onlythegroupsare deleted;thereferencesarestillinthe
library!
Custom Groups, Smart Groups, and Combination Groups
Customgroups,smart groups,andcombinationgroupsareuserdefined.Youcancreateupto 5,000userdefinedgroupsand
organizethemingroupsets.
Youcaneasilydraganddropindividualreferencesorlistsofselected referencestoandfromcustomgroups.Customgroupsare
updatedonlywhen youspecificallyaddorremovereferences.
Smartgroupsaredynamicallyupdatedbyapplyingsearchcriteriato eachreferenceasitisaddedorupdated.
Combinationgroupsincludecustomgroupsandsmartgroups.
Formoredetailedinformationaboutsavingreferencesingroups,and savingthosegroupsingroupsets,seeAbout Groups.
Online Search
TheOnlineSearchsectionintheGroupspanellistsyour"favorite" connectionfilesforonlinesearching.Whenyouclickononeof
theseconnectionfilenames,theSearchpanel becomesactive andyouareconnectedtotheselectedonlineserviceinorderto
begin searching.Formoreinformationaboutonlinesearching,seeHowtoSearchanOnlineDatabase.
IftheOnlineGroupssectionisnotavailableintheGroupspanel,you maybedisplayingtheLibrarywindowinLocalLibraryMode.
SeeThe LibraryWindowDisplayModes.
Find Full Text
TheFindFullTextgroupsetliststemporarygroupsthatappearwhen youselectFindFullTextfromtheReferencesmenu.The
groupsremain forthecurrentsession,butdisappearwhenyouclosethelibrary.
Searching...:Thisgroupdisplays thecurrentsetofreferencesforwhichEndNoteisattemptingtofind eitherthefulltextfileof
eachreferencedworkoratleastaURLto thereferencedwork.Whenthefulltextsearchiscompleted,thisgroup isdeleted.
ThosereferencestowhichfulltextoraURLwasaddedare displayedinaFoundPDFgrouporaFoundURLgroup.
Found PDF: Thisgroupdisplaysthesetofreferencesforwhich EndNoteinsertedthePDFfileofthereferencedworkasan
attachment. ThesereferencesdisplayapaperclipiconintheFileAttachmentscolumnof thereferencelist.IfaURLisalso
found,itisaddedtothereference, butthereferenceisnotincludedintheFoundURLgroup.
Found URL: Thisgroupdisplaysthesetofreferencesforwhich EndNoteinsertedaURLtothereferencedwork.
Not Found: Thisgroupdisplays thesetofreferencesforwhichEndNotecouldnotidentifyafulltextPDF fileoraURL.Theseare
onlyfromthesetofreferencessearchedwiththeFindFullTextcommandduringthissessionoftheEndNotelibrary.
FormoreinformationaboutFindFullText,seeFindingFullTextforaReferenceandHowtoFindandRetrieveFullText.
Related Topics:
About theLibraryWindow
ImportantPointsAboutLibraries
TheDisplay Modes
ThePDFViewerPanel
TheReference ListPanel
TheSearchPanel
TheTabsPanel
The PDF Viewer Panel
Selectalayout viewfromtheLayout menulocatedintheright-handcorneroftheLibrarywindow.
SelectthePDFtabfromtheLibrarywindowortheReferencewindowtoopenthePDFViewerpanel toreviewandannotate
attached PDFfiles.
ToopenaPDFfile,selectareference,andthen:
l Right-click> FileAttachments>OpenFile
l Referencesmenu>FileAttachments>OpenFile
l Double-clickthePDFfile
Attaching PDF Files
YoucanattachPDFfilesandviewtheminthePDFViewerpanelin variousways.
l ClicktheAttachFiles(paperclip)icononanyPDFtabtoopenaselectfiledialog.
l SelectafieldintheReferencewindow.FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFileAttachments>AttachFiletoopenaselect
filedialog.
l SelectafieldintheReferencepanel.Right-clicktoopenacontextualmenu.SelectFileAttachments>AttachFiletoopena
selectfiledialog.
l SelectthePDFViewer panel.PressCtrl+Alt+Atoopenaselectfiledialog.
ClicktheSavePDFicononthePDFViewertoolbartosaveyourwork.YoucanalsonavigatetoanotherreferenceandEndNote
willpromptyoutosaveyourwork.
Navigating the PDF Viewer Panel
EndNoteallowsyoutoopenandannotatePDFfileswithinthe PDFViewerpanel.Select areferencewithattachedPDFsfromthe
referencelisttoviewaPDFfile.
YoucanresizetheStickyNotetextboxto enterandviewmoretextbygrabbingaresizehandleatanycornerofthetext boxand
draggingituntilyoureachthedesiredsize.
Using PDF Viewer Toolbar
AtoolbarappearswithinthePDFViewerpanelthatdisplays thefollowingoptions.
MoveyourcursoroveranicononthetoolbartoseeAlttexttoexplainitsfunction.Forexample,Alt(hover)textforthefirstthree
iconsdisplays:
l OpenPDFFileintheReferenceWindow
l SavePDF
l PrintPDF
Right-clickwithinanopenPDFfiletodisplayacontextualmenuthatincludesmanyofthese optionsplusotheroptions,suchas:
l OpenwithAdobeAcrobat
l OpeninReferenceWindow
l E-mailAttachment
l Remove(deletesthecurrentPDFfile)
l ShowNotes/Markup
l HidesNotes/Markup
Using the Find Feature
TheFindfeatureallowsyoutosearchforwordsandphraseswithinaPDF document.Enteryourtermsinthetextboxandpress
Enter.UsetheNextandPreviousbuttonstofind thenext/previousinstanceofasearchterm.
TheFindfeatureonlysearcheswithinthecurrentlyopenPDF.Youcannot usethisfeaturetosearchthereferencefieldsinthe
Referencepanel ortosearchotherPDFfilesthatareattachedtothecurrentreference.
TheFindfeaturehighlightsandreturnmatchesthatcontainthesearch queryfollowedbyanyothercharacters. Forexample:
l Asearchonhospital findshospital,hospitals,hospitalization,andsoon.
l Asearchonhospital care findsmatchesthatcontainthephrasehospital careonly.
l Asearchonhospital carefindsmatchesthatcontainthephrasehospital care(thephrasemustcontainthequotation
marks).
Adding Sticky Notes and Highlighting PDF Text
WithinthePDFViewer,youcanmakeannotations(stickynotes)and highlight selectedtextwithinaPDF.BothaStickyNoteand
aHighlightTexticon appearinthetoolbarinthePDFViewerpanel.
Add a Comment
1. GotoasectioninthePDFwhereyouwanttoaddacomment.
2. Selectthetextwhereyouwanttoinsert acomment.
3. SelecttheStickyNoteiconfromthe toolbar.
4. Double-clicktheStickyNoteiconthatappearsinthePDFfiletodisplayaStickyNotetextbox.
5. EnteryourcommentsintheStickyNotetextbox.
6. ClicktheSavePDFiconinthetoolbartosaveyourchanges.
Note:Todeleteastickynote,right-clickwithinthePDFViewerpaneltoopenacontextualmenu,andthenselecttheDelete
Annotation option.
Highlight Text
1. GotothesectioninthePDFwhereyouwanttohighlighttext.
2. SelectthetextwithinthePDFthatyouwantto highlight.
3. SelecttheHighlightTexticon.Thecoloroftheselectedtextchangestoyellow.
4. ClicktheSavePDFiconinthetoolbartosaveyourchanges.
Tohidestickynotesandhighlighted text,moveyourcursoroverthetext.Right-clicktodisplaythecontextualmenu.Select the
HideNotes/Markupoptionfrom themenu.
Notes:
l Stickynotecommentsaresearchableusingthe"AnyFieldandPDF"and"PDFNotes"optionsfromtheFieldlist.
l Stickynotesarenotprintable.TheydonotappearwhenthePDFfileisprinted.
l Youcannot movestickynoteswithinaPDFfile.
The Reference List Panel
TheReferenceListpaneldisplaysallthereferencesinthecurrentlyselectedgroup. Alltheoptionsfromthetoolbarareavailable.
SeeToolbarsformoreinformationabouttheseoptions.
Display Fields
Bydefault,thefirstcolumnintheLibrarywindowdisplaysaRead/Unreadindicatorfollowedby:
l FileAttachments
l Author
l Year
l Title
l Journal/SecondaryTitle
l Rating
l ReferenceType
l URL
l LastUpdated
Changing the Order of the Fields or Adding / Removing Fields
Youcanchangetheorderofthefields,addfields,removefields,orchangethenameofafieldinthecolumnheadingsofthe
Librarywindow.SeeDisplayFieldsPreferencesformoreinformation.
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. ClicktheDisplayFieldsoptioninthelist.
3. SelectthedesiredfieldfromtheFieldlist.You mayselect uptoeightfieldstobedisplayedintheLibrarywindow. Select
"[Donotdisplay]"insteadofafieldname ifyouwanttoshowfewerthaneightfields.
4. Bydefault,thecolumnheadingintheLibrarywindow isthesameastheGenericnameofthefield(theFigurefield isindi-
catedbyfig. ,andtheFileAttachmentsfieldisindicatedbyapaperclipicon). Ifyouwouldliketochangethenameforthe
Librarywindowdisplay, youmaydosobyenteringanewnameintheHeadingsectionnextto thechosenfield.
5. Ifyouwouldliketodisplayallauthornamesunder theAuthorheadinginthelibraryreferencelist,ratherthanjust thefirst
author,selectthecheckboxnexttotheDisplayallauthors intheAuthorfield.
6. ClickOK tosavethechangesandclosethePreferencesdialog.
Note: Thesesettings applytoalllibraries.
Reference List Sort Order
Bydefault,thereferenceslistedintheLibrarywindowareautomaticallysorted bythefirstauthorslastname.
Youcanchangethesortorderbyselecting SortLibraryfromtheToolsmenu(seeSorting theLibrary)orbyclickingthecolumn
headings.Whenyousortalibrary,thatsortorderisretainedevenafteryoucloseandreopena library.Forexample:
Whenyousortthelibrary,charactersortingiscarriedoutaccordingtothelanguageandlocalsettingsofyouroperatingsystem
unlessyouspecifyadifferentlanguageintheSortOptionsdialog.Thisdetermineswhether aplain"a"issortedbeforeorafter"".
EndNotedoesnotrememberthesortorderforallgroups.EndNotedisplays theresultsofasearchintheorderinwhichtheyare
found.Similarly, afterimportingreferences,EndNotedisplaysthenewlyimportedreferences intheorderinwhichtheywere
imported.Thisbehaviorgreatlyenhances thespeedofthesetwofunctions.SelectingtheChoosingShowAllReferencesoption
fromthe ReferencesmenureturnsallofthereferencestotheLibrarywindowandliststhemaccordingtothelastsortorderspec-
ified.
Note:SeeSortOrder:BibliographiesandMultipleCitationsabouthowtosetthe sortorderforabibliographicstyle. SeeSorting
PreferencesforinformationabouthavingEndNoteignorecertain wordsornameswhensortingreferences.
Navigating in the Reference List
Thereareanumberofwaystobrowsethroughyourreferences.
l Scrollthroughthelistofreferencesinthe Librarywindowbyclickingintheverticalscrollbarwiththemouse.
l UsetheUpandDownarrowkeystomoveupordownthereferencelist.
l Sortreferencesinthelistbyclickingonacolumnheading.Forexample,clicktheYearheadingtosortthereferencesby
descendingorascendingyear.
l Typealettertoselectthefirstmatchingreference. Thematchingdependsontheorderinwhichthelibraryissorted.Ifthe
libraryissortedbytheAuthorfield,typingaletterselects thefirstreferenceinwhichtheauthorslastnamebeginswith
thatletter.
Forexample,typingtheletter"Z"selectstheZartmanreferenceinoursamplelibrarysinceZartmanisthefirstauthors
nametobeginwitha"Z."Typeseverallettersandtheselectionjumpstothefirstnamethatbeginswiththosetypedletters.
Lettermatchingstartsoverafterahalf-secondpause.
l TheHomeandEndkeysgotothefirstorlastreferencerespectively.ThePageUpandPageDownkeysallowyouto
moveupordowntheReferencelist.
l Tofindspecificreferences,selectSearchLibraryfromtheToolsmenu. (SeeSearching forReferencesformoreinfor-
mation.
Related Topics:
The LibraryWindow
ImportantPointsAboutLibraries
TheDisplay Modes
ThePDFViewerPanel
TheGroupsPanel
TheTabsPanel
The Search Panel
TheSearchpaneldisplaysatthetopoftheEndNotewindowregardlessofwhichlayout optionyouselectfromtheLayoutmenu
locatedintheright-handcorneroftheLibrarywindow.
TheShowSearchPanelandtheHideSearchPanelinthetopright-handcornerofthewindowallowsyoutoshoworhidethe
Searchpanel.
TobeginasearchofyourEndNotelibrary,selectthegroupofreferencesyouwanttosearchandthenselectSearchLibraryfrom
theToolsmenu.YoucanalsoclicktheShowSearchPanelbuttontodisplaytheSearchpanelandtheHideSearchPaneltohide
theSearchpanelfromview.
Tobeginasearchofanonlinedatabase,clickonthedatabasenameintheGroupspanelunderOnlineSearchorgototheTools
menuandselect OnlineSearch.
Search Line
AsearchlineincludesaLogicaloperator,the fieldtobesearchedfromtheField list,theComparisonoperator,andablankfield
thatyouenteryoursearch terms.Usetheplusorminusbuttonstotherightofeachsearchline toinsertordeletealine.
Boolean Operator List
TheAND,OR,andNOToperatorsbetween thesearchlinesindicateshowthesearchlinesaretobecombined.See Combining
SearchLineswithAND, OR,andNOTOperators
Field List
TheFieldlistallowsyoutorestrictyoursearchtoaparticularfieldsuch asAuthor,Year,orKeywordsorAnyField.Bydefault,
theFieldlists aresettosearchAuthor,thenYear,thenTitle.
YoucanalsorestrictyoursearchtoPDFfilesattachedtoareferences byselectingthePDFoptionfromthefieldlist.TheAny
Field+ PDFoptionallowsyoutosearchanyfieldwithinareferenceandall PDFfilesintheselectedgroupthatyouaresearching.
SeeRestrictingSearchesto SpecificFieldsformoreinformation.
Comparison List
Select anitemfromtheComparisonlisttoindicatehowthesearchtermshould relatetothefield(s)beingsearched.For example,
youcanfindreferencesinwhich:
l TheJournalfieldbeginswiththeterm"science"
l TheJournalfield contains"science"anywhereinthefield
l ThefullJournal nameis"science"
SeeUsingComparisonOperatorsformoreinformation.
Search Fields
Thesearchtermisthewordorphrasethatyouwanttolocateinareference.Enteryoursearchtermsinoneormoresearchfields.
UsetheOptionsbutton toinsertaTaborCarriageReturninasearchline.
Asterisk ( * ) Wildcard
Expandyourlibraryretrievalresultsbyaddingwildcardsbeforeandaftersearchterms.Theasteriskrepresentsanygroupofchar-
acters.
l FieldsandPDFfilescanbesearchedusingthe asteriskwildcard.
l Nominimumcharacterlengthisrequired.
l Stopwordsdonotapplysothetermsometh* inaqueryfindsthetermsomething.
Reminder:EndNote automaticallyappliesleft-andright-handtruncationtoyoursearchterms. However,youcanstillusethe
asterisk(*)wildcardbeforeandafterasearchterm.
Search Set List
Usethesearchsetlistabovethesearchfieldstospecifythesetofreferencestosearchandhowthesearchresultsshouldbe
combinedwithotherreferencesinthe Librarywindow.Bydefault,EndNotesearchesthegroupofreferencescurrently displayed
andshowsonlytheresultsofthesearch.
Match Case
Bydefault,EndNoteignorescapitalizationwhensearchingfortextinalibrary.Forexample,asearchforthetext paleontology
alsofindsPaleontology.
Whenyouselect theMatchCaseoption,EndNotefindsrecordsinwhichthesearchtermisspelledexactlyasyoutypeditina
searchfield.Forexample,ifyouenterAIDS andyouselectMatchCase,EndNoteignoresthewords"aids"and"Aids"andfinds
onlytheacronymAIDS"
Whenyouselect theMatchCaseoption,asearchforspecificdiacritical markssuchas,andwillmatchthoselettersexactly.
Thus,asearchforrsumwillnotfind"resume."Ifyouwanttofindallvariationsofaletter,deselecttheMatchCase option.
Match Words
Whenyouselect theMatchWordsoption,EndNotefindsexactmatches ofthesearchtermratherthanpartial-wordmatches.For
example,asearch fortheterm statefindsreferenceswiththeword"state"whileignoringwordslike"statehood"or"understated."
Save Search and Load Search
IfyoufrequentlyusethesamesearchstrategiesontheSearchpanel,youcanusetheOptionsbuttontosavethesesearchesand
laterloadthem whenyouneedthem.SeeSaving SearchStrategies.
Set Default and Restore Default
Click theOptionsbutton andselectSetDefaulttosavetheconfigurationof alloftheitemsontheSearchpanelexcept forthe
searchterms.Click theOptionsbutton andselectRestoreDefaultatanytimetoreturnthetab tothatconfiguration.SeeSearch
Command Tipsformoreinformation.
The Tabs Panel
TheTabspanelincludesthreetabs:Reference,Preview,andPDF.
YoucanchangethelayoutoftheLibrarywindowbyclickingtheLayout buttoninthelowerright-handcorneroftheLibrarywindow
to displayamenu.Therearesevendifferentlayoutsfromwhichtochoose.SeeTheLibraryWindowforadescriptionofthesixlay-
outoptions.
TochangetheheightoftheTabspanel,clickthebarthatseparates itfromthereferencelist,anddragupordown.Whenthecur-
sor isoverthisarea,itchangestoindicatethatyouareintherightplace toresizethepanel.
The Reference Tab
SelecttheReferencetabfromtheEndNotewindowto editthecontentsofthehighlightedreferenceintheReferencepanel.
MostfunctionalityisthesameasworkingintheReferencewindow.Enter textinafieldbyclickingonthefield.Alleditcommands
areavailable viathemenusincludingcontext-sensitivemenus.Right-click(Windows)inthereferencetodisplaycommonoptions
suchasCut,Copy,andPaste.
Openthecontext-sensitivemenutoviewthefollowingoptions.
l Cut
l Copy
l Paste
l PastewithTextStyles
l Clear
l SelectAll
l GoTo...
l OpenTermLists
l SpellCheck
l FileAttachments
l FindFullText
l FindReferenceUpdates
l URL
l Figure
Navigation Keys
l TheTabkeyallowsyoutomovetothenext fieldintheReferencepanelinordertoeditafield's contents.
l TheShift+Tabkeys allowyoutomovetothepreviousfieldwithintheReferencepanel.
l TheF6 keyallowsyoutonavigatefromtheGroupspanel(sidepanel),tothe ReferenceList,totheReferencepanel.
Note: IftheReference windowisopen,theReferencetabisinread-onlymode.Youcannoteditthefields.OnlytheCopyand
SelectAlloptionsareavailablebyright-clickinginthepanel.Mostfeatures,however,withinthePDFViewer panelarestillavail-
able,suchasNextPage,PreviousPage,ZoomIn,Zoom Out,Copy,andPrint.
The Preview Tab
SelectthePreviewtab(orpressAlt+P)toviewtheformattedstyleoftheselectedreference.
Thepreviewdisplaystheselectedreferenceinyourcurrentstyle.Ifmultiplereferencesareselected,itdisplaysjustthelastone
inthe selection.FieldswiththePreviewfeaturearenoteditable.Toeditthereference,openthereferenceintheReferencepanel
ortheReferencewindow.
Choosing the Current Style
ThePreviewpanelusesthecurrentstyle. Toselect anotherstyle:
l OntheMain toolbar,usetheOutputStyleslisttoselectanew style.
l FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles andselectastyleinthelist.Thecheckmarknexttoastylename indicatesthat
itisthecurrentstyle.
EndNoteprovidesover4,500styles.TheyareavailablefromtheStyleManager.Go totheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,and
thenselectOpenStyleManager.MarkthestyleorstylesthatyouwouldliketoseeintheOutput Stylesmenu.Youshouldnowbe
abletoselectthestylethatyouneed fromtheOutputStylesmenu.(Formoreinformation, seeThe StyleManager.)
YoucanalsoaddstylestothemenususingtheSelectAnotherStyle optionfromthestylelistonthetoolbar. ChooseSelect
AnotherStyle,selectthestyle,andclickChoose.
Previewing Multiple References
ThePreviewtabdisplaysapreviewforonlyonereferenceatatime formattedaccordingtothecurrentstyle.Topreviewmultiple
references:
1. Select(highlight)thereferencesintheLibrary window.
2. FromtheEditmenu,selectCopyFormattedtocopytheformattedreferencestotheWindowsClipboard.
3. UsetheWindows ClipboardViewertoviewthecontentsofthe ClipboardorPastetheformattedreferencesintoaword
processordocument.
Using the Preview Feature to Display Notes or Abstracts
YoumayfinditusefultoconfiguretheLibrarywindowsothatthereference listdisplaysbibliographicdata(suchasauthor,year,
title,andjournal)andthePreviewtabdisplaysnotesorabstracts.Thatwouldallow youtobrowsethroughthereferencesinthe
Librarywindowwithouthaving toopenindividualreferencestoseemoreaboutthem.
Togetthepreviewtodisplaynotesortheabstract,youwill needtocreateacustomstyletoincludejustthosefields.SeePrinting
OnlytheNotesformoreinformation.
YoucanusetheShowAllFieldsstyletodisplayallreferencefieldsonthePreviewtab.
The PDF Viewer Panel
SelectthePDFViewerPanel toviewandannotateattached PDFfiles.
EndNoteallowsyoutoopen,preview,andannotatePDFfileswithinthe PDFViewerpanel.Select areferencefromthereference
library,andthen selectalayoutfromtheLayoutmenutoviewaPDFfile.
IfnoPDFfilesareattached tothereference,EndNotedisplaysamessage inthePDFViewerpanel.Inthisinstance,youcan
beginattaching PDFstothereferencebyclickingtheAttachFilebutton,andthen selecting AttachFilefromthemenu.
Related Topics:
TheLibraryWindow
ImportantPointsAboutLibraries
ThePDFViewerPanel
TheReference ListPanel
Creating Libraries
Creating a New Library
Althoughyoucancreateasmanylibrariesasyoulike,westronglyrecommend thatyoukeepallofyourreferencestogetherinone
mainEndNotelibrary. Havingallofthereferencesyouneedinoneplaceavoidsunnecessary complexitywhenyouarewriting
papers,creatingbibliographies,ormoving filesbetweencomputers.Insteadofmakingdifferent"specialty" libraries,youwillfind
itmoreusefultocreateonelibraryanduse Groupstohelpyouorganizeandcategorizeyourreferences.Youcanalso usetheKey-
wordandLabelfieldstoassigntermstoreferences,andeasily assignthemtoasmartgrouporfindthemwithEndNotesSearch
andSort Referencescommands.
Tocreatealibrary:
1. FromtheFilemenu,selectNew.
EndNotepresentsadialogpromptingyoutonameandsavethenewlibrary.
2. Enteranameforyournewlibrary.If youincludeanextension,usetheextension"ENLwhichstandsforEndNote Library."
Ifyoudonotincludeanextension,EndNotewilladd".ENLautomatically.
3. Usingthe"Save in"list,selectthelocationwhereyouwouldliketosavethelibrary.
4. ClickSaveandthenewlibraryappearsasanemptyEndNotelibrary,"Showing0outof0references.
Note:Ondisk,eachEndNotelibraryismadeupofbothan.ENLfileanda.DATAfolder.
Nowthatyouhavecreatedanewlibrary,youcanbeginenteringreferencesintoit.Thefollowingtopicsillustratethedifferent
waystoaddreferences toanEndNotelibrary:
l CreatingaNewReference discusseshowtoenterindividualreferencesmanually.
l QuickOverviewofOnlineDatabaseSearchingdescribeshowtoconnectdirectly toonlinedatabasesandretrievereferences
fromthem.
l GeneralImporting Instructionsshowsyouhowtoimportreferencesthatyouhavepreviouslydownloadedfromonlinebib-
liographicdatabases.
Ifyouhavejustcreatedalibrarythatwillbethemainlibrarythatyouuse,youcansetittoopenautomaticallyeverytimeyoustart
EndNote bysettingittobeyour"favoritelibrary"(seeSettingaFavoriteLibrary).
Related Topics:
ClosingaLibrary
Deletinga Library
Multiple PeopleOpeningOneLibrary
S avingaCompressedCopyofaLibrary
Saving aCopyofaLibrary
Setting aFavoriteLibrary
Saving a Copy of a Library
EndNoteautomaticallysaveschangestoyourlibraryasyouworkwith it,sothereisnoSaveorSaveAscommandforthelibrary.
Youcan,however, usetheSaveaCopycommandtocreateanexactcopyofyourlibrary.
Tocreateacopyofyourlibrary:
1. Withalibraryopen,selectSaveaCopyfromthe Filemenu.
2. Namethenewlibraryandchoosewheretosaveit.
3. ClickSaveandEndNotecreatesacopyofthelibrary.
Thenewlibrarydoesnotopen,itissimplysavedtodisk,whereyou canthenopenitwithEndNote.EndNoteleavesyouroriginal
libraryopen asitwasbeforethecommandwaschosen.
Note: TheSaveaCopycommandcreatesa[libraryname].ENLfileaswellasa[libraryname].DATAfolderforthenewlibrary,
andcopiesallnecessaryfilesandfigurestoit.
Related Topics:
ClosingaLibrary
Creating aNewLibrary
Deletinga Library
Multiple PeopleOpeningOneLibrary
Saving aCompressedCopyofaLibrary
Setting aFavoriteLibrary
Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library
YoucansaveanEndNotelibrary(thefilename.enlfile,itsassociated.DATAfolder,andallofitscontents)toasingle com-
pressedfilecalledSample_Library_X6.enlxinordertobackupyour libraryorsendacopytoacolleague.Later,youcan restore
the compressedlibrarywithEndNote.
Creating a Compressed Library File
1. OpenthelibraryinEndNote.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectCompressedLibrary(.enlx)todisplayaCompressedLibrarydialog.
3. Usetheradiobuttonstodeterminetheseoptions:
l SpecifywhetheryouwanttoCreateacompressedlibraryortoCreate&Emailthelibrary.
l Specifywhetheryouwanttosavefileattachmentswiththelibrary ornot.
l Specifywhetheryouwanttosaveallreferencestothecompressedlibrary,onlytheselected(highlighted)references,or
onlythereferencesinaspecificgrouporgroupset.
l ClickNexttodisplayafiledialog.
4. Savethecompressedlibrary(defaultnameisSample_Library_X6.enlx)toafolderonyourharddrive.Youcanrenamethefile
namebutyoucannotusethefollowingcharacters.
Invalid characters for naming a compressed library
\ (back slash)
/ (forward slash)
: (colon)
* (asterisk)
? (question mark)
" (quotation mark)
< (less than)
> (greater than)
| (vertical bar)
5. IfyouselectedtheCreate&Emailoption,EndNotewilllaunchyourdefaultemailsystem,create anewemail,andattach
thecompressedlibraryfiletotheemail.
Enteradditionalinformationtotheemail,suchasarecipient,subject, andmessage.ClicktheSendbutton.
Restoring a Compressed Library File
1. UseEndNote(versionXorlater)toopenthefilename.enlxfile,whichwillextractthe .ENLfileandthe.DATAfoldertothe
samefolderwherethe.enlxfileislocated.
2. UseEndNotetoopenthefilename.enl fileasyounormallywouldtousethelibrary.
Setting a Favorite Library
EndNoteallowsyoutospecifythelibrariesthatyouwanttoopenautomaticallywhenEndNotestartsup.Wecallthesethe"favor-
ite"libraries.
Youdonotneedtoselect afavoritelibrary.Bydefault,EndNotewill openthelastusedlibrary.
Toassignorchangethefavoritelibrary:
1. Openthelibrary(orlibraries)thatyouwould liketosetasyourfavorite.(Youmusthavealibraryopeninorder tosetitas
yourfavoritelibrary.)
2. FromtheEdit menu,selectPreferences,andthenselect Libraries.
3. Inthedrop-downlistatthetopofthewindow,select"Open thespecifiedlibraries".
4. ClickAddOpenLibrariesandallofthecurrentlyopenlibrarieswillbeaddedtothelistoffavoritelibrariesthat shouldopen
everytimeEndNotestarts.
5. Click OK tosaveyourchangesandclosethePreferencesdialog.
Toremovealibraryfromthelistoffavoritelibraries:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferencesandselectLibrariesfromthelistofoptions.
2. Selectthelibrarythatyouwouldliketoremove fromthelistoffavoritelibrariesandclickRemoveLibrary.
3. Click OK tosaveyourchangesandclosethePreferencesdialog.
Opening, Closing, Moving, Deleting Libraries
Closing a Library
Toclosealibrary,dooneofthefollowing:
l FromtheFilemenu,selectCloseLibrary.
l TypeCtrl+WorCtrl+F4whentheLibrarywindowisactive.
l ClicktheClosebuttoninthetoprightcorneroftheLibrarywindow.
l TypeCtrl+Shift+Wtocloseallopenlibraries.
EndNoteautomaticallysavestheinformationinyourlibrarywhenyou closeeachreference.Asaresult,closingthelibrarydoes
notinvoke thefamiliar"Savechanges?"question.Instead,theLibrary windowsimplydisappears,asallchangeshavealready
beensaved.
ClosingalibrarydoesnotquittheEndNoteprogram.Ifyouwantto quitfromEndNote, selectExitfromtheFilemenuandany
openlibrariesaresavedandclosedautomatically.
Deleting a Library
YoucandeleteanEndNote libraryinoneoftwoways.
OneoptionistoexitEndNote anddeletethelibraryfileanditsassociated.DATAfolderbydragging theiconstotheRecycleBin
ontheWindowsdesktop.
Todeletealibraryfromwithin EndNote:
1. Close thelibrary,butkeepEndNoteopen.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectOpenandthenOpenLibrary.
3. Inthe filedialog,highlightthelibraryname.enlfile,right-clickyourmouse,andclickDelete.
4. Next, highlightthelibraryname.DATA folder,right-clickyourmouse,andclickDelete.
5. Click Canceltoclosethefiledialog.
Moving a Library
EachEndNotelibrarycanbeindependentlymovedusingtheWindowsExplorer. Whenmovingalibrary,werecommendthatyou
moveboththemain .ENLfileandthe.DATAfolder.
Ifyoumovean.ENLfilewithoutmovingthecorresponding.DATAfolder, EndNotewilltrytorecreatethe.DATAfoldertoaccom-
panythe.ENLfile thenexttimeyoutrytoopenthe.ENLfile.However,youmaylosedata, includingPDFfileattachments,terms
lists,andevenreferenceinformation.
EndNotewilldisplayanAlertwhenyoutrytoopenthe.ENLfilewithout thecorresponding.DATAfolderthatreads:
AreyousureyouwouldliketocontinueopeningtheEndNotelibrarywithouttheassociated.Data folder?
YouareattemptingtoopenanEndNoteLibrarywithoutitsassociated.DataFolder.Thisisnotrecommendedbecauseit
may result inthelossofdataincluding,butnotlimitedto:reference information,fileattachments,andtermlists.
Inordertopreventthelossofdata youshouldlocatetheoriginal.DatafolderandcopyittothesamelocationastheEnd-
Notelibraryyouareattemptingtoopen.The.DatafolderwascreatedinthesamedirectoryinwhichtheEndNotelibrary
wasoriginallycreated.
WerecommendthatyouclickCancelandgofindandmoveyouroriginal.DATAfolderbeforeattemptingtoopenamovedlibrary.
See Also: ImportantPointsaboutLibraries
Multiple People Opening One Library
EndNotedoesnotperformrecordlockingfunctionsthatwouldallowmultiple userstoeditonelibraryatthesametime.However,
multipleuserscan accessoneEndNotelibrarysimultaneouslyaslongasthelibraryisrestricted toread-onlyorlockedstatus.
Thiswillallowtheusertoperformsearches,copyinformationtotheirdocuments,andformattheirpapers.Use WindowsExplorer
tochangethePropertiesofyourEndNotelibrary;select theRead-Onlyattributeforthe. ENLfileandthe.DATAfolder.
ThesimplestwaytosetupanEndNotelibraryforsharednetworkaccess istousethenetworkssystemoffilepermissionsto
controlthetype ofaccessallowedforusersandgroups.Exceptforthepersonwhoposts thedatabase,grantallusersread-only
access.
Onepersonshouldbeassignedtheresponsibilityformaintainingand updatingthelibraryataseparatelocation;thisusershould
begranted fullaccesstothefile.Then,periodicallyposttheupdatedlibraryon thenetworkforallotherusers, withread-only
access.
Opening a Library
ToopenalibrarywhentheEndNoteprogramisalreadyrunning,selectOpenfromFilemenuandselect OpenLibrary . Ifyouhave
previouslyopenedalibrary,EndNotewilllistthatlibrarynamebelowtheOpen Librarycommand; youcansimplyselectthelibrary
nametoopenitdirectly,andskipthe dialogshownbelow.
Whenyouselect theOpenLibrary command,EndNotedisplaysafiledialog.
Bydefault,thisdialogdisplaysallfileswiththeextensionENL,ENLX,orLIB.Ifyourlibrarynamehasadifferentextension,you
shouldchangetheFilesofTypeoptiontoAllfiles(*.*).Ifyourlibraryislistedinthedialog,selectitandclickOpen.If yourlibrary
isnotlistedthere,thenitisprobablysavedinadifferent placeonyourharddriveorremovabledisk.
Tolocatealibrary:
1. Click the"Lookin"listandselecttheletterofthedriveon whichyourlibraryisstored.
2. Selectthefolderthatcontainsyourlibraryand clickOpen.Ifyourlibraryiswithinseveralfolders,continueto openeach
folderuntilyoulocatethelibrary.
3. Whenyouseeyourlibrary,selectitandthenclick Open.
Whenyouopenacompressedlibrary(withtheextension.ENLX),EndNoteuncompressedthefilesandopensthe uncompressed
version(withtheextension.ENL).
Recovering a Damaged Library
Occasionallycomputerfilesgetdamaged.IfanEndNotelibrarygets damaged,youmaygetanerrormessagewhentryingtoopen
itorworkwith thereferences. Thebestwaytoprotectyourselffromdamagedfilesis tomakeregularbackupcopiesofyourimpor-
tantdocuments(seeBacking UpYourEndNoteFiles).Ifyoudonothaveabackupcopyofadamaged EndNotelibrary,youcan
usetheRecoverLibrarycommandtorepairthedamagedfile.
TorepairadamagedEndNotelibrary:
1. Closethelibraryifitiscurrentlyopen.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectRecoverLibrary.ReadtheinformationabouttheRecoverLibrarycommand,andclickOK.
3. Inthedialogthatappears,locateandselectthelibrarythatneedstoberepaired,andclickOpen.
4. EndNotecreatesacopyofthelibrarywiththe suffix"-Saved"addedtothename.Forexample,ifyouwere repairinga
librarycalled"References"theoriginallibrary wouldremainuntouchedandanew,repairedlibrarycalled"References -
Saved"wouldbecreatedinthesamelocation.
Oncethenewlibraryhasbeensaved, youshouldbeabletoopenitand useitinplaceofthedamagedlibrary.
Note:TheRecover LibrarycommandalsocreatesanewDATAfolder.Ifyourenametherecovered librarytotheoriginallibrary
name,remembertoalsorenametheDATA foldertomatch.
Differences Between Saved Libraries & the Original
ThepurposeoftheRecoverLibrarycommandistorecoverasmanyreferences fromtheoriginallibraryaspossible.Thismeans
thatitmayalsorecover referencesthathadpreviouslybeendeletedfromthelibrary,butnotyetpurgedfromthefileitself.Ifthere
aremorereferencesrecoveredinthesavedlibrarythanexistedatthetimetheoriginallibrarywas damaged,itmeansthatEnd-
Notewasabletoreconstructreferencesthathadrecentlybeendeleted.Thesereferencesmustbedeletedagain.
Termlistsarenotrecoveredwiththelibrary.Consequently,youwillneedtorebuildeachtermlistbyselectingDefineTermLists
fromthe Toolsmenu,highlightingthelist,andthenclickingUpdateListtofill thetermlistwiththetermsusedinyourlibrary.
Imagescannotberepaired,butaresimplycopiedfromtheoriginallibrarys DATAfoldertothenewDATAfolder.
Merging Libraries
Copying References in Libraries
YoucanalsousetheCopyandPastecommandsintheEditmenutotransfer references. Selectthereferencesthatyouwantto
copyandselect Copy (Ctrl+C)fromtheEditmenu.OpenthelibrarytowhichyouwanttoaddthereferencesandselectPaste
(Ctrl+V).
Importing EndNote Libraries
TheadvantageofusingtheImportcommandtocombinelibrariesisitsabilitytofilteroutduplicatereferencesduringtheimport
operation.
Note:Beforemerginglibraries,itisagoodideatomakeabackupcopyofthelibraryinto whichyouaretransferringreferences.
ToimportanEndNotelibraryintoanEndNotelibrary:
1. (Optional)Ifyouwanttoimportonlyasubset ofreferencesfromalibrary,firstopenthatlibraryandshowonlytheref-
erencesyouwishtocopy.Forexample,ifthelibrarysays,"Showing10outof200references,"EndNoteimportsonly 10
references.Ifthelibraryyouareimportingislockedorin"Read-Only" mode,allreferencesareimportedregardlessofwhat
iscurrently showing.
2. Openthelibraryintowhichyouwanttoimport thereferences.
3. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport.
4. Click theChoose Filebutton tolocateandopenthelibraryyouwant toimport.SelectthefileandclickOK.
5. Fromthe Import Options list,select EndNoteLibrary.
6. SelectanoptionfromtheDuplicateslist:
l Import All: Importsthereferences,includingduplicates.
l Discard Duplicates:Importsthereferences,except duplicates.
l Import into Duplicates Library:Duplicatereferencesareimportedinto alibrarycalledFile-Dupl.enl,where"File"isthe
nameofthelibraryintowhichyouareimporting.
Bydefault,areferenceisconsidered aduplicatewhentheAuthor,Year,Title,andReferenceTypematchareference alreadyin
thelibrary.SeeDuplicates Preferencesifyouwouldliketochangetheduplicatescriteria.
7. SettheTextTranslationoptiontoNoTranslation.Extendedcharacters,savedasUnicodeinEndNote,willtransfercor-
rectly.
8. ClickImporttoimportthefile.
Note:ThetimerequiredtoimportanEndNotelibraryisproportionatetothesizeofthelibrary.Refertotheprogressindicatorto
determinewhenEndNote hascompletedthetask.
Whentheimport iscomplete,onlynewlyimportedreferencesdisplay intheLibrarywindow.Thisisaperfecttimetoaddakey-
wordtoeach importedreferencewiththeChange Fieldcommand,ortoperusetheimporteddatatomakesureitimported as
expected.Makesuretocheckreferencesthatcontainextendedcharacters.
Toreturnallofyourreferencestothelibrarydisplay(includingthe newlyimportedones),selectShowAllReferencesfromtheRef-
erencesmenu.
Related Topics:
Copying ReferencesinLibraries
General ImportingInstructions
MergingLibraries
Using DragandDrop
Merging Libraries
Therearethreewaystomergelibraries:import onelibraryintoanother,copy referencesfromonelibrarytoanother,ordrag-and-
drop.
Anytimeyouaddreferencestoalibrary,thenewlyaddedreferences areassignednewrecordnumbersintheorderthattheyare
addedtothe library.Thismeansthatareferencethatwas#23inasmallerlibrary,couldbecome#600inalargerlibrary.Asa
result,youcannotusethe larger,mergedlibrarytoformatpapersthathavecitationswiththeolder recordnumbers.
Note:Beforemerginglibraries,itisagoodideatomakeabackupcopyofthelibraryinto whichyouaretransferringreferences.
Using Drag and Drop
Tocopyspecificreferencesfromonelibrarytoanother,simplyselect theminonelibrary(holddowntheCtrl()keytoselectnon-
consecutivereferences;usetheShift keytoselectarange),clickonanypartoftheselectionandusethe mousetodragthe
selectiontoanotherlibrary.Theselectedreferences arecopiedtothelibrarywheretheyweredropped.
Converting Reference Manager Libraries to EndNote
Converting a Reference Manager Database to EndNote
EndNotecaneasilyconvertReferenceManagerdatabasestoEndNotedatabases. TheoriginalReferenceManager database is
leftintactwhilereferencesarecopiedandconverted.
Note:ThisfeatureisavailabletousersofReference Manager,versions11and12.
Whileeveryefforthasbeen madetomapReferenceManagerreferencetypestocorrespondingEndNotereferencetypesandRef-
erenceManagerfieldstocorrespondingEndNotefields,youmaywanttomake someadjustmentsbyusingtheFieldMappingtool
duringtheconversionprocess.Alternatively,youcanmakechangestoreferencetypesinaReferenceManagerdatabasebefore
convertingthedatabasetoEndNote.
ToconvertaReferenceManagerdatabase toanEndNotelibrary:
1. FromtheFilemenu,selectOpen>OpenLibrary todisplayaSelectaReferenceLibrarydialog.
2. Atthebottomofthedialog,selectReferenceManagerDatabases (*.RMD)fromthe"Files oftype"menu.
3. UsethefiledialogtonavigatetothefolderthatcontainstheReferenceManagerdatabasethatyouwanttoconverttoEnd-
Note.Highlightthedatabasename,andthenclicktheOpenbutton.
A"ConvertReferenceManagerDatabase"dialogwillappear thatletsyouknowthatthedatabasemustbeconvertedfor
use.
4. Youcaneither:
l ClickConverttoproceedwiththeconversion.ThisoptionallowsEndNotetoautomaticallyconvertReferenceManagerref-
erencetypesandfieldstoEndNote.ItalsoleavesallfileattachmentsstoredinReferenceManagerreferencesintheirorig-
inallocation.
l ClickCustomizeifyouwanttomodifythemappingofindividualReferenceManagerreferencetypestoEndNotereference
typesandReferenceManagerfieldstoEndNotefields.Thisoptionisuseful ifyouhave createdcustomizedreference
typesinReferenceManager.
Use thetoppanelofthedialogtomapeachreferencetypetoacorresponding EndNotereferencetype.Whenyouhighlight
asettinginthetoppanel ofthedialog,youcanchangethefieldmappingforthatreference typeinthebottompanelofthe
dialog.ClickOKtosavechangestothemapping.SeeMappingReferenceManager ReferenceTypesandFieldstoEnd-
Noteforalistofreferencetypes.
ClicktheResettoDefaultMapbuttonifyouwanttodiscardyourchangesandreturntothedefaultmappingset.
ClickOKtosaveyourchangeswhenyouarefinishedusingtheField Mappingtool.
5. ClicktheConvertbuttonifyoudonothaveanyadditionalchanges tomake.
6. On the"SaveConvertedLibraryas" dialog,givethenewEndNotelibraryaname(thedefaultfilenameisthesame asthe
oldReferenceManagerfilename).
Aftertheconversioncompletes,EndNotedisplaysa"ConvertReferenceManagerDatabase"dialog.ClickYesifyouwanttocon-
vertyourfileattachmentstorelativelinks.ClickNotoretainyourfileattachmentsasabsolutelinks.
Note:EachEndNotelibraryismadeupofbothan.ENLfileanda.DATAfolder.Eachlibrarycanbe independentlymoved,cop-
ied,renamedordeletedaftertheconversionprocess usingthe Windows Explorer. Alwaysmove, copy,renameordeleteboth
themain.ENLfileandthe.DATAfolder;otherwise,youcanlosereferencedata.
Note:TheCancelbuttonallowsyouto canceltheentireconversionprocess.TheReferenceManagerdatabaseisnotconverted
andcannot beopenedin EndNote.
Converting Reference Manager File Attachments to EndNote
DuringtheconversionofyourReferenceManagerdatabase,EndNotelooksforeachreferencesfileattachmentsintheabsolute
pathsprovidedbyReferenceManager.
IfEndNotefindsthefileintheabsolutepathprovided,thentheattachmentissuccessfullyaddedtothereferenceinEndNote.
IfEndNotecannotfindthefileintheabsolutepathprovided,thenyouwillbepromptedtobrowsefortheattachment.
1. FromtheAttachmentNotFounddialog, clicktheChooseFilebutton.
2. Navigatetothefolderonyourharddrive whereyouhavestoredyourattachmentsandselectthespecificfile.
3. ClickOKtoproceedwiththeconversion.NotethattheOKbuttonisinactiveuntilyou selectafileorfigureattachment.
Aftertheconversioncompletes,EndNotedisplaysa"ConvertReferenceManagerDatabase"dialog.ClickYesifyouwanttocon-
vertyourfileattachments torelativelinks.ClickNotoretainyourfileattachmentsasabsolutelinks.
Note:Youcannoteditthefilepaththatappearsin theFileLocationfieldontheAttachmentNotFounddialog.
WARNING:Ifyouareunabletofindthefileattachment, thenclicktheSkiporSkipAllbutton.ThiswillclosetheAttachmentNot
FounddialogandthefilepathwillbeusedtocreateaFileAttachmentinEndNoteeventhoughthefileisnotlocatedatthepath
provided.
Converting Absolute Links to Relative Links
Aftertheconversioncompletes,thenewlibraryopensinEndNote. AlldocumentandfigurefilesappearintheFileAttachments
field withinanEndNotereference.Moveyourcursoroveraparticularfiletodisplaysatooltipthatshowsthefullpath(absolute
path)ofthe filelocation.
InEndNote,youcaneasilychangeanabsolutepathtoarelativepathforeachreferencewithinalibrarylist.
1. Select(highlight)eachreferencecontainingfileattachments.
Youcaneasilysortallrecordswithfileattachments byclickingthepaperclipthatappearsinthePaperClip columnofthe
Librarywindow.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFileAttachments>ConverttoRelativeLinks.
3. ClickOKwhenthemessageappears.
Thefolderpathforallattachmentsarequicklyconvertedtorelativelinksinwhichonlythefilenamedisplayswhenyouhoveryour
cursoroverthefile.
SeeSelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachmentsformoreinformation aboutabsolutepathversusrelative
path.
Converting Reference Manager File Attachments to EndNote
DuringtheconversionofyourReferenceManagerdatabase,EndNotelooksforeachreferencesfileattachmentsintheabsolute
pathsprovidedbyReferenceManager.
IfEndNotefindsthefileintheabsolutepathprovided,thentheattachmentissuccessfullyaddedtothereferenceinEndNote.
IfEndNotecannotfindthefileintheabsolutepathprovided,thenyouwillbepromptedtobrowsefortheattachment.
1. FromtheAttachmentNotFounddialog, clicktheChooseFilebutton.
2. Navigatetothefolderonyourharddrive whereyouhavestoredyourattachmentsandselectthespecificfile.
3. ClickOKtoproceedwiththeconversion.NotethattheOKbuttonisinactiveuntilyou selectafileorfigureattachment.
Aftertheconversioncompletes,EndNotedisplaysa"ConvertReferenceManagerDatabase"dialog.ClickYesifyouwanttocon-
vertyourfileattachments torelativelinks.ClickNotoretainyourfileattachmentsasabsolutelinks.
Note:Youcannoteditthefilepaththatappearsin theFileLocationfieldontheAttachmentNotFounddialog.
WARNING:Ifyouareunabletofindthefileattachment, thenclicktheSkiporSkipAllbutton.ThiswillclosetheAttachmentNot
FounddialogandthefilepathwillbeusedtocreateaFileAttachmentinEndNoteeventhoughthefileisnotlocatedatthepath
provided.
Related Topics
ConvertReferenceManager DatabasetoEndNote
MappingReferenceManager ReferenceTypesandFieldstoEndNote
SelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments
Mapping Reference Manager Reference Types and Fields to EndNote
WhenyouuseEndNotetoconvertaReferenceManagerdatabase, ReferenceManagerreferencetypesaremappedtoEndNote
referencetypesasshowninthetablebelow.Youcanoverridethesedefaultsettingswhenyouconvert theReferenceManager
database.Fromthetoppanel,select anEndNotereferencetypefromtheEndNotelist.
Reference Type Mapping Table
ThetablebelowliststheReferenceManagerandthecorrespondingEndNotereferencetypes. Thesearethedefaultvaluesfor
bothdatabases.
Reference Type Mapping Table
Reference Manager
Reference Types
EndNote
Reference Types
Generic Generic
Abstract JournalArticles
ArtWork Artwork
AudiovisualMaterial Audiovisual Material
Bill/Resolution Bill
BookChapter Book Section
Book,Whole Book
Case Case
Catalog Catalog
ComputerProgram Computer Program
ConferenceProceeding Conference Proceedings
DataFile Dataset
EditedBook EditedBook
ElectronicCitation Electronic Article
Grant Grant
Hearing Hearing
InPress Journal Article
InternetCommunication PersonalCommunication
Journal(Full) Journal Article
Journal Journal Article
MagazineArticle Magazine Article
Map Map
MotionPicture Film or Broadcast
MusicScore Music
Newspaper Newspaper Article
OnlineSource WebPage
Pamphlet Pamphlet
Patent Patent
PersonalCommunication PersonalCommunication
Report Report
Serial(Book,Monograph) Serial
Slide Audiovisual Material
SoundRecording AudiovisualMaterial
Statute Statute
Thesis/Dissertation Thesis
UnenactedBill/Resolution Bill
UnpublishedWork Unpublished Work
VideoRecording Filmor Broadcast
Note:SeealsoListofReferenceTypesforacompletelistofEndNotereferencetypes.
Field Mapping Table
Asmuchaspossible,ReferenceManager fieldsaremappedtocorrespondingEndNotefields.Youcanoverridethesedefaultset-
tingswhenyouconvert theReferenceManagerdatabase.Fromthebottompanel,selectanEndNotefieldfromtheEndNotelist.
Insomeinstances,thelistofReferenceManagerfieldsforaselectedreferencetypemaycontain"dashes"thataremappedto
theNotesfieldintheEndNotefieldscolumn.ThisoccursduringtheconversionwhenaReferenceManagerfielddoesnotexistin
theincomingreferencetype,andthus,appearsasadashedlineintheReferenceManagerFieldspanel.
Thesearethedefaultvaluesforbothdatabases.
Field Mapping Table
Reference Manager Fields EndNote Fields
Title,primary Title
Authors,primary Author
Datesprimary Date
Notes Notes
Keywords Keywords
Reprint Notes
StartSection Section
EndSection Section
Periodical SecondaryTitle
------- -- Notes
Title/CodeNum Volume
------- --- Notes
------- --- Notes
------- --- Notes
Code SecondaryTitle
------- --- Notes
UserDef1 Notes
UserDef2 Notes
UserDef3 Notes
UserDef4 Notes
UserDef5 Notes
History OriginalPublication
------- --- Notes
Abstract Abstract
ISSN/ISBN Notes
Availability DatabaseProvider
Date AccessDate
------- --- Notes
---------- Notes
UNIQUEID(DOI) DOI
Address AuthorAddress
Web/URL URL
FileAttachments FileAttachments
LinktoFull-text URL
RelatedLinks URL
Image(s) Figure
Special Field Mapping Conditions
WhiletheEndNoteconversiontoolallowsyoutomakechangestomostofthereferencetypesandfieldmappings,thereare
somespecialmappingsthatyoucannotmodify.Theyinclude:
l TheREFIDfieldinReferenceManageralwaysmapstotheLabelfieldinEndNote.
l TheEndPagefieldinReferenceManagermapstothePagesorSectionfieldinEndNotedependingonthereferencetype.
Note: Ifthereceivingfieldalreadycontainsdata,thenEndNoteappendstheEndPagedatawithapreceding dash
characterinordertocreateranges. Forexample:123-128
l AnyReferenceManagerfieldthatmapstotheDatefieldinEndNote:

o
Forallreferencetypes (exceptConference Proceeding,ElectronicCitation,Grant,andPatent),yeardatais
copiedtotheYear fieldinEndNote.
l IntheConferenceProceedingreferencetype,whentheReferenceManagerPubDate[Date,Primary]fieldismappedtothe
YearPublished[Custom2]fieldinEndNote,anyyearinformationiscopiedtotheYearPublished[Custom2]fieldinEndNote
andthecompletefieldinformationiscopiedtoNotes.
l IntheElectronic Citationreferencetype,whentheReferenceManagerLastUpdated[Date,Primary]fieldismappedtothe
E-PubDate[Section]fieldinEndNote,anyyearinformationiscopiedtotheYearfieldinEndNote.
l IntheGrantreferencetype,whenReferenceManagerPubDate[Date,Primary]fieldismappedtotheYearfieldinEndNote,
anyyearinformationiscopiedtoYearandthecompletefieldinformationiscopiedtoNotes.
l IntheOnlineSourcereferencetype,whenReferenceManagerAccessDate[DateSecondary]fieldismappedtothe
AccessDate[Number]fieldinEndNote,anyyearinformationiscopiedtotheAccessYear[Volume]fieldinEndNote.
l InthePatentreferencetype,whenReferenceManagerDateIssued[Date,Primary]fieldismappedtotheIssueDate[Custom
2]fieldinEndNote,anyyearinformationiscopiedtotheYearfieldinEndNote.
l FortheJournalreferencesinReferenceManager:

o
IftheConferenceTitle[Title,secondary]inReferenceManagercontainsdata,thereferencewillnotconvert
usingtypicalJournalfieldmappings.EndNotemapsasappropriateforaConferencePaper.
l ForThesis/DissertationreferencesinReferenceManager:

o
IfthePeriodicalfieldinReferenceManagercontainsdata,thereferencewillnotconvertusingtypicalThe-
sis/Dissertationreferencetypemappings.EndNotewillusemappingssimilartothoseforaJournal.
Related Topics:
ConvertReferenceManager DatabasetoEndNote
ListofReference Types
Importing a Reference Manager Library to EndNote
TouseaReferenceManagerdatabasewithEndNote,youmustfirstexport thereferencestoatextfileandthenimportfromthe
textfileintoanEndNotelibrary.
Note:UsethismethodofimportingReferenceManagerdatabases(version10andunder)toEndNote.
Note:ToconvertReferenceManager databases(versions11and12)toEndNote, seeConvertingaReferenceManagerData-
basetoEndNote.
ToconvertaReferenceManagerdatabasetoanEndNotelibrary:
1. ExportyourReferenceManagerreferencestoatext file:
2. OpenReferenceManagerandthedatabaseyouwant toconvert.
3. FromtheFilemenu,selectExport.
4. SelecttheRISexportformat,andthenselectAllReferences.
5. Exporttoatextfile.
6. StartEndNoteandopenorcreatethelibraryto containtheimportedreferences.
7. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport.
8. ClickChooseFile,andthenselectthetextfile youcreated.
9. NexttoImportOption,selecttheRefMan(RIS) importfilter.
10. ClickImport.
Sharing and Converting Libraries to EndNote
Creating a Library from ProCite
EndNotecaneasilyconvert ProCitedatabasestoEndNotelibraries.TheoriginalProCitedatabase isleftintact;referencesare
copiedandconverted.
Whileeveryefforthasbeen madetomapProCiteworkformstocorrespondingEndNotereferencetypes,andProCitefieldstocor-
respondingEndNotefields,youmaywishtomake someadjustments.TherearesomeProCitefields,suchasConnectivePhrase
andAuthorRole,thatdonothaveanequivalentEndNotefield;textfrom thesefieldswilltransferintotheNotesfield.Asyougo
throughthe conversionprocess,youaregiventheoptiontoCustomizetheworkform andfieldmapping.
Note: CustomProCiteworkformsdonotconverttospecificEndNotereference types,andaredisplayedasaGenericEndNote
reference.Youshouldeither globallychangetheworkformassignmentinProCitebeforeconversion, or,duringconversion,click
theCustomizebuttontomapcustomworkforms toEndNotereferencetypes.
ToconvertaProCitedatabase toanEndNotelibrary:
1. FromtheFilemenu,selectOpen>OpenLibrary todisplayafiledialog.
2. Atthebottomofthedialog,nextto"Files oftype,"usethedrop-downlisttoselect"ProCitedatabase(*pdt).
3. UsethefiledialogtonavigatetothefolderthatcontainstheProCitedatabase,highlightthedatabasename,andclick
Open.
Amessagewillletyouknowthatthedatabasemustbeconvertedforuse.
4. Youcaneither:
l ClickConverttoproceedwiththeconversion,or
l ClickCustomizeifyouwishtomodifythemappingofProCiteworkformstoEndNotereferencetypesandProCitefields to
EndNotefields.
Usethetophalfofthedialogtomapeachworkformtoacorresponding EndNotereferencetype.Whenyouhighlightaset-
tinginthetophalf ofthedialog,youcanchangethefieldmappingforthatreference typeinthebottomhalfofthedialog.
ClickOKtosavechangesto themapping.
5. Onthe"SaveConvertedLibraryas"filedialog,givethenewEndNotelibraryaname(thedefaultisthesame astheoldPro-
Citename),selectafolder,andclickSave.
EndNotewillconvertthelibrary.Whentheconversioniscomplete,thelibrarywillopeninEndNote.
TouseaProCitedatabasewithEndNote,youmustfirstexportthereferencestoatextfileandthenimportfromthetextfileinto
anEndNotelibrary.
ToconvertaProCitedatabasetoanEndNotelibrary:
1. ExportyourProCitereferencestoatextfile.
2. OpenProCiteandthedatabaseyouwanttoconvert.
3. FromtheFilemenu,selectPrintBibliography.
4. Selecttheoutputstyle"RIS-EndNote.pos"(youcandownloadthis outputstylefromthesupportareaoftheProCiteWeb
siteathttp://www.procite.com).
5. OnthePrintBibliographywindow,clickConfigureandgotothe"Fields"tab.
6. IntheFieldswindowcheckalloptionalfields.
7. ClickOK,andthenSavetosaveasatextfile.
8. StartEndNoteandopenorcreatethelibrarytocontaintheimportedreferences.
9. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport.
10. ClickChooseFileandselectthetextfileyoucreated.
11. NexttoImportOption,selecttheProCite(RIS)importfilter.
12. ClickImport.
ProCite Workforms to EndNote Reference Types
WhenyouuseEndNotetoopenaProCitedatabase,ProCiteworkformsaremappedtoEndNotereferencetypesasshowninthe
tablebelow.
Bydefault,fieldsaretransferredasfollows:
l Asmuchaspossible,ProCitefieldsaremapped tocorrespondingEndNotefields.
l TheProCitefieldsAuthorAffiliationandAddress/Availability bothtransferintothesamefieldinEndNote:AuthorAddress.
l TheProCiteDatefieldistransferredintotwo fieldsinEndNote:DateandYear.
l TheProCitefieldsISSNandISBNbothtransfer intothesamefieldinEndNote:ISBN/ISSN.
l ProCitefieldsthatdonothaveacorresponding fieldinEndNote,suchasConnectivePhraseandAuthorRole,aretrans-
ferred intotheNotesfield.
Keepinmindthatyoucanoverridethesedefaultsettingswhenyouopen theProCitedatabase,andbeforethetransferbegins.
Youcancustomize themappingofworkformstoreferencetypes,andyoucancustomizethe fieldmappingforeachworkform.
Note:CustomProCiteworkformsdonotconverttospecificEndNotereferencetypes,andare displayedasaGenericEndNote
reference.YoushouldeithergloballychangetheworkformassignmentinProCitebeforeconversion,or,duringconversion, click
theCustomizebuttontomapcustomworkformstoEndNotereferencetypes.
Workform to Reference Type Mapping
ProCite Workform EndNote Reference
Type
Abstract Journal Article
ArtWork Artwork
AudiovisualMaterial Audiovisual Material
Bill-Resolution Bill
BookChapter Book Section
BookLongForm Book
BookShortForm EditedBook
BookWhole EditedBook
Case Case
ComputerProgram Computer Program
ConferenceProceedings Conference Proceedings
DataFile Unpublished Work
Dissertation Thesis
ElectronicCitation Electronic Journal
Email Personal Communication
Generic Generic
Hearing Hearing
InPress Journal Article
JournalArticle Journal Article
JournalLongForm Journal Article
JournalShortForm Journal Article
JournalWhole Journal Article
Letter Personal Communication
MagazineArticle Magazine Article
Manuscript Manuscript
Map Map
Monograph EditedBook
MotionPicture Film or Broadcast
MusicScore Generic
Newspaper Newspaper Article
Patent Patent
Report Report
SoundRecording Audiovisual Material
Statute Statute
TradeCatalog Book
UnenactedBill-Res-
olution
Bill
UnpublishedWork Unpublished Work
VideoRecording Film or Broadcast
WebPage Web Page
Compatibility between EndNote 8, 9, X, X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5
EndNoteX,X1,X2,X3,X4,andX5arefullycompatiblewithX6.Youcan shareyourlibrariesbetweentheseversionswithnocon-
version.Newfeatures inEndNoteX6aresimplyignoredbytheearlierversions.
EndNoteX6canopenanduseEndNote8andEndNote9librarieswithnoconversion.Technically,EndNote8andEndNote9can
openlibrariescreated withEndNoteX6,butwedonotrecommendit;yourisklossofdata.Once youhaveopenedandusedan
EndNote8or9librarywithEndNoteX6,you shouldonlyusethelibrarywithEndNoteXorlater.
Because EndNote X6 does include enhancements, please note that:
l The DATAfolderisacriticalpartofyourlibrary.Wheneveryoucopyormovealibrary,includenotonlythefilename.enl file,
butalsoitsassociatedDATAfolderandallofitscontents.
Note:Ifyouwant tobackupyourlibrary,orshareitwithanotherEndNoteXorlateruser, thereisaneasywaytocompressyour
EndNoteX6libraryandincludeall oftheassociatedfilesandfolders.SeeSaving aCompressedCopyofaLibrary.
l EndNote X2includednewreferencetypes. IfanearlierversionofEndNote doesnotrecognizethereferencetype,itwilldis-
playandprintthe Genericreferencetypeforthosereferencesenteredintothenewreference types.
l In ordertoallowcross-versionandcross-platformcompatibilityofattached files,youwillneedtoreplacethecharactersbelow
ifthey areusedinthefilenamesofexistingattachedfilesandgraphicsand thenreinsertthefiles.Oneoptionistoreplace
thesecharacters withanunderscore.
Replace these characters
in attached filenames
\ (back slash)
/ (forward slash)
: (colon)
* (asterisk)
? (questionmark)
" (quotation mark)
< (less than)
> (greater than)
| (verticalbar)
Replacement Characters Table
l EndNote X1includedanewgroupingfeature,andEndNoteX2addedsmartgroups. IfyouopenanEndNoteX6librarywithan
earlierversionofEndNote, youcannotviewgroups.However,groupsarerememberedwhenyouopen thelibraryagainwith
EndNoteX6.
Related Topics:
Opening andConvertingOldEndNoteLibraries
Recovering aDamagedLibrary
Transferring LibrariesAcrossPlatforms
Converting a Library for ProCite, Reference Manager, or an Earlier Version of EndNote
ConvertinganEndNoteX6 libraryforusewithEndNoteversions5-7,forReferenceManager,orfor ProCiterequiresexportingthe
referencesfromyourEndNotelibraryto atextfile,andthenimportingfromthetextfileintotheotherprogram.
Ifyourreferencescontaindiacritics,youmustdothiscarefullyso thatyourdiacriticstransfercorrectly.BecauseEndNoteX6is
Unicodecompliant,itexports textasUTF-8Unicode,andnotastraditional ANSItext.ReferenceManager, ProCite,andearlier
versionsofEndNotearenotUnicodecompatible,sotheyneedthedocumentconvertedtoANSItext.Ifyouattempttoimport ref-
erencesthathavenotbeensavedasANSItext,diacriticswillappearscrambledinthenewdatabaseorlibraryformat.
Note:EndNoteX6allowstheuseofExtendedLatinanddouble-bytecharactersets,whicharenotsupportedbyEndNotever-
sions earlierthanversion8.ExtendedLatinanddouble-bytecharacterswill nottransfertoearlierversionfileformats.
ToconvertyourEndNoteX6 libraryforotherapplications:
1. InEndNoteX6,gotothedrop-downoutput stylelistonthetoolbar, andchooseSelectAnotherStyle.Highlightandselect
theappropriate outputstyle:
l For EndNote 5, 6, or 7:SelecttheReferstyle.
l For Reference Manager or ProCite:SelecttheRefMan(RIS)style.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectExporttoexport yourlibrarytoaplaintextfile.
3. UseMicrosoftWordtoopenthetextfileyouexportedfromEndNote.
4. WhenWordasksyoutoselectanencodingoption,select OtherEncodingandUnicode(UTF-8).
5. InWord,select File>SaveAsand savethedocumentwithanewname,asplaintext,andwithWindows-defaultasthe
encodingoption.
6. Toimportthesavedfile:
l With EndNote: UsetheRefer/BibIXimportfilter.
l With Reference Manager or ProCite:UsetheRISimportfilter.
Opening and Converting Old EndNote Libraries
EndNote 8, 9, X, X1, X2, X3, X4 and X5 Libraries
EndNoteX6caneasilyopenanduselibrariescreatedwithEndNote8, 9,X,X1,X2,X3,X4,X5andX6.Noconversionisnec-
essary.EndNoteX,X1,X2, X3,andX4arefullycompatible;youcanregularlyshareyourlibraries betweentheseversions
EndNote Libraries Prior to Version 8
EndNoteX6canautomaticallyconvertlibrariescreatedwithearlier versionsofEndNote(versions5,6,or7)tothelatestfilefor-
mat.In mostcases,thesameprocesswillworkforlibrariescreatedinEndNote4andearlier.
ToopenorconvertanolderEndNotelibrary:
1. StartEndNote.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectOpen andthenOpen Library.
3. Onthefiledialog,locateandhighlight theoldlibrary,andclickOpenLibrary.
EndNotewillwarnthattheselectedlibrarywascreatedwithanolder version,andwillaskforpermissiontoconvertit.
4. ClickOKtoconvertthelibrary.Namethenewlibrary andclickSave.
Note:ThetimerequiredtoimportanEndNotelibraryisproportionatetothesizeofthelibrary.Refertotheprogressindicatorto
determinewhenEndNote hascompletedthetask.
Theconversionmakesacopyoftheoriginallibraryinthelatest X6fileformat,andleavestheoriginal libraryintact.
Note:YoumustuseEndNoteX,X1,X2,X3,X4,X5toaccesstheconverted library.
Transferring Across Platforms
From Macintosh to Windows
AnylibrarycreatedorupdatedbyEndNoteX6 onaMacintoshcanbeusedbyEndNoteX,X1,X2,X3,orX4forWindows. Nocon-
versionisnecessary,howeveryoushouldmakesurethenameofthe libraryincludesthe".ENLextension (forexample,Med-
icine.enl)andincludetheassociated.DATAfolder.
1. Ifyouareonanetwork,simplycopythefilefromtheMacintoshtothePC.Otherwise,useafiletransferutilityto movethe
libraryfromtheMacintoshtoaremovablestoragediskand thentothePC.MakesureyoualsocopytheDATAfolderfound
inthe samefolderasthelibrary.
Note: IfyouplantosendanEndNoteX6 librarytoanotherEndNoteXorlateruser,thereisaneasywaytocompress all
ofyourlibraryfilesandfoldersintoasinglefile.SeeSavingaCompressedCopyofaLibrary.
2. StarttheEndNoteprograminWindows.(Ifyouseeadialogpromptingyouforareferencelibraryfile,selectCancel.
3. FromtheFilemenu,selectOpen,andthenselect OpenLibrary.Usethe"Lookin"listtonavigatetothelocationofthe
libraryyouwanttoopen.
Ifyourlibrarydoesnothavetheextension".ENLor*.LIBitwillnotappearinthedialog.If thatisthecase,selectAllFiles
*.*fromthefiletypelistatthebottomofthedialog,andyoushouldbeabletoseeyourlibrary.
4. SelectyourlibraryandclickOpen.
Related Topics:
FromWindows toMacintosh
Multiple PeopleOpeningOneLibrary
Transferring LibrariesAcrossPlatforms
From Windows to Macintosh
AnylibrarycreatedorupdatedwithEndNoteX6 forWindowscanbeusedbyEndNoteX,X1,X2,X3,orX4forthe Macintosh.No
conversionisnecessary,howeveryoumustmakesurethe nameofthelibraryincludesthe.enlextension (forexample,Med-
icine.enl)andincludetheassociated.DATAfolder.
1. Ifyouareonanetwork,simplycopythelibrary fromthePCtotheMacintosh.Otherwise,useWindowsExplorertocopy
thelibrarytoaremovablestoragedisk.UseyourMacintoshtocopy thelibraryfromtheremovablestoragedisktotheMac-
intosh.Make sureyoualsocopytheDATAfolderfoundinthesamefolderasthelibrary.
Note: IfyouplantosendanEndNoteX6 librarytoanotherEndNoteXorlateruser,thereisaneasywaytocompress all
ofyourlibraryfilesandfoldersintoasinglefile.SeeSavingaCompressedCopyofaLibrary.
2. StarttheEndNoteprogramontheMacintosh.If youseeadialogpromptingyouforareferencelibraryfile,selectCancel.
3. FromtheFilemenu,selectOpenLibrary.Navigatetothelocationofthelibraryyouwanttoopen.
Aslongasthelibraryhasthe".ENL"extension,EndNote candisplayit.Ifthelibrarydoesnothavethe".ENLextensionas
partofthefilename,EndNotewillnotrecognizeit.
4. SelectthelibraryandclickOpen.
OncethelibraryhasbeenopenedinEndNoteonaMacintosh,itmaintains theEndNoteMacintoshiconandcanbeopenedjust
likeanyotherlibrary createdbyEndNoteontheMacintosh.
Related Topics:
l FromMacintoshtoWindows
l MultiplePeopleOpeningOneLibrary
l TransferringLibrariesAcrossPlatforms
Transferring Libraries Across Platforms
EndNoteX6canreadlibraries createdinversions5orlaterofEndNoteforWindowsorMacintosh.
IfyouplantosendoremailanEndNotelibrarytosomeone,remember tosendallofthefilesfoundinyourlibrarys.DATAfolder.
Foran easywaytocompressallofyourlibraryfilesandfoldersintoasinglefile,seeSavingaCompressedCopyofaLibrary.You
canthensendthesingle,compressedfiletotheotheruser,andtheycanrestorethefilename.enl fileanditsassociated.DATA
folder.
Related Topics:
Compatibility betweenEndNote8,9,andX
FromMacintoshtoWindows
FromWindows toMacintosh
Multiple PeopleOpeningOneLibrary
Opening andConvertingOldEndNoteLibraries
Converting aLibraryforProCite,ReferenceManager,oranEarlierVersionofEndNote
Entering and Editing References
Introduction
Important Points About References
TherearevariouswaystoaddreferencestoanEndNotelibrary.Thistopic, andthefollowingtopics,discusshow totypeinfor-
mationintoEndNote,editEndNotereferences, andinsert graphicsandfiles.
SeeQuickOverview ofOnlineSearchingforinformationaboutconnectingtoonlinebibliographic databasesandretrievingref-
erencesdirectlyintoEndNote.GeneralImporting Instructionsdescribeshowtoimport referencesfromavarietyofsourcesusing
EndNotesImportcommand.
Here is an overview of important aspects of EndNote references:
l EachEndNotereferencestorestheinformationrequiredtociteitina bibliography.Keywords,notes,abstracts,URLsand
otherinformation canbestoredinareferenceaswell.
l Eachreferenceaddedtoalibraryisautomaticallyassigneda uniquerecordnumber thatneverchangesforthatreferencein
thatparticularlibrary.EndNoteusesthesenumberstoformatpapers.Youcannot changethese recordnumbers.
l There isnolimittothenumberofreferencesyoucancreateinanEndNotelibrary.Itisrecommendedthatthenumbernot
exceed50,000tomaintainefficientperformancemanagingthedatabase.
l Forty-five referencetypesarealreadydefined(suchasJournalArticle,Book, ConferenceProceedings,andsoon).Three
additionalUnusedreference typesareavailablesoyoucandefineyourown.SeetheList ofReferenceTypes.
l Thefields(Author,Title,Year,andsoon)displayedforeachreferencetypecanbemodified ordeleted.Newfieldscanalso
beadded,uptoatotalof52fields perreference,includingthereferencetypename.
l The textofthereferencesshouldremainasplain textunlessaspecialfont,size,orstyleoftextisrequired foraspecific
termorcharacter.
l The fontusedtodisplaythetextinreferencescanbechangedusingthe GeneralDisplay Fontpreference.
l You caninsertonegraphicorfileintotheFigurefieldofarecord,andthefigurecanbecitedinMicrosoftWord. SeeInsert-
ing Figures.However,youcaninsert multiplefilesintotheFileAttachmentsfield.SeeLinking aFiletoanEndNoteRef-
erence.
l Referencesareautomatically savedwhentheyareclosed;however,youmaysaveareferencewhile editingthereference
usingtheSavecommandfromtheFilemenu.
Related Topics:
Choosinga ReferenceType
Creating aNewReference
Entering References
Field SizeRestrictions
InsertingImages
OpeningReferences
RecordSummary
TheReference Window
The Reference Window
TheReferencewindowdisplaysthe contentsofareference.Eachpartofthereferenceisstoredinits ownfieldandthetypeofref-
erenceisdisplayedbelowthetitlebar.The ReferenceTypefielddisplaysthetypeofreferencethatyouareviewingsuchasjour-
nalarticle,book,orconferenceproceeding.
The firstauthorslastname,theyear,andtheEndNoterecordnumberappearatthetopoftheReferencewindowinthetitlebar.
Layout Button
Bydefault,EndNotedisplaystheTabbedviewoftheReference window.
ClicktheLayoutbuttoninthelowerright-handcornerto displayamenu.
l TheOffoptionallowsyoutoworkineitherthe ReferencewindoworthePDFViewerwindowbyselecting
eithertheReferencetaborthePDFtab.
l TheRightoptionallowsyoutoworkside-by-sidein boththeReferencewindowandthePDFwindow.
Mark as Read / Mark as Unread Buttons
UsethesetogglebuttonstoapplyaReadorUnreadstatustag tothecurrentreference.EndNoteautomatically
savesyourselection.
Rating System
ApplyaratingtothecurrentreferenceintheReferencewindow tosignifytheimportanceofthecurrentreferenceto
yourresearch.Applyuptofivestars(ornone)byclickingadotintheRatingfieldatthetopofthereferencewindow.
Styles
Apply styles to selected text in a field. Options include Bold, Italics, Underline, Plain, Superscript, Sub-
script, and Symbol Font.
Case
Applycasetreatmentstoselectedtextinafield.Options includeSentencecase,lowercase,UPPERCASE,Every
Word,andtOGGLEcASE.
E-mail Option
Toe-mailreferenceswithfileattachmentstocolleagues, right-clickanywhereintheReferencewindowandselect
E-mail fromthecontext-sensitivemenu.
Notethatyoucannot e-mailfigureattachmentsusingtheE-mail option.
Find Reference Updates
ClicktheFindReferenceUpdatebuttontolookforthelatestupdatestothereferencethat youareviewing.EndNotesearchesfor
andretrievesavailablefieldupdates fortheselectedreference.Ifareliablematchisfound, EndNote displaysaReviewAvailable
Updatesdialogthatshowsyouallthe updatesthatwerefound.SeeReview AvailableUpdatesDialogformoreinformation.
Window Controls
l Toopenacontext-sensitive menu,right-clickanywhereintheReferencewindow.
l ClicktheHideEmptyFields icontoviewonlythosefields thatcontaindata.
l ClicktheShowEmpty Fieldsicontodisplayallfieldseventhosefieldswithoutdata.
l Clicktheminimizeormaximizebuttonsinthetopcornertominimizeormaximize aReferencewindow.
l ClickCtrl+Shift+Wtocloseallopenreferences.
PDF and Figure File Control
l ClickCtrl+Alt+A toattachaPDFfiletothecurrentreference.
l Double-clickaPDFfiletolaunchthedefaultPDFreader onyourcomputer.
l ClicktheAttachFigureicontoattachedagraphicfile.
Navigation Keys
l PresstheTabkeytomovetothenextfield andselectitscontents.Pressthe Shift+Tabkeystomovetothepreviousfield.
l ClicktheLeftArrow (PreviousReference)orRightArrow(NextReference)buttonstoclose thecurrentreferenceandto
openeitherthepreviousornextreference.
Related Topics:
Choosinga ReferenceType
Creating aNewReference
Entering References
Field SizeRestrictions
Finding TextinaReference
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
InsertingImages
Toolbars(Windows)
Toolbars(Macintosh)
Record Summary
Toseealistofstatisticsaboutareference,highlightthereference intheLibrarywindow,thengototheReferencesmenuand
selectRecord Summary.
Ifyouwishtosaveandprintthisinformation, usetheCopytextto clipboardbuttonandthenpastethetextintoawordprocessor
document.
Foralistofstatisticsabout thelibrary, seeLibrarySummary.
Related Topics:
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
Choosinga ReferenceType
Creating aNewReference
Entering References
Field SizeRestrictions
InsertingImages
OpeningReferences
TheReference Window
Selecting References
Toworkwithindividualreferences(forexampletocopy,open,exportoreditthem),firstselectthemin theLibrarywindow.The
simplestwayistoclickonareferenceinareference list.Thatreferenceisthenhighlightedtoindicateitisselected.
Youcanalsoselectareferencebytypingthefirstfewlettersfoundinthefieldbywhichthelibraryiscurrentlysorted.Forexam-
ple,if thelibraryissortedbytheauthorfield,typethefirstfewletters ofanauthorslastnametoselectthefirstreferencebythat
author. Ifthelibraryissortedbasedontitle,typethefirstfewlettersof thetitleofthereferencethatyouwanttoselect.(Whentyp-
ingtheletters tomatchatitle,articlessuchas"a,""an,"and "the"areskipped.).
Toselectmultiplereferences:
l Holddownthe Ctrl key whileclickingonindividualreferences.PresstheCtrlkey andclickonaselectedreferencetodese-
lectthatreferenceandretain therestoftheselection.
l Select arangeofreferencesbyclickingonthefirstreference,thenpress theShiftkeyandclickonthelastreference ofthe
range.
l Youcanalsoselectarangeofreferencesbyholding downthemousebuttonanddraggingthemouseverticallyacrossa
range ofreferences.
l Choose SelectAllfromtheEditmenutoselect allofthereferencesshowing inthecurrentreferencelist.Whenalltheref-
erencesareselected, theSelectAllcommandchangestoUnselectAll.
SeeShowing andHidingReferencestolearnhowtodisplayonlytheselectedreferences, ortemporarilyhidetheselectedref-
erencesfromview.
Related Topics:
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
ShowingandHiding References
TheReferenceWindow
UsingShowSelectedand HideSelected
WorkingwithShowingReferences
Opening, Closing, Saving, Deleting, Updating References
Opening References
Onceyouhavereferencesselected,anyofthefollowingactionsopensthem(amaximumof10referencesatatime):
l Double-click theselectedreference(s).
l Press Enter.
l FromtheReferencesmenu,selectEditReferences( Ctrl+E).
Youcanstopaseriesofselected referencesthatareintheprocessofopeningbypressingtheEscapekey (Esc).
TheReferencewindowthatopensforeachofthereferencesiswhere youenterandeditthereferencedata.Modifythistextjust
likeyou wouldeditawordprocessingdocument:selecttheincorrecttextandretypeit,ordeleteandaddtextasnecessary.See
Entering Referencesforimportantinformationaboutenteringreferencedata.
Closing References
Tocloseacurrentlyopenreference,doanyofthefollowing:
l Click intheclosebuttonontheReferencewindow.
l FromtheFile menu,selectCloseReference( Ctrl+W.
l Tocloseonereference andviewthenextorpreviousreferenceinthelibrary,usethe NextReferenceandPreviousRef-
erencecommandsontheReferencesmenu (orthebuttonsintheReferencewindow).SeePrevious andNextReference
Commands.
l Close allopenreferencesbyholdingdowntheShiftkeywhilepressingCtrl+W.
Note>:AlldatainareferenceisautomaticallysavedwhenyouclosetheReferencewindow.
Deleting References
Todeletereferences:
1. Select(highlight)thosereferencesyouwantto delete.
2. Dooneofthese,whichmovestheselectedreferences totheTrashgroup:
l Dragtheselectedreferencesanddropthemon theTrashgroup.
l FromtheReferencesmenu,selectMoveReferences toTrash.
l FromtheEditmenu,selectCut,whichalsostoresthereferencestemporarilyontheClipboard.
l FromtheEditmenu,selectClear.
3. Whenyouareabsolutelycertainthatyouwantto deletethereferencesintheTrash,gototheReferencesmenuandselect
EmptyTrash.
4. Youmustconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethereferences fromthelibrary.
Note: YoucannotundotheEmptyTrashcommand,sobesureyouwanttodelete thereference(s)inTrashbeforedis-
missing theEndNotewarning.
5. DisplayAllReferencesagaintocontinueworking inyourlibrary.
About the Trash Group
TheTrashgroupcontainsreferencesyouhaveremovedfromthelibrarybyusinganyofthemethodsmentionedabove.Whilethe
referencesare officiallynolongerinyourlibrary(theywillnotappearinanyother grouporreferencelist,theyarenotincludedin
yourreferencecount, andtheycannotbesearchedorcited),theyarenotcompletelydeleted untilyougototheReferencesmenu
andselect EmptyTrash.
UntilyouselectEmptyTrash,youcanstilldragreferencesfromthe TrashgroupbacktotheAllReferencesgroupofyouractive
library.Or, highlightareferenceintheTrashgroup,right-clickthereference,and selectRestoretoLibrary.
IfyoudonotactivelyselecttheEmptyTrashcommand,youwillbeprompted whenyouclosetheEndNotelibrary.
Note:Whenyou deleteareference,youdeleteitsrecordnumberinthatlibraryforever. Evenifyoupastethereferencebackinto
thesamelibrary,itisassigned anew,uniquerecordnumber.Thismaycauseincompatibilitieswitholder papersthathavecita-
tionsthatuseoldrecordnumbers.Westronglyrecommend thatyoudonotdeletereferencesthathavebeenusedinpapersthat
you mightwanttoreformatlater,andkeepbackupsofyourlibraries!
Reverting References
TheRevert ReferencecommandontheFilemenudiscardsallchangesmade toareferencesinceitwaslastopenedorsaved.
RevertReferenceis notavailableafteryouclosethereference.
Toremovetheverylastchangemadetoareference,usetheUndo(Ctrl+Z)commandintheEditmenubeforeclosingorsavinga
reference.
Saving References
Tosaveareferencethatyouhave justcreatedortosaveanychangesmadetoanexistingreference:
l Closethereference(s), or
l FromtheFile menu,selectSave( Ctrl+S).
IfyouExit fromEndNotewhileReferencewindowsareopen,thereferencesareclosedandsavedautomatically.
Review Available Updates Dialog
YoucanselectandupdateindividualreferencesormultiplereferencesfromtheReviewAvailableUpdatesdialogbyretrieving
informationfrom sourcedatabasesoutsideEndNotesuchasWebofScienceandPubMed.
TheFindReferenceUpdatesoptionisavailablefromtheReferencesmenu andasaniconfromtheReferencewindow.Whenyou
selectthisoption,EndNotesearchesforandretrievesavailablefieldupdatesfortheselected reference.
EndNotefollowsthefollowingprocesswhensearchingforfieldupdates.
l EndNotefirstlooksfortheDOI(DigitalObjectIdentifier)thatmatchestheDOIoftheselectedrecord.Ifareliablematchis
found,EndNotedisplaystheReviewReferenceUpdatesdialoganddisplaysthefieldupdates.
l IfEndNotecannotfindamatchingDOInumber,itlooksfortheauthorname,yearofpublication, andjournaltitlethat
matchestheselectedrecord.Ifareliablematchisfound,EndNotedisplaystheReviewReference Updatesdialoganddis-
playsthefieldupdates.
l Ifnomatchisfound,thennodialogdisplays.
Toupdateareference:
1. Selectoneormorereferencesfromthe ReferenceListoropenareferenceintheReferencewindow.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectthe FindReferenceUpdatesoptiontoopentheReviewAvailableUpdates dialog.
Note:ClicktheFindReferenceUpdatesiconfromthetoolbarifyouareupdatingareferencefromthe Referencewindow.
3. Allupdatesarehighlightedinblueinboththe AvailableUpdatesandtheMyReferencepanels.Anupdateexistsforafield
intheMyReferencepanelwhenthefield isemptyordiffersfromtheinformationinthesamefieldintheAvailable Updates
panel.ForeachupdatethatEndNotefindsforarecord,youcan:
l ClicktheUpdateAllFieldsbuttontoupdateallthefieldsintheMyReferencespanelwithupdatedinformationfromtheAvail-
ableUpdatespanel.
l ClicktheUpdateEmptyFieldsbuttontoupdateeveryemptyfieldintheMyReferencepanelwiththenewinformationfrom
theAvailableUpdatespanel.
4. Ifnecessary,editanyoftheinformationinthe fieldsintheMyReferencepanel.
5. ClicktheSaveUpdatesbuttonto saveyourchanges.
6. ClickYeswhentheEndNotedialogappearspromptingyoutosaveyourchanges.
Note:Ifyouhaveselectedmorethanonereference,clicktheSkipbuttontoskipaparticularreferencethatyoudonotwishto
update.
Note:AllfieldsintheMyReferencepanelwilldisplayeveniftheyareempty.
Editing a Reference
Youcancopyanyoftheinformationfromaretrievedfieldandpaste theinformationintothesamefieldintheMyReferencepanel.
Youcan alsoeditanyofthefieldsintheMyReferencepanel.The followingeditoptionsareavailable:Cut,Copy,Paste,Paste
withTextStyles,Clear,andSelectAll.
Youcannot editanyoftheretrievedfieldsfromtheAvailableUpdatespanel.
Related Topics:
Creating aNewReference
EnteringReferences
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
Creating a New Reference
Creating a New Reference
Toaddanewreferencetoanopenlibrary:
1. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectNewReference (Ctrl+N).ThisopensanemptyReferencewindow:
2. SelectareferencetypefromtheReference Typelistatthetopofthewindow.
3. Enterbibliographicdataintoeachofthefields inthereference.Forguidance,seeEntering References. Whenyouarefin-
ished,closethereferencetosave itandaddittothelibrary.
Related Topics:
Changing theDefaultReferenceType
Choosinga ReferenceType
Entering References
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
SavingReferences
TipsforChoosingtheRightReferenceType
UpdatingReferences
Changing the Default Reference Type
Bydefault,newreferencesappearasJournalArticlereferences.You maychangethisbyselectingtheDefaultReferenceType
optioninthe Preferencespanel.
1. Fromthe Edit menu, selectPreferences.
2. ClicktheReferenceTypesoptioninthelist.
3. AtthetopofthatReferenceTypespreferences panel,clicktheDefaultReferenceTypelist,andthenselectthe reference
typethatnewreferencesshoulduse.
SeeReferenceTypesPreferencesformoreinformation.
Choosing a Reference Type
Whenyoucreateanewreference,thatreferenceisassignedthedefault referencetype.Ifyouwanttoaddadifferenttypeofref-
erence,click theReferenceType listatthetopoftheReferencewindow,andselectthereference typethatyouneed.
Normally,youshouldselectthereference typebeforeenteringinformationinthereference.However,youcanchange theref-
erencetypeatanytime,andtheinformationyouhaveenteredisretainedandtransferredtothecorrespondingfieldforthenewref-
erence type.
Inadditiontodetermininghowthe referenceisformattedinthebibliography,thereferencetypedetermines whichfieldsappearin
theReferencewindow.Forexample,aJournalArticle referencewouldhavefieldsforJournal,Volume,andIssue,whereasa
BookwouldhavefieldsforEditorandPublisher.
Customizing Fields and Reference Types
Fieldscanberemoved,added,orrenamed.Youcanalsorenamereference types.SeeCustomizingReferenceTypesforinstruc-
tionsonremoving,adding,ormodifying fieldsforeachreferencetype.
Tips for Choosing the Right Reference Type
UseBookforbookswrittenbyoneormoreauthors,anduseEdited Bookforbookseditedbyoneormoreeditors(whetherthey
arebooksinaseriesornot).
UseBook Sectionforreferencestopartsofeditedornon-editedbooks(achapter,forexample,oronearticleinapublishedcon-
ference proceedings).
TheConference Paperreferencetypeisbestusedforunpublishedpapers.Articlesthatarepublishedaspartofthecom-
prehensiveconference proceedingsshouldbeenteredasConference Proceedingsreferences.
UsetheElectronic Article,Electronic Book,orWeb PagereferencetypeforcitingmaterialfromaWebpageorFTPsite. If
youarecitingajournalarticlethatappearsbothonlineandinprint, moststyleguidespreferthatyouusetheprintinformationand
citeit asaregularjournalarticle.EmaildiscussionsshouldbecitedasPersonal Communications,justlikeanyothercor-
respondence.
Usethe"Chart or Table"referencetypeifyouwanttoincludean imageandlaterinsertthatimageasatableinMicrosoftWord.
Images inallotherreferencetypeswillinsertintoWordasfigures,whicharelistedandnumberedseparatelyfromtables.
Related Topics:
About ReferenceTypes
About thePredefinedReferenceTypes
Changing theDefaultReferenceType
Choosinga ReferenceType
Creating aNewReference
Customizing ReferenceTypes
Entering References
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
ListofReferenceTypes
ReferenceTypesPreferences
Entering References
Entering References
Bibliographicinformation(aswellaskeywords,notes,andotherrelevant information)isenteredintoseparatefieldsineachEnd-
Notereference. Bystoringthepiecesofbibliographicdataindifferentfields,EndNote canlaterrearrangetheelementstocon-
formtovariousbibliographicformats (suchasAPAorMLA).
Specialbibliographicformattingandpunctuationshouldnotbeincluded whenyouenterreferencedataintoEndNote.Forexam-
ple,youdonotneedtoputquotesaroundtitles,italicizejournalnames,orincludetheabbreviation "Vol.alongwithvolume
numbers. Enteronlytherawdata,andleavetheformattingtoEndNote.
Note:Thereareafewexceptionstothispunctuationrule, notablyintheAuthor,Editor,andEditionfields.
Afullsetofkeycommandsisavailablesothatyoucanenterreferences withoutusingthemouse.SeeKeyboardCommands.
Fordetailsaboutenteringdataintospecificfields,seethesetopics:
l FieldSizeRestrictions
l UsingTermListswithDataEntry
l AuthorandEditorNames
l Year
l Titles
l JournalNames
l Pages
l Edition
l Date
l ShortTitle
l OriginalPublication
l ReprintEdition
l ReviewedItem
l ISBN/ISSN
l DOI
l CallNumber
l Label
l Keywords
l NotesandAbstract
l URL(UniformResourceLocator)
l FileAttachments
l FigureandCaption
Field Size Restrictions
TheFigurefieldcancontainasinglegraphic.
Allotherfieldscancontainupto64KB,or approximately16pagesofplaintext.
Changing the Display Fonts
Bydefault,EndNotedisplaystherecommendedsystemfontspecifiedforyourversionofWindows.SeeDisplayFontsPref-
erencesifyouwanttochangethefontandfontsizeonyourcomputerwhenworkinginEndNoteX6.
Toaccess thesesettings,gototheEditmenu, selectPreferences, andthenclickDisplayFontsinthelistofpreferences.
Youcancontrolthefollowingdisplayfontsettings:
l Library:TheLibrarytabdeterminesthefontandsizeEndNote appliestothereferenceslistedintheLibrarywindow.
l General:TheGeneraltabdeterminesthefontEndNoteapplieswhen youentertextinafieldintheReferenceandStyle
windows. ItalsodeterminesthefontEndNoteappliestotextthatyouviewinthe Previewpanelandinformationpanelsor
whenyouprintandcopy bibliographicinformationfromEndNote.
l Labels:TheLabelstabdeterminesthefontandsizeEndNoteappliestotheReferencewindowfieldlabels.
l Search:TheSearchtabdeterminesthefontandsizeEndNoteapplieswhenyouentertextinafieldontheSearchpanel.
ChangesmadetothedisplayfontsapplytoallEndNotelibrariesopened onthatcomputer.Theydonotaffectthefontusedwhen
youareformatting bibliographiesinawordprocessingdocument.Thenormal fontofthedocument isusedforthat.
EndNote usesUnicodetoencodespecialcharacters,sothatdatacan beeasilytranslatedbetweenplatforms,programs,and lan-
guages.However, somefontsdonotincludecertainUnicodecharacters. IfsomecharactersdonotdisplaycorrectlyinyourEnd-
Notelibrary,werecommendswitching thedisplayfonttoaUnicodefontorinstallingtheappropriatelanguage pack(see
Displaying Extended/SpecialCharacters).
Tochangethelibrarydisplayfont:
1. FromtheEdit menu,selectPreferences.
2. Click theDisplayFontsoptioninthelist.
3. Click thetabtoindicatewhichdisplayfontsettingyouwanttochange: Library,General,Labels,orSearch.
4. Click theChangeFont button,andselectadifferentdisplayfontand/orsizefromtheFont andSize lists.
5. ClickOKtoclosethefontselectiondialogandreturnto theDisplaysFontspreferencespanel.
6. ClickOKtosavethechangesandclosethePreferencesdialog.
Related Topics:
Creating aNewReference
Font,Size, andStyle
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
Copying and Pasting Complete References
Inadditiontocopyingandpastingtextbetweenfields,EndNotecan CopyandPasteentirereferencesbetweenlibraries.
TousetheCopyandPastecommands:
1. SelectoneormorereferencesintheLibrarywindow (holddowntheCtrl keytoselect multiplereferencesortheShiftkeyto
selectarangeofreferences). Donotopenthereferences.
2. SelectCopy(Ctrl+C)fromtheEdit menuandthosereferencesarecopiedtotheClipboard.
3. OpenanotherEndNotelibraryandselectPaste(Ctrl+V)fromtheEdit menutopastedirectlytotheLibrarywindow.Theref-
erencesyoucopied arepastedintothelibraryandsortedcorrectlywiththeexisting references.
Copying references using drag-and-drop:
Aneasywaytocopyreferencesbetween librariesistousethedrag-and-dropfunctionality.Simplyselect thereferencesyouwant
tocopy,clickonanypartoftheselection,anduse themousetodragthemtoanotheropenlibrary.Releasethemousebutton
whenthecursorisoverthedestinationlibrary,andalloftheselected referenceswillbecopiedintothelibrary.
Ifyouneedtocopyallofthereferencesinonelibrarytoanother library,youcanalsousetheImportcommandtodirectlyimport
onelibrary intotheother.
Note:Anytimeyoucopyareferenceandpasteitintoanother library,orimport areferenceintoanotherlibrary,thereferenceis
assignedanewrecordnumberinthedestinationlibrary.
Cut, Copy, and Paste Text in References
TheCut,Copy,andPastecommandsintheEditmenucanbeusedtomovetextfromonefieldinareferencetoanotherfieldby
selectingandcopyingorcuttingthetextandthenpastingitinthedesiredlocation.YoucanalsoCopyandPastetextfromafield
inanEndNotereferencetoyourwordprocessor.Similarly,youcanCopytextfromawordprocessingdocumentandPasteitinto
areference.Ifitisimportanttopastethetextalongwiththefontsandtextstyles,usethePastewithTextStylescommandinthe
Editmenu.TheregularPastecommanddoesnotincludefont,size,ortextstyleinformationwhenpastingintoEndNotefrom
anotherprogram.AvoidpastingunwantedfontsandtextstylesintoEndNotereferencesbecausethosefontsandtextstyleswill
carrythroughintofuturebibliographies.
Related Topics:
CopyingandPastingCompleteReferences
UsingDrag-and-DropWithinaReference
Using Drag-and-Drop Within a Reference
Textmaybemovedaroundwithinareferencebyselectingthetextandthendragginganddroppingitinanewlocation.Whentext
ismovedthis waywithinareference,itismovedfromonelocationtoanother.Whenitisdraggedfromonereferencetoanother
referenceortoanotherprogram (suchasyourwordprocessor),thetextismovedtothetargetreferenceandremovedfromthe
originallocation.
Todrag-and-droptext:
Firstselectthetext.Thenclickontheselection,andkeepthemouse buttonpressedwhileyoudragthetexttoanotherlocation.
Whenthecursor ispositionedintherightplace,releasethemousebuttontodropthe textintheselectedlocation.
See Also: Copying andPastingCompleteReferences
Previous and Next Reference Commands
WhenaReferencewindowisopen,usethePreviousReferenceandNext ReferencecommandsintheReferencesmenuto
quicklybrowsethroughyour references.TheReferencewindowalsoincludesarrowbuttonstomovetothepreviousornextref-
erence.
Whenyouselect oneofthesecommands (orclickthebuttons),thecontentoftheReferenceswindowchangestodisplaythe
informationforthepreviousornextreferencelistedinthe Librarywindow.
Thiscommandhasthesameeffectasclosingthereferencethatiscurrently displayedandopeninganotherreference,soany
changestothecurrently openedreferencewillbesavedbeforeEndNoteswitchestodisplayanother reference.
Using Term Lists with Data Entry
EndNoteusesterm listsfortheAuthorandEditornames,Journals, andKeywords.Termlistscanalsobecreatedforother
fields.Theselists areupdatedautomaticallyasyouenternewtermsintothesefields.The benefitofthisisthatthetermlistsalso
helpwithdataentry.Ifyou begintoenteraname,journalorkeywordthatyouhaveusedbeforeinthatlibrary,EndNotewillcom-
pletethetermforyoutospeedupdata entry.
ToacceptatermthatEndNotehassuggested,simplypressEnter,Tab,orclickinthenextfield.Termsthat arenew(thatis,
thosethatdonotalreadyappearinthecorresponding Author,Journals,orKeywordtermlist)appearinredtext.
AmorecompletediscussionofEndNotes termlistsisprovidedinIntroduction toTermLists.
Note:Boththe"Auto-Update"and"Auto-Complete" termlistfeaturesdescribedheremaybeturnedoffusingtheTerm Listsset-
tingsintheEndNotepreferences.
Author and Editor Names
ThefollowinginformationaboutAuthorand Editorfieldsappliestothefollowing"Generic"fieldnames:Author,SecondaryAuthor,
TertiaryAuthor,andSubsidiaryAuthor.
Alwaysenterauthorandeditornamesonenameperline.Ifanauthors nameistoolongtofitonasingleline,letitwraptothenext
lineasyoutypeit.
Authornamescanbeenteredeitherwiththelastnamefollowedbya commaandthefirstname,orthefirstnamefollowedbythe
lastname. Botharecorrect.However,notethatifyouhavethe"SuggestTerms asYouType"featureofthetermliststurnedon,
EndNotesuggests authornamesbasedontheassumptionthatthenamesarebeingentered withthelastnamefirst.
EndNotecanabbreviatefirstandmiddlenames, soformaximumflexibility enterwholenameswheneverpossible.Ifyouareenter-
inginitialsinstead offullnames,besuretotypeaperiodoraspacebetweeninitials,(forexample"Fisher,J.O.orJ OFisher),
otherwiseEndNoteinterpretstheinitialsasasingle name:Jo.
SeeAdditionalStyleFormattingOptionsforinformationabouthowEndNotecanuse stylesettingstoformatauthornamesinbib-
liographies.Formoreinformation abouttermlists,seeIntroduction toTermLists.
Using "et al." or Similar Abbreviations
Enterallauthornamesforaparticularreference. EndNotewilltruncate thelistofauthorswith"etal."or"andothers" asrequired
bythebibliographicstyle.Ifyoudonotknowallofthe authorsnames,thenthelastauthorshouldbe"etal."or"andothers"fol-
lowedbyacomma.
Anonymous Works
Ifareferencehasnoauthor,youshouldleavetheAuthorfieldblank. Donotenter"Anonymous."Thestylethatyouusetoformat
the bibliographydetermineshowanonymousreferencesaretreated.
Notethatifaworkispublishedwith"Anonymous"printed onthetitlepage,moststyleguidesrequestthat"Anonymous"be
enteredasthoughitweretheauthorname.
Corporate Authors
Whenenteringcorporateauthors,putacommaafterthename:
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,
AppleComputerInc.,
Thisensuresthattheentirenameistreatedasafirstname,sono namemanipulationwillbeapplied.
Ifyourcorporateauthornameincludesacommainthenameitself,use twocommasinplaceofthefirstcomma:
California,,Irvine
EndNotetreatsthisasalastnamefollowedbyablankfirstname.Then, everythingafterthe(blank)firstnameisappended,
includinga secondcommainthename.Theformattedresultisthecorporate namewiththecommasinplace.
Complex Author Names
Formultiple-wordlastnames,likeCharlesdeGaulle,enterthenamewiththe lastnamefirst,suchas:
deGaulle,Charles
Enteringanamethiswayensuresthatbothwords"de"and "Gaullewillformatasthelastname.
Enterauthorswithtitles,suchas"Jr. orIII,asLast,First,Title. Forexample,"AlfredSmithJr."mustbeenteredas:
Smith,Alfred,Jr.
Thetextafterthesecondcommawillprintexactlyasentered.
Note:SeetheSortingsectionoftheEndNotepreferencesifyoudonotwantEndNotetoinclude prepositions(suchasde,van,
von,andsoon.)whenitalphabetizes referencesinabibliography.
Related Topics:
Entering References
Entering SpecialCharacters
Font,Size, andStyle
PlainText
Using TermListswithDataEntry
Year
Normally,youshouldenterthefournumbersoftheyearofpublication, asin2010.Whenappropriate, youmayenter"inpress,"or
"in preparation,"orsomeothernotation.
Note:Whenyou transferreferencesfromanoutsidesourceintoEndNote,onlyvaliddates areparsedandtransferred. Textsuch
as"submitted"or"in print"isignored.However,youcanmanuallytypethisinformation intothereference.
Titles
ThefollowinginformationaboutTitlefieldsappliestothe"Generic"fieldsTitle,SecondaryTitle, TertiaryTitle,andAlternateTitle.
Entertitleswithoutaperiodoranyotherpunctuationattheend. DonotpresstheEnterkeywhiletypingtitlesintoEndNote; allow
longtitlestojustwraptothenextline.AlthoughtheEndNote stylescanchangethecapitalizationoftitles,itisbesttocapitalize
thetitleinthesamewayyouwouldlikeittobecapitalizedinyour bibliographies.
Journal Names
TheJournal fieldisautomaticallysetuptoworkwiththeJournalstermlist.This meansthattheJournalslistisupdatedasyou
addnewjournalnamesto yourreferences, andEndNotewillusethislisttofacilitatedataentry bysuggestingjournalnamesas
youenterthemintotheJournalfield.
TheJournalfield(intheJournalArticle referencetype)canbeusedwiththeJournalstermlisttoallowformultipleformatsofa
journalnametobeusedinyourbibliographies,depending ontheformatrequired (seeCreatingBibliographieswithJournalAbbre-
viations).WhenthedifferentformsofthejournalnameareenteredintotheJournalstermlist,all ittakestochangetheformat of
yourjournalnamesinabibliography isonechangeinthestyleused(seeJournal Names).Alloftheappropriatesubstitutionsare
madewhenthebibliography iscreated.
EndNoteincludesseveralpredefinedjournal listsintheTermsfolder.Ifyouwouldliketousetheselists,youshouldimportthem
intoyourJournalslistasdescribedinLoading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations.
The Alternate Journal Field
TheAlternateJournalfieldismostuseful whenimportingorretrievingreferencesfromanonlinesourcethatprovides twoformsof
eachjournalname(fullandabbreviated).Byimportingboth, youcaneasilyupdatetheJournalstermlistandusethecorrectform
ofthenamewithouthavingtoenterityourself(seeUpdating aJournalList).
Ifyoudonotimportfromsourcesthatinclude analternatejournalname,thisfieldisprobablynotnecessaryforyou tohaveinyour
JournalArticlereferences.Youcanremoveitbyediting theReferenceTypespreference(seeCustomizingReferenceTypes).
Pages
Pagerangescanbeenteredascomplete(1442-1449)orabbreviated(1442-9)ranges.Thestyleusedtocreatethebibliography
canchangethepage numberstobeeitherfullorabbreviatedpageranges,orshowjustthefirstpage(seePageNumbers).
DonotusecommasinthePagesfieldforpagenumbersinthethousands.
Edition
ThetextoftheEditionfieldisnotmodifiedbyEndNoteforyourbibliographies,sobesuretoenter"1st," "2nd,"andsoonforthis
fieldifthatiswhatyouneedin yourbibliography.
Date and Auto Date Stamp
The Date Field
Inthe Datefieldofyourreferences,enterdatesasyouwouldlike themtoappearinyourformattedlistorbibliography;EndNote
doesnot reformatdates.Theoutputstyledetermineswhichdatefieldprintsinyourbibliographicreferences.
Note:Whenyou transferreferencesfromanoutsidesourceintoEndNote,onlyvaliddates areparsedandtransferred. Textsuch
as"submitted"or"in print"isignored.However,youcanmanuallytypethisinformation intothereference.
The Auto Date Stamp Fields
TwoAutoDateStampfieldsareavailablethatyoucanaddtotheLibrarywindow.
TheAddedtoLibraryandLastUpdateddatefieldsareinsertedwhenyousave anewreference.TheLastUpdateddateisreset
eachtimeyou savechangestoareference.ThedateformatoftheAutoDateStampfieldsmatchesyourdefaultoperatingsystem
settings(forexample,4/16/2012).
ToaddthetwoAutoDateStampfieldstotheLibrarywindow,selectPreferences>DisplayFields.FromtheFieldcolumn,select
theAddedtoLibraryand/orLastUpdatedfields.EndNotepopulatestheHeadingcolumnwithyourselection.
Youcannot edit,print,orexporteitheroftheAutoDateStampfields.Youcan,however,displayandsortthese fieldsfromthe
LibrarywindowjustasyoucanwithanyotherEndNotefield.
Note:ForreferencesenteredwithEndNoteversionX1orearlier,theAddedtoLibraryfieldisleftblankandtheLastUpdatedfield
displaysthe dateofconversiontoEndNote.
Short Title
UsetheShortTitlefieldtoenter abbreviatedversionsoftheregulartitlewhichshouldbeusedaspart ofanin-textcitationora
footnotecitation.Thisisacommonrequest formanyofthehumanitiesstyleswhichuseashortenedformofthetitle inthecita-
tiontohelpidentifywhichreferenceisbeingcited.Forexample, MLAtypicallylistsjusttheauthornameand thespecificallycited
pagesinthein-textcitation:
(Perin141)
Butiftherearemultipleworksbythatauthor,MLA requiresthatthetitle,orashortenedformofitbeaddedtothecitation. Ifthe
fulltitleofthereferenceisfairlylong,suchasBurningtheMidnightOil:TalesfromWorkingtheNightShift,youshouldenteran
easilyrecognizableformofthetitlethatstartswiththefirstwordonwhichthenormaltitle wouldbesorted.Forexample:
(Perin,Burning141)
IfanEndNotestyleisconfiguredtousetheShortTitlefield,and thatfieldisemptyforaparticularreference,thenormalTitlefield
isusedinstead
Original Publication
UsetheOriginalPublicationfieldtoenteranyinformationabouttheoriginalpublicationthatyouneedtobeincludedinthecitedref-
erence. Forexample,whencitingarepublishedbookyoumightwanttoinclude theoriginalpublicationdate,aswellasanyother
supplementaryinformation abouttheoriginalpublication(suchasplacepublishedandpublisher). Enterthisinformationjustas
youwouldwantittoappearinyourformattedbibliographyreference(includingtextstylesandpunctuation).
Reprint Edition
UsetheReprintEditionfieldfor referencesthatwereoriginallypublishedunderadifferenttitle. Thefieldshouldincludetheorig-
inaltitleandyeartoindicatethatthis referenceisareprintofanearlierpublication. Enterthisinformationexactlyasyouwould
wantittoappearinyourformattedreference(including textstylesandpunctuation).
Note:This fieldisnotintendedtobeusedtoindicatewhetherornotyouhavea reprintofthearticleonfile.Youmayuseoneof
thecustomfieldsfor that.
ISBN/ISSN
ISSN(InternationalStandardSerialNumber)andISBN(International StandardBookNumber)arecodesusedtoidentifyapar-
ticularpublication. AnISSNnumberwouldrefertoanentirejournal(suchastheJournalof Virology),andanISBNwouldrefertoa
particularbook.
Thesenumbershelptoidentifyaspecificpublicationifyouneeded toorderitorlocateit.ThisfieldisalsousedforReportNumber
and PatentNumber.
DOI
ADOI(DigitalObjectIdentifier) isauniqueIDforlocatingadigitalversionofadocument,PDF,orimage.It ismostusefulifyou
areimportingreferencedataorretrievingreferences directlyfromanonlinesource.Thisfieldwasformerlytitled"Electronic
ResourceNumber."
Reviewed Item
UsetheReviewedItemfieldforarticlesorchaptersthatarecritical reviewsofbooks,cinema,art,orotherworks.Thecontentsof
theReviewed Itemfieldvariesdependingonthetypeofreviewthatyouareciting, buttypicallyyoushouldenterthetitleofthe
reviewedworkandthe primarypersonresponsibleforit(author,artist,performer,andsoon). Additionalinformationaboutapro-
ductionorperformancemayalsobeincluded. Entertheinformationexactlyasyouwantittoappearintheformatted references
(includingpunctuationandtextstyles).
Call Number
TheCallNumberfieldisusedtostorelibrarycallnumbers.Theseare thecodesthathelpyoutolocateaparticularpublicationon
theshelves inyourlibrary.Whenavailable,theEndNoteconnectionfilesimport thecallnumberinformationintothisfield. Ifyou
donotplantousethis feature,youmayremovethefield(seeCustomizingReferenceTypes).
Label
Label fieldcanbeusedformanypurposes,suchasspecialin-textcitations orreprintnumbers.
Somecitationstylesrequirethatcitationsincludeonlypartoftheauthorsname,suchas[SMIT90].EndNotecannotcreatethis
citationforyou,butifyoutype"SMIT90"intotheLabelfieldandusetheLabelfieldinyourstylescitationtemplate,EndNotewill
inserttheLabelfieldintothecitation.
IfyoudonotneedtheLabelfieldforcitationpurposes,itcanbe usedasanadditionalfieldforcategorizingreferencesorstoring
reprint numbers.(DonotuseEndNotesrecordnumberstonumberreprintsbecause thesenumberschangewhenreferencesare
movedtodifferentlibraries. EndNotesrecordnumberscannotbeassignedorchangedbytheuser.)
Keywords
UsetheKeywordsfieldtostorekeywordsthatyouwanttoassociate withthereference.YoucanrestrictasearchtojusttheKey-
wordsfield, sothetermsyouenterintothisfieldcanbeusedtolaterretrievethe referenceswhenusingEndNotesSearchcom-
mand.
TheKeywordstermlist(whichmaintainsalistoftermsusedinthe Keywordsfield)canbesetuptorecognizesemicolons(;),
slashes(/), backslashes(\),andreturnsasthedelimitersthatseparateindividualkeywords.Ifyouwouldprefertouseotherpunc-
tuationtoseparateyourkeywords,youmaychangethesesettingsusingtheDefineTermListscommand fromtheToolsmenu.
Related Topics:
Entering References
Entering SpecialCharacters
Font,Size, andStyle
PlainText
Notes and Abstract
The Notes, ResearchNotes,andAbstractfields caneachholdupto64,000characters, whichisequivalenttoabout16 pagesof
text.UsetheNotesfieldtostorepersonalreminders,suchas thelocationofaquotationinabookorthequotationitself.Usethe
Abstractfieldforabriefdescriptionofthecontentsofthework.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
AURL(UniformResourceLocator)isthetermfortheaddressusedto locateaspecificpageofinformationwithyourWeb
browser.
TolinkaURLtoareferenceinyourEndNotelibrary:
1. SelectareferenceintheLibrarywindowandopenthereference.PutyourcursorintheURLfield.
2. TypeorpasteavalidURLintothefield. Forexample:
http://www.endnote.com
or
ftp://ftp.cuteftp.com
TheURLbecomesahyperlink(blueand underlined).
IfyouneedtoentermultiplelinksintotheURLfield, enterthemone perline.AddinganyotherinformationalongwiththeURLor
pathand filenamemaykeeptheOpenURLcommandfromsuccessfullyfindingthedesired site.
WhenacorrectlyformattedURLisenteredintotheURLfield,theURL>OpenURLcommandontheReferencesmenucanbe
usedtolaunchaWebbrowserandtakeyoutothatsiteorfile.
SomeonlinereferencedatabasesincludeaURLforthefulltextofanarticleonline.Whenimportingorretrievingreferences
directlyfrom thesesources,theURLscanimportdirectlyintothisfieldtotakeadvantage oftheOpenURLcommand.Youcan
alsostoreaURLtorelatedinformation ontheWeborotherrelevantmaterial.
EndNoteautomaticallyrecognizesURLsiftheyareenteredwiththecorrectprefix(suchas"http://"or"ftp://)inanyfield.When
recognized,theybecomeclickableWeb linksandappearasblueandunderlinedtext.Simplyclickingononeoftheselinkswill
openyourWebbrowserandgototheaddressgiven. This featureisnotspecifictotheURLfield.SeeLinkingReferencestoWeb
SitesandFiles.
File Attachments
UsetheFileAttachmentsfieldtostorethepathtoPDF files(andotherfiletypes)onyourharddrive.
Note:UsetheFigure fieldtoattachagraphicorfilethatyouwanttoinsertintoaWord documentwithCiteWhileYouWrite.
TolinkafiletoareferenceinyourEndNotelibrary:
1. SelectareferenceintheLibrarywindow, oropenthereferenceforediting.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFile Attachments>AttachFile.
3. Onthefiledialog,selectafiletolink totheselected(oropen)reference.
4. Notethecheckboxalongthebottomtitled, "Copythisfiletothedefaultfileattachmentsfolderandcreatearelativelink."
Thisgivesyoutheoptionto:
l Selectthecheck boxtocopytheoriginalfileandplacethecopyintheDATA\PDFfolderthatispartofyourEndNote
library.
l DeselectthecheckboxtoalwayshaveEndNotelookintheoriginalfolderfortheinsertedfile.
Formoreinformationabout thisoption,seeSelecting aRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments.
5. ClickOpen.
EndNotewilldisplayaniconindicatingthetypeoffileinserted.You caninsertadditionalfilesintothesameFileAttachments
field.
Note:Anotherway tolinkafiletotheFileAttachmentsfieldistodraganddropthefile ontothereferenceineithertheLibrarywin-
dowortheReferencewindow. Whetherthefileissavedwiththedatabaseorislinkedwithanabsolute pathisdeterminedbythe
defaultfileattachmentsetting.SeeURLs&Links.
Note:Inordertomaintaincross-platformcompatibility,anyofthefollowingcharacters inafilenamewillbereplacedbyanunder-
scorewhenEndNotesavesacopy ofthefileintheDATA\PDFfolderwith arelativepath.
These characters are replaced with an underscore
\ (back slash)
/ (forward slash)
: (colon)
* (asterisk)
? (questionmark)
" (quotation mark)
< (less than)
> (greater than)
| (verticalbar)
Replacement Characters Table
Formoreinformation, seeLinking aFiletoanEndNoteReferenceandOpening aLinkedFileorURL.
Toautomaticallysearchonlinetolocateandattachthefulltextofareferenceddocument,seeFinding FullTextforaReference.
Related Topics:
Entering SpecialCharacters
Font,Size, andStyle
URLs&LinksPreferences
PlainText
URL(Uniform ResourceLocator)
Figure and Caption
TheFigurefieldcancontainagraphicorfileattachment.SeeInserting Images.
TheFigurefieldisincludedbydefault forallreferencetypes,butyoucanremoveitfromanyreferencetype orrenameitinanyref-
erencetype.
Note:Eachreferencecancontainonlyonegraphicorfile attachment.
Thefigureitselfiscopiedtothe [libraryname].DATAfolderfoundinthesamefolderasthelibraryfile.
ArelatedCaption fieldappearsdirectlyundertheFigurefieldinareference.Usethis fieldforashortdescriptionoftheimageor
file.
CiteWhileYouWriteallowsyoutoinsert thefigureanditscaption intoawordprocessingdocument.SeeInserting andFor-
mattingFiguresandTables.FiguresinmostreferencetypeswillinsertintoWordasfigures.TheonlyexceptionistheChartor
Table referencetype;usetheChartorTablereferencetypeifyouwanttoinclude animageandlaterinsertthatimageasatablein
MicrosoftWord.Tables arelistedandnumberedseparatelyfromfiguresinWord.
Font, Size, and Style
EndNoteisdesignedtoproducebibliographiesthatautomaticallyusethefontandsizeofthetextinyourwordprocessing doc-
uments.Normally,whenyoutypetextintoanEndNotereference,it isenteredinadefaultPlainfont,size,andstyle,which
meansthat yourreferencesfollowthefontsettingsinyourpaper.
Ifanyfonts,sizes,orstylesother thanthedefaultareenteredintoyourlibrary,theywillappearinyourbibliographyregardlessof
thefontofyourpaper.Forexample,youcan italicizespeciesnames,addasuperscript number,orenterGreekcharacterssuch
as.
Toapplyfontortextstyles,select thetexttobechangedandthen select thedesiredfont,size,orstylefromtheEditmenuorthe
Fonttoolbar.
Note:If theFont,Size,andStyleoptionsaredim,itiseitherbecause youarenotinaneditingwindow(suchasaReferenceor
Stylewindow),oryouhavenotselected(highlighted)anytexttochange.Ifaspecific optionisnotavailable,theparticularfont
selectedmaynotsupport theoptionyouwant
Plain Text
ThePlainText,PlainFont, andPlainSizecommandsontheEditmenuorontheTextStyletoolbar removeoverridingfonts,text
sizes,ortextstylesfromtheselected textinareferenceoraStylewindow.
WhenEndNotecreatesabibliography, textinPlainFontandPlainSizeusesthefontandsizeofyourpaper. Tousethesecom-
mands,firstselectthetextyouwanttochange,andthen selectPlainText,PlainFont,orPlainSizefromtheEditmenuorthe tool-
bar.
ThedefaultfontusedtodisplayEndNotes"PlainText"is thedefaultfontofyouroperatingsystem,butitcanbechangedusing
theGeneralfontoptionintheDisplayFontssectionoftheEndNotepreferences. (SelectPreferencesfromtheEditmenuandclick
theDisplayFontsoption.)TheGeneralfont settingchangesthefontinwhichthereferencesaredisplayedbutdoes notaffectthe
fontofabibliographycreatedforawordprocessingdocument.
Entering Several Articles from the Same Source
Useareference"template"tofacilitateenteringaseries ofreferencesthathavesomeinformationincommon(suchasvarious
sections fromonebook,oranumberofpaperspresentedatthesameconference).ThetemplateyoucreateisanincompleteEnd-
Notereferencewithjustthe commoninformationenteredintoit.
Tocreate areferencetemplate:
1. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectNewReference.
2. Enterallof thebibliographicinformationthatthereferenceshaveincommon(such astheyear,booktitle,publisher,and
cityfordifferentsections fromonebook).
3. Closethereferencewhenyouarefinished.ItremainsselectedintheLibrarywindow.
4. SelectCopy(Ctrl+C)fromtheEdit menutocopyit.
5. UsethePaste(Ctrl+V)commandtopaste thereferenceseveraltimes,tocreateasmanypartially-filledreferencesasyou
need.YoushouldpastedirectlytotheLibrarywindowdo notopenanewreferenceandselectPaste.
6. Selectallofthepartially-filledreferencesthatyoujustcreatedandeditthem(double-clickthem,pressEnter,or type
Ctrl+Etoopenupto10selectedreferencesatonetime).
Completeeachoftheindividualreferences.Closeeachreferenceas youcompleteit.andsavethembypressingCtrl+W.
Entering Special Characters
Entering Special Characters
EndNotereferencescanincludespecialcharacters,includingcharacters withdiacritics,andGreek,mathematical,andtypo-
graphicalsymbols.Diacritical charactersareapartofstandardWindowsfonts,whilemostsymbolscan beenteredintheSymbol
font.
EndNoteusesUnicodetoencodespecialcharacters,sothatdatacanbeeasilytranslatedbetweenplatforms,programs,and lan-
guages.
EndNoteusesthedefaultlanguagesettingsetbyyouroperatingsystem. Ifthecharactersyouwishto userequireinstallingadif-
ferentlanguagepack,seeSeeDisplayingExtended/Special Characters.
SpecialcharacterscanbeenteredintoEndNoteusinganyofthesetext-entry methods:
l Typethecharacteronthekeyboard(ifthecharacter ispartofthelanguagesupportedbythekeyboard).
l Copythecharacter fromanotherprogram,andpasteitintoyourEndNotelibrary.
l UsetheCharacter MapprogramsuppliedwithWindowsforthispurpose.
DiacriticalcharacterscanbeenteredintoEndNotereferencesandinto EndNotetermlists. Ifyoufrequentlyusecertaindiacritical
characters, orwordsthatincludediacriticalcharacters,youcanstorethemina termlistandthenselectthemfromthelistwhen
enteringreferences. SeeIntroduction toTermLists.
Note: IfcharactersdonotappearastheyshouldinEndNote,seeDisplayingExtended/Special Characters.
Related Topics:
Changing theGeneralDisplayFont
Entering References
Font,Size, andStyle
Using Character Map
TheCharacterMapprogram(CHARMAP.EXE)issuppliedwithallversionsof Windows.Bothdiacriticalcharactersandsymbols
canbeenteredusingtheCharacterMap:
TousetheCharacterMapprogram:
1. FromtheWindowsStart>Programs menu,select Accessories,thenSystemTools,thenCharacterMap.
2. Select theSymbolfont,ifnecessary.(OtherfontswillreverttotheTyping DisplayFontwhenpastedinEndNote.)
3. Double-click thecharacter(s)youneed.
4. Click theCopybuttontocopythecharacterstotheClipboard.
5. Return toEndNote,positionthecursorinareference,thenselect Paste fromtheEditmenutopastethecharacters.
Or,withbothyourEndNotereference openandCharacterMapopen,youcanclickonacharacterinCharacter Mapandthendrag-
and-dropitintoyourEndNotereference.
Note:TheCharacterMapmayincludesomeUnicodecharactersthatwillnotworkinyourselectedfont.Ifyouinsert acharacter
thatisnotrecognized,itwillappearinEndNoteasabox.
Inserting Figures
Inserting Figures
EndNoteextendstheorganizationofreferenceinformationbyincludingtheabilitytoembedgraphicsandfilesinan EndNote
libraryandlinkthemtopapers.Youcaninsertagraphic,figure, orfileintotheFigurefieldofanyEndNotereference. SeeInserting
GraphicsandFiles.
Note:WhiletheFigureandCaptionfieldsareincludedby defaultforallreferencetypes, youcanremovethematanytimeifyou
donotintendtousethemandtheyarejusttakingupspace. SeeAdding andDeletingReferenceTypes.
OnceyouhaveafigureinyourEndNotereference,CiteWhileYouWriteallowsyoutoinsertthefigureanditscaptioninto aword
processingdocument. SeeInserting andFormattingFiguresandTablesformoreinformationaboutusing imageswithCiteWhile
YouWrite.
Selecting the Appropriate Reference Type
Youcaninsertagraphicorfileinto theFigurefieldofanEndNotereference.Dependingonthereferencetype, thefieldmaybe
labeledFigureorhaveacustomlabelassignedbyyou.
Bydefault,theFigureandCaption fieldsareincludedinallreferencetypes.So,whileareferencetoa journalmaycontainpri-
marilybibliographicinformation,youcanalso includeanillustrationthatappearedwiththejournalarticle.
TheFigure,ChartorTable,andEquationreferencetypescanbeusedspecificallytocatalogimagesandfiles, andmaycontain
minimalreferenceinformation.
Note:Figuresinthe"ChartorTable"referencetype areinserted intoWordastables,andarelabeledandnumberedseparately
fromthe figuresfoundinallotherreferencetypes.
ToaddorremovetheFigureandCaptionfieldsfromareferencetype,gototheEditmenu,selectPreferences, andselectRef-
erenceTypes.For moreinformationaboutmodifyingreferencetypes,seeCustomizing theReferenceTypes.
Inserting Graphics and Files
Notes about inserting graphics and files into the Figure field:
l Always usetheFigure>AttachFigure commandtoinsert graphicsandotherfilesintotheFigurefield. Ifyousimplyuse
CopyandPaste, Systemsettingsareusedandyou couldultimatelylosecolorsandotherattributesfromtheoriginal file.
l EachEndNotereferencecancontainonlyonegraphicorfileattachment intheFigurefield.Ifyouinsert asecondgraphicor
file,itwill replacethefirstone.ThepreviousfigureisdeletedfromtheDATA folder.SeeStoringandSharing FigureFiles
formoreinformationabouttheDATAfolder.
l Afterinsertingagraphic, youshouldalwaystypeCaptiontextintotheCaptionfield,particularlyifyouintendtolaterinsert
thefigureintoaWorddocument.The CaptionwilllabelthegraphicinthefigurelistattheendoftheWorddocument.The
Captionalsohelpsyousearchforthefigure.
l Youcaninsertafigure onlyintoareferencethatcontainstheFigurefield.IfyouneedtoaddtheFigurefieldtoareference
type,seeCustomizingReference Types.
l In ordertomaintaincross-platformcompatibility,anyofthefollowing charactersinafilenamewillbereplacedbyanunder-
scorewhenEndNote savesacopyofthefileintheDATAfolder.
These characters are replaced with an underscore
\ (back slash)
/ (forward slash)
: (colon)
* (asterisk)
? (question mark)
" (quotation mark)
< (less than)
> (greater than)
| (vertical bar)
Replacement Characters Table
Toinsertagraphic(picture)orotherfileintotheFigurefield:
1. Withthereferenceopenforediting,gototheReferencesmenuandselect Figure>AttachFigure.(TheAttachFigurecom-
mandisalsoavailable onthetoolbar.)
2. Click ChooseFiletodisplayafiledialog.
3. Locate thegraphicfileandInsertit.EndNoterecognizesatleast thesegraphicfiletypes:
l WindowsBitmap-BMP
l >GraphicsInterchange Format-GIF
l JPEGFileInterchangeFormat-JPEG
l PortableNetworkGraphics -PNG
l Tag ImageFileFormat-TIFF
ValidpicturefilesarethosethatMicrosoftWordrecognizesaspictures.
EndNotealsorecognizesatleasttheseotherfileformats:
l Audio files(WAV,MP3)
l MicrosoftAccessfiles
l MicrosoftExcelfiles
l MicrosoftPowerPointfiles
l MicrosoftProjectfiles
l MicrosoftVisiofiles
l MicrosoftWordfiles
l Multimedia files(MOV,QuickTime)
l Technicaldrawingfiles
l Textfiles(TXT,RTF,HTML)
4. Then, ontheAttachFiguredialog,clickOKtocopythefiletoyourEndNote record.
Agraphicappearsasathumbnailwithinthereference.
Other typesoffileswillappearasanattachment,withtheprogramiconand filename.(Iftheapplicationusedtocreatethedoc-
umentisnotavailable onyoursystem,theiconsimplygivesgenericWindowsfileinformation.)
Double-clickingonthethumbnailorfileiconwilllaunchanassociatedapplicationtoopenthefile,withthe sameeffectasifyou
haddouble-clickedthefileonyourcomputerdesktop.
Entering a Caption
ArelatedCaptionfieldappearsdirectlyundertheFigurefieldina reference.Usethisfieldforashortdescriptionoftheimageor
file. TheCaptionfieldallowsyoutoeasilysearchforfigures.
IfyouinsertanEndNotefigureintoaWorddocumentwithCiteWhile YouWrite,thecorrespondingcaptionappearseitherabove
orbelowthe figureinyourpaper(theplacementisdeterminedbythecurrentoutputstyle).
Opening the Figure File
Double-clickingonagraphicorfile iconintheFigurefieldofareferencewilllaunchanassociatedapplication(determinedbythe
filetypeandyouroperatingsystem)andopenthefileforviewingorediting.Itisthesameasifyouhaddouble-clickedon thefig-
urefileonyourcomputerdesktop.Anychangestothefileare savedforthisEndNotereference.
Whenyoudouble-clickafigurefilesuchasaGIFfile,Windowswilllookforanimageviewerlike PaintorPhotoViewertopreview
theimage. Theprogram usedtocreatethefilemaynotopen.
Storing and Sharing Figure Files
Whenyouinsert afigure,EndNote copiesthefigurefileandplacesthecopyina[libraryname].DATAfolder, whichisfoundinthe
samefolderasthemainlibraryfile.Thecopied figurefileisspecificallylinkedtoasingleEndNotereference.
Note:Simplyputtingafigurefileintothe DATAfolderdoes notlinkitintoareference.YoumustusetheFigure>Attach Figure
command.
Ifyoumoveyourlibrarytoadifferentcomputer,orifyouwantto shareyourlibrarywithsomeone,remembertoalwayscopythe
.DATAfolder alongwiththelibrary.
Related Topics:
Backing UpYourEndNoteFiles
Converting fromFigurestoFileAttachments
Deleting orReplacingFigureFiles
Editing FigureFiles
Enteringa Caption
InsertingGraphicsandFiles
InsertingFigures
Opening theFigureFile
SelectingtheAppropriateReferenceType
Editing Figure Files
ToeditafigurestoredinanEndNotereference,openthereference anddouble-clickthefigureicon.Thislaunchesanassociated
application toopenthefileforediting.SeeOpening theFigureFile.
Editingchangesaremadetothefile storedinthelibrarysDATAfolderforthisreference,andnottothe originalfigurefilethatwas
inserted.
Note:Neverrenamefigurefileswithin theDATAfolder.EndNoteassignseachfigureauniquename thathelpslinkittoaspe-
cificreference.
Deleting or Replacing Figure Files
TodeleteafigurefromanEndNote reference:
1. OpentheEndNote reference,scrolltotheFigurefield, andselectthefigureicon.
2. PresstheDeletekeyoruseyourmousetoright-click andselectClear.
Deletingafigurefromthereference alsodeletesitfromthe.DATAfolder.
Note:If youinsertthesamefigureintwodifferentreferences,EndNotestorestwocopiesofthefigureinthe.DATAfolder.Delet-
ingthefigurefromoneofthereferenceswillnotaffecttheotherreference.
Toreplace afigureinanEndNotereference,youcandooneofthese:
l OpentheEndNotereferenceandattachthenewfigure.TheexistingfigureisdeletedfromtheDATAfolder andisreplaced
withthenewfigure.
l Deletetheoldfigure fromthereference,andthenattachthenewfigure.
Related Topics:
Editing FigureFiles
Enteringa Caption
InsertingGraphicandFiles
InsertingFigures
Opening theFigureFile
Storing andSharingFigureFiles
Converting from Figures to File Attachments
YoucanmovealinkedfilefromtheFiguresfieldtotheFileAttachments fieldinareference.Keepinmindthatonlyfiguresstored
intheFigures fieldcanbecitedinMicrosoftWordwithCiteWhileYouWrite.
EarlierversionsofEndNotedidnotincludeaFileAttachmentsfield.YoumayhavelinkedafiletotheFiguresfield,andlater
decidedthat youreallywantedtolinkthefiletotheFileAttachmentsfield.
ToconvertfilelinksfromtheFiguresfieldtotheFileAttachments field:
1. Inareferencelist,highlightthereference(s)youwishtochange.Or,openaspecific referenceforediting.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFigure,andthenselectConvertFigurestoFileAttachments.
Linking to Files and Web Sites
Linking References to Web Sites and Files
EndNoteincludesaURLfieldandaFile AttachmentsfieldthatyoucanusetolinkURLsanddiskfilestoEndNote references.
l LinkingaURLtoanEndNoteReference
l LinkingaFiletoanEndNote Reference
l SelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments
l RemovingaLinkedFilefrom FileAttachments
l OpeningaLinkedFileorURL
l FindingFullTextforaReference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Theterm"URL"standsfor"UniformResourceLocator" andisacommontermforthe"address"usedtoidentifythe locationofan
itemonline.Mostoften,URLsrefertoWebpages,such asthisexampleoftheEndNoteWebpage:
//www.endnote.com
URLscanalsobeusedtoidentifythelocationofFTP(FileTransfer Protocol)sites.
TolinkaURLtoareferenceinyourEndNotelibrary:
1. Select areferenceintheLibrarywindowandopenthereference.Putyour cursorintheURLfield.
2. TypeorpasteavalidURLintothefield. Twoexamples:
//www.endnote.com
//ftp.cuteftp.com
TheURLbecomesahyperlink(blueandunderlined).
FormoreinformationaboutlinkingtoaURL,seeURL (UniformResourceLocator).
Related Topics:
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Youcanlinkafileonyourcomputersuchasagraphic,awordprocessing document,aspreadsheet,oraPDFfiletoanEnd-
Notereference.
TheFileAttachmentsoptionsareavailableonlywhenasinglereference isselectedintheLibrarywindow,orwhenyouareediting
areference.
Note:TheFileAttachmentscommandsareavailablebothfromtheReferencesmenuandfrom theright-clickcontext-sensitive
menu.
TolinkafiletotheFileAttachmentsfieldinareference:
1. SelectareferenceintheLibrarywindow, oropenthereference.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFile Attachments>AttachFile.
3. Onthefiledialog,selectafiletolink totheselected(oropen)reference.
4. Notethecheckboxalongthebottomtitled, "Copythisfiletothedefaultfileattachmentsfolderandcreatearelativelink."
Thisgivesyoutheoptionto:
l Selectthecheckbox tocopytheoriginalfileandplacethecopyintheDATA\PDF folderthatispartofyourEndNote
library.
l DeselectthecheckboxtoalwayshaveEndNotelookintheoriginalfolderfortheinsertedfile.
Formoreinformationaboutthisoption,seeSelecting aRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments.
5. ClickOpen.
EndNotewilldisplayaniconindicatingthetypeoffileinserted.You caninsertupto45filesintothesameFileAttachmentsfield.
Note:Anotherway tolinkafiletotheFileAttachmentsfieldistodraganddropthefile ontothereferenceineithertheLibrarywin-
dowortheReferencewindow. Whetherthefileissavedwiththedatabaseorislinkedwithanabsolute pathisdeterminedbythe
defaultfileattachmentsetting.SeeOpenURL/PDF.
Note:Inordertomaintaincross-platformcompatibility,anyofthefollowingcharacters inafilenamewillbereplacedbyanunder-
scorewhenEndNotesavesacopy ofthefileintheDATA\PDFfolderwith arelativepath.
These characters are replaced with an underscore
\ (back slash)
/ (forward slash)
: (colon)
* (asterisk)
? (questionmark)
" (quotation mark)
< (less than)
> (greater than)
| (verticalbar)
Replacement Characters Table
TolinkafiletoanyfieldinanEndNotereference:
1. Openthereference.
2. Typeorpaste,intoanytextfield, thepathand filenameyouwishtolink.Forexample:
file:///C:/Documents/Word%20Tips.pdf
EndNotewilldisplaythefullpathtothefile.Thepathandfilenamebecomehyperlinkedblue,underlinedtextwhichyoucan
clicktoopen thefile.
Notethatspacesinlocal folderandfilenamesareindicatedwith"%20."
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
WhenyoulinkafiletotheFileAttachmentsfieldinareference,you havetheoptionofsavingarelativepathtothefileoranabso-
lutepathtothefile.
What is a Relative Path Versus an Absolute Path?
Whenyouinsert alinktoafilewiththeFileAttachments>Attach FilecommandfromtheReferencesmenu,thefiledialog
includesacheck boxtitled,"Copythisfiletothedefaultfileattachmentsfolder andcreatearelativelink."
Relative Path (check box selected)
Whenthecheckboxisselected,EndNotemakesacopyoftheoriginalfileandplacesitintheDATA\PDFfolderthatispartof
yourEndNotelibrary.Thissavesthefileasa"portablelink"thatcanmoveaspartofthelibrary.EndNotewillalwaysbeableto
accessthefile,evenwhenyoushareyourlibrarywithacolleague(alwaysincludethecompleteDATAfolderalongwiththe.ENL
file).However,ifyouedittheoriginalfileonyourcomputer,thosechangeswillnotbereflectedinEndNote.Youwouldneedto
clearthefilefromyourEndNotereferenceandreinsertthefile.
Absolute Path (check box blank)
Whenthecheckboxisblank,EndNotewillusethecompletepathand filenametolookintheoriginalfolderfortheinsertedfile.
Thiscan behelpfulifyouplantoedittheoriginalfile,andyouwantthosechanges reflectedwhenyouaccessthefilefromwithin
EndNote.However,ifyou evermovethefilefromtheoriginalfolder,EndNotewillnotbeabletoaccessitunlessyouclearthefile
fromyourEndNotereferenceand reinsertitfromthenewfolderlocation.Ifyousendyourlibraryto acolleague,thefilewillnotbe
available.
How Can I Tell Which Type of Path Was Used?
OpenareferencethatcontainsalinkedfileintheFileAttachmentsfield. Holdyourmousepointeroverthefileicon.
l Ifthefilewaslinkedwithanabsolutelink,EndNotewilldisplayatooltipwiththefullpathandfilenameofthelinkedfile.
l Ifthefilewaslinkedwitharelativepath,onlythefilenamewillappear,asacopyofthefileisstoredinthelibrarysDATA\PDF
folder.
Youcanalsodeterminethetypeofpathbypreviewingthe FileAttachmentsfield.Useanoutput stylesuchasShowAllFields,
which includestheFileAttachmentsfield.Inthepreview,fileattachments appearas:
Absolute Path:
C:\DocumentsandSettings\AllUsers\Documents\EndNoteFilename_MyFile.PDF
RelativePath:
Filename_MyFile.PDF
Selecting a Default Setting for the Path
Sinceyoulikelywillwantallofyourlinkedfilestreatedthesame way,youcanselectadefaultsettingforthe"Copythisfileto the
defaultfileattachmentsfolderandcreatearelativelink"checkbox.Youcanchangethedefaultsetting fromthePreferences
panel.SeeURLs &LinksPreferences.
Youstillhavetheoptiontooverridethedefaultsettingeachtime youinsertafileintotheFileAttachmentsfield.
Converting Absolute Paths to Relative Paths
Ifyouareworkingwithalibrarythatwascreatedwithaversionof EndNotepriortoversionX,allofyourexistinglinkedfilesare
saved withabsolutepaths. Youcaneasilychangeyourabsolutepathstorelative paths,whichwillallowyoutoeasilyshareyour
library,alongwithlinked files,withcolleagues.
Toconvertabsolutepathstorelativepaths:
1. Beforeyoubegin,backupyourEndNotelibrary. Thischangecannotbereversed.
2. IntheLibrarywindow,highlightthereferences youwishtomodify.
3. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFileAttachments>ConverttoRelativeLinks.
Foreachselectedreference,EndNotelocateseachfilelinkedintothe FileAttachmentsfieldandcopiesthosefilesintothe
DATA\PDF folderforthelibrary.
Inserting the Same File Again
Ifyoutrytoinsert alinktothesamefilenameagaininthesamereference, yourresultsaredifferentdependingonwhetheryouare
insertingfiles witharelativepathoranabsolutepath.
Relative Path:BecausetherelativepathalwayspointstothelibrarysDATA\PDF folder,amessagewillwarnyouthatyoucan-
notinsert thesamefileagain withthesamename.Youhavetheoptiontoeitherreplacethecurrent linkorgivethenewlylinked
fileanewname.
Absolute Path:Becauseyoucould haveseveralabsolutepathspointingtothesamefilenameindifferent folders,itispossibleto
linktothesamefilenamenumeroustimes. When youholdyourmousepointerovereachfileiconintheFileAttachments field, the
tooltipwilldisplaythefullpathandfilename.
Related Topics:
ConvertReferenceManagerDatabasetoEndNote
FileAttachments
LinkingaFiletoanEndNoteReference
LinkingaURLtoanEndNoteReference
OpeningaLinkedFileorURL
URLs&LinksPreferences
RemovingaLinkedFilefromFileAttachments
SavingaCopyofanAttachedFile
Saving a Copy of an Attached File
WhetheranattachedfileissavedwitharelativepathinalibrarysDATA\PDFfolder,orwithanabsolutepath toaspecificloca-
tion,youcansaveacopyoftheattachedfiletoany location.
Tosaveacopyofanattachedfilefromanopenreference:
1. Openandviewthereference.
2. ScrolltotheFileAttachmentsfieldandhighlight thefileiconforthefileyouwanttocopy.
3. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFileAttachmentsandthenSaveAs.Orusetheright-click menutoselect FileAttach-
mentsandthenSaveAs.
4. Usethefiledialogtoselectafolder,entera filename,andSavethefile.
Tosaveacopyofanattachedfilefromareferencelist:
1. Highlightthereferenceinthelist.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFileAttachmentsandthenSaveAs.Orusetheright-click menutoselect FileAttach-
mentsandthenSaveAs.
3. Usethefiledialogtoselectafolder,entera filename,andSavethefile.
Note:Fromareference list,ifmorethanonefileisattachedtothereference,onlythefirst oneissavedtodisk.
Related Topics:
FileAttachments
LinkingaFiletoanEndNoteReference
LinkingaURLtoanEndNoteReference
OpeningaLinkedFileorURL
URLs&LinksPreferences
RemovingaLinkedFilefromFileAttachments
SelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Beforeyouremovealinkedfile,pleasemakesureyouhaveabackup oftheoriginalfile.Thisprocesscannotbeundone.
ToremovealinkedfilefromtheFileAttachmentsfield:
1. Openthereferenceforediting.
2. ScrolltotheFileAttachmentsfieldandhighlight thefileiconyouwishtoremove.
Note: YoucanholdyourmousepointeroverthefileiconintheFileAttachments fieldtodisplaythepathandfilenameof
thelinkedfile.
3. FromtheEditmenu,selectClear.
Ifthefilewaslinkedwithanabsolutepath,theFileAttachmentsfield nolongerpointstothefile.Theoriginalfileremainsintact.
Ifthefilewaslinkedwitharelativepath,thatfileisdeletedfromthelibrarysDATA\PDFfolder,andtheFileAttachmentsfieldno
longerpointstoit.Youwillnotbeableto reinsertthelinkunlessyouhavetheoriginalfilestoredelsewhereon yourcomputer.
Opening a Linked File or URL
Onceavalid,hyperlinkURLorpathandfilenameappearinareference, youcanopenthereferenceandclickthehyperlinktextor
icontoopen thelinkedURLorfile.
Or,fromtheReferencesmenu,usetheURL>OpenURLorFileAttachments >OpenFilecommandtolookspecificallyinthe
URLfieldorFileAttachments fieldtoopentheInternetsiteorlinkedfile.
Youmusthavethenecessaryprograminstalledonyourcomputerinorder forEndNotetoopenafilecreatedbyanotherprogram.
Forexample,toopenaPDFfile,youmusthaveAdobeAcrobat,AdobeAcrobatReader,or anotherprogramthatcanreadPDF
filesinstalledonyourcomputer.
Similarly,EndNotedoesnotincludeaWebbrowser.Ifyoudonotalready haveabrowserinstalled,youwillneedtoinstallone
beforeusingthis featuretoopenalinktoaWebsite.
Using the Open Link and Open File Commands
TheURL>OpenURL (Ctrl+G)andFileAttachments>OpenFile(Ctrl+Alt+P)commandsontheReferencesmenucanbeused
tolaunchaURLoropenalinkedfileenteredintoanEndNotereferenceunderthefollowingconditions:
l WhenjustonereferenceisselectedintheLibrarywindow,theOpenURLcommandopensthefirstURLthatislistedin
thatreferencesURLfield.TheOpenFilecommandopensthefirst linkedfilethatislistedinthatreferencesFileAttach-
mentsfield.
l Whenmultiplereferencesareselected,EndNote checkstheURLorFileAttachmentsfieldineachoftheselectedref-
erences (intheorderlisted),andopensthefirstlinkitfinds.
l IfyouneedtoentermultiplelinksintotheURLfieldofonereference,enterthemoneperline.EndNotewill openthefirst
linkinthefieldwhenyouselectOpenURLorOpenFile.Ifyouhavemultiplelinks,youcanclickonanyoneofthem toacti-
vatethelink.(WerecommendthatyouentermultipleURLson separatelines.However,ifmorethanoneURLisentered
onasingle line,separatedbysemicolons,holddowntheAlt keywhileyouclickontheURLyouwishtoopen.)
To open a linked file or Internet site from the URL field:
Youcouldopenthereferenceandclickonthehyperlinkfoundinthe URLfield.Or,
1. SelectoropenareferenceintheLibrarywindow.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectURL>Open URL(Ctrl+G).
TheOpenURLcommandopensthelinkedURLwithyourdefaultbrowser, oropensalinkedfilewiththeappropriateprogram.
ToopenalinkedfilefromtheFileAttachmentsfield:
Youcouldopenthereferenceandclickonthefileiconfoundinthe FileAttachmentsfield.Or,
1. SelectoropenareferenceintheLibrarywindow.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFileAttachments>OpenFile(Ctrl+Alt+P).
TheOpenFilecommandopensthelinkedfilewiththeappropriateprogram.
Ifthefilewaslinkedwitharelativepath,EndNotelooksinthelibrary's DATA\PDFfoldertofindthefile.Ifthe filewaslinkedwith
anabsolutepath,EndNotelooksforthefileinthe originalfolderfromwhichitwasinserted.
Note:Pleasesee SelectingaRelativePath oranAbsolutePathforFileAttachmentsforinformationaboutthedifference
betweenafilelinkedwitharelativepathandafilelinked withanabsolutepath.
Related Topics:
Finding FullTextforaReference
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Linking aURLtoanEndNoteReference
Spell Checking
Spell Checking
TobeginusingEndNotesspellchecker, youmusthaveanopenrecordastheactivewindow.Iftheactivewindow doesnotdis-
playanopenrecord,thespellcheckcommandisdisabled.
Iftextishighlightedintheactiverecord,thatselectionischeckedfirst,andthenyouarepromptedtochecktherestoftherecord.
Ifthere areotheropenrecords,youarethenpromptedtocheckthoserecords.
EndNotesspellcheckercancheckspellingaccuracyinallfieldsexcept theAuthorfields(Author,SecondaryAuthor,Tertiary
Author,Subsidiary Author,andTranslatedAuthor)andtheURL,Figure,andFileAttachments fields.
Starting Spell Check
Tostart spellchecking:
1. Opentherecord(s)youwishtocheck.
2. (Optional)If youwanttocheckonlyaportionofthetext,highlightonlythattext.
3. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSpellCheck.
Note:Theseareotherwaystostartspellchecking: right-clickthemouseandselectSpellCheckfromthemenu,orclickthe
SpellChecktoolbarbutton.
4. IfEndNotefinds awordthatisnotfoundintheselecteddictionaries,itdisplays aCheckSpellingdialog.
TheCheckSpellingdialogworksjustlikeaspellcheckerinaword processor.Foracompletedescriptionofeachbuttononthe
CheckSpellingdialog,clicktheHelpbutton.
Spell Check Options and Dictionaries
YoucanaccessSpellCheckOptions andDictionariesintwoways:
l FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.Atthebottomoftheleft column,clickSpellCheck.AnOptionsbuttonandaDic-
tionariesbutton appear.
l StartSpellCheck.WhenEndNotedetectsamisspelled word,theSpellCheckdialogappears.AnOptionsbuttonanda
Dictionaries buttonareavailableonthedialog.
ForinformationabouttheSpellCheckOptions andDictionariespreferences, includingalistofdictionariessupplied withEnd-
Note,seeSpellCheckPreferences.
Changing Text in References
Change Fields
TheChangeFieldstaballowsyoutochangethecontentsofafieldforthereferences thatare"showing"intheLibrarywindow.
Caution:YoucannotundotheChangeFieldsoperation.Onceyouperformthisoperation,EndNotechangesthedatainthe
selectedfieldinallthereferencesinthecurrentLibrarywindow.Werecommendthatyoumakeabackupcopyofyourlibrary
beforemakingchanges.
Tochangethecontentsofafield:
1. Determinewhichreferencesyouwantto modify.MakesureonlythosereferencesareshowingintheLibrary window.Con-
siderbackingupyourlibrarybeforemakinganychanges.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectChange/ Move/CopyFieldstodisplaytheChangeFieldstab.
3. Fromthe"SelectaField"list,selectthefield thatyouwanttomodify.
4. Selectoneofthefollowingoptions:
l Insert after fields textappendstextattheendofthechosenfield. Itdoesnot modifythetextalreadyinthe
field.
Bydefault,whenyouselectthisoption,the"Includeaspacebeforethenewtext"check boxisselectedat
thebottomofthedialog,toinsertaspacebetween theexistingtextandthenewtext.
l Insert before fields textinserts thetextatthebeginningofthechosenfield.Itdoesnotmodify textthatis
alreadyinthefield.
Bydefault,whenyouselectthisoption,the"Includeaspaceafterthenewtext"check boxisselectedatthe
bottomofthedialog,toinsert aspacebetween thenewtextandtheexistingtext.
l Replace whole field withreplaces theentirecontentsofthefieldwiththetextenteredinthetext box.
l Clear field deletestheentirecontents ofthechosenfield. Youcannotentertextinthetextbox.
l Change Case appliesnewcaseformattingtotheentirecontentsofafield.Optionsinclude:Sentencecase,low-
ercase,UPPERCASE,EveryWord,andtOGGLEcASE.Youcannotentertextintheinthetextbox.
5. Inthetextbox,typethetextthatyouwanttoaddtothefield. ToenteraCarriageReturnorTabinthetextbox,usethe
InsertSpecial button.
6. Select(highlight)thetextthatyouenteredinthetextbox,andthenselectafontstyle:Bold,Italics,Underline,Plain,Super-
script,Subscript,orSymbolFont.Thisfieldisoptional.
7. ClicktheOKButton.EndNotewillask youtoconfirmthechanges.ThedialogEndNotepresentsprovidesthis information:
l Howmanyreferenceswillbechanged
l Thelibraryinwhichthechangeswillbemade
l Thetypeofchangethatwillbemade
8. ClickOKtocontinuewiththechangesorclick Canceltocanceltheoperation.
Related Topics:
FindandReplace
Changing TextinReferences
Common UsesforFindandReplaceText,ChangeField,andMoveField
Move/CopyFields
Changing Text in References
Globaleditingcommandsmakeiteasytokeepyourreferencedataconsistent.
l TheFindandReplacecommandisavailablefromtheEditmenu
l TheChange/Move/CopyFieldscommand isavailablefromtheToolsmenu.
TheFindandReplacecommandsearchesfortext inyourlibrary,andeitherdeletesthattextorreplacesitwithother textthatyou
specify.TheChangeFields commandmodifiesanyfieldinyourlibrarybyeitherinsertingtextat thebeginningorendofthefield,
replacingallcontentsofthefieldwithdifferenttext,ordeletingthecontentsofthefield. TheMove/Copy Fieldscommandmoves
theentirecontentsofafieldtoadifferentfield.
Note:Besurethat youhaveacurrentbackupofyourlibrary;theseoperationscannot be undonewiththeUndocommand.
Related Topics:
Common UsesforFindandReplace,ChangeField,andMoveField
Entering References
ModifyingTerms
Common Uses for Find and Replace, Change Field, and Move Field
Correcting consistently misspelled words or names.
UsetheFindandReplacecommandfromtheEditmenutosearchforthemisspelledtermandreplaceitwith thecorrectspelling.
Updating authors names.
Theremaybevariationsofanauthorsnameinyourdata.Forexample, "JoeCool","JoeA.Cool","J.A.Cool.", andsoon.Since
somestylespreferwholenamesandothersabbreviated firstandmiddlenames,itisbesttoupdatenamestofullnamesand
leave theworkofabbreviatingtotheEndNotestyles.
Marking the result of a search for easy retrieval.
Ifyouhavedevelopedacomplexsearchtolocateasetofreferences,useChangeFieldstoaddauniquekeywordtothoseref-
erences,sothat thenexttimeyouwanttoretrievethatset,youcanjustsearchforthekeyword.
Cleaning up your keywords.
YoucanaddakeywordtoagroupofreferencesusingChangeFields. UseFindandReplacetoreplaceatermwithanewone.If
thereisakeyword thatyounolongerwantinyourreferences,useFindandReplacetosearch forthattextandreplaceitwithnoth-
ing,therebydeletingit(youmightalsowanttoopenyourtermlistanddeleteitfromtheresothatyou donotusethattermagain).
Dating or labeling a set of imported references.
Itcanbeuseful toaddthedateorsourceofdatatoabatchofnewly importedreferences.Onlytheimportedreferencesare"show-
ing"intheLibrarywindowafterimporting.Atthispoint,useChangeFields toaddawordorphrasetoanyfieldinjustthoseref-
erences.
Moving fields of information in a set of imported references.
MaybeyourimportfilterorconnectionfileconsistentlysentNoteinformation totheAbstractfield.UsetheMoveFieldsoptionto
cutallinformationfromthe AbstractfieldandmoveitintotheNotesfield.Dontforget toupdateyourfilterorconnectionfilesoit
directsinformation tothecorrectfieldnexttime!
Related Topics:
ChangeFields
Changing TextinReferences
FindandReplace
Move/CopyFields
Move / Copy Fields
TheMove/CopyFieldstaballowsyoutomoveandcopyfielddata.Bothcommandsapplytoall ofthereferencesthatare"show-
ing"intheselectedLibrarygroup.
l TheMoveFieldsoptionallowsyoutomovetheentirecontentsofonefieldto anotherfieldwithinareference.Alldata,
includinganyformattingthatyouappliedtothe sourcefield,ismovedtothedestinationfield.
Caution:You cannotundothe Moveoperation.Onceyouperformthisoperation,EndNoteremovesthesourcefieldfrom
allthereferencesintheLibrarywindow.Werecommendthatyou makeabackupcopyofyourlibrary beforemaking
changes.
l TheCopyoptionallowsyoutocopytheentirecontentsofonefieldtoanother fieldwithinareference.Boththesourcefield
andthedestinationfieldwill containthesamedata.Alldataretainsanyformattingthatyouappliedto thesourcefieldand
tothedestinationfield.
Note:TheMove/CopyFieldsfeatureisuseful whenyouwantto moveorcopyfielddatainasetofimported/ exportedref-
erencesfromanonline database.
Tomove/copythecontentsofonefieldtoanother:
1. Determinewhichreferencesyouwanttomodify.Selectagroup andmakesureonlythosereferencesareshowinginthe
Librarywindow.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selecttheChange/Move/CopyFieldscommand.
3. ClicktheMove/CopyFieldstab.
4. Inthedialogthatappears:
Selectthe"MoveField"radiobuttontomoveinformationto anotherfield.
Selectthe"CopyField"radiobuttontocopyinformationto anotherfield.
5. Usethe"From"listtoselectthesourcefieldfromwhichyouwanttomoveorcopythedata.
6. Usethe"To"listtoselectthedestination fieldtowhereyouwanttomoveorcopythedata.
7. Selectoneofthefollowingoptions:
l Insertafterfield'stext(thedefaultoption)
l Insertbeforefield'stext
l Replaceentirefield
8. ClickOKtomove orcopythedatafromonefieldtoanotherfieldwithineachreferencethatis currentlyshowinginthe
Librarywindow.ClickCanceltostoptheoperation.
WhenusingtheMoveoption,youhavethechoiceofinsertingthemovedtextbeforeorafterthedatainthedestinationfieldor
replacingtheentirecontentsofthedestinationfield. Inthelattercase,youhavetheadditionaloptionofwhetherornottomove
emptyfields.Ifyouclear"Dontmoveemptyfields,"checkbox,thenanyreferencewithanemptyoriginatingfielddeletesthecon-
tentsofthecorrespondingdestinationfield(andtherebymakingitemptyaswell).Ifthisoptionisturnedon,thecontentsofthe
destinationfieldwillnotbedeletediftheoriginatingfieldisempty.
Related Topics:
ChangeFields
FindandReplace
Changing TextinReferences
CommonUses forFindandReplace,ChangeField,andMoveField
Find and Replace
UsetheFindandReplacecommandtofindtextinyourreferencesandreplace itwithothertext.Changescanberestrictedtoa
particularfieldin yourreferences. YoucanalsoapplyMatchCaseandMatchWordsrestrictions.
Caution:TheUndo commandcannotbeusedtoundotheresultsoftheFindandReplacecommand. Makesureyouhavea
backupbeforemakingchanges.
Tochangeanytextinyourreferences:
1. DecidewhichreferencesyouwantEndNote toscanwhenitlooksfortexttochange.Makesureonlythosereferencesare
showingintheLibrarywindow.Usethefollowingcommandstocontrol whichreferencesareshowing:ShowAllRef-
erences,HideSelectedReferences,ShowSelectedReferences, orSearchLibrary.
2. FromtheEditmenu,selectFindandReplace.
3. FromtheSelect aFieldlist,select thefieldtobesearched
4. Inthe"Find"textbox,type thetextyouwishtochange. ToenteraCarriageReturnorTabinthetextbox,usetheInsert
Special button(Alt+S).
5. ChangetheMatchCaseorMatchWordssettingsifnecessary.
Bydefault,theMatchWordsoptionisalwaysselected.Ifyouchange thissetting,paycloseattentiontowhetherornotthe
termyouare changingcouldappearaspartofanotherwordorinadifferentcontextdependingonthecapitalization.
6. Inthe"Replacewith" textbox,typethetextthatshouldreplacetheoriginaltext.Toenter aCarriageReturnorTabinthe
textbox,usetheInsertSpecialbutton (Alt+S).
7. SelecttheRetainCapitalizationoptiontomaintainthesamecapitalizationasthetextbeingreplaced.
RetainCapitalizationshouldbeselectedifreplacingatermthatmight appearwithdifferentcapitalization.Forexample,
anywordmayhave itsfirstlettercapitalizedifitisthefirstwordinatitle,but mayalsoappearinalllowercaseinother
places.DonotselectRetain Capitalizationifyouarereplacinganacronymwithitsunabbreviatedversion.
8. ClicktheChangebuttontosearchtheselectedreferences forthespecifiedtextandreplaceitwiththenewtext.Before
replacinganytext,EndNotedisplaysadialogandpresentsprovidesthis information:
l Whichreferencesweresearched
l Whattextwillbereplaced
l Howmanyreferenceswerefoundtoincludethe textinthespecifiedfield
l Whattextwillreplaceit
9. ClickOKifallofthoseitemsarecorrect.EndNote replacesthetextanddisplaysthenumberofreferencesthatwere
changed.
To globally change a reference type:
Youcaneasilychangeareferencetypeofasinglereferencebyselecting thatreferenceandgoingtotheReferencewindow.In
thetoolbar,open theReferenceTypemenu,andthenselecttheneededreferencetype.When youreturntotheLibrarywindow,
theRefTypecolumnwillshowthenew referencetypethatyouselected
Thefollowinginstructionsmaybeusedtochangethereferencetype forallreferencestoanother referencetype.
1. GototheLibrarywindowandclickthe RefTypecolumnheadingtosortallreferencetypesofthesametype.
2. DecidewhichreferencetypeyouwantEndNotetochange.MakesureonlythosereferencesareshowingintheLibrarywin-
dowthatyouwanttochange.Usethefollowingcommandstocontrol whichreferencesareshowing:ShowAllReferences,
HideSelectedReferences, ShowSelectedReferences,orSearchLibrary.
3. FromtheEditmenu,selectFindandReplace.
4. FromtheSelect aFieldlist,select theReferenceTypeoptionthatappearsatthebottomofthelist.Itis thelastoptionin
thelist.
5. Inthe"Searchfor"box,type thereferencetypethatyouwanttochange.
6. ChangetheMatchCaseorMatchWordssettingsifnecessary.
Bydefault,theMatchWordsoptionisalwaysselected.Ifyouchangethissetting,paycloseattentiontowhetherornotthe
termyouare changingcouldappearaspartofanotherword(forexample,Newspaper Article).
7. Inthe"Changethetextto:" box,typethereferencetypethatshouldreplacetheoriginalreference type.
8. SelecttheRetainCapitalizationoptiontomaintainthesamecapitalizationasthetextbeingreplaced.
9. ClickChangetosearchthereferencetypes forthespecifiedtextandreplaceitwiththenewtext.Beforereplacing anyref-
erencetype,EndNotehasyouverifythechange.Thedialog EndNotepresentsprovidesthisinformation:
l Whichreferencesweresearched
l Whatreferencetypewillbereplaced
l Howmanyreferenceswerefoundofthespecified referencetype.
l Whatreferencetypewillreplaceit
10. ClickOKifallofthoseitemsarecorrect. EndNotereplacesthereferencetypeanddisplaysthenumberofreferences that
werechanged.
Important Points About the Find and Replace Command
l TheFindandReplaceTextcommandappliesonlytothe referencesshowingintheLibrarywindow.
l WhenusingFindandReplace,thenewtextdoesnotadopt thetextstyleofthetextbeingreplaced.Forexample,ifyou
replaceanitalicizedwordorphrase,thenewtextwill notbeitalicized.Inthisinstance,EndNotechangesthetexttothe
currentstyle(forexample,PlainTextandPlainSize).
l Ifyouneedtosearchfortextandthendelete it,simplyleavethe"Changethetextto"boxempty.
l WhenusingtheRetainCapitalizationoption,EndNotemaintainsALLCAPITALLETTERSand"Sentencestyle" cap-
italization.Itwillnotrecognize"HeadlineStyle." Ifthefirstletterofthetexttobereplacedislowercase,thereplacement
textwillbecapitalizedexactlyasitwasenteredinthedialog.
l ToenteraCarriageReturnorTabinthetextbox,usetheInsert Specialbutton.
Related Topics:
ChangeFields
Changing TextinReferences
Common UsesforFindandReplace,ChangeField,andMoveField
Move/CopyFields
Searching Online Databases
Introduction to Searching Online Databases
Introduction to Searching Online Databases
UsingEndNotesOnlineSearchcommands,youcansearchonlinebibliographic databasesjustaseasilyasyoucansearchan
EndNotelibraryonyour owncomputer.TheresultsofyoursearchescanbedownloadedeithertoatemporaryEndNotelibraryor
directlyintoyourownEndNotelibrary.
How Does It Work?
EndNoteisabletoprovideaccesstotheseremotesourcesusinganinformation retrievalprotocolcalledZ39.50iswidely sup-
portedbylibrariesandinformationprovidersaroundtheworldasa convenientmethodtoaccesstheirlibrarycatalogsandref-
erence databases.
EndNotestorestheinformationnecessarytoconnecttoand searchthese onlinedatabasesinindividualconnection files. Pre-
configured connectionfilesareprovidedforanumberofthesesources.Ifnecessary, youcanalsocustomizeorconfigureyour
ownconnectionstoZ39.50-compliant databases(seeEditingaConnectionFileandCreatingConnectionFiles).
Note:Iftheonline databasethatyouaccessisnotavailableonaZ39.50server,EndNotewillnotbeabletoconnectdirectlyto
it.WesuggestthatyousubmitarequestforZ39.50compatibilitytoyourlibrarianortheinstitution thatprovidesaccesstothe
database.Youcanstillimportreferences downloadedfromnon-Z39.50databases.SeeGeneral ImportingInstructions.
Related Topics:
Establishing theConnection
How toSearchanOnlineDatabase
Retrieving andSavingReferences
WhatEndNoteSearchingOffers
What EndNote's Searching Offers
EndNotessearchinterfaceprovidesasimplewaytodobasicsearchesonEndNotelibrariesandonlinedatabases.Thesame
Searchpanelisusedforbothpurposes.
Thissearchinterfaceisnotintendedtoreplacetheadvancedsearch optionsthatmaybeavailableusingthesearchinterface
offeredbyyour informationprovider.Theremaybetimeswhenyouwanttousetheinformation providerssearchinterface(for
example,totakeadvantageofathesaurus ofsearchterms)andthenimportthosereferencesintoEndNote.Thisis stillanoption
usingEndNotesImportcommand(seeImportingReferenceDataintoEndNote).Butonceyouknowthetermsthatyou wantto
useinyoursearches,beingabletoretrievethenecessaryreferencesdirectlyfromEndNoteisaveryfastandefficientapproach.
Related Topics:
Establishing theConnection
Introduction toSearchingOnlineDatabases
How toSearchanOnlineDatabase
Retrieving andSavingReferences
How to Search an Online Database
Theprocessofsearchinganonlinedatabaseisverysimilartosearching anEndNotelibrary.Herearethebasicstepsinvolved;
moredetaileddescriptions ofthesestepsareprovidedinadditionalhelptopics.
First, Choose Integrated or Online Search Mode
YoucandownloadfoundreferencesdirectlyintoanexistingEndNote library(withIntegratedMode)orintoatemporarylibrary
(withOnline Searchmode).
Usingatemporarylibraryishelpfulifyouwanttoexperimentwith potentialsearchstrategies,orrefineasearchstrategy.Youcan
retrieve batchesofreferenceswithoutaffectingyourpermanentlibrary,andthen copyonlyselectedreferencesintoyourper-
manentlibrary.
Tosavereferencesdirectlyintoyourlibrary:
1. OpentheEndNotelibrarythatwillreceivethe downloadedreferences.
2. Atthefarleftofthetoolbar,makesure IntegratedLibrary&OnlineSearchModeisselected(theicon ontheleft),sothatall
commandsandgroupsareavailable.
Whenyoudownloadreferencesfromtheonlinedatabase,theywillbe savedtotheopenlibrary(thelibrarynameappearsatthe
topofthewindow).Ifyoudownloadreferencesthatyoufindyoudonotwant,you mustdeletethemfromthelibrary.
Tostorereferencesinatemporarylibrary:
1. CreateanewEndNotelibraryoropenanyexisting library.
2. Onthetoolbar,selectOnlineSearchMode(the iconontheright),sothatonlyOnlineSearchgroupsandcommands are
available.
Whenyoudownloadreferencesfromtheonlinedatabase,theywillbe storedinatemporarylibrary(ratherthanalibraryname,the
topof thewindowindicatesOnlineMode).Inordertosavereferencespermanently,youmustuseeithertheReferences>Copy
Referencestocommandto copyselectedreferencestoaneworexistinglibraryortheCopytoLocalLibraryiconfromthetoolbar.
Whenyouclosethetemporarylibrary,all referencesinitwillbelost.
IfyouinitiateanonlinesearchwhileinLocalLibraryMode,thedisplay willautomaticallyswitchtoOnlineSearchMode.
Then, Search and Download References
Tosearchandretrievereferencesfromaonlinedatabase:
1. Initiatetheonlinesearchinoneofthesetwo ways:
l FromtheToolsmenu,selectOnlineSearchtodisplaythefullcollectionofconnectionfiles.Or,click"more" underthe
OnlineSearchgroups.)Selecttheonlinedatabasethatyou wouldliketosearch,andthenclickChoose.SeeSelecting a
ConnectionFile.)
Whentheconnectionhasbeenestablished, theSearchpanelappears readyforyoutoenterasearch.
l Onceyouhavesearchedanonlinedatabase,ormarkedthedatabaseasafavoritewiththeConnectionManager,it
appearsinanOnlineSearchlistintheGroupspaneloftheLibrary window.(SeePickingYour FavoriteConnectionFiles.)
IntheOnlineSearchlist,clickonthedatabaseyouwishtosearch. EndNoteconnectstotheonlinedatabaseanddisplays
theSearchpanel.
2. EnteryoursearchrequestinthesearchfieldsontheSearchpanel, andthenclickSearch.
EndNotesearchesthedatabaseanddisplaysthenumberofreferences thatwerefoundtomatchyoursearchcriteria.
3. ClickOKtoretrievethereferences.
Ifyouwouldliketopauseduringrecordretrieval,clickOptionsandselectPause.Whenyouarereadytocontinue,click
Optionsandselect Resume.
Note:Theconnection totheonlinedatabaseismaintainedonlyuntilthesearchiscompleted andthematchingreferencesare
retrieved;whenthereferencesaredownloaded, youareautomaticallydisconnected.Eachtimeyouinitiateanothersearch, End-
Notereconnects.
Next, Determine Which References to Keep
If you are working in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode:
AllreferencesarealreadysavedtothecurrentEndNotelibrary,andaredisplayedinagroupunderOnlineSearch.
Ifyoudecideyoudonotwanttokeepanyoftheretrievedreferences, displaythegroupofreferencesandclickinthelist,gotothe
EditmenuandSelect All,andthengototheReferencesmenuandselectMoveReferencestoTrash.
Youcanalsohighlightindividualreferencesandselect References>MoveReferencestoTrash.(YoucanuseCtrl+clickto
selectnon-contiguousreferencesinthelist, oruseShift+clicktoselectarangeofreferences.)
If you are working in Online Search Mode:
Theretrievedreferencesarestoredinatemporarylibrary. Ratherthanalibrarynameatthetopofthewindow,EndNotedisplays
OnlineMode.
Tosavealloftheretrievedreferences,clickinthelist ofreferences,gototheEditmenuandSelectAll,andthendooneof these:
l GototheReferencesmenuandselect CopyReferences toinordertoselectaneworexistinglibraryandcopythehigh-
lighted referencestothatselectedlibrary
l Or,clicktheCopytoLocalLibraryiconon thetoolbartoquicklycopythehighlightedreferencestothecurrently active
library
Youcouldalsohighlightonlyindividual referencesbeforecopyingthemtoanEndNotelibrary.(UseCtrl+clicktoselect non-con-
tiguousreferencesinthelist,oruse Shift+clicktoselect arangeofreferences.)
Thereferencesarecopiedtotheselectedlibraryandare displayedinaCopiedReferencesgroup.Eachtimeyoucopyreferences
intoanEndNotelibrary,theCopiedReferencesgroupisreplacedwiththenewsetofreferences.Previouslycopiedreferences
remaininthe library;theyarejustnolongerpartofthelatest CopiedReferences group.
AnotherwaytosavereferencesdownloadedinOnlineSearch ModeistousetheCopyandPastecommandsfromtheEditmenu
tocopy individualreferencesfromOnlineSearchModeandthenpastetheminto LocalLibraryMode.
Leave Online Search mode in one of these ways:
l ClickonLocalLibrarymode,whichleavesOnline SearchModeintact.Youcanswitchbetweenthesetwomodeswithout
losingthecurrentOnlineSearchdata.
l ClickonIntegratedMode.ThisclosesthecurrentOnlineSearchModesession.AnyreferencesinOnlineSearchModeare
discarded,somakesureyoufirstcopyreferencesyouwanttokeep intoyourpermanentlibrary.
l Clickthecornerclosebutton.Thisclosesthe entireEndNotelibrary(allmodes).AnyreferencesinOnlineSearchModeare
discarded,somakesureyoufirstcopyreferencesyouwant tokeepintoyourpermanentlibrary.
Related Topics:
Discarding DuplicateReferences
Establishing theConnection
FreeDatabases
Introduction toConnectionFiles
Retrieving andSavingReferences
Using Z39.50Command-LineSyntax
WhatEndNoteSearchingOffers
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Selecting a Connection File
Selecting a Connection File
Beforeanonlinesourcemaybesearched,youmustfirstconnecttoitbyselectingthecorrespondingconnection file.Thecon-
nection filetellsEndNotewhichonlinedatabaseyouwanttosearch,whereto finditonline,andwhatsearchoptionsareavailable
forit.
Access- Restricted Databases
EndNotecomeswithpre-configuredconnectionfilestofreereference databasesandlibrarycatalogsaswellasdatabasesthat
requirepayment and/orauthenticationforaccess.Mostofthedatabasesofferedbythe commercialinformationproviders(Ovid,
OCLC,DIMDI,SilverPlatter,andsoon)requireanaccountforaccess.Thereare,however,numerousdatabasesthatareavail-
ableatnocosttoyou,andnoaccountisrequired(seeFreeDatabases)
Note:Togainaccess toarestricteddatabase,youwillneedtocontacttheinformationprovider directlytosetupanaccount.
ThomsonReutersdoesnotcontrolaccess toanyofthesources.
Whenyouattempttoconnecttoarestricteddatabase,bydefaultEndNote promptsyoutoenteryouruserIDand/orpassword.If
youhaveauser IDand/orpasswordsuppliedbythedataproviderthathoststherestricted database,simplyenterthenecessary
information,andclickOKtolog on.(Dependingonthedatabaseyouareaccessing,thepasswordsandIDsmaybecase-sen-
sitive.)
IfyoudonothaveauserIDand/orpassword,butinsteadhaveauthenticatedaccesstoadatabaseeitherbyIPaddressrec-
ognition(forexample,yourcomputerisonyouruniversitycampusorcompanynetworkandhasanIPaddressthatisrecognized
asauthenticatedbythedataprovidersserver)orthroughaproxyserver,itmaybepossibletoconfiguretheconnectionfileand
yourNetworkPreferencessothatyoudonotneedtoenterauserIDandpassword.
IfyouhaveaccesstoarestricteddatabasebyIPaddressrecognition, youmayneedtoedittheconnectionfilesothatitdoesnot
promptyouforauserIDand/orpassword.InEndNote,select Edit ConnectionFiles OpenConnectionManager.Locatethe
connection fileforthedatabaseyouwishtoaccess,selectit,andclickEdit.Click ConnectionSettingsandcleartheUserIDand
Passwordboxesunder"LoginInformationRequired."SelectSavefromtheFilemenutosaveyourchanges,andthenclosethe
connectionfile.
Ifyouhaveaccesstoarestricteddatabaseviaaproxyserver,you mustmakesurethatyourInternet settingsareproperlycon-
figured,becauseEndNoteuses thesesettings.SeeProblems Connectingforinformationaboutproxyservers.Youwillneedthe
addressandportnumberofyourproxyserver.
Related Topics:
FreeDatabases
Picking YourFavoriteConnectionFiles
How toSearchanOnlineDatabase
Retrieving andSavingReferences
WhatEndNoteSearchingOffers
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Free Databases
Twomajordatabasesthatdonot requirepasswordsarethePubMeddatabasefromtheU.S.NationalLibraryof Medicine,andthe
LibraryofCongress.Manyofthegenerallibrarycatalogs arealsounrestricted.Additionalconnectionsmaybeavailableatthe
EndNoteWebsite(http://www.endnote.com/support/).
Databases Not Requiring an Account
Description Information Provider/Category
PubMed (MEDLINEandpre-
MEDLINE)
referencesfromthe
NationalLibraryofMedicine
NLM
Mostuniversitylibrarycat-
alogs
Library Catalogs
Books attheLibraryofCon-
gress
Library ofCongress
Accounts Table
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
Picking YourFavoriteConnectionFiles
How toSearchanOnlineDatabase
Retrieving andSavingReferences
WhatEndNoteSearchingOffers
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Picking Your Favorite Connection Files
EndNoteprovideshundredsofconnectionfilesforavarietyofsources.Toperusethelistofavailableconnectionfiles,selectCon-
nectionFilesfromtheEditmenu,andselectOpenConnectionManager.Thelistincludestheoriginalconnectionfilesinstalledin
theEndNoteprogramfolder(ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6\Connections)aswellasanyusercreatedoreditedfilesstoredinyour
personalConnectionsfolder(seeFolderLocationsPreferences).
Whenyouhavefoundaconnectionfilethatyouwillwanttouseinthefuture,clickthecheckboxtotheleftofittomarkitasa
favorite.Allmarkedfiles(upto500)appearundertheOnlineSearchsectionintheGroupspaneloftheLibrarywindow,givingyou
easyaccesstothosefilesyouusemostoften. Thisstepisnotrequired;youcanalwayschoosetheOnlineSearchcommand,or
themoreitemunderOnlineSearchintheGroupspanel,topickaconnectionfilethatisnotlistedintheGroupspanel.
UsethefollowingfeaturesintheConnectionManagerwindowtolocatetheconnectionfile(s)thatyouwanttouse:
l TypeadatabasenameintotheQuickSearchtext boxandpressEntertosearch foraconnectionfilebythenameofthe
database.
l ClickFindByandEndNotedisplaysthelist ofinformationproviders(categories)usedforalloftheconnection files.Select
onetorestrictthelisttoshowjustthatsetoffiles. Thatwillhelpyoutofindtheoneyouwant,orselectMarkAllto markup
to500connectionfilesinthesubset.
l Clickthecolumnheadingstosorttheconnection filesbynameorbyinformationprovider.Clickingthesamecolumn head-
ingasecondtimewillchangethesortorderfromascendingto descending.Clickagaintosetitbacktoascendingorder.
l Ifyouknowthenameoftheconnectionfile thatyouwanttouse,youmaystarttypingitandthefirstfilethat matcheswhat
youtypewillbeselected.
l ClicktheMoreInfotrianglebuttonatthebottomofthedialogtodisplayadditionalinformationabouttheselected con-
nectionfile.
Note:Forinformation abouteditingconnectionfilesorcreatingnewones,seeIntroduction toConnectionFiles.
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
Establishing theConnection
FreeDatabases
How toSearchanOnlineDatabase
Retrieving andSavingReferences
WhatEndNoteSearchingOffers
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
What if Your Database Is Not Listed?
Bydefault,EndNoteinstallsonlythemostpopularconnectionfiles. Forinformationaboutlocatingandinstallingadditionalfiles,
seeInstallingAdditionalConnectionFiles.
Ifaconnectionfilehasnotbeenprovidedforthedatabasethatyou wanttosearch,contactyourlibrarianorinformationproviderto
see iftheirdatabaseisavailableonaZ39.50server.Ifitis,youshould requesttheinformationrequiredtosetupaZ39.50client
forthatdatabase. SeeCreatingConnection Files.
Adding Connection Files
TheConnectionManagerdisplaysalloftheconnectionfilesintheEndNoteprogramfolderaswellasinyourpersonalCon-
nectionsfolder.Ifyou havereceivedaconnectionfilefromacolleagueorlibrarianordownloadedonefromtheWeb,copyitinto
yourpersonalConnectionsfolderandit willappearintheConnectionManager.Keepingthefileinyourpersonal Connections
folderensuresthatitwillnotbedeletedoroverwritten withfutureupdatestotheEndNoteprogram.
TolocateyourpersonalConnectionsfolder,ortodesignatea differentConnectionsfolder:
1. SelectPreferencesfromtheEditmenu.
2. SelecttheFolderLocationsoption.
3. SelecttheConnectionFolderoption.
4. ClickSelectFolder.
5. GototheConnectionsfolderandselecttheconnectionfilesthatyouwanttouse.
6. Withthefolderopenandselected,Openthefolder andthenclickSelect.
7. ClickOK.
Note: Newandupdatedconnectionfilesarepostedon theEndNoteWeb siteastheybecomeavailable.
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
Establishing theConnection
FreeDatabases
Picking YourFavoriteConnectionFiles
How toSearchanOnlineDatabase
Retrieving andSavingReferences
WhatEndNoteSearchingOffers
Searching an Online Database
Establishing the Connection
Thefirststeptosearchinganonlinedatabaseistoconnecttoit. Oncetheconnectionhasbeenmade,youreabletouseEnd-
NotesSearch tabtosearchtheonlinedatabase.
Ifyouhaveconnectedtoaparticulardatabasebefore,orifyouhaveselectedadatabaseasoneofyour"favorites"(seePicking
YourFavoriteConnectionFiles),itwillappearintheGroupspanel underOnlineSearch.Thissavesyouafewstepsintheproc-
essofusing theOnlineSearchcommand.
Toconnecttoanonlinedatabase,dooneofthese:
l OntheGroupspanel,underOnlineSearch,select theonlinedatabaseyouwanttosearch.Thatinitiatestheonlinecon-
nection.
l Ifthedatabaseyouwanttosearchisnotlisted underOnlineSearchintheGroupspanel,selectTools>OnlineSearch,
selectthedesireddatabase,andclickChoosetoinitiatetheconnection.
ThisConnectiondialogisverysimilartotheConnectionManagerdescribedinTheConnection Manager,butitdoesnotprovide
theoptionstoeditconnectionfiles ormarkthemasfavorites.
Whenasuccessfulconnectionhasbeenmade,theSearchpanel openswiththeonlinedatabaseselectedforsearching.Youare
nowreadytobeginsearchingthedatabase.
Theconnectiontotheonlinedatabaseismaintainedonlyuntilthesearch iscompletedandthematchingreferencesareretrieved;
whenthereferencesaredownloaded, youareautomaticallydisconnected.Eachtimeyouinitiateanothersearch,EndNoterecon-
nects.
Note:Ifyouhave difficultyestablishingaconnection,seeTroubleshooting Connections.
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
AvailableSearchOptions
BooleanSearches
Changing theFocusoftheSearch
FreeDatabases
Online DatabaseSearching(Overview)
Retrieving andSavingReferences
SearchingEndNoteFieldsvs.OnlineDatabaseIndexes
SearchingWeb ofScience
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Online Database Searching (Overview)
Searchinganonlinedatabaseisessentiallythesameassearchingyour ownEndNotelibrary.Afterestablishingaconnection:
1. Enteryoursearchterm(s)inthefieldsontheSearchpanel.
2. Selecttheappropriatesearchoptions.
3. ClickSearchtosendthesearchrequesttothe onlinedatabase.
Afewsignificantdifferencesbetweensearchinganonlinedatabaseand anEndNotelibraryaredescribedinSearching EndNote
Fieldsvs.OnlineDatabaseIndexes.SeeTheSearchPanelforgeneral informationaboutusingthisfeature.
Available Search Options
Onceyouareconnectedtoanonlinedatabase andthatdatabaseisselectedforsearching,certainelementsontheSearch tab
changefromthesettingsthatareavailableforEndNotelibrarysearches.
l Thesearchsetlistchangeswhensearchinganonlinesource.Youcansearcheithertheremotedatabaseorthelistofref-
erencesalreadyretrievedandsavedfromtheremotesource.
l TheMatchCaseandMatchWordsoptionsare notavailableforonlinedatabase searches.
l Theoptionsavailableinthesearchmenus(such asAuthor,Title, orKeywords)varywitheachdatabase,andtheyare not
thesameassearchingthefieldsinanEndNotelibrary(seeSearchingEndNoteFieldsvs.OnlineDatabaseIndexes).
l Thefollowingfieldsarenotavailableinthesearchmenuforsearchinganonlinesource:PDF,AnyField+PDFwithNotes,
andPDFNotes.
l Thecomparisonlistforeachsearchlineis alwayssettoContains.
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
Discarding DuplicateReferences
Establishing theConnection
FreeDatabases
How toSearchanOnlineDatabase
Online DatabaseSearching
Retrieving andSavingReferences
SearchingWeb ofScience
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Boolean Searches
MultiplesearchtermscanbecombinedusingtheBooleanoperatorsAND, OR,andNOT.EndNoteconstructsasearchfromthe
toptothebottomoftheSearchpanel,findingthesearchresultsofthefirsttwoitems,thencombiningthatresultsetwiththethird
searchline,andsoon.
Field Comparison
Operator
Search Term Boolean Oper-
ator
Keywords Contains fossil AND
Keywords Contains dinosaur NOT
Keywords Contains avian OR
Author Contains Balanoff
Boolean Operators Table
Forexample,thesearchshownabovecouldbewrittenas:
(((fossilANDdinosaur) NOTavian)ORBalanoff)
FirstEndNotelooksforreferencesaboutfossilsanddinosaurs,then anyreferencestoavianwouldbeomittedfromthatset,and
finallyall referencesby"Balanoffwould beadded.
Keepinmindthat:
l ORbroadensyoursearchbyaddingtogethertworesultsets
l ANDnarrowsthefocusofthesearchbylookingfortheintersection ofreferencesfound
l NOTalsonarrowsthesearchbyomittingtheresultsforonetermfromthecurrentresultset.
Searching EndNote Fields vs. Online Database Indexes
Whensearchinganonlinedatabase,youarenotsearchingthespecificfieldsineachrecord,butrathertheavailablesearch
indexesforthat database.ThesearchmenusontheSearchpanellistonlyavailable indexesfortheonlinedatabase,soyouwill
notseeallofthegeneric fieldnameslistedasyoudowhensearchinganEndNotelibrary.
IfthecurrentsearchstrategyissetuptosearchanEndNotefield thatdoesnotexistasanonlinedatabasesearchindex,that
fieldname willappearinitalics.Ifyoutrytoexecuteasearch,EndNotewilladvise youthatthefieldisnotvalid.Changethe
searchfieldselectiontoavalidindexfortheselectedonlinedatabase.
Theconnectionfileforaparticulardatabasestoresthenamesandsettings forthesearchoptionslistedinthesearchmenus.See
Search Attributesifyouareinterestedinchangingthepre-configuredoptions.
Note:Comparison operatorsotherthan"Contains"cannot beusedwhensearching onlinedatabases.
Understanding Search Results
Whensearchinganonlinedatabase,thesearchmenusdisplayalistofavailablesearchindexessupportedattheremotesite.
Thesearenotfields intheonlinedatabase,butrathersetsofsearchtermsandsynonymsdesigned tofacilitateyoursearches.
Itisnotuncommontosearchforaterminanindexandnoticethat theexacttermappearsnowhereintheretrievedreference(s).
Forexample,youmightsearchforheartattackintheTitleindexofamedicaldatabaseandfindreferencesthatdonotinclude
heart attackintheTitlefieldbut,instead,theyusethetermmyocardialinfarction.Thisapparentdiscrepancycanbeattributedto
thesearchindexoftheonlinedatabase,whichhasmappedthecommontermheartattacktoitsscientificequivalentmyocardial
infarction.
Itisalsonotuncommonforsomeofthesedatabasestoindexpersonalnamesthatappearinthetitlesorkeywordsalongwiththe
authornames. Forexample,asearchoftheLibraryofCongressfor"CharlesDickens"intheAuthorindexdisplaysbooksabout
Dickensaswellasthosewritten byhim.Thisformofindexingismostcommonlyseenwithlibrarybook catalogsandnotwiththe
scientificreferencedatabases.Sometimesyou canrestrictthesearchestobooksbythatparticularauthorbysetting upasearch
tofind(forexample)"CharlesDickens"inAuthor,NOT"CharlesDickens"inKeywords.
ThesesearchindexesaremaintainedbytheprovidersofthedatabasesandarenotcontrolledbyEndNote.
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
AvailableSearchOptions
BooleanSearches
Changing theFocusoftheSearch
Establishing theConnection
FreeDatabases
Online DatabaseSearching
Retrieving andSavingReferences
SearchingWeb ofScience
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Online Database Search Limitations
SomeofthesearchoptionshaveadditionallimitationsthatyouwouldnotencounterwhensearchinganEndNotelibrary.For
example,somedatabases prohibitsearchingforayearalone. Theyearcanbespecifiedonlytolimitasearch(thesearecalled
"limitfields").Insucha case,asearchfor1997astheyearwouldbedenied,butsearchingfor SmithasanauthorAND1997as
theyear(therebylimitingtheresults oftheauthorsearch),wouldbeallowed.
Ifyouhavesetupasearchthatisnotacceptedbytheonlinedatabase, anerrormessagewilldescribethesourceoftheproblem
asspecifically aspossible.(SeeTroubleshootingConnections.)Keepinmindthattheserestrictionsaresetbythe informationpro-
vider,notEndNote.
Documentationfromtheinformationprovidermayhelptoclarifywhat searchoptionsareavailable.
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
AvailableSearchOptions
BooleanSearches
Changing theFocusoftheSearch
Establishing theConnection
FreeDatabases
Retrieving andSavingReferences
SearchingEndNoteFieldsvs.OnlineDatabaseIndexes
SearchingWeb ofScience
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Changing the Focus of the Search
Thetargetofthesearchistheonlinedatabase(representedbythe databasenameontheSearchpanel)orthecurrentEndNote
librarygroup thatisdisplayedwhentheSearchcommandischosen.(Ifyouhaventyetconnectedtotheonlinedatabaseor
openedalibrary, youwillneedtodosobeforeyoucansearchit.)Tochangethefocus ofasearch,clickonadifferentlibrarygroup
oronlinedatabasein theGroupspanel.
Theavailablesearchoptionsdifferamongthevariousonlinedatabases, aswellasbetweenonlinedatabasesandEndNote
libraries.Whenyouchange thetargetofasearch,thefieldoptionsontheSearchpanelchangeautomatically. Youcouldsetupa
Keywordssearchforaparticularonlinedatabase,but whenyouselectadifferentonlinedatabase,thefieldselectionchanges
becauseKeywordsisnotanoptionforthenewdatabaseselection.
Whenswitchingthefocusofyoursearchfromonegrouptoanotherandbackagain,theoriginalsearchsetupisretainedaslong
asyouhave notchangedanysettingsontheSearchpanelandthefieldselectionsare availableinbothdatabases.
Related Topics:
Access- RestrictedDatabases
AvailableSearchOptions
BooleanSearches
Establishing theConnection
FreeDatabases
Online DatabaseSearching
Retrieving andSavingReferences
SearchingEndNoteFieldsvs.OnlineDatabaseIndexes
SearchingWeb ofScience
WhatifYourDatabaseIsn'tListed?
Retrieving and Saving References
Retrieving and Saving References
Afterasuccessfulsearch,EndNotealertsyoutothenumberofreferences thatwerefound. Youhavetheoptionofretrievingallof
thereferencesoraspecificrangeofreferences.(Theorderoftheretrievedreferences reflectsthewaytheywerereturnedfrom
theserverthisisnotnecessarily alphabetical,chronological,orinorderofrelevance.)
ChoosingOKallowsEndNotetobeginretrievingreferences.
Ifyouhavepreviouslydownloadedreferencesfromanonlinedatabase sinceopeningthelibrary(whetherapermanentlibraryora
temporarylibrary),youmaywanttoselecttheClearcurrentlydisplayedresults beforeretrievingrecordscheckbox.Thissimply
removesthepreviouslydownloadedreferencesfromtheOnlineSearchgroup;theyarestillavailableinthelibrary.
Changingtherangeofreferencestoberetrievedisusefulifyouwant tochecktheresultsofyoursearchbeforedownloadingthe
entireset ofreferences. Forexample,ifyoursearchfound200references, youmay wanttoretrieveonlyreferences1-10,then
checkthosereferences,and eithercontinuedownloadingorchangeyoursearchcriteria.Tocontinuedownloading,submitthe
searchagain,thenrequestonlyreferences11through200.Youcanalsopauseduringrecordretrieval;ontheSearch tab,click
OptionsandselectPause.ClickResumewhenyouwanttocontinue.
Ifyoudiscoveredthatyoushouldrefineyoursearchtogetbetterresults, itshelpfultolookatthekeywordsofthereferencesyou
havedownloaded toseeiftherearetermstheretohelpyourefineyoursearchstrategy.
Howreferencesaresavedisdeterminedbythecurrentdisplaymode.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode
IfyouareworkinginIntegratedLibrary&OnlineSearchMode,references aredownloadedandsavedintothecurrentlibraryand
displayedinaOnline Searchgroup.Thelibrarynameappearsatthetopofthewindow.
Ifyoudecideyoudon'twanttokeeptheretrievedreferences,selectthem(clickinthelistanduse Ctrl+Atoselectallreferences
inthecurrentlist,useCtrl+clicktoselect non-contiguousreferences,oruseShift+clicktoselectarangeofreferences)and
selectMoveReferencestoTrashfromtheReferencesmenu.
Online Search Mode
IfyouareworkinginOnlineSearchMode,referencesaredownloadedintoatemporarylibrary.Thetopofthewindowindicates
OnlineMode.To savereferences,highlightthem(clickinthelistand use Ctrl+Atoselectallreferencesinthecurrentlist,use
Ctrl+clicktoselect non-contiguousreferences,oruseShift+clicktoselectarangeofreferences)andthen:
l GototheReferencesmenuandselect CopyReferences toinordertoselectaneworexistinglibraryandcopythehigh-
lighted referencestothatselectedlibrary
l Or,clicktheCopytoLocalLibraryiconon thetoolbartoquicklycopythehighlightedreferencestothecurrently active
library
AnotherwaytosavereferencesdownloadedinOnlineSearchModeistousetheCopyandPastecommandsfromtheEditmenu
tocopyindividual referencesfromOnlineSearchModeandthenpastethemintoLocalLibrary Mode.
Leave Online Search mode in one of these ways:
l ClickonLocalLibraryMode,whichleavesOnline SearchModeintact.Youcanswitchbetweenthesetwomodeswithout
losingthecurrentOnlineModereferences.
l ClickonIntegratedMode.ThisclosesthecurrentOnlineSearchModesession.AnyreferencesinOnlineSearchModeare
discarded,somakesureyoufirstcopyreferencesyouwanttokeep intoyourpermanentlibrary.
l Clickthecornerclosebutton.Thisclosesthe entireEndNotelibrary(allmodes).AnyreferencesinOnlineSearchModeare
discarded,somakesureyoufirstcopyreferencesyouwant tokeepintoyourpermanentlibrary.
Discarding Duplicate References
Ifyouusethesamesearchstrategytosearchmultipleonlinesources, youmayintroduceduplicatereferencesintoyourEndNote
library.Therearetwomethodstoidentifyandremoveduplicates:
l Youcanidentifyanddeleteduplicatesinyour EndNotelibraryafterdownloadingiscompleted.Thisprocessallowsyouto
vieweachduplicatebeforedeletingit.SeeFinding DuplicateReferences.
l Youcandiscardduplicatesduringthedownloadingprocess,asdescribedbelow.
Toautomaticallydiscardduplicates:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. DisplaytheDuplicatespanel.
3. FromtheOnlineSearchResultspanel,selecttheAutomatically discardduplicatescheckbox.
Whenyouselect theAutomatically discardduplicatescheckbox,EndNoteautomaticallydiscardsduplicatereferenceswhen
retrievingreferencesfromanonlinedatabase.Theduplicatesareneverinsertedintothelibrary.Thissettingapplieswhenyouper-
formasearchinIntegratedLibraryModeorOnlineSearchMode.
l IfyouareusingIntegratedLibrary&Online SearchModewhenperforminganonlinedatabasesearch,itappliestotheper-
manentAllReferenceslibrary.
l IfyouareusingOnlineSearchModewhenperforminganonlinedatabasesearch,itappliestothetemporaryOnlineRef-
erenceslibrary.
Note:Thesesettings donotapplytothe"MergeDuplicatesinBibliography"settingdefined inFormattingPreferences.The dupli-
catesareneverinsertedintothebibliography.
Related Topics:
DuplicatePreferences
Finding DuplicateReferences
The Connection Status Window
TheConnectionStatuswindowprovidesdetailedinformationaboutaconnection andEndNotesinteractionswiththeonlinedata-
baseandserver.Thiswindow isusefultohelpyouortohelpEndNoteTechnicalSupportassistyou intrackingdownthesource
ofaproblemwithanonlinedatabase.
ViewtheconnectionstatusinformationbyselectingShowConnection StatusfromtheWindowmenutodisplaytheStatuswin-
dow.Whenthatwindow isopen,thiscommandchangestoHideConnectionStatus,whichcloses theStatuswindow.
TheStatuswindowdisplaysinformationforthelatestconnection. A menuatthetopoftheStatuswindowletsyouvieweitherthe
recorddata foreachreferenceorthestatusmessagesreturnedfromtheserverof theonlinedatabase.
Note:TheConnection Statuswindowdisplaysthelast32Koftextwrittentothelog file.Ifyouneedtoseemorethanthat,you
canopentheConnect.logfileinawordprocessorafterclosingtheRetrieved Referencewindow(s).
Related Topics:
AvailableSearchOptions
FreeDatabases
Online DatabaseSearching
Retrieving andSavingReferences
SearchingWeb ofScience
TheLogFile
The Log File
AllmessagesandretrievedreferencesforagivenEndNotesessionarerecordedinalogfile.Bydefault,thelogfileiscalled"Con-
nect.log"andissavedinthefolder:
Windows XP:Windows\ApplicationData\EndNotefolderortheDocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\ApplicationData\EndNote
Windows Vista:C:\Users\[UserName]\AppData\Roaming\EndNote\
Windows 7:C:\Users\[UserName]\AppData\Roaming\EndNote\
AnexistinglogfileisoverwrittenthefirsttimeEndNoteestablishesaconnectionafterbeingstarted.
Youmayselectadifferentnameand/orlocationforthelogfileusing theURLs&LinkssettingsinthePreferenceswindow.Todo
so,select PreferencesfromtheEditmenuandselecttheURLs&Linksoptionfromthelist.ClickChooseinthe ConnectionLog
sectiontonamethenewlogfileandchoosewheretosave it.
YoumayalsochoosenottocreatealogfilebyclearingtheUseLog Fileoption.Thiswillslightlyspeeduptheretrievalprocess.
However, withoutalogfileyouwillnotbeabletoscrollbackthroughtherecord dataorstatusmessagesafteryouchangethe
ViewsettingintheConnectionStatuswindow.
Importing a Log File
Thelogfileisaregulartextfile.Itcanbeviewedusingawordprocessor andimported,ifnecessary,usingtheconnectionfile.In
thissense, thelogfileisabackupforthereferencesretrievedinaparticular EndNotesession.YoucanverifythatEndNote
retrievedthereferencedata correctlybybrowsingthroughthelogfileinyourwordprocessorand comparingtheunmodifieddatato
whatappearsinyourEndNotereferences.Ifnecessary,youcanchangethesettingsinyourconnectionfileand re-import theref-
erences(withoutreconnectingtotheonlinedatabase).
Note:Youcannot importfromaConnection.logfilesavedfromWebofScience andWebofKnowledge.Youmustdoaregular
onlinesearchor adirectexport.
Toimportalogfileusingthefilteroptionsofaconnectionfile:
1. Openalibraryintowhichyouwanttoimportthe logfile.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport>File.
3. ClickChooseFileandselectConnection.log.Substitute thenameofyourlogfileifyouhavechangedthedefaultname.
4. SelectUseConnectionFilefromtheImportOptions listintheImportdialog
5. Selectthedesiredconnectionfile,andthenclick Choose.NowyoushouldbebackintheImport dialogwithboththe file
andtheimportoptionset.
6. NexttoTextTranslation, selectUnicode(UTF-8).
7. ClickImport.
Note:Theconnection fileandfilterfileforadatabasearelikelyconfiguredtoimportvery differentreferenceformats.Normally,a
connectionfileissetupfor MARCdata,whereasafilterissetupfortagged data.Becausetheoutputformatsaresodifferent,
youshouldnotuse afilterfile(*.
Related Topics:
AvailableSearchOptions
FreeDatabases
Online DatabaseSearching
Retrieving andSavingReferences
SearchingWeb ofScience
The ConnectionStatusWindow
Searching Web of Knowledge
Searching Web of Knowledge
WebofKnowledgeisacomprehensive researchplatformthatbringstogethermanydifferenttypesofcontent forsearching.Jour-
nalarticles,patents,Web sites,conferenceproceedings,OpenAccessmaterialallcanbeaccessed throughoneinterface,
usingavarietyofpowerfulsearchandanalysis tools.
SearchWebofKnowledgejustasyouwouldsearchanyother onlinedatabase.YoursearchresultsarecopieddirectlytotheEnd-
Notelibraryofyourchoice.
OncetherecordsareinEndNote,youcanclickonanEndNoterecordsURLtojumpbacktotheoriginalWebofKnowledge
onlinerecord.Variousoptionsareavailabletoyouonline,suchasviewingalistof relatedreferences.
Available Web of Knowledge Databases
Asofthisrelease,thefollowingWebofKnowledgeproductdatabases areavailablefordirectonlinesearchingwithEndNote.A
subscription isrequiredtoaccessaparticularproductdatabase.
l Biological Abstracts
l BIOSIS Previews
l CABI: CabAbstracts
l Current ContentsConnect
l MEDLINE
l Web ofScience
l Web ofScience(ScienceCitationIndexExpanded)
l Web ofScience(SocialSciencesCitationIndex)
l Web ofScience(Arts&HumanitiesCitationIndex)
l Zoological Record
Full Record Charges
WebofKnowledgerequiresapaidsubscription.Youmayhaveanonlinesubscriptionwithusernameandpassword, oryoumay
haveaccesstoalocalWebofKnowledgeserver.
Users of Previous Versions of EndNote
IfyouusedapreviousversionofEndNote,manyofyourpreferences weresavedwhenyouupgradedtoEndNoteX6.However,if
youwanttheabilitytolinkbacktoWebofKnowledgerecords,youmayneedtoupdate theBaseURL.
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. ClicktheEndNoteDefaultsbuttontoupdateto thelatestBaseURL.
Locally Mounted Web of Knowledge Servers
YoumustuseWebofKnowledgeversion5.0orlater.Toaccess yourlocalWebofKnowledgeserver,firstcontactyournetwork
administratorfortheserveraddress(URL)plusthepathtoyourinstitutions copyoftheISIGatewayV2.5software.
TosearchalocallymountedWebofScienceserver,opentheappropriate Web of Knowledgeconnectionfile,clickonConnection
Settings andupdatetheServerAddressandCustomfieldswithyourlocalserveraddressandISIGatewaysoftwarepath.
TolinkbacktoWebofKnowledgerecordsoncetheyareinEndNote, youmustchangetheBaseURLtoyourlocalserver
address.
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. SelectURLs&Links
3. EnteryourlocalserveraddressintheOpenURLs field.
Searching Author Names in Web of Knowledge Databases that Contain Particles and Spaces
WhensearchingaWebofKnowledgeproductdatabase(forexample,WebofScience),alwaysaddaconnectortonamesthat
containsparticlesandspaces.Forexample,tosearchforde Bruyn A,enterthenameintheSearchfieldasde+Bruyn+Ato
ensurethattheproductreturnsallrelevantresults.
Tosearchforde la Rosa,enterthenameintheSearchfieldasde+la+Rosa. Youcanalsoaddafirstnametorestrictyour
search,butdonotaddaconnectorbetweenthefirstnameandthelastname.Forexample,tosearchforMario de la Rosa,enter
intheSearchfieldMario de+la+Rosa.
Related Topics:
AvailableSearchOptions
FindingFull Text
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
Quick Overview
Online DatabaseSearching
The ConnectionStatusWindow
TheLogFile
Finding Related Online References
Finding Related Online References
HighlightareferenceinEndNoteandusetheURL>OpenURLLinkcommand ontheReferencesmenutostartyourdefaultweb
browseranddisplaythe fulltextarticle(ifavailable)plusalistoflinkstosimilararticles.
OpenURLLinkconnectstoanOpenURLstandardsyntaxserveranduses EndNotesOpenURLpreferencesalongwithdatain
yourEndNoterecordto findrelatedonlinereferences.
Note:Thiscommand hasnorelationtotheURLfieldfoundinEndNotereferencesortotheURL>OpenLinkcommandonthe
Referencesmenu(whichopensthespecific URLfoundintheURLfield).
Toenablethisfeature,andfindoutwhatpreferencesareavailable, seeOpenURLPreferences.
Finding Full Text
Finding Full Text for a Reference
EndNotecanattempttolocatefulltextfilesonthe Webbyusingdatastoredinyourreferences.Oncefound,EndNotedownloads
andattachesthefilestothereferences.
EndNotecanusethesemethodswhensearchingforfull textpublications:
l WebofKnowledge FullTextLinks
l EndNote WebServices
l DOI (DigitalObjectIdentifier)
l PubMed LinkOut
l OpenURL
EndNotewilltrytouseallofthesemethodstooptimize thelikelihoodoffindingfulltextfilesassociatedwithyourbibliographic
records.
TheWebofKnowledgefreejournalsetischecked forallusers;subscribersmayhavefullIP-basedaccesstoallresources. In
caseswherefulltextPDFfilesrequireasubscription,andyouor yourinstitutionhavetheappropriateaccess,EndNotewill
attemptto authenticateandautomaticallydownloadtheappropriatefiles.IfEndNotecannotfindthefulltextfile,itwilloftenbe
abletoattachtheURL oftheprovider'sWebpageforthearticleforeasierfutureaccess.
Forfullinformationaboutfindingthefulltextfor areference,see:
l Adding AccesstoYourInstitution'sLibrary
l How toFindandRetrieveFullText
l TheFind FullTextGroups
l Pausing orCancelingFindFullText
l ImprovingtheSearchforFullText
Related Topics:
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Linking aURLtoanEndNoteReference
Online DatabaseSearching
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
Removing aLinkedFilefromFileAttachments
Saving aCopyofanAttachedFile
SelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments
URLs&LinksPreferences
Adding Access to Your Institution's Library
ManylibrariesareaccessiblewithanOpenURLPath.Subscriptionlibrariesalsorequirevalidauthentication,whichusually
meansauserIDandpassword. First, youmustdeterminetheappropriateOpenURLpath.Ifthelibrary requiresauthentication,
youmustalsodeterminetheauthenticationURL. Next,entertheseURLsasFindFullTextpreferences. Then,youmayneed to
authenticateaccessbyenteringyourpersonaluserIDandpassword. Thesedefinitionsmaybehelpfultoyou:
OpenURL Path:ThisistheOpenURL webaddresstotheonlinelibrary.ItiswhereEndNotewillbedirected tosearchformatch-
ingreferences.
Authentication URL:Thisis thewebaddresstothepagewhereyouentersubscriptiondetailstoaccess theonlinelibrary.Itis
typicallythepagewhereyouenterausernameandpassword.OnceyouentertheAuthentication URL(ifrequired),EndNotecan
accessthefulltextofthematchingreferences fromtheonlinelibrarysOpenURLPath.
Proxy Server:Yourinstitutionmayuseaproxyservertocontrolaccess.IfInternetExplorerisconfigured forusewithaproxy
server,EndNotewillautomaticallyhandletheproxy serverwhenaccessinghttp-basedconnections.IfyoudonotuseInternet
Explorer,configureproxysettingswiththeInternetOptionsintheWindows ControlPanel.
Determining the OpenURL Path
TheeasiestwaytodetermineyourinstitutionsOpenURLaddressistoaskyourlibrarian.Youcouldalsocheckhttp://www.w-
orldcat.org/registry/Institutions/.
SFXlinkresolversworkbest,solookforaURLthatbeginswithhttp://sfx.libraryorasimilarURLthatcontainssfxinthepath.
Determining the Authentication URL
InordertousetheOpenURLpathtofindfulltextarticles,yourinstitutionlikelyrequiresthatyoulogintoaccessfulltext.End-
NoteusesanauthenticationURLtoautomaticallydirect youtoyourinstitutions log-inwebpage.
Again,theeasiestwaytodeterminetheauthenticationURListoworkwithyourlibrarian.Toactasyourowndetective,though,
youcantry thesuggestionbelow.
TodeterminetheauthenticationURL:
1. EntertheOpenURLpathasanEndNotepreference.
a. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
b. SelecttheFindFullTextpanel.
c. SelecttheOpenURLbox,andentertheOpenURLPath.
d. ClickOKtosavethesetting.
2. Tryoneofthese:
Follow the URL Path:
a. Highlightareference--onewhereyoubelievethefulltextarticleisavailablefromyourinstitution.
b. Right-clickonthereferenceandselectURL>OpenURLLink.Ifyouarenotautomaticallydirectedtothefulltextarticle,
useyourbrowsertocontinuetotrytogettothefulltextPDFfile.
Browse to the URL:
a. UseabrowsertogotoyourlibrarysWebsiteandtrytoaccessasubscriptionresource.
3. Onceyoureachapagewhereyouarepromptedto entercredentials, copytherootofthatURL.Itmaystartwithhttps://
login.ezproxy.Copyeverythingthrough/login?url=%@.
4. Enterthepathasanauthenticationpreference asdescribednextunderSettingFullTextPreferences.
5. TesttheURLbyloggingintoyourinstitutions siteasdescribedbelow.
Setting Full Text Preferences
OnceyouhavedeterminedtheappropriateOpenURLpathandauthentication URLforyourinstitution,youmustenterthemas
preferencesinEndNote.
ToenterFindFullTextpreferences:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. SelecttheFindFullTextpanel.
Thispaneldetermineswhichmethodsareusedwhensearchingforfull textarticles.Bydefault,WebofKnowledgeFull
TextLinks, DOI,andOpenURLareselected.PubMedLinkOutisalsoavailable,but mayslowperformance.
3. Tosearchyourinstitutionslibrary,makesure OpenURLisselected,andenteryourinstitutionsOpenURLPath.Ifauthen-
ticationisrequired,enteranAuthenticationURL(theaddress ofthesitesloginpage).
Formoreinformation, seeFind FullTextPreferences.
Logging in to Your Library
OnceyouhaveenteredtheappropriateURLsasFindFullTextpreferences, youcanlogintoyourinstitutionslibrary.Dothisin
oneoftwoways:
Authenticate Only
FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFindFullTextandthenAuthenticate.
ThismethodallowsyoutotryconnectingwithoutstartingaFindFullTextsearch.Youshouldbedirectedtoyourinstitutionslogin
webpage.Loginasindicatedonthewebpage.Youmaybedirectedtoahomepage oralistofresources,whichmeansyouare
loggedin.ClickDone.You areauthenticatedforthissessionofEndNoteoruntilyourinstitution timesouttheconnection.
YoustillneedtospecificallyselecttheReferences>FindFullText>FindFullTextcommandtobeginsearchingforfulltext
articles.
Authenticate and Search
FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFindFullText,andthenFindFull Text.
IfyouhaveanOpenURLpathandauthenticationURLenteredunderFindFullTextpreferences,EndNotewilldirectyoutoyour
institutionslogin webpage.Loginasindicatedonthewebpage,andthenclickContinue tobeginthesearchforfulltextarticles
fortheselectedreferences.
YouareauthenticatedforthissessionofEndNoteoruntilyourinstitution timesouttheconnection.
Note:Yourinstitution mayseveryourOpenURLconnectionafteracertainamountofidletime. Unfortunately,thereisnoindi-
cationwhenthathappens.Youwillneed togototheReferencesmenu,selectFindFullTextandthenAuthenticate torestore
accesstothesite.JustselectingFindFullTextagainduring thisEndNotesessionwillnotrestoreauthentication.
Related Topics:
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
How toFindandRetrieveFullText
ImprovingtheSearchforFullText
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Linking aURLtoanEndNoteReference
Online DatabaseSearching
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
Pausing orCancelingFindFullText
Quick Overview
Removing aLinkedFilefromFileAttachments
Saving aCopyofanAttachedFile
TheFind FullTextGroups
URLs&LinksPreferences
How to Find and Retrieve Full Text
Whenyouretrievethefulltextfileofareferencedwork,itissaved totheFileAttachmentsfieldasarelativelink(thefileitselfit
stored inthecurrentlibrarys.DATAfolder).Thefileissavedinitsnative format,whichinmostcasesisaPDFfile.
Whenafileisdownloadedandattachedtoareference,afile attachmenticonappearsintheFileAttachmentfieldfortheref-
erence. IntheLibrarywindow,apaperclipiconappearsintheFileAttachments columnforthatreference.
Note:Inordertofindfulltext,cookiesmustbeturnedoninInternetExplorer.
TheFindFullTextcommandcanattempttofindfulltextdocumentsforupto250recordsatatime;thistotalincludesallfulltext
searches runconcurrentlyinopendatabases.Ifyouwanttofindthefulltext formorethan250EndNoterecords,youmustrunthe
FindFullTextoperationmorethanonce.Highlightupto250referenceseachtime.
TheFindFullTextcommandisavailableonlyinIntegratedLibraryand OnlineSearchModeorLocalLibraryMode.Itisnotavail-
ableinOnlinemode.
Tofindandretrievefulltext:
1. Selectthereference(s) towhichyouwanttoaddfulltext.
l IntheLibrarywindow,highlightupto250 references.
Forexample,youcanselectasinglereference,orholddownthe Ctrlkeytohighlightindividualreferences, oruse
Edit>SelectAlltoselectanentireGroupofdisplayedreferences.
l Or,openanindividualreferenceforediting.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectFindFullText>FindFullText.
Ifyouhaveareferenceopen,youcanusetheright-clickcontextualmenutoselectFindFullText.
3. (Optional)IfyouhaveenteredanOpenURLaddress andauthenticationURLunderFindFullTextpreferences, youmaybe
directedtoaloginwebpageforyourinstitutionslibrary.Follow theinstructionstologin,suchasenteringtheappropriate
UserIDandpassword.Onceyouareloggedin,clickContinue.
EndNotebeginssearchingforanddownloadingfulltextfortheselected references.Fulltextdownloadinghappensintheback-
ground,whichmay affecttheperformanceofotheroperations.
ReferencesappearingroupsunderaFindFullTextgroupset.SeeTheFindFullTextGroupsfor adescriptionoftheresulting
groups.
Note:Yourinstitution mayseveryourOpenURLconnectionafteracertainamountoftime.Unfortunately, thereisnoindication
whenthathappens.YouwillneedtogototheReferences menu,selectFindFullText,andthenAuthenticatetorestoreaccess
to thesite.JustselectingFindFullTextagainduringthisEndNotesession willnotrestoreauthentication.
Toaddaccesstoalibrary,seeAdding AccesstoYourInstitution'sLibrary.
Toimprovethelikelihoodoffindingfulltextarticlesforreferences, seeImprovingtheSearchfor FullText.
IfyouwanttopauseorcancelaFindFullTextoperation,seePausing orCancelingFindFullText.
Related Topics:
FindingFullTextforaReference
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Linking aURLtoanEndNoteReference
Online DatabaseSearching
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
Quick Overview
Removing aLinkedFilefromFileAttachments
SelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments
URLs&LinksPreferences
Find Full Text Groups
DuringtheFindFullTextsearchinganddownloading process,resultsareconstantlyupdatedunderaFindFullTextgroupset. Ini-
tially,theFindFullTextgroupsetisaddedbelowallothergroup sets.However,youcanclickanddragtheFindFullTextgroup
set toanyposition.EndNotewillmaintainthatnewpositionacrosssessions.
TheFindFullTexttemporarygroupsdescribedbelow remainforthecurrentsession.EndNoteremovesthemwhenyouclosethe
library.
l Searching
l FoundPDF
l FoundURL
l NotFound
IfyouruntheFindFullTextoperationmorethanonceduringasinglelibrarysession,theadditionalreferencesareaddedto theref-
erencesalreadyfoundintheFindFullTextgroups.
Searching...
Thisgroupdisplaysthecurrentsetofreferencesfor whichEndNoteisattemptingtofindeitherthefulltextfileofeach referenced
workoratleastaURLtothereferencedwork.Whenthefull textsearchiscompleted,thisgroupisdeleted.Thosereferencesto
which fulltextoraURLwasaddedaredisplayedinaFoundPDFgrouporaFound URLgroup.
YoucancanceltheFindFullTextoperationatanytime byright-clickingontheSearchinggroup,todisplayacontext-sensitive
menu,andselectingStopfindingfulltext.Fulltextthathasbeenretrieved untilthatpointisalreadysavedinthelibrary.
Found PDF
Thisgroupdisplaysthesetofreferencesforwhich EndNoteinsertedthePDFfileofthereferencedworkasanattachment. These
referencesdisplayapaperclipiconintheFileAttachmentscolumnof thereferencelist.IfaURLisalsofound,itisaddedtothe
reference, butthereferenceisnotincludedintheFoundURLgroup.
IfaFindFullTextoperationhasalreadyattacheda filetoaselectedreference,EndNotewillskipthatreferencewhensearching
forfulltext.Ifyoudowanttolookforafulltextarticleforthereference,youmustfirstdeletetheexistingfileattachment.
Found URL
Thisgroupdisplaysthesetofreferencesforwhich EndNoteinsertedaURLtothereferencedwork,butdidnotfindafull textdoc-
umenttoattach.
Not Found
Thisgroupdisplaysthesetofreferencesforwhich EndNotecouldnotidentifyafulltextfileoraURL.Theseareonlyfrom theset
ofreferencessearchedwiththeFindFullTextcommandduring thissessionoftheEndNotelibrary.
Related Topics:
Adding AccesstoYourInstitution'sLibrary
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
How toFindandRetrieveFullText
ImprovingtheSearchforFullText
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Linking aURLtoanEndNoteReference
Online DatabaseSearching
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
Pausing orCancelingFindFullText
Quick Overview
Removing aLinkedFilefromFileAttachments
Saving aCopyofanAttachedFile
SelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments
URLs&LinksPreferences
Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text
l TopauseaFindFullTextoperation,right-click ontheSearchinggrouptodisplayacontext-sensitivemenu,andselect
"Pausefindingfulltext". Fulltextthathasbeenretrieveduntilthatpointisalreadysavedinthelibrary.
l ToresumeapausedFindFullTextoperation,right-clickontheSearchinggroupandselect "Resumefinding fulltext".
l TostopaFindFullTextoperation,right-click ontheSearchinggroupandselect"Cancelfindingfulltext".
Improving the Search for Full Text
ThesearesuggestionsforimprovingtheaccuracyoftheFindFullText feature:
l MakesureyouareIPauthenticatedtoaccessanypremiumfulltextresourcestowhichyouwouldlikeEndNoteto attempt
connecting.
l Askyourlibrarianwhetheryourinstitution issetupwithWebofKnowledge customjournallinks.If so,createafreeper-
sonalizedWebofKnowledgeaccountand login.Ifyourinstitutiondoesnothavecustomjournallinksset upforWebof
Knowledge,askyourlibrariantosetitup(itiseasy andfree).
l CreateafreeEndNote Webaccountandlogin. EndNoteWebisincludedwithEndNote.MakesureyourEndNoteWeb
account informationiscompleteunderEndNotePreferences(Edit>Preferences>Sync).
l ReviewyourEndNotereferencestoconfirmthat theDOIinformationisintheDOIfield.Datacanbemovedbetween fields
withtheChange/Move/CopyFieldscommandfromtheToolsmenu.
l EnableWebbrowsercookies.
IfyouwouldlikeFindFullTexttosearchaspecificlibrary, seeAddingAccesstoYour Institution'sLibrary.
Related Topics:
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
How toFindandRetrieveFullText
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Linking aURLtoanEndNoteReference
Online DatabaseSearching
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
Pausing orCancelingFindFullText
Quick Overview
Removing aLinkedFilefromFileAttachments
SelectingaRelativePathoranAbsolutePathforFileAttachments
TheFind FullTextGroups
URLs&LinksPreferences
Importing Reference Data
General Importing Instructions
Note:SeeImportingEndNoteLibrariesforspecificinstructionsaboutmergingtwoEndNotelibraries.
ToimportatextfileoranEndNotelibraryintoanEndNotelibrary:
1. Openthelibraryintowhichyouwanttoimport thereferences.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport.
3. Click theChoosebutton tolocateandopenthefileyouwanttoimport.Allfiles,exceptforEndNotelibraries,mustbeplain
textfiles.SelectthefileandclickOK.
4. SelecttheappropriateimportoptionfromtheImportOptionslist.
5. SelectanoptionfromtheDuplicateslist:
l ImportAll:Importsallreferences,includingduplicates.
l DiscardDuplicates:Importsallreferences exceptduplicates.
l ImportintoDuplicatesLibrary:Duplicate referencesareimportedintoalibrarycalledFile-Dupl.enl, whereFileisthename
ofthelibraryintowhichyouareimporting.
Bydefault,areferenceisconsidered aduplicatewhentheAuthor,Year,Title,andReferenceTypematchareference
alreadyinthelibrary.SeeDuplicates Preferencesifyouwouldliketochangetheduplicatescriteria.
6. SelectaTextTranslationoption.
Thisoptionallowsyoutospecifythetextcharacterencodingofthe fileyouimport,sothatextendedcharacterstransfercor-
rectly.You shouldverifythesettingwithyourdatabaseprovider.SomeU.S.databases thatcontainextendedcharacters
requireANSI-Latin1orUTF8.MARCformat filesmayrequireANSELtranslation.You mightbeabletouseNoTranslation
fortextfilesthatdonotcontain anyextendedcharacters.
7. ClickImporttoimportthefile.
Note:Thetimerequiredtoimportafile,includinganEndNotelibrary,isproportionate tothesizeofthelibraryandthenumberof
referencesbeingimported. RefertotheprogressindicatortodeterminewhenEndNotehascompleted thetask.
Whentheimport iscomplete,thenewlyimportedreferencesaredisplayed inanImportedReferencesgroup. Thisisaperfecttime
toaddakeyword toeachimportedreferencewiththeChangeFieldcommand,ortoperusetheimporteddatatomakesureit
imported asexpected.Makesuretocheckreferencesthatcontainextendedcharacters.
TheImportedReferencesgroupisatemporarygroupthatisreplaced eachtimeyouimportanothersetofreferences. Itis
removedwhenyou exitEndNote(althoughthereferencesremaininthelibrary).
Toreturnallofyourreferencestothelibrarydisplay(includingthe newlyimportedones),selectShowAllReferencesfromtheRef-
erencesmenu orclickontheAllReferencesgroup.
Import Option List
EndNote'simportoptionsinclude:
l PDF
Usetoimportreferencesfroma PDFfilethathasbeendownloadedtoyourharddrive.Thisoption allowsyoutoconvertexist-
ingcollectionsofPDFfilesintoEndNote recordswithminimaltypingandcopyingbyextractingDigitalObject identifiers(DOI)
fromPDFfiles. ThesystemmatchesthecontentagainsttheexistingAPIservicesbycapturingbibliographiccontentandcre-
ating newEndNoterecords.SeeImportingPDFFilestoCreateNewRecordsforspecificinstructions.
l EndNote Library
UsedtoimportreferencesfromoneEndNotelibraryintoanother.Ifthelibraryyouareimportingfromisclosedorlocked,allref-
erencesareimported.Ifyouthelibraryyouareimportingfromisopen,withread/writeaccess,theshowingreferencesare
imported.
l EndNote Import
Usedtoimporttextfilesthathavebeendownloadedfromonlinedatabases orexportedfromEndNoteusingtheEndNotefor-
mat.SeeCreating aTagged"EndNoteImport"Fileformoreinformation.
l Refer/BibIX
UsedtoimporttextfilesexportedfromtheReferorBibIX programs.TheEndNoteimportformatisbasedontheRefer/BibIX
format.
l Tab-Delimited
Usedtoimporttextfilesinwhichthefieldswithinasinglereferenceareseparatedbytabs.FordetailsseeCreatingaTabDelim-
itedFormat.
l Reference Manager (RIS)
UsedtoimporttextfilesexportedfromReferenceManager,Reference Update,ReferenceWebPoster,oranyothersource
thatusestheRIS format.SeeCreating aLibraryfromProCiteorReferenceManager.
l ISI-CEUsedtoimport textfilesdownloadedfromtheWebofScience andotherThomsonReuterssources.
Note:SeeSearchingWebofScienceforinformationaboutdirectlyretrievingWebof Sciencerecords.
l Multi-Filter (Special)
Aspecialoptionforimportingfilesthatincludereferencesfrommultiplesources(seeIdentifiers.
l EndNote Generated XML
UsedtoimportEndNotesproprietaryXMLformat.
l Other Filters
EndNoteincludeshundredsofimportfiltersconfiguredtoimportdatafromavarietyofonlinedatabases.Mostlikely,thefirst
timeyou import afile,youwillnotseetheimport filterthatyouneedin thislist.SelectOtherFiltersfromtheImportOptionslist
tofind thefilterthatmatchesthesourceofthedatayouwanttoimport.Importfiltersthatyouhaverecentlyusedorchosenas
yourfavoriteswillbelistedintheImportOptionslistintheImport dialog.
ThetableinSummaryofOutputFormatsandCorrespondingImportOptionsprovidesmoreinformation aboutthedownloadfor-
matsthatworkwiththesefilters. SeeChoosing theCorrectImportFilterforinformationabouthowtochoosethefiltersto
appearintheImportOptionslist.
l ProCite RIS
Usetoimporttextfiles thathavebeenexportedfromProCite(Windows orMacintosh)inthecommadelimitedformat.You
mayalsoopennative ProCitefilesusingEndNote'sOpencommand.
l Use Connection File
EndNoteprovidestheoptionofusingaconnectionfileasanimport filter.Thisisuseful ifyouneedtoimporttheConnect.log
filegeneratedbyusingEndNotesOnlineSearchcommandtosearch anonlinedatabase.TheConnect.logfileshouldinclude
allofthereferencesfromyourprevioussession.SeeTheLogFileformoreinformation.
Note:SeeIntroduction toFiltersforinformationaboutcreatingandmodifyingimport filters.Alloftheimportfilters(exceptTab
DelimitedandEndNoteGenerated XML)canbemodified.
Importing Reference Data into EndNote
Retrieving References Directly from Online Databases
Ifyouhaveaccess toalibrarycatalogorbibliographicdatabasethatsupportstheZ39.50protocol,youcanuseEndNoteasatool
tosearch andretrievereferencesdirectlyfromthatdatabaseintoEndNote. YoudonotneedtouseEndNotesImport command.
You can usetheOnlineSearchcommandinstead.Thisisthe easiestwaytogetdataintoEndNotebecauseitinvolvesno inter-
mediatesteps.Formoreinformationaboutthedirect retrievalofreferences,seeIntroductiontoSearchingOnlineDatabases.
Importing Bibliographic Data to EndNote
TherearemanysourcesofbibliographicdatathatcanbeusedtohelpyoucreateyourEndNotelibrary.Toavoidre-typingthis
dataintoEndNote, wehaveprovidedseveralmeansbywhichyoucangetreferencesintoEndNote:
l Importreferencessavedordownloadedfromonlinedataservices(forexample,OvidorThomsonReuters).
l Importtextfilesthatconformtoaparticular format(suchastheTab-delimitedorEndNoteImportformat).These filescan
becreatedbyyouorgeneratedfromotherdatabases.
l Importtextfilesexportedfromotherbibliographic softwareprograms.
First,youneedtogetyourdatafilesintherightformat(seeSummary ofOutputFormatsandCorrespondingImportOptionsand
Getting DataintheRightFormat),andthendeterminethecorrectimport option.
Onceyouhaveafileintheproperformat andyouknowwhichimport optionorfiltertouse,theimportinstructionsarethesamefor
all ofthesetypesofdata.SeeGeneral ImportingInstructions.
Note:Althoughwetrytoprovidemanyflexiblewaystogetdatafromothersourcesinto EndNote,wedonotclaimthatEndNote
canimport datafromallsources. Insomecases,youmayhavetowriteyourownimportfilter(seeCreating aNewFilter),oryou
mayneedtomanipulatethedatainawordprocessor beforeitcanbeimported.Ifnoneofthesetoolshelpsyoutoimport your
data,tipsonhowtoquicklycopyandpastedataintoEndNoteare describedinCopyingandPasting References.
Note:Whenimporting records,werecommendthatyouimportintoatemporarynewlibrary,determine whichonesyouwantto
keep,andthenmovethoserecordsintoyourpermanent library.
Importing PDF Files to Create New References
ThisfeatureallowsyoutoconvertexistingcollectionsofPDFfiles intoEndNotereferenceswithminimaltypingandcopyingby
extracting DigitalObject identifiers(DOI)fromPDFfiles.ThesystemmatchesDOI informationwithdataavailablefromCross-
Ref(www.CrossRef.org) bycapturingbibliographiccontentandcreatingnewEndNotereferences.
ToimportaPDFfile:
1. Openthelibraryintowhichyouwanttoimport thereferences.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport>FiletoopentheImportFiledialog.
3. Click theChoose buttontolocateandopenthefile youwanttoimport fromyourharddrive.
4. SelecttheneededPDFfile,andthenclickOpen.
5. SelectPDFfromtheImport Optionlist.
6. SelectanoptionfromtheDuplicateslist:
l Import All:Importsallreferences, includingduplicates.
l Discard Duplicates:Importsallreferences exceptduplicates.
l Import into Duplicates Library:Duplicate referencesareimportedintoalibrarycalledFile-Dupl.enl, whereFile"
isthenameofthelibraryintowhichyouareimporting.
Bydefault,areferenceisconsidered aduplicatewhentheAuthor,Year,Title,andReferenceTypematchareference
alreadyinthelibrary.SeeDuplicate Preferencesifyouwouldliketochangetheduplicatescriteria.
7. SelectaTextTranslationoption.Thedefaultvalue isNoTranslation.
Thisoptionallowsyoutospecifythetextcharacterencodingofthefileyouimport,sothatextendedcharacterstransfer
correctly.Youshouldverifythesettingwithyourdatabaseprovider.SomeU.S.databasesthatcontainextendedchar-
actersrequireANSI-Latin1orUTF8.MARCformatfilesmayrequireANSELtranslation.You mightbeabletouseNo
Translationfortextfilesthatdonotcontain anyextendedcharacters.
8. ClickImporttoimportthefiletoyourlibrary.
Note:SeeImportingPDFFolderstoCreateNewRecordsforinstructionsonhowtoimport multiplePDFfilesstoredwithinasin-
glefolder.
Note:Whenperforming theimportfunction,iftherearetwoDOIsfoundinthefirsttwopages ofaPDFdocument,EndNotewill
putbothDOIsintheDOIfield. ThePDF isthenattachedandthefilenameisputintheTitlefield.
Whentheimport iscomplete,thenewrecordisstoredintheImportedReferencesgroup,andwillincludebibliographicinformation
givenfortheDigitalObjectIdentifier(DOI)minedfromthePDFfilesuchastitle,author,volume,issue,page,year,andDOI.This
isaperfecttime toaddakeywordtotheimportedreferencewiththeChangeField command,ortoperusetheimporteddatato
makesureitimportedasexpected. Makesuretocheckreferencesthatcontainextendedcharacters.
TheImportedReferencesgroupisatemporarygroupthatisreplaced eachtimeyouimportanothersetofreferences. Itis
removedwhenyou exitEndNote(althoughthereferencesremaininthelibrary).
Toreturnallofyourreferencestothelibrarydisplay(includingthe newlyimportedones),selecthowAllReferencesfromtheRef-
erencesmenu orclicktheAllReferencesgroup.
Importing PDF Folders to Create New References
ThisfeatureallowsyoutoconvertexistingcollectionsofPDFfiles intoEndNoterecordswithminimaltypingandcopyingby
extractingDigital Object identifiers(DOI)fromPDFfiles.ThesystemmatchesDOIinformationwithdataavailablefromCross-
Ref(www.CrossRef.org)bycapturingbibliographiccontentandcreatingnewEndNoterecords.
ToimportaPDFfolderwithPDFfiles:
1. Openthelibraryintowhichyouwanttoimport thereferences.
2. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport>FoldertoopentheImportFolder dialog.
3. Click theChoose buttontoopentheBrowseforFolderdialog.
4. SelecttheneededPDFfolder,andthenclickOK.
5. Iftheselectedfolderlistssubfolders, click the"Includefilesinsubfolders"checkboxtoinclude PDFfilesinthosesub-fold-
ersintheimportoperation.
6. SelectthePDFoptionfromtheImport Optionlist.
7. SelectanoptionfromtheDuplicateslist:
l Import All:Importsallreferences,includingduplicates.
l Discard Duplicates:Importsallreferences exceptduplicates.
l Import into Duplicates Library:Duplicate referencesareimportedintoalibrarycalledFile-Dupl.enl, whereFile"
isthenameofthelibraryintowhichyouareimporting.
Bydefault,areferenceisconsidered aduplicatewhentheAuthor,Year,Title,andReferenceTypematchareference
alreadyinthelibrary.SeeDuplicate Preferencesifyouwouldliketochangetheduplicatescriteria.
8. ClicktheImportbuttontoimportthePDFfilesfromtheselected foldertoyourlibrary.
Note:SeeImportingPDFFilestoCreateNewReferencesforinstructionsonhowtoimportasinglePDFfile.
Note:Whenperforming theimportfunction,iftherearetwoDOIsfoundinthefirsttwopages ofaPDFdocument,EndNotewill
putbothDOIsintheDOIfield. ThePDF isthenattachedandthefilenameisputintheTitlefield.
Whentheimport iscomplete,thenewrecordisstoredintheImportedReferencesgroup,andwillincludebibliographicinformation
givenfortheDigitalObjectIdentifier(DOI)minedfromthePDFfilesuchastitle,author,volume,issue,page,year,andDOI.This
isaperfecttime toaddakeywordtotheimportedreferencewiththeChangeField commandortoperusetheimporteddatato
makesureitimportedasexpected. Makesuretocheckreferencesthatcontainextendedcharacters.
Note:SelectTools>ChangeandMoreFieldsfromtheToolsmenutoaccesstheChangeFieldsfeature.
TheImportedReferencesgroupisatemporarygroupthatisreplaced eachtimeyouimportanothersetofreferences. Itis
removedwhenyou exitEndNote(althoughthereferencesremaininthelibrary).
Toreturnallofyourreferencestothelibrarydisplay(includingthe newlyimportedones),selectShowAllReferencesfromtheRef-
erencesmenu orclicktheAllReferencesgroup.
Importing References from Other Bibliographic Software Programs
Ifyouwishtoconvertreferencesfromanotherbibliographicprogram intoEndNote,consultthechartbelowforinstructions.
Conversion Utilities at the EndNote Web Site
Insomecases,youmaybedirectedtodownloadaconversionutility orinstructionsfromtheEndNoteWebsiteat:http://www-
.endnote.com. Followthe"SupportandServices"linkfromthehomepage todisplaytheEndNoteTechnicalSupportpage.Under
"Downloads," followthe"Databaseconversionutilities"link.Someconversion utilitiesareavailableonlyforaspecificplatform
(WindowsorMacintosh).
Unsupported Databases
Ifyourprogramisnotonthechart, seeCreating aTabDelimitedFormatforimportingintoEndNote.Ifyourdatabase doesnot
offeratab-delimitedexportoption,contacttechnicalsupport forothersuggestions.
Software Basic Conversion Instructions
Bookends andBookendsPro You haveseveraloptionswhenconvertingfromBookendsor
Bookends Pro.InrecentversionsofBookends,youcanExport
usingtheXML(EndNote8orlater)setting,andthenImportthe
fileintoEndNoteusingtheEndNotegeneratedXMLoption.Or,
Exportfrom Bookendsusingthebibliographicformatoption,
andselect either theRISortheEndNoteExport (Refer)for-
mat,andthenImport thefileintoEndNoteusingthematching
RISorReferImport option.
BibeX User-contributed utilitiesandinstructionsforconvertingBibTeX
filesareavailablefromtheEndNoteWebsiteat:http://ww-
w.endnote.com.GototheSupport andServicessection.Under
Downloads,findBibTexConversion Tools, andthenclickMore
tobrowsetheFTPsite.
Citation 6and7 Conversion utilitiesareavailablefromtheEndNoteWebsite.Go
tohttp://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
EndNote Library Go totheFilemenuinEndNote,selectOpen,andthenselect
OpenLibrary.LocateandOpentheoldEndNotelibrary.Theref-
erences willbecopiedintoanewEndNotelibrary.
NoteBookIIPlusand Conversion utilitiesareavailablefromtheEndNoteWebsite.Go
tohttp://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
Papyrus 6and7 Conversion utilitiesareavailablefromtheEndNoteWebsite.Go
tohttp://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
ProCite See CreatingaLibraryfromProCite.
Publish orPerish A conversionutilityisavailablefromtheEndNoteWebsite.
Gotohttp://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
Ref-11 A conversionutilityisavailablefromtheEndNoteWebsite.
Gotohttp://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
ReferenceManager SeeCreatinganEndNoteLibraryfromReferenceManager.
Refer/BibIX Use theRefer/BibIXimportoptiontoimportaReferorBibIX text
file.
RefWorks See adescriptionunderFrequentlyAskedQuestionsat
http://www.endnote.com/support/ensupport.asp.
Conversion Instructions Table
Importing References from PubMed
FollowthestepsbelowtodownloadyoursearchresultsfromthePubMed WebsiteandtoimportthemintoyourEndNotelibrary.
1. GotothePubMedWebsiteinyourWebbrowserat http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.
2. IntheSearchfield,enteryoursearchcriteria toexecuteyoursearch.ClicktheSearchbutton.
3. OntheResultspage,selectClipboardfromthe "Sendto"menuinthePubMednavigationbartosaverecords frommultiple
searchesasyouwork(optional).Youcanalsoclick theAddtoClipboardbuttontosavethefirst500result.
4. Selecttheneededresultsandthenselect File fromthe"Sendto"menu.
5. SelectMEDLINE.
6. Selectasortorderfromthe"Sortby" menu.ThedefaultsortorderisRecentlyAdded.
7. ClicktheCreateFilebutton.Thiswillbringup adialogboxallowingyoutosaveyourselectedreferencesasatextfile.
8. ClicktheSavebuttontosavethefiletoyour computer.Savethefilesomewhereeasilyaccessiblesuchasyourdesktop.
Thedefaultfilenameispubmed_results.txt.Youmay changethefilename,butwerecommendsavingthefilewith the.txt
extension.
9. InEndNote,openthelibrarywhereyouwouldliketosavethesereferences.
10. FromtheFilemenu,selectImport>Filetoopenadialogbox.
11. ClicktheChoosebutton,andthenselectthedownloadedpubmed_result.txtfilefromyourPC.
12. IntheImportOptionfield,selectOtherFilters, andthenselect theimportfiltercalledPubMed(NLM)fromtheChoosean
ImportFilterdialog.
13. ClicktheChoosebuttontogototheImportFile dialog.
14. ClicktheImportbuttontoimportyourreferences.
15. DonotmakeanyselectionsintheDuplicatesandTextTranslationfields.
16. LookinyourGroupscolumntoseeanewgroupcalled ImportedReferences.Allthereferencesthatyoudownloadedfrom
PubMed willappearinthisgroup.
Note:In step4,donotuseFile>Savefromyourbrowserasthefile,along withtheresults,willnotimport.
Note:In step7,ifyouhaveapopupblockerenabled,suchastheonethatcomes bydefaultfromWindowsXPServicePack2,
youmayneedtodisablethe popupblockertemporarilytoallowthePubMedWebsitetosendyouthe file.
Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options
Asubsetofthesupportedservicesandtheirrecommendedoutputformats andimportfiltersarelistedunderOutputFormatswith
CorrespondingImportOptions.Atthetimethismanual wasprinted,thesewerethecurrentformatoptionsforeachinformation pro-
viderlistedinthetable. Ifyoufindthattheseformatshavechanged, pleasecheckthedocumentationfromyourinformationpro-
viderorcontact us.
Beforeyoudownloadreferencesfromanonlinesource,pleaseconsidercopyrightissues.
Copyright Issues and Fair Use of Downloaded Data
EndNote givesyouthecapabilitytoimportreferencesdownloadedfrom
onlinedatabasesintoitslibraries.Someproducersofonline referencedata-
basesexpresslyprohibitsuchuseandstorageoftheirdata,otherscharge
anextrafeeforalicenseto usethedatainthisway.Beforeyoudownload
referencesfrom adatabase,besuretocarefullycheckthecopyrightand
fairusenoticesforthedatabase.Notethatdifferentdatabasesmayhave
varyingrestrictions,evenfromthesameinformation provider(suchas
DIALOGorOvid).
Direct Export from Web Pages
Copying and Pasting References from a Document into EndNote
Ifyouhaveabibliographythatistooinconsistent ordifficultto parseusingyourwordprocessor(assuggestedinCreating aCus-
tom"Tagged"Format),youcanusetheCopyandPaste commandsasanalternativemethodforgettingyourdataintoEndNote
and stillavoidalotofre-typing.Forexample,letssayyouhaveapaper withabibliographyentrysuchas:
Blocker,C.
TotransferthereferencesintoEndNote:
1. Openthelistofreferencesinawordprocessor.
2. SelectareferenceandcopyitusingtheCopycommand inyourwordprocessorsEditmenu.(Somewordprocessorsallow
you totriple-clickaparagraphtoselect thewholethingatonce.That mightbeausefulshortcutforquicklyselectingaref-
erence.)
3. OpenyourEndNotelibrary,andselectNewReference (Ctrl+N)fromtheReferencesmenu tocreateanewreference.
4. PutthecursorintheTitlefieldofthenewreference andselect PastefromtheEditmenu.
ThiswillpastetheentirereferenceintotheTitlefieldoftheReferencewindow.Fromhere,youcandrag-and-drop(orcutand
paste)theindividual piecesofdataintotheirproperfields.Besuretoremoveextraneous punctuation,andmakesureauthor
namesareeachonaseparateline.Follow theguidelinesforenteringreferences.SeeReference TypePreferencesforinformation
aboutsettingadefaultreference typefornewreferences.
Importing from CD-ROMS and Online Databases
Importing References Downloaded from CD-ROMs and Online Databases
Ifyouhaveaccesstoanonlinebibliographicdatabase,auniversity catalog,orabibliographicdatabaseonCD-ROM,youcan
probablyuseEndNotes importfilterstoimporttextfilessavedordownloadedfromthesesources. EndNotefiltersarecon-
figurablesotheygiveyoutheflexibilitytoimport thereferencedatayouneed,andeliminatedatayoudonotneed.
Therearetwomainthingsyouneedtoknowinordertocorrectlyimport downloadedreferencesintoEndNote:
1. Howtodownloadthedataintherightoutputformat. SeeGettingDatainthe RightFormat.
2. Whichimportfiltertousetoimport thedataintoEndNote.SeeChoosingthe CorrectImportFilter.
ThetableinSummaryofOutputFormatsandCorrespondingImportOptionssummarizesanumberofcommon sourcesofbib-
liographicdata,theinstructionsfordownloadingtagged files,andtheEndNoteimportoptiontousetoimport thereferencesinto
EndNote.
Getting Data in the Right Format
ToimporttextwithanyoftheEndNotefilters,thedatamustbeconsistently "tagged,"witheachtagstartingonanewline,and
thefile savedastext.Herearetwoexamples:
AU- CRAMER, -
TI- AQUATIC
PY- 1993
SO- ENVIRONMENTAL-POLLUTION. VOL. 5, NO. 2, PG.54-79
DE- LAKES, ACIDIFICATION, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, MACROPHYTES, ECOLOGY, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Author: Cramer,
Title: Aquatic macrophytes and lake acidification
Year: 1993
Source: Environmental Air Pollution. Vol. 5(2) pp.54-79
Keywords: lakes--acidification--environmental
Note:Ifdatais inconsistentlytagged,orpoorlydelimited,itmaynotbepossibleto importallthedataaccurately.SeeACom-
mentAboutDifficultDataFiles.
Ifreferencesaresenttoyouinthebodyofanemail,savetheemailtoaplaintextfile.Youwillimportthetextfile.
Choosing the Correct Import Filter
Onceyouhavecapturedandsavedyourdatafileintheappropriateformat,youshouldidentifytheproperEndNotefiltertoimport
thedata.There arehundredsoffiltersincludedwithEndNote,eachdesignedtoreada specifictaggedformatfromaspecificinfor-
mationprovider.
Toseeacompletelistofavailablefilters,select ImportFiltersfrom theEditmenu,andselectOpenFilterManager.
UsetheFindby buttonintheFilterManagerwindowtofindallfilters foraparticularinformationprovider.Tosearchbyname,use
the"Quick Search"textboxontheEndNotetoolbar.YoucanclicktheInfotriangle buttontodisplayadditionalinformationabout
thefilter.TheComments sectionmaygivecriticalinformationabouthowtoappropriatelydownload informationfromthesource
database.
Whenyouhavelocatedthefiltersthatyouwanttouse,markthemas yourfavoritesbyclickingthecheckboxtotheleftofthe
filtername. Youcanalsomarkallofthefilterscurrentlyshowingafterusingthe FindoptionbyclickingMarkAll.Onceafilteris
markedasafavorite, itwillappearintheImportOptionslistintheimportdialog.
Note:TherearemanymoredatabasesandservicesthatprovidedatathantherearefiltersincludedwithEndNote,soinsome
casesyoumayneedtowriteyourown filterormodifyoneofours.SeeIntroduction toFiltersforinformationaboutcreatingand
modifyingfilters.You canalsocheckourWebsiteperiodicallyfornewandupdatedfilters(http://www.endnote.com).
Comparing a Filter to a Data File
Ifyouareuncertainwhetherafiltermatchesadatafilethatyouhave downloaded,youcancomparetheformat fromyourdown-
loadeddatafile toafilter.Todoso,select afilterintheFilterManager,andclick theEditbutton.WhentheFilterwindowopens,
selecttheTemplatesoption inthelistattheleftofthewindowtodisplaythetagsrecognizedbythatfilter.
Thetagsandtemplatesinthefiltershouldmatchthedatainthefile youwanttoimport.SeeThe BasicComponentsofaFilterfor
informationabouteditingfilters.
Changing the Filter Folder
Bydefault,allfiltersprovidedwithEndNotearestoredintheFilters folderfoundintheEndNoteX6programfolder.Thesearethe
filtersdisplayed whenyouopentheFilterManager.EndNotealsodisplaysfiltersfound inyourpersonalFiltersfolder.
Whenyoucreateanewfilter,itissavedtoyourpersonalFiltersfolder. Whenyouattempttosavechangestoanexistingfilter,
youmustuseSave AstosaveacopytoyourpersonalFiltersfolder.Formoreinformationaboutyourpersonalfolders,andinfor-
mationabouthowtochangethelocation ofyourpersonalfolders,seeFolder LocationsPreferences.
Creating Files That EndNote Can Import
Creating Structured Text Files that EndNote Can Import
Whatdoyoudoifyourdataisnotinaformat thatEndNotecanautomatically import?Youcandooneofseveralthings(orevena
combinationthese options):
l Rearrangethereferencedatausingyourwordprocessorsothatitisinaformat thatEndNotecanimport(oneof thetwo
optionslistedattheendofthistopic).
l CopyandpasteeachpieceofdatafromitssourceintotheproperfieldsinEndNote,asdescribedinCopying andPasting
References.
l EnterthedatamanuallybytypingitintoEndNoteasdescribedinEnteringReferences.
CreatingafilethatEndNotecanimportcanbealotofworkifyour dataisinanarbitraryorinconsistentformat.Ifyouonlyhavea
few referencestoimport(lessthan30or40),itmightbefasterandeasier toretypethemorcopyandpastethereferencesthanto
trytoputthem intoaformatthatEndNotecanimport.
However,ifyouhavemanyreferencestoimport,itmightsavetimetofirstmanipulatethedatainawordprocessorasbestyou
can,andthen import thereferencesintoEndNoteandcleanupthereferencesthere. Eveniftheimporteddatadoesnotcome
throughperfectly,itcanberearranged withEndNotesvariouscommands,drag-and-drop,andcopyandpaste.
ThesearetwodifferentformatsthatyoucanputyourdataintosuchthatitcanbeimportedintoEndNote:
l Atab-delimited format(bestifyourdataisinadatabaseorspreadsheetthat canexporttoatab-delimitedfile)
l Atagged format (bestforwhenyourdataisinawordprocessordocument andlookslikeabibliography)
Note:Toallowfortheappropriateimport ofUnicodecharacters,saveTextEdit filesasWestern(MacOSRoman),andsave
MicrosoftWordfiles asUnicodeText(UTF-8).Iftheappropriateoptiondoesnot appearontheSavedialog,youcanfirstselectit
underPreferences.
Creating a Tab-Delimited Format
TheTab-delimitedimportoptioncanimporttextfilesinwhicheach referenceisseparatedbyaparagraphmark(), andthefields
withinareferenceareseparatedbytabs.Mostdatabases orspreadsheetscanexportatab-delimitedtextfile.
Preparing the Data Before Exporting
Author Names
Beforeyouexportdatafromadatabaseorspreadsheetintoatextfile, werecommendthatyouseparatemultipleauthornames
withasemicolon (;)ortwoforwardslashes"//".Forexample:
McCartney,P.//Harrison,G.//Lennon, J.
Ifyoucannoteasilydothisinyourdatabase,youcandoitafterexporting ormanuallyeditthedataafteritisinEndNote.
Reference Types
Ifpossible,youshouldmakesurethateachreferenceincludes afieldindicatingthereferencetype.UseEndNotesReference
Typenames sothatEndNoteisabletorecognizetheformats.Ifyouhaveonlyone typeofreference(suchasJournalArticles),it
isnotnecessarytodo thistheimportsettingscanindicatethatallreferencesshouldbeimportedasjournalsbydefault.
IfyoucannotlabeleachreferencewiththeappropriateReferenceTypename,youshouldexportyourdataintoseparatefiles
basedonreference type.Thismakesiteasytopreservetheoriginalreferencetypesofthe referenceswhenimportingthedata
filesintoEndNote.
Preparing the Data File for Import
Oncethetab-delimitedfile(s)aregenerated, youmustopeneachfileinatexteditororwordprocessorandaddtwo linestoit.
TheselinestellEndNotewhatthedefaultreferencetype isforthedataandhowthedatashouldbeinterpreted.
First Line: The Default Reference Type
Thefirstlineofthefilemustdefinethedefaultreferencetypefortheentirefile.Theformatforthefirstlineisanasteriskimme-
diately followedbyavalidEndNotereferencetype,followedbyaparagraphmark ().Forexample:
*JournalArticle<>
Afileofjournalarticlesmightlooklikethis:
*JournalArticle <>
Author <tab> Year <tab> Title <tab> Journal <tab> Volume <>
Jones,J//Shoe,S <tab> 1994 <tab> EasyFood <tab> J.ofEating <tab> 1 <>
Woo,W//Lee,L <tab> 1995 <tab> RainHats <tab> J.ofClothing <tab> 2 <>
Carlos,C\\Luis,L <tab> 1991 <tab> CellPhone <tab> J.ofPhones <tab> 3 <>
Default Reference Type Table
First Line: Customized Reference Type
Ifyouhavecustomreferencetypes,youmaycheckthembyfollowing theseinstructions.
1. SelectPreferencesfromtheEditmenu.
2. SelectingReferenceTypes.
3. ClicktheModifyReferenceTypesbutton.
Afileofarticlesinwhichyouareusingcustomizedreferencetypes mightlooklikethis:
*MyReferenceType <>
Author <tab> Year <tab> Title <tab> Journal <tab> Volume <>
Jones,J//Shoe,S <tab> 1994 <tab> EasyFood <tab> J.ofEating <tab> 1 <>
Woo,W//Lee,L <tab> 1995 <tab> RainHats <tab> J.ofClothing <tab> 2 <>
Carlos,C\\Luis,L <tab> 1991 <tab> CellPhone <tab> J.ofPhones <tab> 3 <>
Customized Reference Type Table
Note: Ensurethat thegenericfieldsforthereferencetype(ModifyReferenceTypesdialog) appearinline2.
First Line: Using Multiple Reference Types
Ifyoucouldnotmakeseparatefilesbasedonreferencetype,youcanspecifyeachreferencetypewithinonefile.Inthiscase,
yourfirstlinemustbethelistoffieldnamesfoundintheGeneric referencetype,startingwithafieldfor"ReferenceType." Then
youcanusetheadditionalReferenceTypecolumntodefinetheactualEndNotereferencetypenames.Forexample:
ReferenceType <tab> Author <tab> Year <tab> Title <tab>
Secondary
Title
<tab> Volume <>
JournalArticle <tab> Jones,J//Shoe,S <tab> 1994 <tab> EasyFood <tab> J.ofEating <tab> 1 <>
BookSection <tab> Woo,W//Lee,L <tab> 1995 <tab> RainHats <tab> J.ofClothing <tab> 2 <>
Report <tab> Carlos,C\\Luis,L <tab> 1991 <tab> CellPhone <tab> J.ofPhones <tab> 3 <>
Using Multiple Reference Types Table
Second Line: EndNote Field Names
Thesecondlineofthetab-delimitedfilemustcontaintheactual field namesusedbyEndNoteintowhichyouwantthedata
imported.Theorder ofthefieldnamesdoesnotmatteraslongastheycorrespondtothe orderofthedataintherowsbeneath
themandcorrespondtothenames ofthedefaultreferencetype.
Forexample,ifyourdefaultreferencetypeis"*JournalArticle," thenthefieldnamesinthesecondlineofyourfilewillbethoseof
theJournalArticlereferencetype:
*JournalArticle <>
Author <tab> Year <tab> Title <tab> Journal <tab> Volume <>
Jones,J//Shoe,S <tab> 1994 <tab> EasyFood <tab> J.ofEating <tab> 1 <>
Woo,W//Lee,L <tab> 1995 <tab> RainHats <tab> J.ofClothing <tab> 2 <>
Carlos,C\\Luis,L <tab> 1991 <tab> CellPhone <tab> J.ofPhones <tab> 3 <>
EndNote Field Names Table
Note:Thefield namesmustbeseparatedbytabsandaparagraphmarkmustfollowthelastfieldname.
Additional Considerations
l ANSI,ASCII,orUTF-8formattedtextfilescan beimported.Thismeansthatnofontstylesortextstylescanbe preserved
duringimport.
l Allfieldnamesandreferencetypenamesin thefilemustbeidenticaltothoseinEndNote.SeetheListofReferenceTypes
foralistingofallofthereferencetypes andfieldnames.
l Multipleauthornamesshouldbeseparatedbysemicolons(;)orbytwoforwardslashes(//).
l Fieldscannotcontaintabsorparagraphmarks. Letthelinesofdata"wrap"tothenextline.
l Leadingandtrailingspacesareremovedduring importing.
l Nouppercaseorlowercaseconversionismadeduringimporting.
l Areservedfieldnamecalled"Unused" maybeusedfordatathatyoudonotwantimportedintoEndNote.
Errors While Importing Tab-delimited Files
WhenyouarereadytoimportthisfileintoEndNote,selectImportfrom theFilemenu,andthenselectTab-Delimitedasyour
importoption.See GeneralImportingInstructions.
IfEndNotecannotimportarecordorafieldwithinarecord,itwillalertyoutotheerror.Therearethreebasicalerts:
l Bad Default Reference TypeThedefaultreferencetypethatyouspecifiedinthefirstlineofthefileisnotavalidEnd-
Notereferencetypename.(Theproblemcanbeassimpleasextraspacesafterthereference typenameinyourtextfile.)
l Bad Field NameAfieldnamethatyouenteredinline2ofthefileisnotavalid EndNotefieldname.
l Missing Reference Type InformationThereisnodefaultreferencetypespecified forthefileandthereisnoreference
typefielddefinedforthe references.
Ifyougetoneoftheseerrormessagesduringtheimportprocess:
1. Opentheimportfileinawordprocessor.
2. Correcttheproblem.
3. Savethefileasatextfile
4. Repeattheimportprocess.
Related Topics:
ChoosingtheCorrectImportFilter
CreatingaCustom"Tagged"Format
CreatingaTagged"EndNoteImport"File
CreatingStructuredTextFilesthatEndNoteCanImport
DirectExportfromWebPages
GeneralImportingInstructions
ImportOptions
ImportingReferenceDataintoEndNote
ImportingReferencesDownloadedfromCD-ROMsandOnline
ImportingReferencesFromOtherBibliographicSoftwarePrograms
SummaryofOutputFormatsandCorrespondingImport Options
Creating a Custom "Tagged" Format
Ifyouhavealargebibliographythatyouwouldliketoimportinto EndNote,itmaybepossibletouseyourwordprocessorsFind
andReplace commandstoinsertdescriptivetagsinfrontofsomeofthefieldsof datasothatEndNotecanaccuratelyimportthe
references.Inaddition toaddingtags,youalsoneedtomakeafiltertoreadyourtags.(SeeChoosingtheCorrectImport Filterfor
informationaboutusingapredefinedEndNoteImportformat ifyouwouldrathernotcreateyourownfilter.)
Thistopicoutlinesthebasicstepstoconvertabibliographyintoa taggedtextfile.
Step I. Save a Copy of Your File
l Openyourbibliographyinawordprocessorand saveacopyofthefilewithanewname(thisisyourbackup).
l Removeeverythingbutthereferencedatafromthefile.
Step II. Add Descriptive Field Tags
UseyourwordprocessorsFindandReplacecommandstosearchforunique delimitersbetweenfields,andinsert paragraph
marksanddescriptive fieldtagsinfrontofspecificfields.Forthisexample,wewillshow averysimplecasewhereonlythestart
ofeachreferenceistagged,and thefilterdoestherestofthework.Thisworkswellforreferencelists thathavecleardelimiters
separatingtheindividual componentsofthe reference(author,year,title, andsoon).Insomecases,youmayhave betterresults
makingadditionalreplacementsinthetextfilebeforeimporting.Themoretagsyouaddtoyourdata,thegreaterdegreeofaccu-
racyyoucangetwiththeimportfilter.
Supposeyourreferenceslooklikethis:
Jones,M.
Billoski,
Theprocessofconvertingthisbibliographicformattoataggedformat wouldbesomethinglikethis:
l Search for2paragraphmarks(sincethereferencesareseparatedby1blank line),andreplacewithtwoparagraphmarksanda
tag"XX-"followedbyaspace.
Theresult isataggeddatafilethatlookslikethis:
XX-Jones,
XX-Billoski,
Onceyouhavemadeallthechangestotagasmuchofthedataasnecessary, savethefile(asaplaintextfile),andcreatean
importfiltertomatch thetagsandformatsofthereferences.
Step III: Create a Filter
UsingEndNote,createanewfiltertoreadyourdatafile(seeCreating aNewFilter).Thetemplateofafilterfortheabovedatafile
would looklikethis:
Tag Field
XX- Author(Year)"Title"Journal.Vol. Volumeno.
Issue,
Note:Eachfield listedfortheTagmustappearineachofyourreferences. Ifareference ismissinganyofthefields,theentire
referencewillnotbeimported intoyourEndNotelibrary.
Step IV: Clean Up the Data
Afteryousetupyourfilewithtagsandcreateafiltertoimportit, youshouldtestandrefinethefilterbyimportingintoanew
library. Onceyourfilterisworkingasyouwouldlikeit,youcanuseittoimport thedatafileintoyourrealEndNotelibrary.
Ifyoucannotgetthefiltertoimporteverythingexactlyasyouwant, youmayhavetodosomemanualeditingtocorrectthiseither
beforeor afterimportingthedataintoEndNote.Youmightfinditusefultoimport intoatestlibrary,thenusetheChangeFields,
Move/CopyFields,andFindandReplaceoptionsto cleanupthedata.Then,transferthesereferencestoyourreallibrary with
drag-and-drop,copyandpaste, ortheImportcommand.
Creating a Tagged EndNote Import File
TheEndNoteImportformatisataggedformatbasedontherulesofRefer/BibIXformat.Inthisformat,eachfieldofdata(that is,
Journal,Volume,orTitle)isprecededbyanidentifyingtag: apercentsign(%)followedbyasinglecapitalletter,anumber,ora
specialcharacter.Entirereferencesareseparatedbyoneblankline:
%0Book
%AGeoffrey Chaucer
%D1957
%TThe WorksofGeoffreyChaucer
%EF.
%IHoughton
%CBoston
%N2nd
%0Journal Article
%AHerbert H.Clark
%D1982
%THearers andSpeechActs
%BLanguage
%V58
%P332-373

%0Thesis
%ACantucci, Elena
%TPermian stratainSouth-EastAsia
%D1990
%IUniversity ofCalifornia, Berkeley
%9Dissertation
Author Names in the EndNote Import Format
l Author namesusethe%Atag.Thistagshouldrepeat foreachauthor,with thenameslistedoneperline:
%AJones, Mary
%ASimon,Jeff
l Author namescanappeareitheras:
GeoffreyChauceror
l Either initialsorfullnamesareaccepted.
Defining Reference Types
Setthereferencetypeforeachoftheimportedreferencesbyusing %0(zero)andthereferencetypename.
Thedefaultreferencetypesarelistedbelow.Ifyouhavemodifieda referencetype,yourEndNotedatafilesshouldusethenew
nameinstead.
%0Generic %0Government Document
%0AggregatedDatabase %0 Grant
%0Ancient Text %0 Hearing
%0Artwork %0 JournalArticle
%0Audiovisual Material %0 LegalRuleorRegulation
%0Bill %0 MagazineArticle
%0Blog %0 Manuscript
%0Book %0 Map
%0Book Section %0 Music
%0Case %0 NewspaperArticle
%0Catalog %0 OnlineDatabase
%0ChartorTable %0 OnlineMultimedia
%0Classical Work %0 Pamphlet
%0Computer Program %0 Patent
%0ConferencePaper %0 PersonalCommunication
%0ConferenceProceedings %0 Report
%0Dictionary %0 Serial Publication
%0Edited Book %0 Standard
%0ElectronicArticle %0 Statute
%0ElectronicBook %0 Thesis
%0Encyclopedia %0 UnpublishedWork
%0Equation %0 WebPage
%0Figure %0 Unused1
%0Film orBroadcast %0 Unused2
%0 Unused3
Reference Types Table
EndNote Tags and Corresponding Fields
ThetablebelowshowsthetagsrecognizedintheEndNoteImportformat andthecorrespondingEndNotefieldintowhicheach
taggeditemisimported fortheGenericreferencetype.Forotherreferencetypes,manyfieldsmaybemappedtotheNotesfield
sincealimitednumberoffieldsare includedineachreferencetype.
Note:TheFigurefieldisnotincludedforimporting

Tag EndNote Generic Field Name


%A Author
%B SecondaryTitle(of aBookorConference
Name)
%C PlacePublished
%D Year
%E Editor/SecondaryAuthor
%F Label
%G Language
%H TranslatedAuthor
%I Publisher
%J JournalName
%K Keywords
%L CallNumber
%M AccessionNumber
%N Number(Issue)
%O AlternateTitle
%P Pages
%Q TranslatedTitle
%R DOI
%S TertiaryTitle
%T Title
%U URL
%V Volume
%W DatabaseProvider
%X Abstract
%Y TertiaryAuthor/Translator
%Z Notes
%0 ReferenceType
%1 Custom1
%2 Custom2
%3 Custom3
%4 Custom4
%6 NumberofVolumes
%7 Edition
%8 Date
%9 TypeofWork
%? SubsidiaryAuthor
%@ ISBN/ISSN
%! ShortTitle
%# Custom5
%$ Custom6
%] Custom7
%& Section
%( OriginalPublication
%) ReprintEdition
%* ReviewedItem
%+ AuthorAddress
%^ Caption
%> FileAttachments
%< ResearchNotes
%[ AccessDate
%= Custom8
%~ NameofDatabase
EndNote Tags Table
Related Topics:
Choosing theCorrectImportFilter
Creating aCustom"Tagged"Format
Creating aTab-DelimitedFormat
Creating StructuredTextFilesthatEndNoteCanImport
General ImportingInstructions
ImportOptions
ImportingReferenceDataintoEndNote
ImportingReferencesDownloadedfromCD-ROMsandOnline
ImportingReferencesFromOtherBibliographicSoftwarePrograms
Summary ofOutputFormatsandCorrespondingImport Options
Searching and Sorting in EndNote
Showing and Hiding References
Showing and Hiding References
WhenworkingwithreferencesinyourEndNotelibrary,youcanviewall ofthereferencesorjustasubset.Forexample,ifyou
searchforreferences andfind10matchingreferences,onlythose10referenceswillappear inthereferencelist.Inalibrarythat
contains210references,the words"Showing10outof210references"willappearatthebottomoftheLibrarywindow.Formore
informationaboutselecting referencesandworkingwithshowingreferences, see:
l SelectingReferences
l WorkingwithShowingReferences
l UsingShowSelectedandHideSelected
Working with Showing References
SomeEndNotecommands(suchasSearchLibrary,ChangeField, Change Text,Sort,Print,andExport)canworkwithjustthose
referencesthat are"showing"intheLibrarywindow.Hereareafewexamples ofoperationsthatyoucandowiththeshowingref-
erences:
l RestricttheSearchLibrarycommandtosearchonlytheshowingreferences.
l Addtheresultsofanewsearchtothecurrentlistofreferencesasawaytocombinesearchresults.SelectAddRef-
erences tomovethereferencestoaparticulargroup.
l UsetheFindandReplace,ChangeFields,andMoveFieldscommandstomodifyonlytheshowingreferences.
l UsethetermlistsUpdateListcommandtoscan onlytheshowingreferencesfornewterms.
l CreateaSubjectBibliographyfromtheshowing references.
l PrintorExport onlythe"showing" references.
Onewaytoviewasubsetofreferencesistouse theSearchLibrarycommand.TheShowSelectedReferencesandHide
SelectedReferencescommandsintheReferences menuprovideanotherconvenientwayforyoutocontrolwhichreferences are
showingintheLibrarywindow.
Using Show Selected and Hide Selected
UsetheShowSelectedReferencescommandtorestrictthereferences showingintheLibrarywindowtoonlytheselectedref-
erences.
TousetheShowSelectedReferencescommand:
1. Selectthereferencesofinterest(holddownthe Ctrlkey andclickthereferenceswiththemouse,orholddowntheShift
key toselectarangeofreferences).
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectShowSelected References.Thereferencesthatyouhadselectedwillnowbetheonly
onesshowingintheLibrarywindow.
3. Afteryouhavecompletedyourwork,selectReferences>ShowAllReferencestodisplayallreferences intheLibrarywin-
dow.
TheHideSelectedReferencescommandissimilartotheShowSelected Referencescommandexceptthatittemporarilyhides
theselectedreferences intheLibrarywindowfromview.
TousetheHideSelectedReferencescommand:
1. Selectthereferencesthatyouwanttotemporarily hide.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectHideSelected References.
3. Afteryouhavecompletedyourwork,selectShowAllReferencesfromtheReferencesmenuto returnallofthereferences
totheLibrarywindow.
Related Topics:
Showing andHidingReferences
TheSearchWindow
Working withShowingReferences
Searching for References
Searching for References
EndNoteprovidesapowerfulandflexibleSearchLibrarycommandthat enablesyoutolocatespecificreferencesorgroupsofref-
erences.For example,youcanselect averygeneralsearch,onethatscanstheentire library,oryoucanlimityoursearchesto
specificfields(suchasAuthor orKeywords).Youcanalsocreatemorecomplexsearchesusingavariety ofoperatorssuchas
And,Or,Not,Greaterthan,Lessthan,andothers.
YoucanusetheSearchpaneltosearchEndNotelibrariesaswellasremotedatabasesthatareavailableonline.SeeQuick Over-
viewofOnlineDatabaseSearchingforinformationaboutonline databasesearches.
Thesetopicswillhelpyouinyoursearching:
l QuickSearch
l TheSearchPanel
l SearchCommandTips
l SimpleSearches
l RestrictingSearchestoSpecific Fields
l UsingComparisonOperators
l CombiningSearchLineswith"And,""Or,"and"Not"
l CombiningResultsfromSeparate Searches
l SavingSearchStrategies
l Creating aSmartGroupfromanExistingSearchStrategy
Quick Search
Toquicklysearchyourentirelibrary,usethe"QuickSearch" textboxontheMaintoolbar.
Withyourlibrarylistdisplayed, enterawordorphrase,andthenpressEnter.EndNoteexecutesageneral searchofallfields.You
canusethedrop-downlisttoselect arecentsearchterm.NotethatyoucannotsearchPDFfilesusingQuickSearch.
Ifyouneedamorespecificorcomplicatedsearch,useThe SearchPanel.
Search Command Tips
Canceling Searches
Pressing (Esc cancelsasearchinprogress.
Matching Partial Words
UnlessyouhaveselectedtheMatch Wordsoption,EndNotematchespartialwordswhensearchingfortext(both right-andleft-
truncationareenabled).Consequently,youcansearch forjusttherootofawordandfindallrelatedterms.Thisisagoodtacticfor
generalsubjectsearches.Selectanappropriatecomparison operatorsuchas"Fieldbeginswith"or"Wordbeginswith" toapply
truncationtoyoursearchterm.
Diacritics (Accents)
Tosearchforspecificdiacritical marks, selecttheMatchCaseoption;letterssuchas,andwillmatchthoselettersexactly.
Thus,asearchfor"rsum"willnot find"resume."Ifyouwanttofindallvariationsofaletter,deselecttheMatchCaseoption.
SeeEntering SpecialCharactersforinformationaboutenteringdiacritics.
Finding Tabs and Carriage Returns
UsetheOptionsbuttontoinsert aTaboraCarriageReturninthesearchline.
Searching for Numbers
Whenyousearchforanumber, EndNotelooksforthatstringastext,exactly,inyourreferencetext. Forexample,asearchon
"AnyField"which"Contains" thesearchtext"0025"willmatchthenumbers00025and0025, butitwillnotmatch25.
Thereisanexceptionforrecord numbers.Recordnumbers,whichareassignedbyEndNote,cannot include leadingzeros.When
yousearchAnyFieldforanumber,EndNotelooksfor anexactmatchinalltextfields;however,leadingzerosarestripped from
yoursearchtextbeforecomparingittorecordnumbers.Onlyanexactmatchofarecordnumberwillbereturned.So,asearchfor
"0025" willmatchrecordnumber25.Itwillnotmatchrecordnumber250.
Searching with Multiple Libraries Open
TheSearchLibrarycommandsearchesonelibraryatatime.Viewthelibraryyouwanttosearch,andusethe Searchpanel.
Author Fields
ThefieldnamesintheFieldlist areEndNotes"Generic"fieldnames, whichmeansthatAuthorrepresentsReporter,Editor,Artist
oranyothervariationsoftheAuthor fieldusedinthedifferentreferencetypes.
Ifyouwishtosearchforauthor initials,makesuretoincludeaspacebetweenthefirstandsecondinitial.Forexample:
Smith,JP
Ifyoudonotincludeaspace betweeninitials,EndNotewillassumethatJPisacompletefirstname.
Tolimityoursearch,selectthe "MatchWords"checkbox.Forexample,asearchforSmith,J PwithMatchWordsselectedwill
findonlythoseworkswithSmith,J PintheAuthorfield. AsearchforSmith,JPwithoutMatchWords selectedwillalsofind
referencesbyauthorssuchasSmith-Wilkins,Jeremiah.
The Year Field
WhensearchingintheYearfield, asearchfor"1994"retrievesonlyreferencespublishedin1994, whereasasearchfor"94"
retrievesreferencesfromthe1940sand1994.
Finding Empty Fields
EndNotecansearchforemptyfields. SelectthedesiredfieldfromtheFieldlist,selectIsasthecomparison operator,andleave
thesearchtermblank.ClickSearchandEndNotefinds referencesinwhichthechosenfieldisblank.
Finding File Attachments
Youcaneasilysearchforaspecific fileattachmentbyname.Searchfor:
FileAttachments Is [nameofthefile]
Tosearchforallreferencesthat includefileattachments,enterthesetwosearchlines:
RecordNumber Isgreaterthanorequalto 1
NOT FileAttachments Is [blank]
Thefirstlineensuresthatall referencesaresearched,andthesecondlinelooksforreferencesinwhich theFileAttachmentsfield
isnotblank.
Note: Anothereasywaytoseereferenceswithfileattachmentsistosimply clickonthepaperclipheaderintheLibrarywindow
tosortthosereferences atthetopofthelistofreferences.
Cleaning Up Search Results
Afterexecutingasearch,there maybeahandfulofreferencesthatyouwanttoexcludefromthesearch results.Selectthoseref-
erencesandselectHideSelectedReferencesto hidethemfromthesetoffoundreferencesanddisplayexactlythereferences
thatyouwant.Oftenthisismucheasierthantryingtorefineyoursearch.
Viewing the Opposite of Your Search Results
Letssaythatyouhavesearched forallofthereferenceswrittenbyBilloski orHall,soyouarecurrentlyviewingonlythoseref-
erences.Now,you wouldliketoviewthereferencesnotwrittenbythoseauthors.Insteadofdoinganothersearch:
1. Clickinthelistofreferences.
2. FromtheEditmenu,chooseSelectAll( Ctrl+A)toselectalloftheHallandBilloski references.
3. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectShowAllReferences (CtrlShift+M).Noticethat theoriginalselectionismaintained.
4. FromtheReferencesmenu,selectHideSelected References.
Youareleftviewingonlythosereferencesthatwerenotpreviously showingintheLibrarywindow,thatis,allreferencesnot
writtenby HallorBilloski.
Setting and Restoring Defaults for the Search Panel
Click theOptionsbutton andselectSetDefaulttosavethecurrentconfiguration oftheSearchpanelasyourdefault.Thedefault
configurationwillappearwheneveryoufirstdisplaytheSearchpanel.
Thelayout ofthewindow(suchasthenumberofsearchlines)issaved, asarealloftheoperators,fieldnames,andtheMatch
CaseandMatchWordsettings.Thesearchtermsarenotsaved.
Click theOptionsbutton andselectRestoreDefaultontheSearchpaneltoclearoutallofthesearchtermscurrentlyenteredin
theSearchpanel,andreset allofthesettingsbacktothedefaultconfiguration.
Related Topics:
CombiningResultsfromSeparateSearches
CombiningSearchLineswithAnd,Or,andNot
Restricting SearchestoSpecificFields
Saving SearchStrategies
SimpleSearches
TheSearchWindow
Using ComparisonOperators
Simple Searches
Using Quick Search
Onthetoolbar,typeasearchtermintothe"QuickSearch" textboxandpressEntertosearch allreferences.SeeQuickSearch.
UsingtheSearchpaneltofindallreferencesthatcontainaparticular term:
1. DisplayAllReferencestomakesureyouaresearching yourentirelibrary.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSearchLibrary(Ctrl+F).Or,clickontheSearch tabintheTabspanel.
3. SetthesearchfieldtoAnyFieldandthecomparison listtoContains.
4. Typethedesiredtextintothefirstsearchline.
5. ClickSearchtobeginthesearch.
Ifnoreferencesinthelibrarymatchyoursearchrequest,EndNotedisplays "Nomatchingreferenceswerefound."Otherwise,all
matching referencesaredisplayedintheLibrarywindow.(Clickonacolumnheader toapplyasortorder).
Whenyouarefinishedworkingwiththefoundreferences,clicktheAll ReferencesgrouporselectShowAllReferences (Ctrl+M)
fromtheReferencesmenutorestoreallreferencestoview,orstartanothersearch.
Aftercompletingasearch,EndNotedisplaysthesamelibrarythatyouwereviewingbeforethesearch,howeveronlytheref-
erencesthatmatch yoursearchrequestsareshowing.
ThereferencesfoundinthelastsearchoperationaresavedinatemporarySearchResultsgroup.Eachtimeyourunasearch,the
temporarySearch Resultsgroupisupdatedwiththenewsetofreferences.Whenyouclose thelibrary,thistemporarygroupisdis-
carded.
Restricting Searches to Specific Fields
UsetheFieldlistontheSearchpaneltonarrowyoursearchtoaspecificfield.YoucanselectAnyFieldtolookforyoursearch
termsinanyofthefieldsinyourreferences.
Forexample,tofindreferencespublishedin2010,restrictthesearch totheYearfieldtoavoidfindingentriesthatinclude2010in
theabstract, title,orelsewhere.
ThefieldnamesintheFieldlistareEndNotes"generic" fieldnames. Forexample,AuthorrepresentsReporter,Editor,Artistor
anyothervariationsoftheAuthorfieldusedinthedifferentreference types.SeetheGeneric referencetypeforacompletelistof
genericfieldnamesandtheircorresponding fieldnamesineachreferencetype.
EndNotecanimportreferencesfromhundredsofsources,eachofwhichusesitsownsetoffieldnames.Onceyouhavetrans-
ferredreferences intoEndNote,youwillsearchforinformationbyusingthedestination EndNotegenericfieldnames,andnotthe
originalfieldnamesfromthe informationprovider.Forexample,thePMID numberfromPubMedtypicallytransfersintotheAcces-
sionNumberfield inEndNote.TosearchforaspecificPMIDinEndNote,searchtheAccessionNumberfield.
Searching Fields and PDF Files
YoucansearchallfieldsandattachedPDFfilesinyourselectedreference list.
1. SelecttheAnyField+PDFwithNotesoptionfromtheFieldlist.
2. SelectanitemfromtheComparisonlisttoindicate howthesearchterm(s)shouldrelatetothesearch.
3. Enterthesearchterm(s)thatyouwanttolocate. Forexample,youcanenterasingletermorastringofterms
4. ClicktheSearchbutton.
Thefollowingrulesapplywhenyouselect thePDFoptionortheAny Field+PDFoptionfromtheFieldlist.
l Bydefault,EndNoteignorescapitalizationwhen searchingfortext.Forexample,asearchforthetermhospital alsofinds
Hospital.
l Ifyouenteraphrase,EndNoteretrievesreferences thatcontainthewordsyouenteredinanyfieldorinaPDFfile. The
wordsappeartogetheriftheyareinanyEndNotefieldorany PDFfile.Forexamplethequery,hospital careretrievesref-
erencescontainingthetermhospital careineitherafieldoraPDFfile.
l EndNotesearchesquotationmarks("" )ascharacterswhenyouselect aspecificfield,thePDFoption,ortheAnyField+
PDFwithNotesoption.Forexample,thequerypoured cold waterretrievesreferences thatcontainthequotedphrase
pouredcoldwaterwithinareference,aPDFfile,orwithinaStickyNote.Thephrase"poured coldwater"isignoredby
EndNotesinceitdoesnotcontain quotationmarks.
Reminder: MatchCaseandMatchWordrulesapplywhentheseoptionsareselected.See TheSearchPanelformoreinfor-
mationabout thesefeatures.
Rules for Single Word Searching
WhensearchingforasinglewordinanyfieldusingtheContainscomparison operator,EndNoteappliesbothleft-andright-hand
truncation. Forexample,theterm
plantfinds:
Plant
plant
plant classification
planter
"plant"
Using Comparison Operators
Comparison Operators
The"comparisonoperators"areusedtoindicatehowthesearch termrelatestothechosenfieldinthatsearchline.Forexample,if
youhaveasearchlinethatlookslikethis:
Field Comparison Operator Search Term
Title Contains Dinosaur
Comparison Operator Table
YouwillbesearchingforreferenceswheretheTitle(thesearchfield) contains(thecomparisonoperator)dinosaur(thesearch
term).
Thecomparisonoperatorsfunctionasfollows:
l Contains:findsallreferenceswhere thesearchfieldincludesthesearchterm.Thesearchtermincludesbothleftandright
truncation,soasearchfor"house"wouldfind"house,""greenhouse,"and"household" anywhereinthefield.Ifyouwantto
limitthesearchspecifically totheword"house,"checktheMatchWordsboxontheSearch dialog.
Note:Onlythe "Contains" comparisonoperatorisavailablewhensearching onlinedatabases.Thefollowingoperatorsareavail-
ableforsearching theEndNotelibrary.Pleasenotethatsomeoperatorsmaynotworktogetherwithsomeoptionsselectedfrom
theFieldlist.
l Is:findsallreferencesinwhichthe entirecontentofthesearchfieldisexactlythesameasthesearch term.
Note:Thisoperatordoesnotworkinsearcheswhereyouselectthe"AnyField+PDFwithNotes"optionfromtheFieldlist.
l Is Less Than:findsallreferences inwhichthesearchtermislessthanthecontentsofthesearchfield.
l Is Less Than or Equal To:findsallreferencesinwhichthesearchtermislessthanoridenticaltothecontentsofthesearch
field.
l Is Greater Than:findsallreferences inwhichthesearchtermisgreaterthanthecontentsofthesearch field.
l Is Greater Than or Equal To:finds allreferencesinwhichthesearchtermisgreaterthanoridentical tothecontentsofthe
searchfield.
Note: Forallofthe"GreaterThan"and"LessThan"comparisons,thecomparisoniseithernumericaloralphabetical
basedonthenature oftheterm.Whenthefieldshavebothnumbersandletters,numbersare considered"lessthan"
letters,andemptyfieldsareignored.
l Field Begins With:findsallreferencesinwhichthesearchtermisfoundatthebeginningoftheselected field(alsoreferredto
asrightfieldtruncation).Thesearchterm canbeapartialword,afullword,orseveralwords,andwillbecomparedtotheinitial
textinthefield.Ifyouentermorethan asingleword,rememberthatpunctuationandspacesaresignificant, soyoumustenter
exactlywhatisfoundinthereference.Ifyoudo notwanttomatchpartialwords,checktheMatchWordsbox.
Note:Thisoperatordoesnotworkinsearcheswhereyouselectthe"AnyField+PDFwithNotes"optionfromtheFieldlist.
l Field Ends With:findsallreferences inwhichthesearchtermisfoundattheendofthefield(alsoreferred toasleftfieldtrun-
cation).Thesearchtermcanbeapartialword, afullword,orseveralwords,andwillbecomparedtotheending textinthe
field.Ifyouentermorethanasingleword,remember thatpunctuationandspacesaresignificant,soyoumustenterexactly
whatisfoundattheendofthefield.Ifyoudonotwanttomatch partialwords,checktheMatchWordsbox.
Note:Thisoperatordoesnotworkinsearcheswhereyouselectthe"AnyField+PDFwithNotes"optionfromtheFieldlist.
l Word Begins With:findsallreferences inwhichthesearchtermisfoundatthebeginningofawordanywhere inthefield
(alsoreferredtoasrightwordtruncation).Punctuation andspacesareignored.Thiscanhelpyoufindwordsthatstartwith the
sameroot.Forexample,searchingforawordthatbeginswith "land,"wouldalsofind"landing"and"landfill," butnot"Iceland"
or"island."
Note:The"Field beginswith,""Fieldendswith,"and"Wordbegins with"comparisonsalltreatAuthorfieldslikeanyotherfield.
There isnomanipulationofsurnamesandfirstnames;EndNotesimplylooksat theliteralstringoftextinthefield.
Examples of Comparison Operators in Searches
Field Comparison
Operator
Search
Term
EndNote finds:
Year Is greater
than
2000 allreferencespublishedafter2000
Year Is lessthan 2000 allreferencespublishedbefore2000
Year Is greater
than
orequalto
1998 references publishedduringorafter1998
Title Is lessthan A allreferenceswheretitlesstartwithanumber
Author Is lessthan
orequalto
C allreferenceswithauthorswhoselastnamesbeginwithA,B,ora number;thiswould
notmatchanamesuchas"Carter," as"CaisgreaterthanC
Author Is greater
than
orequalto
S allreferenceswithauthorswhoselastnamesbeginwithS-Z
Title Contains hawaii allreferenceswith"hawaii inthetitle
Title Is hawaii allreferenceswith"hawaii astheexacttitle
Abstract Is allreferenceswithnoabstract(emptyfield)
Title Field begins
with
sediment allreferenceswheretitlesstartwith"sediment,"including "Sediments,"and"Sed-
imentation,"butnot "Synsedimentary
Abstract Field ends
with
dinosaur allreferenceswhereabstractsendwith"dinosaur,"which wouldinclude"duck-billed
dinosaur,"butnot"dinosaurextinction"or"dinosaurs"
Any
Field
Word begins
with
house allreferenceswhereanyfieldincludesawordthatbeginswith"house," whichwould
includetextsuchas"U.S.HouseofRepresentatives" and"household,"butnot"green-
house"
Combining Search Lines with AND, OR, and NOT Operators
YoucancombinesearchlinesontheSearchpanelwiththeBoolean operators"And,""Or,"and"Not"toproducethefollowing
effects:
l ANDfindsreferencesthatmatchthe precedingsearchline(s)andthefollowing searchline.Andnarrowssearchresults.
Example:A searchfor"triceratops"AND"extinction"findsonly thosereferencesthatmentionbothterms.
l ORfindsreferencesthatmatcheither theprecedingsearchline(s)orfollowingsearchterm.ORbroadensthesearch.
Example:A searchfor"triceratops"OR"extinction"findsall referencesthatincludeeitherterm.
l NOTfindsallreferencescontainingtheprecedingterm(s)andthenomits referencesthatcontainthesubsequentterm.NOT
narrowssearchresults.
Example:A searchfor"triceratops"Not"extinction"findsall referencesincluding"triceratops,"excludinganytriceratops
referencesthatmentionedextinction.
YoucanusetheBooleanoperators(AND,ORandNOT)insequencewith asmanyasninesearchlinestobuildyoursearch
strategy.
Itemsincombinationsearchesareexecutedfromthetopfieldtothebottomfield oftheSearchpanel.Forexample,ifyouhave
enteredfoursearchlinesontheSearchpanel, EndNotecarriesoutthesearchbycombiningtheresults ofthefirsttwoitemswith
thethirdsearchline.Thoseresultsarecombined withthefourthsearchlinetoproducethefinalsearchresults.
Related Topics:
CombiningResultsfromSeparateSearches
SearchCommand Tips
SimpleSearches
TheSearchPanel
Using ComparisonOperators
Combining Results from Separate Searches
Bydefault,EndNotesearchesthecurrentgroupandthendisplaysonlytheresultsofthesearchintheLibrarywindow.Tosearch
onlyasubset ofreferences,ortocombineyoursearchresultswithotherreferences, selectoneofthefollowingoptionsfromthe
SearchSetlistontheSearch tab.
Search Whole Library/Search Whole Group
IfAllReferencesoroneoftheautomatictemporarygroupsaredisplayed inthereferencelist,thefirstiteminthesearchsetlist
(andthe defaultsetting)isSearchWholeLibrary.Thetabitself istitledSearch. UsetheSearchWholeLibrarysettingtomake
sureyouaresearchingevery referenceinyourlibrary.
Ifthereferencelistdisplaysacustomgroup, smartgroup,orOnlineSearch group,thefirstsearchsetitemisSearchWhole
Group.Usethissettingtolimityoursearchtoaspecificgroupofreferences.ThetitleoftheSearchpanelchangestoSearchplus
thenameofthegroup, suchasSearch-Literature.
Add Search Results to Currently Showing References
Select"Addtoshowingreferences"ifyouwanttosearchthe wholelibraryandaddtheresultsofyoursearchtoasubsetofshow-
ing references. Forexample,ifyouhavealreadyfoundagroupofreferences writtenbyKomarin2000,andnowyouwanttoadd
allreferenceswrittenbyBilloskiin1997:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSearchLibrary(Ctrl+F).
2. Enter"Billoski"inAuthorand"1997" inYear.
3. FromtheSearchSetlist,selectAddtoshowing references.
4. ClickSearchandyoushouldseethecombinedresults ofthetwosearches.
Search Only the "Showing" References
Selectthe"Searchshowingreferences"optioninthe Searchdialogtorestrictasearchtoonlythosereferencesthatarecurrently
displayedintheLibrarywindow.
Thisisusefultonarrowtheresultsofaprevioussearch,tosearch asavedgroupofreferences,ortosearchasetofreferences
thatyou havejustimportedfromanotherlibraryoronlinedatabase.
Omit Search Results from Showing References
Selectthe"Omitfromshowingreferences"optiontohide theresultsofasearchfromthereferencesthatareshowinginthe
Library window.Thisisaconvenientwaytolocateallreferencesthatdo notincludeaparticulartermortonarrowtheresultsofa
previous search.Forexample,tofindallreferencesnotaboutextinction:
1. WithallofthereferencesshowingintheLibrarywindow,selectSearchLibraryfromtheToolsmenu.
2. SelectOmitfromShowingReferencesfromtheSearch SetlistontheSearchpanel.
3. Type"extinction"intothefirstsearch line,leavingtheFieldlistsettoAnyField.
4. ClickSearch.
EndNotedisplayseveryreferenceexceptthosethatcontaintheword "extinction."
Related Topics:
CombiningSearchLineswithAnd,Or,andNot
Saving SearchStrategies
SearchCommand Tips
SearchingforReferences
SimpleSearches
TheSearchWindow
Using ComparisonOperators
Saving Search Strategies
TheSaveSearchandLoadSearchcommandsaccessedwiththeOptionsbuttonallowyoutosavethesettingscurrentlyonthe
Searchpanelandrecallthemforlateruse.Mostofthe optionsontheSearchpanelaresaved,includingthesearchterms;how-
ever, thetargetofthesearch(theEndNotelibraryoronlinedatabase)isnot saved.
Tosaveasearch:
1. ConfiguretheSearchpanel.
2. Click theOptionsbuttonandselectSaveSearch.
3. Adialogappears,promptingyoutonamethesearch strategy.EnteroreditthenameandclickSave.The searchfilesare
savedbydefaultintheEndNote\Searches folderintheWindowsApplicationDatafolder. Youmaysavethemelsewhereif
youprefer,butEndNotewillopento thisSearchesfolderwhenyouchoosetoLoadasavedsearch.EndNoteadds".ENQ
asthefilenameextensionforsavedsearches.
Toloadasavedsearch:
1. OntheSearchpanel,clicktheOptionsbuttonandselect LoadSearch.
2. Inthedialogthatappears,selectthesearchstrategythatyouwouldliketouse,andclickOpen.
3. ThecontentsandsettingsoftheSearchwindow changetoreflectthesavedsearch.ClickSearchtoinitiatethesearch.
Whenyousaveasearchstrategy, itiseasytorunacomplicatedsearchagain,whichyoumaywanttodo asyouaddreferences
tothelibrary.
Youcansavethesearchresults (thesetofmatchingreferences)asagroup.Youcanusethesavedsearch strategytosetupa
smartgroup. Smartgroupsareupdatedasyouaddreferencestoyourlibrary.Or,youcansavethespecificresultstoacustom
group,butthegroupwillnotbeupdatedasyouaddreferencesto yourlibrary;youwouldneedtorunthesearchagaintofindref-
erences enteredsincethelastsearch.
Related Topics:
CombiningResultsfromSeparate Searches
CombiningSearchLineswithAnd, Or,andNot
SearchCommandTips
SearchingforReferences
SimpleSearches
TheSearchWindow
UsingComparisonOperators
Finding Duplicate References
Inordertohelplocateduplicatereferences,EndNoteoffersaFindDuplicatescommand.Thiscommandsearchesthereferences
thatarecurrentlyshowingintheLibrarywindowtoidentifyduplicates. Duplicatesaredeterminedbasedontheduplicatecriteria
specifiedin preferences. SeeDuplicatesPreferences.
Tofindalloftheduplicatereferencesinalibrary:
1. WiththeLibrarywindowopen,clickontheAllReferencesgrouptoshow allreferences.
2. FromtheReferencesmenu, selectFindDuplicates.
EndNotewilldisplayaFindDuplicatesdialogwhereyoucancompare duplicatesanddecidewhichversiontokeepand
whichtodelete.
Differencesbetweenreferencefieldsareshownwithbluehighlighting.Inaddition,EndNotetakesyoutothefirstreference
fieldinwhichthereisdissimilarcontentbetweenthetwoduplicatereferences. Scrollthroughthelisttoseewhichfields
containduplicatecontentandwhichcontaindissimilarcontent.
3. Foreachsetofduplicates,youhavetheoptionto:
l Click KeepThisRecordtosavethatparticularreferenceandthrowtheother oneintheTrash.
l Click Skiptoleavebothreferencesinthelibrary,intact.Theywillappear inatemporaryDuplicateReferencesgroup,so
youcanreviewthemlater.
l Click CanceltostoptheDuplicateReferencesoperation.Allduplicates willappearinatemporaryDuplicateReferences
groupifyouwish toreviewthem.
Theolder(firstentered)referencewillalwaysappearintheleftcolumn.
Warning:Before selectingKeepThisRecord,whichwilldeletetheduplicate,checkthe recordnumberstobesurethatyouare
notdeletingareferencealready citedinapaper.
Bydefault,referencesareconsideredduplicatesiftheyhavethesame referencetype(suchasJournalArticleorBook), andthe
Author,Year, andTitlefieldsareidentical.Thecriteriafordetectingduplicates canbechangedusingtheDuplicatessettingsin
EndNotesPreferencesdialog.
ReferencesthatappearidenticalmaynotshowupasduplicatesiftheinformationinthefieldsEndNotechecksisslightlydifferent
orifthereferencetypesaredifferent.Whentryingtodeterminehowreferences differ,itishelpfultoknowexactlyhowEndNote
comparesthem.
Author:Compareslastnameand firstinitials(evenifthefirstormiddlenamearewritteninfull). Capitalizationisnotimportant.
Year: Comparedexactlyasentered.
Title: Leadingarticles"A," "An,"or"The"areignored,butpunctuationisincluded. Capitalizationisnotimportant.
Reference Type:Comparedexactly asentered.
Whentherearenomoresetsofduplicatestocompare,theFindDuplicates dialogcloses.TheDuplicateReferencesgroupis
refreshed,theTrash groupcontainstheunwantedduplicatereferences, andallothergroups areupdatedappropriately.TheDupli-
cateReferencesgroupisemptyunlessatleastonesetofduplicateswasskippedortheDuplicateReferences operationwascan-
celled.
Finding Text in a Single Reference
Whenyouhaveareferencethatcontainsasignificantamount oftext,suchaslongabstractsornotes,itcangethardtofind
things!
Tojump tospecifictextwithinareferencewiththeGoTocommand:
1. Openareference.TheGoTocommandworksonthecurrentlyopenreference.Ifmorethanonereferenceisopen,itworkson
thetopmostreference.
2. FromtheReferencemenu,selectGoTo.
3. Typethetextyouwanttolocate,andthenclickNext(orpressReturn).
ThenumberofcharactersyoucanenterintheGoTodialogdependsonthesizeofthesymbols.Whenpastingtextinthe
dialog,beawareofthislimitation.TheGoTodialogalsoincludesadrop-downlistofrecentlysearchedterms.
EndNotewilljumptothetextandhighlightitwithinthereference.YoucanuseGoToagaintofindthenextoccurrence,orclick
CanceltodismisstheGoTodialog.
Related Topics:
Creating aNewReference
Entering References
ImportantPointsAboutReferences
Opening References
Previous andNextReferenceCommands
SearchingforReferences
SimpleSearches
Sorting the Library
Sort Library Dialog
TheSortLibrary commandprovidesawaytoarrangeallreferencesshowing intheLibrarywindowforbrowsing,exporting,print-
ing,orcopying.
Bydefault,thereferenceslistedintheLibrarywindowareautomaticallysorted bythefirstauthorslastname.
Youcanchangethesortorderbyselecting SortLibraryfromtheToolsmenu(seeSorting theLibrary)orbyclickingthecolumn
headings.Whenyousortalibrary,thatsortorderisretainedevenafteryoucloseandreopena library.
Tochangethesortorder:
1. Clickinthereferencelist.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSortLibrary.
3. Selectoneormorefieldnamesfromthelistsin thedialog.Enterthefieldnamesintheorderyouwantthereferences
sorted.Youdonothavetouseallfiveoptions.
4. Clickthebuttontotherightofeachfieldto indicateascendingordescendingorder.
5. Withthefieldnamesenteredasdesired,click OK.
TheSortOptionsdialogisinitiallysettosortthelibrarybyauthor names,inalphabeticalorder, andthenreferencespublishedby
thesame authoraresortedbyyear(fromoldesttonewest).
Note:EndNotereadsthedefaultlanguage(orlocale)settingfromyouroperatingsystemand usesitasthedefaultlanguagefor
charactersorting.However,youcanoverridethedefaultlanguagesettingonthisdialog.TheKoreansort optionwasaddedto
EndNoteX2,andwillbeignoredbyearlierversions ofEndNote.
Related Topics:
SortingPreferences
Special CasesinSorting
The ReferenceListPanel
Special Cases in Sorting
Exceptfortitlefields,quotationmarks, parenthesesandotherpunctuation marksareconsideredduringasort.Inanalphabetic
sort,punctuation comesfirst,thennumbers,thenlettersA-Z.
Ifthefieldyouselectedtosortbyisemptyinaparticularreference, ornotincludedintheselectedreferencetype,thatreference
willsortbeforetheotherreferencesinascendingorder.
Author Names
Whenyouselect theAuthorfieldforsorting,authornamesfromthe firstAuthorfieldaresortedbylastnamefirst,thenfirstinitial.
Next,authornamesfromtheSecondaryAuthorfieldarecomparedforsorting. Then,authornamesfromtheTertiaryAuthorfield
arecomparedforsorting.
Ifareferencehasmorethanoneauthorinasinglefield,EndNoteincludes theadditionalauthorsinthesort(upto255characters)
beforemoving ontootherfields.
IfyouselectthespecificFirstAuthorfieldtosort,onlythesurname isusedforsorting.
IfyourEndNotelibraryincludesauthornameswithconnectivessuch asde,di,van,andvon,youmaywantEndNotetoskip
thesepartsofthenameinordertosortthereferencesbytheprincipalelementofthesurname.SeeSortingPreferences.
Titles
Whensortingbytitlefields,EndNoteignoresthewordsA,An, andTheaswellaspunctuationatthestartofthetitles.You may
enteradditionalwordsthatshouldbeignoredforsortingpurposes whentheyappearatthebeginningofatitle.Todoso,seeSort-
ing Preferences.
Sorting Diacritical Characters
CharacterswithdiacriticsaresorteddifferentlyinEnglish,Spanish, Swedish,andotherlanguages.EndNotereadsthedefaultlan-
guage(orlocale) settingfromyouroperatingsystemandusesitasthedefaultlanguage forsorting.EndNotetypicallysortsdia-
criticalcharactersaccordingtotherulesofthelanguageselectedforyouroperatingsystem;however, youcanoverridethe
defaultlanguagesettingontheSort Optionsdialog.
Related Topics:
Sortingthe Library
The ReferenceListPanel
Using Groups
About Groups and Group Sets
About Groups and Group Sets
Groupsmakeiteasytobreakalargelibraryintosubsetsforlater viewing.Agroupsimplypointstoasubset ofreferencesthat
already existinthelibrary.
Youcanfurtherorganizeyourreferencesbystoringmultiplegroups ingroupsets.
The Types of Groups in EndNote
Thereareseveraltypesofgroupsthatmakeiteasytoorganizeyour referencesinEndNote.Thefirstsectionofgroupsareauto-
maticallygenerated, andincludebothpermanentgroupsandtemporarygroups.
Permanent Groups includeAllReferences, Unfiled,andTrash. Thesearegroupsthatyou cannotremoveorrename.AllRef-
erencesdisplayseveryreferenceinthelibrary.Unfileddisplaysthosereferencesthatarenotpartofacustom group(and,
optionally,smartgroups).Trashisaholdingplaceforreferences youhaveremovedfromthelibrarybuthavenotyetper-
manentlydiscarded byemptyingtheTrash.
Temporary Groups includeCopiedReferences,DuplicateReferences, ImportedReferences, SearchResults,andseveral
FullTextgroups.ThesetemporarygroupsmaybereplacedasyouusecommandsinEndNote,andarealwaysdeletedwhen
youclosealibrary.(Onlythegroupsaredeleted;thereferencesremain inthelibrary.)
Custom Groups aremanuallycreatedbytheusertohelporganizethelibrary;youcandrag-and-droptocopyindividualref-
erencesintoacustomgroup.CustomGroupsarelistedalphabetically(clicktheMyLibraryheadertotoggle betweenascend-
inganddescendingorder).
Smart Groups usesearchcriteriatodynamicallyupdategroupsasexistingreferencesareeditedornewreferencesare
addedtothelibrary.
Combination: UsecombinationgroupstobetterorganizeyourEndNotereferences.Combine groupsanduseAND,OR,and
NOTtocreatenew,usefulsmartgroupsets. Savereferencesingroupsandthensavesetsofgroupsingroupsets. Youcan
collectbothcustomgroupsandsmartgroupswithinthesamecombination groupset.
Online Search groupsallowyoutoeasilyinitiateasearchofafavoriteonlinedatabase andquicklyviewthelatestdownload.
Find Full Textgroupsaretemporary,andappearonlywhenyouusetheFindFullTextcommand.
Whenyouclickonagroupname,thenameishighlightedandthereference listisupdatedtoreflectthereferencesfoundinthat
group.
The Types of Group Sets in EndNote
GroupsetsareindicatedbygroupsetheadingsintheGroupspanel. Eachsetmaylistanumberofgroups.Somegroupsetsare
permanentand cannot beremoved:
l Online Search
Forinformationaboutonlinesearching, seeHowto Searchan OnlineDatabase.
l Find Full Text
ForinformationaboutFindFullText, seeFindingFullText foraReference.
Youcanalsocreateanynumberofgroupsets.Groupsets cancontainanycombinationofcustomgroups,smartgroups,andcom-
binationgroups.SeeUsingGroupSets
Expandorcollapsethelistunderagroupsetheadingbyclickingthetriangleplus(+)orminus(-)icon.Whenasetiscollapsed,
thenumber nexttothegroupsetheadingreflectsthetotalnumberofreferences foundinallgroupsintheset.
PleasealsoseeDisplayingor HidingGroupsandImportantPointsaboutGroups.
Related Topics:
CustomGroups
ManagingGroups
SmartGroups
TemporaryGroups
Displaying or Hiding Groups
Display Modes
IntheLibrarywindow,youcanworkin Integrated Library&OnlineSearchModeorswitchbetween Local LibraryModeandOnline
Search Mode.Toselectadisplaymode,clickontheappropriatetoolbar button.
ThedefaultdisplayisIntegratedLibrary&OnlineSearchMode, whereallgroupsandcommandsareavailable.Whenyoudown-
loadreferences fromanonlinedatabase,theyaresaveddirectlyintoyouropenlibrary. YoumaywanttoalwaysworkinIntegrated
Library&OnlineSearch Mode.
TheotheroptionistoswitchbetweenLocalLibraryModeandOnline SearchMode.InLocalLibraryMode,alllibrarycommands
areavailable,butOnlineSearchgroupsarenotavailable;onceyouselecttheOnline SearchcommandfromtheToolsmenu,you
areautomaticallyswitchedto OnlineSearchMode.
InOnlineSearchMode,onlytheOnlineSearchgroupsareavailable, andreferencesaredownloadedintoatemporarylibrary.This
allowsyou todownloadreferencesfromonlinedatabaseswithoutaffectingyourlocallibrary;onceyoudeterminewhichref-
erencesyouwanttokeep, youcan copythemtoapermanentEndNotelibrary.Manylibrarycommandsarenot availableinOnline
SearchMode.SeeHowtoSearchanOnlineDatabaseforstep-by-stepinformationaboutsearchingonlinedatabases.
Formoreinformationaboutthedisplaymodes, seeTheLibraryWindowDisplayModes.
The Groups Panel
TheleftpaneloftheLibrarywindowliststhegroupsinthecurrent library,alongwitharecordcountforeachgroup.Anewlibrary
mayhave veryfewgroups.TheAllReferences, Unfiled,andTrashgroupsarepermanent, andcannotberemoved.
Clickaminussign(-)next toagroupsetheadingtohidethelistofgroupsunderthatheading. Clickaplussign(+)nexttoagroup
setheadingtodisplaythelist ofgroupsinthatgroupset.
Youcandragtheseparatorbarbetweenthegroupnamelistandthereference listtoadjustthesizeofthepanels.
Youmaynotalwayswanttodisplaygroups,asthatpaneltakesupscreen space.FromtheGroupsmenu,selectHideGroupsor
ShowGroups.
Important Points about Groups
Keepthesepointsinmindasyouworkwithgroups:
l Youcancreateupto5,000customgroupsandsmartgroups(combined)inasinglelibrary.
l Youcancreateamaximumof5,000groupsetsin asinglelibrary.
l Youcanaddareferencetoaparticulargrouponlyonce(basedontheuniquerecordnumber).Asinglereference willnever
appearmorethanonceinaparticulargroup.However,you canaddthatreferencetoanynumberofgroups.
l Whenyouareviewingagroupofreferenceswith selected(highlighted)references,andthenswitchtoviewingAll Ref-
erences,thesamesetofreferencesareselectedintheAllReferences viewuntilyoudeselectthem.
l Youcandragreferencesfromonelibrarydirectlyintoagroupinanotheropenlibrary.Thereferencesarecopiedto thesec-
ondlibraryandintothetarget group.
l Removingareferencefromacustomgroupdoesnotdeleteitfromthelibrary.Itremovesthereferencefromthe groupsub-
set,butthereferencestillexistsinthelibrary.
l Deletingareferencefromalibraryalsodeletes itfromallgroupsinthatlibrary.Thereferencenolongerexists. Highlightthe
reference,gototheAllReferencesview,andthenselect MoveReferencestoTrashfromtheReferencesmenu.
l Whenyoudeleteareferencefromasmart group,EndNotealsodeletestherecordfromtheAllReferencesgroup, withno
warning.
l OnceyoumoveareferencetotheTrashgroup,itisnolongerofficiallyinyourlibrary(itwillnotappearin anyothergroupor
referencelist,itisnotincludedinyourreference count,anditcannotbesearchedorcited).However,untilyouselect
EmptyTrashfromtheReferencesmenu,youcanstilldragthereferencefromtheTrashgroup backtoyouractivelibrary.
Related Topics:
About GroupsandGroupsSets
CustomGroups
ManagingGroups
SmartGroups
TemporaryGroups
Group Sets
Using Group Sets
Beforelong,youcouldhavealargenumberofgroupsinyourlibrary.Tohelporganizeyourgroups,youcancreateupto5,000
groupsets.Groupsetscancontainanycombinationofcustomgroupsandsmart groups.
Usetheplus(+)orminus(-)signsnexttoagroupsetheadertoexpand orcollapsethelistofgroupsfoundinthatgroupset.When
thelist iscollapsed,thenumbernexttothegroupsetheaderreflectsthetotal numberofreferencesfoundineachgroup.This
numbercouldincludeduplicates (referencesthatareincludedinmorethanonegroup).
Somegroupsetsareautomaticandcannotberemovedorrenamed.TheseincludethesetsOnlineSearch,EndNoteWeb,and
FindFullText.
Togetstartedwithgroupsets,see:
l AboutGroupsandGroupSets
l CreatingaGroupSet
l ChangingthePositionofaGroupSet
l RenamingaGroupSet
l DeletingaGroupSet
The Lost & Found Group Set
TheLost&Foundgroupsethasspecialproperties.Chancesarethat youwillneverseethisgroupset.Itappearsonlyinveryspe-
cificsituations. Thisisoneexample:
1. YouopenyourlibrarywithEndNote X6.
2. Youcreate agroupsetandagroupofreferenceswithinthegroupset.
3. Youthenmovethelibrarytoanothermachine.
4. Youopenthelibrarywithanolder versionofEndNote.TheearlierversionofEndNotedidnotincludethe groupsetfeature
andsoitignoresyourgroupsetinformation.
5. Yousavechangestothelibrary.
6. Youmovethelibrarybacktotheoriginal machineandopenitagainwithEndNote X6.
EndNoteremembers thatyou haveasavedgroup, butitdoesnotknowunderwhichgroupsetitshouldbelocatedsoit
placesthegroupinaLost&Foundset.
TheLost&Foundgroupsetisatemporaryholdingplace. Youcannot addtoanygroupstothisset, renamethem,orsearchthem.
Theonly thingthatyoucandoisdragagroupfromthissettoanothergroupset.Once youdothat,allfunctionalityreturnstothe
group.Onceyouhavemoved allgroupsfromtheLost&Foundset,theLost&Foundsetis removed.
Creating a Group Set
AnewlibrarybeginswithasinglegroupsettitledMyGroups. However,youcancreateupto5,000groupsetsinyourEndNote
library.
Tocreateagroupset:
1. FromtheGroupsmenu,selectCreateGroupSet.
2. Enteranameforthenewgroupset.
Whenyoufirstcreateagroupset,therearenogroupslistedbelow theheading.Youcandraggroupstomovethemfromother
groupsetsto thenewgroupset,oryoucancreatenewcustomgroups,smartgroups,and/orcombinationgroupsunderthenew
heading.
Changing the Position of a Group Set
Tochangethepositionofagroupset:
Clickonthegroupsetheading,holddownthemousebutton,anddrag anddropthegroupheadingtoitsnewpositionintheGroups
panel.The newpositionwillberememberedeachtimeyoustartEndNote.
Youcanchangethepositionofanygroupset,includingOnlineSearch, EndNoteWeb,andFindFullText.
Renaming a Group Set
Torenameagroupset:
1. Clickonagroupsetheadingtoselectit.
2. FromtheGroupsmenu,selectRenameGroupSet. Or,right-clickonthegroupnameandselectRenameGroupSet.
3. Enteranewnameforthegroupset.
Renamingdoesnotaffectthegroupsfoundintheset.Yourgroupswill remainintact.
Youcannot renamethepermanentgroupsets:OnlineSearch,EndNoteWeb, andFindFullText.
Deleting a Group Set
Areyousureyouwanttodeletethatgroupset?Whenyoudeleteagroup set,allofthegroupswithinthatsetarealsodeleted!The
references arenotdeleted;theystillresideinyourlibrary.
Todeleteagroupset:
1. Right-clickonagroupsetheadingtodisplaya menu.
2. Fromthemenu,selectDeleteGroupSet.
Youcannot deleteanyofthepermanentgroupsets:OnlineSearch,EndNote Web,andFindFullText.
Youalsocannot deletethelastgroupsetleftinalibrary. Eachlibrarymusthaveatleastonegroupsetasaplacetostore newcus-
tomgroups,smartgroups,and/orcombinationgroups.
Automatic Groups
Permanent Groups
PermanentgroupsaremaintainedbyEndNote,andcannotberenamedor deleted.Thepermanentgroupsare:
l All References: Thisdisplaysallofthereferencesinthecurrentlibrary.Ifyou highlightasubsetofreferencesinthisgroup
andthendisplayonly thoseselectedreferences,thenameofthegroupchangestoShowingReferences.Thestatusline
alongthebottomofthewindowwillalways tellyouhowmayreferencesyouareviewingplusthetotalnumber ofreferences
inthelibrary.
l Unfiled: Thisgroupcontainsthosereferencesthatarenotpartofacustom group(andoptionallynotpartofasmartgroup).
Right +clickonUnfiledto displayacontextsensitivemenuandtogglethe settingExcludeSmartGroupsinUnfiled/
IncludeSmartGroupsin Unfiled.
l Trash: Thisgroupcontainsthereferencesyouhaveremovedfromthelibrary byhighlightingreferencesandselectingMove
ReferencestoTrashfromtheReferencesmenu.Whilethereferencesareofficiallynolonger inyourlibrary(theywillnot
appearinanyothergrouporreference list,theyarenotincludedinyourreferencecount,andtheycannot besearchedor
cited),theyarenotcompletelydeleteduntilyougo totheReferencesmenuandselectEmptyTrash.Untilyouselect
Empty Trash,youcanstilldragreferencesfromtheTrashgroupbackto youractivelibrary.
Temporary Groups
Thereareseveralgroupsthatarecreatedautomaticallyandaretemporary;theyexistonlywhilealibraryisopen.Allofthese
groupsmaybeavailable atthesametime.ClosingEndNoteorjustthelibrarywilldeleteatemporary group,butthereferences
themselvesarenotdeletedfromthelibrary.
Thetemporarygroupsare:
l Copied References: Thistemporarygroupdisplaysthelastgroupofreferencesthatwere retrievedinOnlineSearchMode
andthencopiedintoyourpermanent librarywiththeReferences>CopyReferencestocommandortheCopytoLocal
Libraryicononthetoolbar.SeeHow toSearchanOnlineDatabase.
l Duplicate References: Thisgroupshowstheresultsofduplicatedetectioninyourlibrary. Youcanrunduplicatedetection
withtheReferences>DetectDuplicatescommand.SeeFinding DuplicateReferences.
l Imported References: Thisgroupshowsthelastgroupofreferencesimportedinto thelibrarywiththeFile>Import com-
mand.Eachtimeyouimport additionalreferencesintothelibrary,thisgroupisreplacedwiththenewsetofreferences.See
General ImportingInstructions.
l Search Results: Thisgroupshowstheresultsofthelastsearchperformedonthecurrent EndNotelibrary.Eachtimeyou
executeanothersearchonthelibrary, thisgroupisupdatedwiththenewsearchresults.SeeSimple Searches.
l Find Full Text groups:WhenyouusetheReferences>FindFullText>FindFullTextcommand tofindthefulltextofa
reference,aFindFullTextgroupsetappears, withseveraltemporarygroupsinit.Theyinclude Searching,FoundPDF,
FoundURL, andNotFound.SeeFinding FullText.
Becausetemporarygroupsaredeletedwhenyouclosethelibrary,you mayoccasionallywanttosaveoneofthemtoacustom
groupsoitisavailable duringalatersession.
Tosaveatemporarygroupasacustomgroup:
1. Clickonthegroupnametodisplaythelistof referencesinthegroup.
2. Toselectallreferencesinthelist,firstclick inthelist,andthengototheEditmenuandchooseSelectAll.
3. FromtheGroupsmenu,selectAddReferencesTo> CreateGroup.
4. Nameandsavethenewgroup.
Note:Youaresaving aspecificsetofreferences.Ifyouaddmorereferencestoyourlibrary,thesearchresultsyousavedtoa
customgrouparenotupdated.Youwould needtore-runthesearchtofindthenewreferences.
Custom Groups
Custom Groups
Customgroupsareperfectforwhenyouwanttobuildagroupofreferencesthatarenoteasilyfoundbyindextermorothercom-
montext.Youcan browsethroughyourreferencelistanddragindividualreferencestoa customgroup.
Creategroupsetsinordertoorganizeyourcustomgroupsandsmart groups.SeeGroupSets.
Customgroupsandsmartgroupsarelistedalphabeticallywithineach groupset.ClicktheMyLibraryheaderatthetopofthe
Groupspaneltotogglebetweenascendinganddescendingorder.
Togetstartedwithcustomgroups,see:
l CreatingaCustomGroup
l AddingReferencestoaCustomGroup
l RemovingReferencesfromaCustomGroup
Creating a Custom Group
Youhavetwooptionsforcreatingacustomgroup.Youcanselectreferences andthenaddthemtoanewgroup,oryoucancreate
anemptygroupand thenaddreferencestoit.
Tocreateacustomgroup:
1. Highlightthenameofthegroupsettocontain thenewgroup.
2. Useoneoftheseoptions:
l FromtheGroupsmenu,selectCreateGroup.
l Right-clickonthegroupsetnametodisplayacontext-sensitivemenuand select CreateGroup.
l Selectreferencesinareferencelist,then gototheGroupsmenuandselectAddReferencesTo>Create Group.
3. Enteragroupnamethatisanywherefrom1to255charactersinlength.Therearenorestrictionsonthecharacters youcan
useinagroupname.Itispossibletogivetwodifferent groupsthesamename.
4. Yournextstepistoaddreferencestothenew group.SeeAddingReferences toaCustomGroup.
Youarelimitedto5,000customandsmartgroupsperlibrary.Onceyou reachthatlimit,youmustdeleteagroupbeforeyoucan
addanewone.
Ifyoudonothaveagroupsetselectedwhenyoucreateanewgroup, thenewgroupwillbeaddedtothenearestgroupset.
Adding References to a Custom Group
Youcanaddreferencestoaneworexistingcustomgroupatanytime.Youdonothavetoworryaboutcopyingthesameref-
erencetoagroupmore thanonce;EndNotewillnotallowduplicates(basedonuniqueEndNote recordnumbers).
Toaddreferencestoagroup:
1. First,selectthereferencesyouwant toaddtothegroup.Youcandothisinmanyways,forexample:
l Clickonanindividualreferencetoselect it.
l Displayalistofreferences(suchassearchresults),clickinthelistofreferences,andthengotothe Editmenuand
chooseSelectAll.
l HolddowntheShiftkeyandclickontworeferencestoselect arangeofcontiguousreferences.
l HolddowntheCtrlkeyandclickonindividualreferencestoselectthem.
2. Addthereferencestoagroup.Youhaveseveralmethodsavailable:
l Draganddroptheselectedreferencesonto anexistingcustomgroupnameintheleftpaneloftheLibrary window.
l FromtheGroupsmenu,selectAddReferences Toandthenselecteitherthenameofanexistingcustomgroup or
CreateGroup.
l Right-click onthereferencelisttodisplayamenu,selectAddReferencesTo,andthenselecteitherthenameofan
existing customgrouporCreateGroup.
How do you know which references are not included in any custom groups?
TheautomaticUnfiledgroupincludes referencesthatdonotappearinanycustomgroups.
TheUnfiledgroupmayormaynot includereferencesthatarepartofasmart group.Right-clickonUnfiledtodisplayacontext
sensitivemenuandtogglethesettingExcludeSmartGroupsinUnfiled/IncludeSmartGroupsinUnfiled.
Removing References from a Custom Group
Youcanremovereferencesfromanyofyourcustomgroupsoronlinesearch groups.Thereferenceswillstillbeinyourlibraryand
appearunder AllReferences-theyjustwillnotappearinthatparticularcustom group.
Toremovereferencesfromacustomgroup:
1. IntheleftGroupspanelofthelibrary window,clickonthenameofthegroup.
2. Inthereferencelist,selectthe reference(s)youwanttoremove. Youcanselectmultiplereferences:
l HolddowntheShiftkey andclickontworeferencestoselect arangeofcontiguousreferences.
l HolddowntheCtrl keyandclickonindividualreferencestoselect them.
3. SelecttheRemoveReferencesfrom Groupcommandinoneoftheseways:
l PresstheDeletekeyon yourkeyboard.
l FromtheGroupsmenu, selectRemoveReferencesfromGroup.
Rememberthattheselectedreferencesareonlyremovedfromthisgroup. TheystillexistinAllReferencesandpossiblyinother
groups.
Ifyoureallywanttodeletethereferencesfromyourlibrary,seeDeletingReferencesfromaGroup.
Warning:When youdeletearecordfromasmartgroup,EndNotealsodeletestherecord fromAllReferenceswithoutwarning.
Torestorethereference, gotoTrash,andthenright-clicktobringupamenu.SelectRestoreto LibraryandEndNotereturnsthe
referencetothesmartgroup.
Smart Groups
Smart Groups
Smartgroupsarebuiltwithsearchstrategies. Smartgroupsaredynamically updatedasyouaddreferencestoandeditreferences
inthelibrary.
Youcancreategroupsetsinordertofurtherorganizeyoursmartgroups andcustomgroups.SeeUsingCustom GroupSets.
Tostartworkingwithsmartgroups,see:
l CreatingaSmartGroup
l CreatingaSmartGroupfromanExistingSearchStrategy
l EditingaSmartGroup
Creating a Smart Group
Smartgroupsarebuiltwithsearchstrategiesandaredynamicallyupdated asyouaddreferencestoandeditreferencesinthe
library.
Note:Youcannot createasmartgroupwhenanOnlineSearchgroupisdisplayed,whether youareshowingIntegratedModeor
OnlineSearchMode.
Tocreateasmartgroup:
1. Displaythesetofreferencesthatyouwouldliketosearch.ThiswouldtypicallybeAllReferences.
2. FromtheGroupsmenu,selectCreateSmartGroup. Asearchdialogappears.
3. Enteranameforthegroup,thenyoursearchstrategy,andthenclickCreate.
TheSmartGroupsearchdialogworksthesameastheregularSearchpanel. Ifyouneedmoreinformationabouthowtousethe
Searchdialog,seeSearchingforReferences.
Thenewsmartgroupwillbeaddedtothenextgroupsetaftertheonebeingsearched.Ifyouaresearchingallreferences,itwillbe
inthe top-mostgroupset.Youcandrag-and-dropthenewsmartgroupto anygroupset.
Related Topics:
Creating aSmartGroupfromanExistingSearchStrategy
EditingaSmartGroup
Creating a Smart Group from an Existing Search Strategy
Youmayhavealreadycreatedandsavedasearchstrategytofindasubset ofreferences.Ratherthanrunthesearchagaineach
timeyouenterand editreferences,youcanusethesavedsearchstrategytocreateasmart group.
Tocreateasmartgroupfromasearchstrategy:
1. ClickonAllReferencestodisplay allreferencesinthelibrary.
2. IntheTabspanel,clicktheSearchtab.
3. ClickOptions,andthenselectLoadSearch.
4. Locate,select,andopenthesearchstrategytoloaditintotheSearchpanel.
5. ClickOptions,andthenselectConvert toSmartGroup.
AConvertedSearchgroupiscreatedandstoredasthefirstgroupin thenextgroupset.Ifyousearchedallreferences, theCon-
verted Searchgroupwillappearasthefirstgroupunderthefirstcustomgroupset.Ifyousearchedagroupsubset,theConverted
Searchgroupwillappear asthefirstitemunderthenextgroupset.Youcandrag-and-dropthesmartgrouptoanygroupset.
Thesmartgroupwillbeupdatedwithmatchingreferenceseachtimeyou saveareference.
Youcanrenamethenewgroup.SeeRenaming aGroup.
Related Topics:
Creatinga SmartGroup
EditingaSmartGroup
Editing a Smart Group
Youmayhavecreatedasmartgrouponlytofindthatyouneedtotweak thesearchstrategyforthegroup.
Toeditasmartgroup:
1. HighlightthesmartgroupnameintheGroupspanel.
2. FromtheGroupsmenu,selectEditGrouptodisplay thesmartgroupsearchdialog.Thecurrentsearchstrategyisdis-
played.
3. Modifythesearchstrategyasneeded,andclick Save.
IfyouneedmoreinformationabouthowtousetheSearchdialog,see SearchingforReferences.
Thesmartgroupupdatesbasedonthenewsearchstrategy.
Combination Groups
Creating a Combination Group
Combinecustomandsmartgroupsunderasinglegrouptobetterorganize yourEndNotereferences.UseAND,OR,andNOT
logictocreatenew,useful combinedgroupsets.Savereferencesincustomandsmartgroups,andthen savethesesetsof
groupsasacombinedgroupset.
Tocreateacombinationgroup:
1. FromtheGroupspanel,selectCreatefromGroups todisplaytheCreatefromGroupsdialog.
2. Enteranameforthecombinationgroup.
3. InthefieldsundertheIncludeReferencesheading, selectupto10customand/orsmartgroupstouseasyoursearch crite-
ria.
4. UseAND,OR,NOTtoincludeorexcludecustomand/or smartgroupsinyourcombinedgroupset.
5. YoucanalsousetheAdd(+)andRemove(-)buttons tomanagewhichgroupsyouwanttoincludeinand/orremovefrom
yourcombinedgroupset
Youarelimitedto5,000customandsmartgroupsperlibrary.Onceyou reachthatlimit,youmustdeleteagroupbeforeyoucan
addanewone.
Note:Youcannot includegroupsetsinacombinationgroupset.
Editing a Combination Group
Toeditacombinationgroupset:
1. Selectthegroupthatyouwanttoedit.
2. FromtheGroupspanel,selectEditGrouptodisplay theCreatefromGroupsdialog.
3. Enteranewnameforthegroup(optional).
4. UseAND,OR,NOTtoincludeorexcludecustomand/or smartgroupsinyourcombinedgroupset(optional).
YoucanalsousetheAdd(+)andRemove(-)buttonstomanagewhich groupsyouwanttoincludeinand/orremovefromyour
combinedgroupset.
Deleting a Combination Group
Todeleteacombinationgroupset:
1. Selectthegroupthatyouwanttodelete.
2. FromtheGroupsmenu,selectDeleteGrouptodisplay adialog.
3. ClickDeletetoremovethecombinedgroupsetfromtheGrouppanel.
Managing Groups
Managing Groups
Seethesetopicsaboutmanaginggroups:
l CreatingaCombinationGroup
l SearchingaGroup
l RenamingaGroup
l DeletingReferencesfromaGroup
l DeletingaGroup
Searching a Group
Youcanlimityoursearchingtoaspecificgroupofreferences.
Tosearchagroup:
1. ClickonthegroupnametodisplaythereferencesintheLibrarywindow.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSearchLibrarytodisplaytheSearchpanel.
3. MakesurethesearchsetlistissettoSearch WholeGroup.
4. EnteryoursearchstrategyandclickSearch.
Formoreinformationaboutsearching,seeSearching forReferences.
Renaming a Group
Thereareseveralwaystorenameacustomgrouporasmartgroup, so youcanchoosetheonethatisthemostconvenientfor
you.
Torenameagroup:
1. IntheleftpaneloftheLibrarywindow,clickonthenameofthegroup.
2. SelecttheRenameGroupcommandinone oftheseways:
l Clickonthegroupnameasecondtimetodirectly editthename.
l FromtheGroupsmenu,selectRenameGroup.
l Right-clickwithyourmouseonthegroupnametodisplayamenu,andselect Rename Group.
Youcannot renametheautomaticallycreatedgroups:AllReferences, DuplicateReferences,ImportedReferences, Search
Results,Unfiled,Trash andtheFindFullTextgroups.
Deleting References from a Group
Whenyoudeleteareferencefromagroup, itismoved totheTrashandisdeletedfromallgroupsinyourlibrary.
Ifwhatyoureallywanttodoisjustremovethe reference fromacustomgroup,withoutdeletingthereferencefromyourlibrary,
seeRemovingReferencesfrom aCustomGroup.
Todeleteareferencefromyourlibrary:
1. Highlightthereference(ormultiplereferences) intheReferenceListpaneloftheLibrarywindow.
2. MoveReferencestoTrash.
Atthispoint, thereferencesaremovedtotheTrashgroup. TheTrash groupisatemporaryholdingplace.Thereferences
arenolongerin yourlibrary,andcannot becitedorsearched,buttheyhavenotbeen irrevocablythrownawayyet,either.If
youchangeyourmind,you canstilldragareferencefromtheTrashbacktotheAllReferencesgrouptobringitbackinto
thelibrary.
3. Whenyouareabsolutelycertainthatyounolonger wantthereference(s)youhavemoved toTrash,selecttheTrashgroup
andthengototheReferencesmenu andselectEmptyTrash.
4. DisplayAllReferencestocontinueworkinginyourlibrary.
Warning: Whenyoudeletearecordfromasmartgroup,EndNotealsodeletestherecord fromAllReferenceswithoutwarning.
Torestorethereference,go toTrash,andthenright-clicktobringupamenu.SelectRestoretoLibrary andEndNotereturnsthe
referencetothesmartgroup.
Deleting a Group
Whenyoudeleteagroup,referencesareremovedfrom thegroupbutarenotdeleted;thereferencesthemselvesarestillpartof
thelibrary.
Temporarygroupsarealwaysremovedwhenyouclosethelibrary.
WhenyoudeleteanOnlineSearchgroup,itdoesnot meanthatyoucannolongersearchthatonlinedatabase.Youhavenot
deletedtheconnectionfilefromdisk,youhavesimplyremoveditasa favorite.YoucangotoTools>OnlineSearchandselect
thatconnection fileagain.
Todeleteagroup:
1. IntheleftpaneloftheLibrarywindow,clickonthenameofthegroupyouwanttodelete.
2. SelecttheDeleteGroupcommandinone oftheseways:
l FromtheGroupsmenu,selectDeleteGroup.
l Right-clickwithyourmouseonthegroupnametodisplayacontext-sensitivemenu, andselectDelete.
Thegroupisdeletedfromthelibrary,butthereferencesthatwere inthegrouparestillpartofthelibrary.
Term Lists
Introduction to Term Lists
EndNotestermlistsareusedtostoretermssuchaskeywords,authornames,orjournalnames.Youcanusethesestoredterms
whenentering referencestoimproveconsistencyandaccuracyofinformationinyour library.YoucanalsousetheJournalsterm
listtostoreabbreviated journalnamesthatEndNotecansubstituteforthefulljournalnamein abibliography.
Togetageneralsenseofhowthetermlistswork,heresabriefoverviewofhowtermlistscanbebuiltandusedforsomeonewith
anewEndNote library.Withthedefaulttermlistsettingsinthepreferences,allof theupdatingofterms,andauto-completion,
happensautomatically.Ifyoudonotlikethisbehavior,youmayturnoffthesesettings(seeTermListPreferences).
Term Lists are Automatically Maintained
WhenyoucreateanewEndNotelibrary,therearethreeemptytermlists alreadysetupandreadyforyoutouse:Authors,Jour-
nals,andKeywords.Asyouenternewreferencesintoyourlibrary(whetherbytyping,importing, orpastingthem)EndNote
updatesthetermlistsautomaticallysothat theAuthors,Journals,andKeywordslistsincludealloftheauthornames,journal
names,andkeywordsenteredintoyourreferences.
Term Lists Help With Data Entry
WhenyouusetheNewReferencecommandintheReferencesmenutocreate newreferences,youwillnoticetwootherfeatures
associatedwiththe termlists. Asyoubeginenteringanauthorname,EndNoteattemptstocompletethenameforyoubysug-
gestingtheclosestmatchingnameintheAuthorstermlist.Ifyouenteranewnamethatisnotalreadyinyour Authorlist,the
nameappearsinredtexttoindicatethatitisanew additiontothetermlist.Whenyoucloseorsavethereference,that newterm
isaddedtothelist.
Whenyouaresearchingforreferences,youcanalsoopenatermlist topicktheexacttermornameforwhichtosearch.
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Defining TermLists
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Important Points About Term Lists
Thefollowinglistincludesusefulinformationabouttermlists.
l Termlistsarestoredwiththelibraryandtherefore arespecifictoonlythatlibrary.
l Alibrarymustbeopenbeforeyoucaneditits termlists.
l Ifyouenteralotofreferencesmanually,you mayfindithelpfultocreatenewtermlistsforthingslikepublisher andcity
names.Upto31termlistscanbecreatedforanylibrary.
l Thereisnolimittothenumberoftermsin atermlist.
l Onetermcanbeupto253characterslong.
l Termscanbecopiedfromonelistandpastedintoanother.
l Entiretermlistscanbeexportedandimported.
l Bydefault,termlistsareautomaticallyupdated fromthetermsenteredinyourreferences.Newtermsappearinred textin
theReferencewindow.Thisfunctionalitymaybeturnedoff usingEndNotesPreferences.
l Termlistscanbe"linked"tospecific fieldssothatEndNoteassociatesthecorrecttermlistwiththefieldyouareediting.
l Termslistscanbeusedwiththe"Auto-entry" featureonoroff.Bydefault,thisoptionisturnedonsothatEndNote willsug-
gesttheclosestmatchingtermasyoutypeinareference.
l TheJournalstermliststoresvariousforms ofjournalnamesthatcanbeusedwhencreatingbibliographies.EndNote pro-
videsseveralJournalslists(includingHumanities,Medical,andChemistry)thatcanbeimportedforusewithyourEnd-
Notelibraries. LookintheEndNoteX6>Termsfolder.
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Defining TermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Introduction toTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Exporting and Printing Term Lists
Termlistscanbeexportedandthenimportedintoothertermlistsasawaytomovecompletelistsfromonelibrarytoanother(see
ImportingTermsintoTermLists).
Youcanalsoopenexportedtermlistsinawordprocessortoprintthem.
Toexportatermlist:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectDefineTermLists.
2. Highlightthetermlistthatyouwanttoexport.
3. ClickExportList.
4. Nameandsavethetextfilethatwillbecreated duringtheexport.
5. ClickOKandthe termsareexportedtothetextfileandlistedalphabetically,one termperline.
ThisfilecannowbeimportedintoanotherEndNotetermlistoropened inawordprocessortobeprinted.Termlistscannotbe
printeddirectly fromEndNote.
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Configuring TermSeparators(Delimiters)
Converting OldEndNoteJournalsFiles
Copying TermsBetweenLists
Copying TermsFromOtherSources
Defining TermLists
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
ImportingTermsIntoTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Linking TermListstoFields
Loading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations
Manually UpdatingTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Adding Terms to a Term List
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Bydefault,EndNoteautomaticallyupdatesthetermlistsinalibrarysotheystaycurrentwiththedatathathasbeenenteredinto
thereferences. Ifyouenteratermintoareference,andthattermisnotintheassociated termlistalready,thetermappearsinred
texttoalertyouthatyou haveenteredanewterm.Thiscanhelpyoutomaintainacontrolledvocabulary forkeywordsandother
terms.
Youcanturnoffautomaticupdatingoftermlistsifyoudonotwant tousethetermlistsatall.Youcanalsoturnthisoptionoffand
manually entertermsintoyourlistsasdescribedinthefollowingsections.For example,youcanmanuallyenteralloftheterms
youplantouseintoatermlistbeforeenteringreferencesintothelibrary.Thiscanbeextremelyhelpfulwhenyouhavesomeone
elseenteringdataforyouandyouwant aspecificvocabularyusedforkeywordsorotherterms. Asreferencesareenteredintothe
EndNotelibrary,thetermlistscanspeeddataentry, andifaredtermappears,thepersondoingdataentryknowsthattheyhave
enteredsomethingthatwasnotintendedtobeavalidtermforthat field.
Turning Off the Automatic Updating of Term Lists:
1. FromtheEdit menu,selectPreferences.
2. SelecttheTermListspanel.
3. Clickthecheckboxesfor"Updatelistswhenimportingorpastingreferences"and"Updatelistsduring dataentry"to
removethecheckmark.Thefeaturewillbeturnedoff.
Delimiters
EndNotehaspredefinedtermlistsforauthors,keywords,andjournals. WhenyouentermultipletermsintothosefieldsandEnd-
Noteupdatesthe termlist,itneedstoknowwhenonetermendsandthenexttermbegins.Wecallthepunctuationthatseparates
theterms"delimiters."
FortheAuthorfields,authornamesmustalwaysbeenteredonename perline.Carriagereturns(endoflinemarks)aretheonly
validdelimiter forthisfield. Journalsnormallyhavejustonejournalnameperreference inthisfield, sodelimitersarenotimportant
here.Keywordsarethe mostcomplexofthethree.Bydefault,EndNoteusescarriagereturns(end oflinemarks),semicolons,
andbackslashes (\)asdelimitersfortheKeywordsfield.Ifyouwouldliketouseother delimiters, see"Delimiters usedforSep-
aratingTerms"inManuallyUpdatingTermLists.
Related Topics:
Defining TermLists
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Introduction toTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Copying Terms Between Lists
Youcancopytermsfromonelistandpastethemintoanotherasawaytoquicklytransfertermsbetweenlists. Thisisparticularly
usefulbecausetermlistsarespecifictoanindividuallibrary.
Tocopytermsbetweenlists:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectOpenTermLists,and thenselect thelistwithtermsyouwanttocopy.
2. Selecttheterm(s) tocopy.(HolddowntheCtrlkeytoselectmultipleterms;usetheShiftkeyto select arangeofterms.)
3. Right-clickandselectCopytocopythehighlightedterm(s).
4. Openanotherlist.
5. Clickinthelist,andthenright-clickandselectPasteandpress topasteintheterm(s).
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Copying TermsFromOtherSources
Defining TermLists
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
ImportingTermsIntoTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Introduction toTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Copying Terms From Other Sources
Youcancopytermsfromanytext,andpastethemintoatermlist.
Forexample,tocopyawordfromapaperyouarewritingandpastethat wordintoatermlist,firstselecttheterminyourword
processorand copyit.ThenswitchtoEndNoteandopenthedesiredtermlist.Click inthelist,andthenright clickandselect
Pastetopasteintheterm(s).
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Copying TermsBetweenLists
Defining TermLists
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
ImportingTermsIntoTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Introduction toTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
EndNoteprovidesseverallistsofjournalnamesandabbreviations,including listsforChemistry,Medicine(IndexMedicus), and
theHumanities, allofwhicharestoredintheTermsfolderinthe EndNotefolder.Ifyouareinterestedinusingtheseabbreviated
forms ofthejournalnamesinyourbibliographies,youcanimport theminto yourtermlistsandadjustyourstylestousetheabbre-
viations.
Ifyouwouldliketolookatthelistsbeforeimportingthem,youmayopentheminyourwordprocessorbutdonoteditorsave
them.Theymust remaintab-delimitedtextfilesinorderforEndNotetocorrectlyimport theterms.
Termscanbeimportedfromanytextfilethatliststhetermsoneperline.Makesureacarriagereturnisalsoinsertedafterthelast
terminthelist.Ifyoucreatealistoftermsinawordprocessingdocument, besuretosavethelistasplaintextusingtheSaveAs
commandinyour wordprocessor.Then,ifyourtermsincludeextendedcharacters, select theUnicode(UTF-8)encodingoption.
Toimportatextfilethatcontainsterms:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectDefineTermListsandhighlightthetermlisttowhichyouwanttoaddterms. UseCreate List
ifyouwanttocreateanewlist.
Note: EndNoteprovidesseveraljournallistsintheTermsfolderoftheEndNotefolder.Youmaywanttoimport oneof
theseliststoaddjournalnames toyourJournalstermlist.SeeLoading SuppliedJournalAbbreviationsformoreinfor-
mation.
2. ClickImportList.
3. Selectthetextfiletobeimportedandclick
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Copying TermsBetweenLists
Copying TermsFromOtherSources
Defining TermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Introduction toTermLists
Manually UpdatingTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Manually Updating Term Lists
Tocreateatermlistautomaticallyfromwordsalreadyinyourlibrary, usetheUpdateListbuttonontheTermsListdialog.Thisis
usefulifyouhaveturnedoffthepreferencetoautomaticallyupdateyourtermlists, orifyouhavereceivedalibraryfromacol-
leaguewithoutatermlist, orifyouhavedeletedatermlistandwishtorecreateit.
TheUpdateListcommandcanapplytojusttheselectedreferences orallreferencesshowingintheLibrarywindow.Usethe
Searchcommand toshowonlythosereferencesfromwhichyouwanttoupdatethelist.OrselectreferencesintheLibrarywin-
dowandupdatethetermlistfrom justthosereferences.SelectShowAllReferencesfromtheReferences menubeforeusingthe
UpdateListcommandtobesurethatyouareupdating thelistfromallofthereferencesinyourlibrary.
Important points about the Update List command:
l UpdateListdoesnotchangethetermsinyourreferences;itonlyaddsnewtermsfromyourreferencesintotheterm list.
l UpdateListdoesnotaddduplicatetermsto alist.
l UpdateListremovesleadingandtrailingspaces, butdoesnotchangepunctuation.
l UpdateListdoesnotautomaticallylinkfields toatermlist.Foreasydataentry,youcanlinkasingletermlist toany
numberoffields.SeeLinking TermListstoFields.
Toupdateatermlist:
IfyouareupdatingtheJournalslist,seeUpdating aJournalList.
1. Determinewhichreferencesshouldbescannedfor termsandmakesuretheyareeither"showing"orselected inthe
Librarywindow.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectDefineTermLists, andthenselectthetermlistthatyouwouldliketoupdate.
3. ClickUpdateList.
4. Thecurrentlylinkedfieldsarelistedinthedialog asthefieldsfromwhichEndNotegathersnewterms.Ifnecessary,
removeafieldfromthislistbyselectingitandclickingRemove Field;oraddanewfieldbyselectingitfromtheAddField
list. Addingorremovingfieldnamesfromthislistdoesnotaffectthe linksbetweenfieldsandtermlists.
TheGenericfieldnamesareusedinthisdialog.SeeList ofReferenceTypestofindthecorrespondingfieldnames forthe
fieldsofvariousreferencetypes.
5. Toupdateatermlistfromonlythecurrentlyselectedreferencesinyourlibrary,checktheUpdateTermsFromSelected
References option.
6. ClickOK to begintheupdatingprocess.Whenfinished,EndNotedisplaysthenumber oftermsaddedtothelist.ClickOK
andtheprocessis complete.
Note: PressEscorstopstheupdateprocess,butalltermsadded uptothatpointarekeptinthetermlist.
Delimiters Used for Separating Terms
Thetextthatisusedtoseparate thetermsinaparticularfieldisdeterminedbythe"Delimiter" settingsontheLists tabofthe
TermLists dialog(selectDefine TermListsfromthe Toolsmenu).
Ifyourkeywordsareseparatedbyaslash,suchas:
Antarctica/ozone/stratosphere
youshouldtypeaslash(/)asthefieldstermdelimiter.Acarriagereturnisalwaysinterpretedas adelimiter,soitisnotnecessary
toenteradelimiterfortheAuthor fields,oranyotherfieldthathastermsenteredone-per-line.Ifdifferent delimitersareusedfor
thesamefieldinyourreferences,youwillneed todomorethanoneupdateprocess,updatingfromthereferenceswith different
delimitersseparately.
Cleaning Up After Updating
ClickontheTermstab,andscroll throughthetermlisttomakesurethattheUpdate Listcommandhad thedesiredresult.Ifitdid
not,youcanhighlightspecifictermsand removethembyclickingDelete Term.
AfterusingtheUpdate Listcommand,youmightfindthatduetoerrorsorvariationsinspelling,youhavemultiple entriesforthe
sameterm.Scanthroughthelistanddeletetheunwanted terms.
Ifnecessary,usetheFindandReplacecommandfromtheEditmenutochange alloccurrencesofaterminyourlibrary.Forexam-
ple,ifboth"geochronology" and"geo-chronologyareenteredaskeywords, youcandeletetheunwantedtermgeochronologyfrom
theterm list,thenclickontheLibrarywindow,andselectChange TextCtrl+R)fromtheEditmenutochange"geochronology"to
"geo-chronologythroughoutthelibrary.
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Copying TermsBetweenLists
Copying TermsFromOtherSources
Defining TermLists
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
ImportingTermsIntoTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Introduction toTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Using the "New Term" Command
Tomanuallyaddatermtoatermlist:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectOpenTermListsand selectthetermlistthatyouwanttomodify.
2. OntheTermstab,clickNewTerm.
3. EnterthetermandclickOKtoaddittothelist anddismissthe"NewTerm"dialog.
Continuethiswayuntilyouhaveaddedthelastterm,thenclickOK todismissthedialog.
IfyouareenteringtermsintotheJournalstermlist,youwillhave optionstoenterdifferentformsofthejournalname.SeeImpor-
tantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNamesformoreinformationabout usingtheJournallists.
Note:TheSaveTerm(orSaveJournal)buttonisunavailable(dim)ifthenewtermalreadyexistsinthetermlist.
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Defining TermLists
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Introduction toTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using Term Lists for Data Entry and Searching
Inserting Terms into References
Suggesting Terms As You Type (Auto-completion)
Ifyouareenteringtextintoafieldthatislinkedtoatermlist, EndNotefindsthefirstmatchingterminthelistandsuggeststhatas
thetermyouwanttoenter.
Thesuggestedtextappearshighlightedafterthecursor.Continuetyping untilEndNotesuggeststhecorrectterm,andthenpress
Enter or Tabtoacceptit.(Entercreatesanotherlineinthefieldsothatyoucanenter moreauthornames,forexample;Tab
movesthecursortothenextfield inthereference.)
WhenEndNotesuggestsaterm,youcanusetheUporDownarrowsonyour keyboardtohavethesuggestedtextchangetothe
previousornextpossible matchingterminthetermlist.
Whenyouenteratermthatisnotalreadyinthetermlist,itappears inredtoindicatethatitisanewterm.Whenyoucloseorsave
thereference,thattermisaddedtothetermlistandwillnolongerdisplayinred.
Thesetermlistfeaturesmaybeturnedoff.Toturnoffthedisplay ofredtext,turnoffthepreferenceto"SuggestTermsasYou
Type." SeeTermListsPreferences.
Related Topics:
InsertingTermsWithoutUsingtheSuggestionFeature
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Inserting Terms Without Using the "Suggestion" Feature
Ifyouhaveturnedofftheoptiontosuggest termsasyoutype,youcanstillinserttermsintoyourreferencesmanually.
ToinsertatermfromaTermListwindow:
1. Openareferenceandpositiontheinsertionpointwhereyouwanttoaddtheterm.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectOpenTermListsand selectthedesiredlist.
Or,inanAuthor,Journal,orKeywordsfield,pressCtrl+1todisplaytheappropriatelist.
3. Double-clickatermtoinsertitdirectlyinto thereference.
Termscanalsobeselectedbytypingthefirstfewlettersoftheterm, byusingtheArrowkeys,orbyclickingonthetermwiththe
mouse.Hold downtheCtrlkeytoselectmultipleterms.Press Enter toinserttheselectedtermorclickInsert Term.Ifmultiple
terms areselectedandinserted,theyarelistedinthereferenceoneperline inalphabeticalorder.
SelectedtermscanalsobecopiedfromthetermlistusingtheCopy (Ctrl+C)commandintheEditmenu, andpastedintoaref-
erenceusingthePaste(Ctrl+V)commandintheEditmenu.
Related Topics:
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Predefined TermLists
TermLists Preferences
Using TermsForSearches
Using Terms For Searches
Toensurethatyouaresearchingforthecorrectterms, youcanuse thetermlistswithEndNotesSearchcommand.Termscanbe
enteredin thefieldsontheSearchpaneljustastheyareenteredintoreferences.Forexample:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSearchLibraryandchangethefirstsearch linetosearchtheKeywordsfield.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectOpenTermLists,and thenselect alist. Or,inanAuthor,Journal,orKeywordsfield,press to
displaytheappropriatelist.
3. Double-clickatermtoinsertitintotheSearch tab.
4. ClickSearchtosearchforyourreferences.
Related Topics:
InsertingTermsintoReferences
InsertingTermsWithoutUsingtheSuggestionFeature
Predefined TermLists
TermLists Preferences
Editing Terms and Term Lists
Deleting Terms
AtermcanbedeletedbyhighlightingitinthelistandclickingDelete TermorselectingClearfromtheEditmenu.Youcanalso
usetheCut( Ctrl+X)commandfromtheEditmenutocuttermsoutofthe listandPastethemelsewhere(suchasintoanother
termlist).Deleting atermfromatermlistdoesnotremoveitfromthereferencesinthe library.
Related Topics:
Defining TermLists
Deleting andRenamingTermLists
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Modifying Terms
Anyterminatermlistmaybemodifiedordeletedwithoutaffecting anyofthereferencesinthelibraryoranylinksbetweenterm
listsandfields.
Toeditaterminatermlist:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectOpenTermListsand selectthelistthatcontainsthetermtobemodified.
2. Selectaterm,andthenclickEditTerm. Ifmultiple termsareselected,onlythefirstoneopens.
3. ChangethetermasnecessaryandclickOKwhen finished.Themodifiedtermreplacestheoriginaltermintheterm list.(If
thetermalreadyexists,theOKbuttonisdim.)
Note:Editingaterminatermlistdoesnotchangealloccurrencesofthatterminyour library.UsetheFindandReplacecom-
mandfromtheEditmenutofindtheoldterminyourreferences andreplaceitwiththenewone.
Related Topics:
Defining TermLists
Deleting andRenamingTermLists
DeletingTerms
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
Defining Term Lists
Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters)
EndNoteusesthedelimitersintheDefineListsdialogtodetermine whatpunctuationseparatestheindividualtermsinthesame
fieldina reference.
Forexample,ifyouimport datafromasourcethatusessemicolons(;) toseparatekeywords:
Adult,AgeFactors;Astigmatism;Follow-UpStudies; Hospitals,University;Keratotomy,Radial;Myopia;Refraction,Ocular
youwouldwanttobesurethatthesemicolonwasselectedasaseparator foryourKeywordstermlist.Youwouldalsowanttobe
surethatthecomma wasnotchosenbecausethecommasinthisexampleareusedwithinsome oftheterms.
Bydefault,EndNoteusesthesemicolon(;)andbackslash(\),andendoflinemarkersasseparators. Wordsorphrasesentered
ondifferentlines inafield(bypressingReturn
Enter)arealwaysinterpretedasseparateterms,buttheotherseparators canbechangeddependingonyourneeds.
Tocustomizethedelimitersforatermlist:
1. Openalibrary.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectDefineTermLists.
3. Verifythatyourlibrarynameisselectedatthe topofthedialog,thenclickonthenameofthetermlistthatyou intendto
modify.
4. Clickthecheckboxtotheleftofthedesired separatortoselectit(ortounselect itifitisalreadychecked).
Thelastcheckboxprovidesaplacetoenteracustomtermdelimiter,ifnecessary.
Related Topics:
Creating aNewTermList
Defining TermLists
DeletingTerms
Deleting andRenamingTermLists
ExportingandPrintingTermLists
Defining Term Lists
UsetheDefineTermListscommandintheToolsmenutocreate,renameordeleteatermlist.Thiscommandisalsousedtospec-
ifythepunctuation thatseparatesindividualtermsinareference(delimiters).
Deleting and Renaming Term Lists
Termlistscanberenamedwithoutdisturbingtheirlinkstoreferencefieldsorthetermswithinthem.Deletingorrenamingterm
listsdoes notchangethedataenteredintoyourreferences.
Todeleteorrenameatermlist:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectDefineTermLists(atleastonelibrarymustbeopentoaccessthiscommand).
2. Thedrop-downmenuatthetopoftheLists tabletsyouchoosefromalistofopenlibraries.Select thelibrary forwhichyou
wouldliketomodifythetermlists.
l To Rename a Term List:Highlightatermlist,andthenclickRenameList.Inthe RenameListdialog,enter
thenewnameforthelist,andclickOK.
l To Delete a Term List:Selectatermlist,andthenclickDeleteList.
3. ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.
Related Topics:
Configuring TermSeparators(Delimiters)
Creating aNewTermList
Defining TermLists
DeletingTerms
ExportingandPrintingTermLists
Creating Term Lists
Creating a New Term List
Tocreateanewtermlist:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectDefineTermLists.
2. ClickCreateList,andthenenterthenamefor thenewlist.Youcannotcreateatermlistwiththesamenameas anexisting
termlist.
3. ClickOK.
4. Checkthe"JournalList"boxonlyif youwanttocreateatermlistforstoringjournalnamesandabbreviations. Thesedif-
ferentformsofthejournalnamecanbeusedinterchangeablywhencreatingbibliographies.SeeCreating Bibliographies
withJournalAbbreviations.
ThepredefinedJournalstermlistisalreadysetupasamulti-column list.Ifyoudeletethislist,youcancreateanotherone
asdescribed here.Donotcreatea4-columnjournallistfornon-Journalfields.
Atthispoint,youcouldimport anexistinglistofterms,updatethelistfromexistingEndNotefielddata,orclickontheTermstab
tomanually entertermsintothelist.
Note:Newtermlistsmustbelinkedtofieldsforthe"Suggesttermsasyoutype"andautomaticupdatingfeatures towork.
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Configuring TermSeparators(Delimiters)
Converting OldEndNoteJournalsFiles
Copying TermsBetweenLists
Copying TermsFromOtherSources
Defining TermLists
ExportingandPrintingTermLists
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
ImportingTermsIntoTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Linking TermListstoFields
Loading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations
Manually UpdatingTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Linking Term Lists to Fields
TermlistsareassociatedwithfieldsusingtheLinkTermListscommand fromtheToolsmenu.Whenatermlistislinkedtoafield,
thelistcan beusedtofacilitatedataentry. EndNotecanalsokeepthetermlists currentbyautomaticallyaddingnewtermsfrom
linkedfields.Bylinking termliststoparticularfields,youcanusetheAuto-Suggestionfeature wheneveryouareenteringdatainto
thelinkedfield.Eachfieldcanbelinkedtoonlyonetermlist.However, youcanlinkthesametermlisttodifferentfields.
Thethreepredefinedtermlists(Authors,Journals,andKeywords)arealreadylinkedtotheircorrespondingfields.Anynewterm
listthatyou createisnotlinkedtoafielduntilyousetupthelinks.Thelinks betweentermlistsandfieldsarespecifictoeach
library.
Tochangethesesettingsortolinkanewtermlisttooneormorefields:
1. Openalibrary.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectLinkTermLists.
3. Selectalibraryfromthelistatthetopofthe dialog.
4. Thenamesoftheavailabletermlistsappearnexttothefieldnameswithwhichtheyarelinked.Youmaychangethe links
hereasnecessarybyselectingadifferenttermlistfromthe pop-uplists.
5. ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandclosethedialog.
Thesechangeswillnotalteranydatathatiscurrentlyenteredineither yourreferencesoryourtermlists.Termlistsmaybelinked
tomultiple fields.
Note:Afterlinking atermlisttooneormorefields,youshouldmakesurethelistisupdated withthedatafromthosefields.Goto
theToolsmenu,selectDefineTerm Lists, selectthelist,andclickUpdateList.
Tounlinkatermlistfromafield:
1. Withthelibraryopen,selectLinkTermListsfrom theToolsmenu.
2. Scrollthroughthelistoffieldstofindthefield thatyouwouldliketobeunlinkedfromalist.SelectNonefromthe listnextto
thefieldname.
3. SaveyourchangesbyclickingOK.
Related Topics:
AutomaticUpdatingofTermLists
Configuring TermSeparators(Delimiters)
Converting OldEndNoteJournalsFiles
Copying TermsBetweenLists
Copying TermsFromOtherSources
Defining TermLists
ExportingandPrintingTermLists
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
ImportantPointsAboutTermLists
ImportingTermsIntoTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Loading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations
Manually UpdatingTermLists
ModifyingTerms
Predefined TermLists
Using TermsForSearches
Predefined Term Lists
Threeemptytermlistsareavailablebydefaultwitheverylibrary: Authors,Journals,andKeywords.Theselistsarealreadylinked
totheir correspondingfields:theAuthorstermlistislinkedtotheAuthor,Secondary, Tertiary,andSubsidiaryAuthorfields;the
Journalstermlistislinked totheSecondaryandAlternateTitlefields;andtheKeywordstermlist islinkedtotheKeywordsfield.
Related Topics:
Creating aNewTermList
Defining TermLists
ExportingandPrintingTermLists
InsertingTermsintoReferences
Linking TermListstoFields
ModifyingTerms
Using TermsForSearches
Working with the Journals Term List
Creating Bibliographies with Journal Abbreviations
Whenyouinsert ajournalnamefromtheJournalstermlistintoareference, onlythefirstentryforthejournalnameisentered.
However,youcan createabibliographythatusesanyabbreviationinthetermlistbyediting thestyleusedtoformatthepaper:
Toeditastyletousejournalabbreviations:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStylesandselect OpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwouldliketoedit,andclickEdit.
3. FromthelistofoptionsattheleftoftheStyleEditorwindow,clickJournal Names.
4. Selectoneoftheavailableoptions.
5. Closeandsavethestyle. Nowwhenyouformata paperorlookatthePreviewtabontheTabspanel,allofthejournal
namesshouldbereplacedwiththeappropriateabbreviation.
Ifajournalnameinoneofyourreferencesdoesnothavetheselected abbreviationenteredintheJournalstermlist,thejournal
nameappears inthebibliographyexactlyasitisenteredintheReferencewindow.
Which Term List is Used for the Abbreviations?
Sinceitispossible(thoughnotcommon)tohavemorethanonemulti-column journallistinalibrary,itisimportanttoknowhow
EndNotechooses whichJournallisttousewiththeJournalAbbreviationsfeature.EndNoteusesthemulti-columnlistthatis
linkedtothejournalfieldusedbythestyle. (Forexample,iftheAlternateJournalfieldisspecifiedby thestyle,EndNoteusesthe
multi-columnlistlinkedtotheAlternate Journalfield.)Ifthereisnotamulti-columnlistthatislinkedto ajournalfield,EndNote
usesthefirstmulti-columnlistthatitfinds.
ThepredefinedJournalstermlistthatisaddedtoeverylibraryis alreadysetupasamulti-columnlist,anditislinkedtothese
fields:
l JournalArticlereferencetypeJournalfield
l JournalArticlereferencetypeAlternateJournal field
l ElectronicArticlereferencetypePeriodicalTitlefield
Related Topics:
Converting OldEndNoteJournalsFiles
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
Loading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations
Predefined TermLists
Updating aJournalList
Converting Old EndNote Journals Files
IfyouhavepreviouslyusedtheJournalAbbreviationsfeatureinan earlierversionofEndNote,youcanimport thejournalnames
fromyouroldJournalAbbreviationstableintotheJournalstermlist.Theinformation intheoldtableisstoredintheJOUR-
NALS.ENfileanditcanbedirectlyimportedintotheJournalstermlistusing theImportListcommand(seeImporting Termsinto
TermLists).
Note:Inthisversion ofEndNote,youcanhaveadifferentsetofjournalabbreviationsfor eachlibrary,andyoumaywantto
updateeachlibrarysimilarly.
Related Topics:
Creating BibliographiesWithJournalAbbreviations
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
Loading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations
Predefined TermLists
Updating aJournalList
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
YoudonothavetousetheabbreviationsectionsinaJournalsterm list,butifyoudo,keepthesepointsinmind:
l Entervariationsofthesamejournalnametogetherinoneterm.
l Enteraconsistentabbreviationformatineach column.Forexample,allIndexMedicus abbreviationscouldbeentered
undertheAbbreviation1,anotherformatofabbreviatednamesinAbbreviation2,andsoon.
l Onlythefirsttermforeachjournal(theoneintheFullJournalslot)istransferredwhenyouinsertaterm.
l UsetheJournalAbbreviationoptioninthestylestopickwhichformofthejournalnamesshouldbeusedinthebibliography
(seeCreatingBibliographies withJournalAbbreviations).
l EndNotecanremoveperiodsfromabbreviationsduringformatting.EndNotecannotaddperiodstoanabbreviatedjournal
name.
Related Topics:
Converting OldEndNoteJournalsFiles
Creating BibliographiesWithJournalAbbreviations
Loading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations
Predefined TermLists
Updating aJournalList
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
Youcanloadoneofthesuppliedjournaltitleliststousefordata entry. Theselistsalsocontainjournalabbreviationsforalternate
output, andareusedbycertainoutputstyles.Thelistsaresuppliedasplain textfilesintheEndNoteX6\Terms Listsfolder.You
canopenandviewoneofthesefiles withanywordprocessor,butmakesuretoleaveitaplaintextfileso thatEndNotecan
importit.
ToreplacetheexistingJournalslistwithoneofthesuppliedjournal abbreviationlists:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectOpenTermLists,and thenselect JournalsTermList.
2. Deleteallexistingtermsfromthelist(youcan clickanddragtohighlightallterms,andthenclickDeleteTerm.
3. ClickontheListstabandhighlighttheJournals list.
4. ClickImportList.
5. IntheFiledialog,navigatetotheEndNote X6\TermsListsfolder,selectthelistyouwantto use,andclickOpentoimport
thejournalnamesandabbreviationsfromthefileintotheJournalstermlist.
Related Topics:
Converting OldEndNoteJournalsFiles
Creating BibliographiesWithJournalAbbreviations
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
Predefined TermLists
Updating aJournalList
Updating a Journal List
ForEndNotetoaccuratelyusetheabbreviatedjournalnamesinyour bibliographies,itisimportanttobeconsistentwhenentering
differentformatsofajournalname.Thefirstcolumnshouldalwayslistthefull journalname,andsubsequentcolumnsshould
storeconsistentformatsof abbreviatednames. SeeImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames.
Journallistsareupdatedautomatically,fromtheJournalArticleandElectronicArticlereferencetypes, unlessyouhaveturnedoff
thepreferences toupdatelists(seeTermListsPreferences). Whenjournallistsareupdated,theentryinthemainJournalfield
goesintothefirstcolumnofthelist(FullJournal)andthejournalentered intotheAlternateJournalfieldgoesintothesecondcol-
umn(Abbreviation 1).BeconsistentwhenenteringdataintothesefieldssothattheJournals termlistwillbeupdatedcorrectly.
Notethatifthenameenteredinto theJournalfieldexistsinanyofthecolumnsoftheJournalstermlist, itisnotaddedagain.End-
Notetriestoavoidduplicateentriesinthe Journalslist.
Ifyouhaveturnedoffthepreferencetoautomaticallyupdatethetermlists,youmaymanuallyupdatethelistsasdescribedhere.
Whenyouare manuallyupdatingJournallists,youcanchoosewhichcolumnsinthelist areusedforwhichfieldsofdata.
Toupdateajournaltermlist:
1. Openalibraryandselect thereferencesfromwhich youwouldliketoupdatetheJournalstermlist.Alternatively,usethe
Searchcommandtofindonlythosereferencesthatyouwouldliketouse.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectDefineTermLists, andthenselectJournals.
3. ClickUpdateList.
4. SelectthefieldsfromwhichEndNoteshouldextract thejournalnames. Ifimportingfromselectedreferences,checkthe
UpdatefromSelectedReferencesoption.
5. ClickOK.
Whentheimportingiscomplete,youwillseeacolumnofjournalnames listedinalphabeticalorder.
Related Topics:
Converting OldEndNoteJournalsFiles
Creating BibliographiesWithJournalAbbreviations
ImportantPointsAboutEnteringJournalNames
Loading SuppliedJournalAbbreviations
Predefined TermLists
Microsoft Word/Cite While You Write
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process
UseCiteWhileYouWrite

(CWYW)withMicrosoft

Word2003,2007,or2010 toeasilyandquicklycitereferences,figures,and
tables,andcreate apaperwithproperlyformattedcitations,abibliography,figures,and tables.CiteWhileYouWritegivesyou
accesstoEndNotereferencesandformattingcommandswitheitheranEndNoteX6 submenuonWordsToolsmenu inWord
2003,or,inWord2007and2010,withanEndNotetab .
YoucanstartbybasingyourpaperonapredefinedManuscript Templatethatissetupwithpublishingrulesapplied.Then,inserta
citationintothedocument.Abibliographyformattedaccordingto anyoneofthousandsofstylesiscreated.Instant formatting
technologycanautomaticallyupdateyourcitationsandbibliographyasyouwrite.Youcaneveninsert figuresandtablesfoundin
EndNotereferences.
ATravelingLibraryallowsyoutoreformatreferencesinyourWorddocumentevenwhenyourEndNotelibrary isnotavailable.If
youarecollaboratingwithotherauthors,youcanrelyontheTravelingLibrarytosupplyreferenceinformation.
YoucanuseyourEndNoteapplicationorEndNoteWebtoCiteWhileYouWrite.SeeUsingCiteWhile YouWritewithEndNote
Web.
Related Topics:
Howto CiteWhileYouWrite
CiteWhile YouWriteCommands
WordProcessorCompatibility
How to Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word
Thebasicstepsrequiredtociteareferenceandgenerateabibliography withMicrosoftWord2003,2007,or2010 aresummarized
below.
ToCiteWhileYouWrite:
1. OpentheEndNotelibraryorlibraries thatcontainthereferencesyouwishtocite.
2. StartMicrosoftWordandopenthepaper youarewriting.Werecommendusingthetemplatewizardtocreate yourWord
documentsasdescribedinCreating aWordDocumentBasedonaTemplate.
3. Whenyouarereadytociteasource,positionthecursorinthetextwhereyouwouldliketoputthecitation.
4. Word 2003: GototheToolsmenuinWord,thentheEndNoteX6 submenu,andselect FindCitation(s).
Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsertCitation andselectFindCitation.
AnEndNoteFind InsertMyReferencesdialogappears,whichmay showtheprevioussearchresults.
5. Inthetextboxatthetop,enteridentifying textforEndNotetolocatetheappropriatereference.Thiscouldbe anauthors
lastname,ayear,akeyword,oranyothercombinationoftermsfoundinthereference.
6. ClickFindandEndNotecomparestheidentifying texttoyourEndNotereferencesandthenliststhematchingreference(s).
7. Identifyandhighlighttheappropriatereference(s).
8. UsetheInsertbuttontriangletodisplay amenu,andselect from:
l Insert: Toinsertthecitationandformatitasdefinedbythe currentlyselectedoutputstyle
l Insert & Display as: Author (Year)
l Insert & Exclude Author
l Insert & Exclude Year
l Insert in Bibliography Only
Note: YoucanclickInsert(notthetriangle)toquicklyselectthedefault Insertcommand.
9. Gobacktostep3toinsertthenextcitation, andcontinuecitingreferencesthisway.
Note: WhenInstantFormattingisturned on,eachtimeyouinsertacitationitisformattedandabibliography isupdatedat
theendofyourdocument.Whenyouaredoneinsertingcitations,yourdocumentisdone!InstantFormattingisturnedon
bydefault.
10. Ifyourcitationsarenotautomaticallyformatted, andabibliographyisnotupdatedeachtimeyouinsert acitation,
l Word2003:GototheToolsmenuinWord,thentheEndNotesubmenu,andselectFormatBibliography.
l Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickthecornerarrowdialogboxlauncher.
AFormatBibliographydialogappears,whereyoucanchange,orsimplyverify,thestyleandlayoutofthebib-
liography.
EvenwhenInstantFormattingisturnedon,youmaywanttoselectFormatBibliographyinordertochangethe
styleorlayoutofyourcitationsandbibliography.
Note: Thedialogliststhestylesthatarecurrentlyselectedasyour"favorites" intheStyleManager.Ifyouneedtoselect
astylethatisnotinthe list,clickBrowsetolocateit.
11. ClickOK.EndNotescansyourpaperand,usingtheselectedstyle, formatsanytemporarycitations,reformatsformatted
citations,andappendsabibliographytotheendofyourpaper.
Yourpaperisreadyforpublication!
Ifyouwanttoinsert figureortablecitations,seeInserting andFormattingFiguresandTables.
Related Topics:
Finding andInsertingCitations
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
TheCiteWhileYouWriteCommands
Using PredefinedManuscriptTemplates
Writing Your Paper (Microsoft Word)
YouselectedtheWordtemplateappropriateforyourpublisher.Then, youfollowedthetemplatewizardtoprovidebasicinfor-
mation,soyour newWorddocumentalreadycontainsthatinformation.Now,youareready towriteyourpaper.
Tag Line Indicators
Tostartenteringtextintothedocument,lookfortaglineindicators toguideyou.Forexample,youmayseeatagthatsays:
[InsertIntroductiontexthere(nosubheadings)]
Youcanselectthistagandoverwriteitasyoutypetheintroduction. Next,youmaysee:
[InsertAcknowledgementshere]
Again,selectthetagandoverwriteitasyoutypeyouracknowledgements.
Mostofthesectionsofthepaperaretaggedinthisway.Thesetags maytellyouofcharacterlimits,indicatewhetheryoushould
include subheadings, andcontainfontandstyleformatting.Theyorganizeyour manuscriptandhelpyoufollowtherulesofthe
publisher.
Cite While You Write Markers
Thereareseveralinstanceswhereasectiontagactsasamarkerfor CiteWhileYouWrite:
Figure Lists:Whenyouinsertafigure citationintoyourdocument,andthecurrentoutput styleissettocreate afigurelistatthe
endofthedocument,thefigurelistiscreatedata[Figures]tag.Tochangethepositionofthefiguresinyourdocument, ortomove
thefigurelisttoaseparatefile,seePlacing FiguresandTables.
Table Lists:Whenyouinsertafigure citationwheretheimagecomesfromEndNotes"Chart orTable"referencetype, andthe
currentoutputstyleissettocreateatablelistattheend ofthedocument,thetablelistiscreatedata[Tables]tag.Tochange the
positionofthetablesinyourdocument,ortomovethetablelist toaseparatefile,seePlacing FiguresandTables.
Bibliographies:Whenyouinsert an in-textreferencecitationinthebodyofyourdocument,thebibliography iscreatedatthe
[References]tag.
Themanuscripttemplateappliesacorrespondingoutputstyletothe bibliography.Forexample,theNaturemanuscripttemplate
wouldusethe Natureoutputstyletoformatthebibliography,althoughyoucanapplyadifferentoutputstyleifyouwish.
Related Topics:
Creating aWordDocumentBasedonaTemplate
SupplyingInformationtotheTemplateWizard
Using PredefinedManuscriptTemplates
Word Processor Compatibility (Microsoft Word)
ToCiteWhileYouWrite,you mustuseMicrosoftWord2003, 2007,or2010. (Pleaseinstallthelatestservice packfromMicro-
soft.)CiteWhileYouWritecanconvertanduseWorddocuments thatusedearlierversionsofCiteWhileYouWrite,althoughwe
recommend thatyoufirstunformatthosedocuments.
Word2003displaysCiteWhile YouWritecommandsonaTools>EndNoteX6 submenu.Word2007displaysCiteWhileYou
WritecommandsonanEndNote tab.
IfyouuseOpenOffice.org Writerasyourwordprocessor,seeHowtoCiteWhileYou WritewithOpenOffice.orgWriter.
IfyouuseawordprocessorotherthanMicrosoftWordorOpenOffice.orgWriter,oranolderversionoftheseword processors,
saveyourdocumentasanRTFfileanduseFormat Paper.
Tocreateastand-alonebibliographythatisnotbasedonthecitations inapaper,seeIndependentBibliographies.
Note:Onlyone wordprocessoratatimeshouldbeopenwheninsertingcitationsandformattingdocuments.
EndNote Cite While You Write Tab Missing in Word
ThefollowinginstructionsdescribehowyoucanrestoretheEndNoteCiteWhileYouWritetabinMicrosoftWord.
Word 2007 and 2010
1. Word 2007:ClicktheOfficeicon,andthenclicktheWordOptionsbutton.
Word 2010:ClickontheFileribbon,andthenclicktheOptionsbutton.
2. SelectAdd-insfromthemenu
3. SelectDisabledItemsfromtheManagemenu,andthenclicktheGobutton.
4. SelectanyEndNoteiteminthelist,andthenclicktheEnablebutton.
5. ClickOKtoenabletheEndNotetab.
6. CloseandreopenWord.
7. ChecktoensurethattheEndNotetabappearsatthetopoftheWorddocument.
Note:Ifyouprompted,selecttoallowthefilestobeloadedbyWord.
Word 2003
1. SelecttheHelpmenu.
2. SelectAboutMicrosoftOfficeWordfromthedialog.
3. SelecttheDisabledItemsoption.
4. SelectanyEndNoteiteminthelist,andthenclicktheEnablebutton.
5. ClickClose.
6. ClickOKtoenabletheEndNotetab.
7. CloseandreopenWord.
8. ChecktheToolsmenutoensurethattheEndNoteoptionshavebeenrestoredtoWord.
Note:Ifyouprompted,selecttoallowthe filestobeloadedbyWord.
GotoourFrequentlyAsked Questionssupportpageforinstructionsonhowtorestorethe EndNotetabinearlierversionsofEnd-
Note.
SeeApplicationPreferencesforinformationaboutswitchingfromEndNotetoEndNoteWebandvice-versa.
Notes about Microsoft Word
Installing Cite While You Write Support in Word
EndNotesinstallationprograminstallsCiteWhileYouWritesupport forMicrosoftWord2003,2007,or2010 .IfyouinstallWord
afterinstallingEndNote,youmusteitherusetheCustomizeroptionormanuallyinstallCiteWhileYouWrite.SeeNo EndNote
CommandsinWord
EndNotecommandsappearonanEndNoteX6submenuoftheToolsmenuinWord2003. InWord 2007and2010,EndNotecom-
mandsappearonanEndNotetab.
Cite While You Write Commands (Word 2003)
ThistopicdescribestheCite WhileYouWriteCommandsthatappearinWord2003.IfyouareusingWord 2007and2010,please
seeCiteWhileYouWriteCommands (Word2007and2010).
WhenCiteWhileYouWriteisinstalled,severalEndNotecommandsappear onanEndNoteX6submenu oftheToolsmenuin
Word.
Whenyouselect anEndNotecommandfromthemenu,theEndNoteprogramstarts(ifnotalreadyrunning)andaCiteWhileYou
Writesubmenubecomes activeonEndNotesToolsmenu,displayingsomeofthesameEndNotecommands availableinWord.
Note:Whenyou useCiteWhileYouWritePreferencestochooseEndNoteWebastheactive CiteWhileYouWriteApplication,
anEndNoteWebsubmenuappearsonthe ToolsmenuinWord.TheEndNoteWebsubmenucontainsasmallersetof CWYW
commands.
Cite While You Write Commands
BelowarebriefdescriptionsoftheCite WhileYouWritecommandsfoundontheEndNoteX6submenuoftheToolsmenuin
Word.
l Go To EndNote: BringEndNotetothefrontofyourscreen.ThiscommandlaunchesEndNoteifitisnotalreadyrunning.
l Find Citation(s):SearchforEndNotereferences toselectandinsertascitationsinyourWorddocument.SeeFinding and
InsertingCitations.
l Format Bibliography: Format(orreformat)yourpaperaccordingtotherulesofthe selectedstyle.Theformattingprocess
replacesthetemporarycitations inyourpaperwithformattedcitations,andbuildsabibliography attheendofthedoc-
ument.SeeFormatting theBibliography.
Note:Bydefault, InstantFormattingisturnedon,soyourcitationsandbibliographyareautomaticallyformattedasyouwork.
(InstantFormattingisnotavailable whenworkingwithEndNoteWeb.)
l Insert Selected Citation(s): InsertacitationforeachreferencecurrentlyselectedintheopenEndNotelibrary.Youcan
insertupto250consecutive in-textcitations.SeeInserting SelectedCitations.
l Edit & Manage Citation(s): Editexistingindividualormultiplecitations.You canomitauthorand/oryearfromcitations,or
addprefixorsuffix text(suchaspagenumbers)tocitations.SeeEditingCitations.
l Insert Note: Add customtextcitationstoyourWorddocument.SeeInsertingNotesintheListofReferences.
l Edit Library Reference(s):SelectcitationsinyourWorddocument,thenselectthiscommandtodirectlyeditthecor-
responding referencesinEndNote.SeeEditingaReferenceintheLibrary.
l Unformat Citation(s): Unformataselected citationbeforeeditingit,orunformatthewholedocument.Thisremovesstyle
formattingfortheselectedcitations,andleavestemporarycitationswhichusuallyconsistoftheauthorslastname,the
year, andtherecordnumbersurroundedbydelimiters.SeeUnformatting Citations.
l Remove Field Codes: Saveacopyofyour documentwithoutformattedCiteWhileYouWritefield codes. Formattedcita-
tionsandthebibliographyaresavedastext. SeeRemovingFieldCodes.
l Export Traveling Library: CreateanEndNotelibraryfromthereferencesusedinapaper.SeeExportingWord'sTraveling
Library.
l Find Figure(s):SearchforanEndNotereferencethat containsanimage, andinsertafigureortablecitationinyourWord
document.Thecitationisnumbered,andthefigureortableisautomatically addedtothedocument.SeeFinding andInsert-
ingFiguresandTables.
l Generate Figure List: Updateyourfigureandtablecitationsplustheformattedfiguresandtablesfoundwithinthebodyof
thedocumentorinalistattheendofthedocument.SeeUpdating FiguresandTables.
l Cite While You Write Preferences: ChangegeneralCiteWhileYouWritepreferences, changetheEndNotekeyboard
shortcutsavailableinWord,changefigure andtablesettings,orswitchtoEndNoteWebCiteWhileYouWrite.SeeSetting
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences.
l Help: Display helpaboutCiteWhileYouWritefeatures.
Note: SeveralCiteWhileYouWritecommands alsoappearontheToolsmenuinEndNote.Tousethesecommandsfromwithin
EndNote,youmustuseatleastoneCiteWhileYouWritecommandfromwithin Wordduringthecurrentsession.
Related Topics:
CWYWKeyboardCommands
How toCiteWhileYouWrite
Installing CiteWhileYouWriteSupportinWord
Overview oftheCiteWhileYouWriteProcess
WordProcessorCompatibility
Cite While You Write Commands (Word 2007 and 2010)
ThistopicdescribestheCiteWhileYouWriteCommandsthatappearinWord2007and2010.Ifyouareusinganearlierversion
ofWord,please seeTheCiteWhileYouWriteCommands (Word)2003).
WhenCiteWhileYouWriteisinstalled,severalEndNotecommandsappear onanEndNotetabinWord2007and2010.When
youselect anEndNotecommand fromthetab,theEndNoteprogramstarts(ifnotalreadyrunning)andaCiteWhileYouWritesub-
menubecomesactiveonEndNotesToolsmenu,displayingsomeofthesameEndNotecommandsavailableinWord.
Note:Whenyou useCiteWhileYouWritePreferencestoselect EndNoteWebastheactive CiteWhileYouWriteApplication,
anEndNoteWebtabappearsinWord.TheEndNoteWebtabdisplaysasmallersetofCWYWcommandsthantheEndNote
desktopapplication.
BelowarebriefdescriptionsoftheCiteWhileYouWritecommandsthat arefoundontheEndNotetabontheWord2007and2010
ribbon.
Citations Group
l Insert Citation > Find Citation:SearchforEndNotereferencestoselect andinsertascitationsinyourWorddocument.
SeeFindingandInsertingCitations.
l Insert Citation > Insert Note:AddcustomtextcitationstoyourWorddocument.SeeIncludingNotesintheListofRef-
erences.
l Insert Citation > Insert Selected Citation(s):Insertacitationfor eachreferencecurrentlyselectedintheopenEndNote
library.You caninsertupto250consecutivein-textcitations.
l Insert Citation > Find Figure(s):Search foranEndNotereferencethatcontainsafigure,andinsert afigureortablecita-
tioninyourWorddocument.Thecitationisnumbered, andthefigureortableisautomaticallyaddedtothedocument.See
InsertingSelectedCitations.
l Go To EndNote:BringEndNotetothefrontofyourscreen.ThiscommandlaunchesEndNoteifitisnotalreadyrunning.
l Edit & Manage Citation(s):Editexistingindividualormultiple citations.Youcanomitauthorand/oryearfromcitations,or
add prefixorsuffixtext(suchaspagenumbers)tocitations.SeeEditingCitations.
l Edit Library Reference(s):Select citationsinyourWorddocument,thenselectthiscommandtodirectly editthecor-
respondingreferencesinEndNote.
Bibliography Group
l Style: Selectanoutputstylefromthelisttoformat(orreformat) yourpaperaccordingtotherulesoftheselectedstyle.The
styles listedaremarkedas"favorites"intheEndNotestylemanager.
l Update Citations and Bibliography:Format(orreformat)yourpaperaccording totherulesoftheselectedstyle.Thefor-
mattingprocessreplaces thetemporarycitationsinyourpaperwithformattedcitations,and buildsabibliographyattheend
ofthedocument.Thiscommandalsoupdatesyourfigureandtablecitationsplustheformattedfigures andtablesfound
withinthebodyofthedocumentorinalistatthe endofthedocument.
l Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Unformatted Citations: Unformataselectedcitationbeforeediting
it,orunformatthewholedocument. Thisremovesstyleformattingfortheselectedcitations,andleavestemporarycita-
tionswhichusuallyconsistoftheauthorslastname, theyear,andtherecordnumbersurroundedbydelimiters.Use
Update CitationsandBibliographytoformatthepaperagain. SeeUnformatting Citations.
l Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Plain Text:Saveacopy ofyourdocumentwithoutformattedCite
WhileYouWritefield codes.Formattedcitationsandthebibliographyaresavedastext. SeeRemovingFieldCodes.
l Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert Word 2007 Citations to EndNote:ConvertanyWord2007or2010
citationsinthisdocument toEndNoteCiteWhileYouWritecitations.
l Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert Reference Manager Citations to EndNote:ConvertanyWord2007or
2010ReferenceManagercitationsinthisdocumenttoEndNoteCiteWhileYouWritecitations.Thisoptionassumesthatyou
haveconvertedyourReferenceManagerdatabasetoanEndNotedatabase.ValuesincludeAuthorDateRefIDandRefID.
l Format Bibliography: ClickthearrowinthebottomrightcorneroftheBibliography sectiontodisplayatabbeddialogof
formattingoptions.Whenyou clickOKtoleavethedialog,EndNoteformats(orreformats)yourpaperaccordingtothe
rulesoftheselectedstyle.SeeFormatting theBibliography.
Note:Bydefault, InstantFormattingisturnedon,soyourcitationsandbibliographyareautomaticallyformattedasyouwork.
Tools Group
l Export to EndNote > Export Traveling Library:CreateanEndNotelibrary fromthereferencesusedinyourpaper.See
ExportingWord'sTravelingLibrary.
l Export to EndNote > Export Word 2007 Citations:CreateanEndNotelibrary fromtheWord2007citationsfoundinthe
document.
l Export to EndNote > Export Word 2007 Master List:CreateanEndNotelibraryfromtheWord2007masterlist ofcita-
tions.
l Preferences: ChangegeneralCiteWhileYouWritepreferences, changethe EndNotekeyboardshortcutsavailablein
Word,changefigureandtable settings,orswitchtoEndNoteWebCiteWhileYouWrite.SeeSetting CiteWhileYouWrite
Preferences.
l EndNote Help: DisplayhelpaboutCiteWhileYouWritefeatures.
Youmayprefertoexecutethesecommandsfromthekeyboard.Notethe keyboardshortcutsdefinedunderCiteWhileYouWrite
Preferences.
Note:SeveralCite WhileYouWritecommandsalsoappearontheToolsmenuinEndNote.To usethesecommandsfromwithin
EndNote,youmustuseatleastoneCite WhileYouWritecommandfromwithinWordduringthecurrentsession.
Field Codes (Microsoft Word)
CiteWhileYouWriteplacesfieldcodesaroundandinsideyourformatted citationsinWord.ThesehiddencodesallowEndNoteto
format,unformat, andreformatcitationswithinWord.
Forexample,thisformattedcitation:
(SchwartzandBilloski 1990)
appearswiththesefieldcodes:
Note:Werecommend thatyounotviewfieldcodesinWord.Ifyouchoosetoviewfieldcodes, pleasedonotmodifythem.
Alwayskeepbackupsofyourpapers!Toautomatically turnoffthedisplayoffieldcodeswhenyouopenaWorddocument,see
GeneralPreferencesfor MicrosoftWord.
FieldcodesforformattedcitationsincludeaTravelingLibraryoftheEndNotereferencescited.Thereferencedatasaved with
eachcitationincludesallfieldsexceptNotes,Abstract,Figure,andCaption.Thisallowsyoutousethedocumentonacomputer
thatdoesnotcontainacopyofyourEndNotelibrary.
EndNotesCiteWhileYouWritefieldcodesaresupportedbyWord2003and2007. OnceyoustartusingCiteWhileYouWrite,
youmusttakeprecautionsbeforeopeningthosefilesinotherwordprocessors oranotherversionofWord.Ifaformatteddoc-
umentisopenedandsaved withanincompatiblewordprocessor,theformattedEndNotecitationsand bibliographylosetheirfield
codes.Whenthishappens,EndNotecannot reformatthedocument.
Beforeyouopenapaperinadifferentwordprocessororgiveapublisher anelectroniccopyofyourfinalformatteddocument,
pleaseseeSharing YourWordDocuments.
Related Topics:
Forms ofCitations
Howto CiteWhileYouWrite
Installing CiteWhileYouWriteSupportinWord
Overview oftheCiteWhileYouWriteProcess
Showing WordProcessorCodes
TheCiteWhileYouWriteCommands
WordProcessorCompatibility
Using Predefined Manuscript Templates
Using Predefined Manuscript Templates (Microsoft Word)
ManypredefinedMicrosoftWordmanuscripttemplatesaresuppliedwithEndNotetoeaseelectronicsubmissionstopublishers.
Weprovidethem asguidestomakeyourwritingprocesseasier,buttheyarenotrequired inordertouseCiteWhileYouWrite.
Plus,youcanuseamanuscripttemplate evenwhenyoudonotplantouseCiteWhileYouWriteonthatparticular document.
Whenyouuseoneofthesetemplatestostartyourpaper,manyformatting issuesarealreadysetupforyourtargetpublication,
suchaspropermargins,headings,pagination, linespacing,titlepage,abstractpage, graphicsplacement,andfonttypeandsize.
Aswithbibliographicformats, therearehundredsofvariationsbetweenpublishers.
SeeCreatingaWordDocument BasedonaTemplate.
Related Topics:
Creating aWordDocumentBasedonaTemplate
Howto CiteWhileYouWrite
SupplyingInformationtotheTemplateWizard
TheCiteWhileYouWriteCommands
WritingYour Paper
Creating a Word Document Based on a Template
YoucanstartanewMicrosoftWorddocumentbasedonpredefinedtemplates eitherfromwithinEndNoteordirectlyfromWord.
Youcanalsocopyand editoneofthepredefinedmanuscripttemplates.
From Within EndNote
Tocreateadocumentbasedononeofthepredefinedmanuscripttemplates:
1. StartEndNote.
2. FromtheToolsmenu,selectManuscriptTemplates.
3. IntheFiledialog,browsetotheTemplatesfolderfoundintheEndNotefolder.(EndNoteshouldautomaticallyselect this
location.)
4. Selectandopenthetemplatenamedforaparticular editorialstyleguideorthepublishertowhichyouintendtosubmit your
manuscript.
ThisopensanewdocumentinMicrosoftWordthatisbasedonthetemplatefile,andstartsamanuscripttemplatewizard
tohelpyousetupyour paper.
Note: Thefirsttimeyoulaunchthemanuscripttemplatewizard,youmayreceiveanoticeaboutmacros.Acceptmacrostocon-
tinuewiththewizard.
5. Entertheinformationrequestedbythe templatewizard.SeeSupplyingInformationtotheTemplateWizard.
Asyouenterinformation, thewizardplacesitinalloftheappropriate placesinthedocument.Thewindowsthatappear,
andtheinformationrequested,variesdependinguponthepublisher.
6. Tocompletethewizard:
l ClickNexttocontinueprovidinginformation. Ifyoudonotknowhowtorespondtoaninformationrequest,simply click
Nexttocontinuewiththewizard.Youcanlaterentertheappropriateinformationinthedesignated, bracketedfieldsin
Word.
l Onthefinaltemplatewizardwindow,clickFinishtoclosethewizardandstartwriting!
Note:Youcanclick Finishatanytimetobypassthewizardandstartworkinginthedocument.Youwillneedtomanuallyenter
informationthatwouldhavebeeninserted bythewizard.ClickingCancelwillstopthecreationofanewdocument.
TheresultingWorddocumentalreadycontainstheinformationyouprovided tothewizard.Tostartenteringtextintothedoc-
ument,lookforindicators toguideyou.SeeWritingYourPaper.
From Within Word 2003
TouseamanuscripttemplatesfromwithinWord2003:
1. Start MicrosoftWord.
2. FromWordsFilemenu,selectNew.
3. Select theEndNoteitemtodisplaythesuppliedtemplates.
Note: Depending onyourversionofWord,youmayfirstneedtodisplaytheGeneraltemplate tab.
4. Select thetemplateyouwishtouse,selecttheradiobuttontoCreatea NewDocument,andclickOK.
5. The EndNotemanuscripttemplatewizardwillstart, asdescribedearlier, andwillleadyouthroughtheprocessof
settingupyourpaper.
Whenyoucompletethewizard,youarereadytostartwriting!
Toeditamanuscripttemplate withWord2003:
1. Start MicrosoftWord.
2. FromWordsFilemenu,selectOpen.
3. Navigate toEndNotesTemplatesfolder.
4. Select andopenthemanuscripttemplateyouwishtomodify.Templatefilenames endwiththeextension.DOT.
5. Makechangestothetemplate,andthensaveacopyofthefilewithanew name.
Note: Changestoamanuscripttemplatemaydisablethemanuscriptwizardfor thattemplate.
From Within Word 2007 or 2010
Touseamanuscripttemplate fromwithinWord2007or2010:
1. Start MicrosoftWord.
2. Inthe upperleftcorner,clicktheOfficebuttonandthenNew.
3. Inthe Templateslist,selectMyTemplatesandclickontheEndNotetab.
4. Select thetemplateyouwishtouse,selecttheradiobuttontoCreateNewDocument,andclickOK.
5. The EndNotemanuscripttemplatewizardwillstart, asdescribedearlier, andwillleadyouthroughtheprocessof
settingupyourpaper.
Whenyoucompletethewizard, youarereadytostartwriting!
Toeditamanuscripttemplate withWord2007or2010:
1. Start MicrosoftWord.
2. Inthe upperleftcorner,clicktheOfficebuttonandthenNew.
3. Inthe Templateslist,selectMytemplatesandclickontheEndNotetab.
4. Select themanuscripttemplateyouwishtomodify,selecttheradiobuttontoCreateNewTemplate,andclick
OK.Templatefilenamesendwith theextension.DOT.
5. Makechangestothetemplate,andthensaveacopyofthefilewithanew name.
Note:Changestoamanuscripttemplatemaydisablethemanuscriptwizard forthattemplate.
Related Topics:
SupplyingInformationtotheTemplateWizard
Using PredefinedManuscriptTemplates
WritingYour Paper
Supplying Information to the Template Wizard (Microsoft Word)
TheEndNotedocumenttemplatewizardasksyoutosupplyinformation, requiredbythepublisher,whichthewizardthenplaces
inyourdocument. Ifthesameinformationisrequiredinmorethanoneplace,youenter itonceandthewizardcopiesitasneeded
totheappropriateplacesand intheappropriateformat.
Eachpublishermaintainsitsownguidelines,andthoseguidelinesvary greatly.Asyoufollowthewizard,youmaybeaskedfor:
Title
Dependingonthepublisher,youmaybeaskedtoprovidethefulltitle aswellasashorttitleorrunningheader.
Author Contact Information and Affiliation
Publisherstypicallyrequireauthorinformationontitlepages,but theymayalsorequireitinacknowledgementsorinheaders
throughout thedocument.Youshouldprovideinformationabouteachcontributingauthor.
ClickAddAuthortotypeinformationabouteachcontributingauthor. YoualsohavetheoptiontoclickAddressBooktolinktoan
existingOutlookaddressbookandeasilyinsertexistingauthorinformation.
Onceyouaddanauthornamewithcontactinformation,itisretained inanAuthorsonFilelisttouselater.Forsubsequentpapers,
youcan simplyselectnamesfromthelist.
Selectthecheckboxnexttothecorrespondingauthor(thecontactperson).
Keywords
Almosteverypublisherrequiresthatyouprovidekeywordsforindexing themanuscript.Youcaneitherprovideyourownkey-
words,orthepublisher mayrequireMeSHterms(theNationalLibraryofMedicinesMedicalSubject Headings).
Sections
Themanuscriptsectionsrequiredbythepublisherarelisted,suchasAbstract,Introduction,Acknowledgements, ReferenceList,
Tables,and Figures.Theserequirementsvarysignificantlybetweenpublishers.The wizardliststherequiredsections,butyou
canselect orremovesections asneeded.
Note:If youneedhelpononeofthewindows,pressthe F1 buttononyourkeyboardtodisplayacontext-sensitivehelptopic.
Related Topics:
Creating aWordDocumentBasedonaTemplate
Using PredefinedManuscriptTemplates
WritingYour Paper
Citing Sources as You Write
Forms of Citations (Microsoft Word)
A"citation"isthebrief bibliographic informationinthebodyofapaperthatrefersthereadertoacomplete referenceinthebib-
liography.Acitationtypicallyconsistsofabibliography numberortheauthorandyearinparentheses:
...ofthespeciesathand
1
.
...ofthespeciesathand(Argus,1991).
Citationscanappearaseitherunformatted orformattedinyourWorddocument.
Unformatted (Temporary) Citations
Anunformattedcitationisatemporaryplaceholder, anddoesnotreflect finaloutput.ItmayappearafteryouFindCitation(s) and
Insert,InsertSelected
Note:Ifyouhave InstantFormattingturnedon,you mayneverseeanunformattedcitation.InstantFormattingisturnedon by
default.
Anunformattedcitationtypicallyconsistsofthefirstauthorslastname,year,andtheEndNoterecordnumber,withcitationdelim-
itersat eachendtoidentifythetext:
{Author,Year#RecordNumber}.
Forexample:
{Alvarez,1994 #8}
Theunformattedcitationmakesiteasytoidentifytherecordcited. Evenifyourfinalgoalisnumericcitations,youcanseemean-
ingfulinformation whileyouareworkingonyourdocument.
EndNotereliesonthesetemporarycitationstodeterminewhichreferences toincludeinthebibliography.
Formatted Citations
TheFormat Bibliographycommandusesanoutputstyletoconvertall unformattedcitationsintoformattedcitations,andreflects
finaloutput.
Note:WhenInstant Formattingisturnedon,formattingisdoneasyouinsertcitationsbut youcanstilluseFormat Bibliography
tochangethestyleorlayoutof yourcitationsandbibliography.
FormattedcitationsincludehiddenWordfieldcodesincaseyouwant toFormatBibliographyagainlater,eitherafteraddingmore
citationsorbecauseyouwanttoformatinadifferentstyle.
CitationsformattedinanAuthor-Datestylemightlooklikethis:
(Alvarez1994;Turnhouse1987)
ThisisthesamecitationformattedintheNumberedstyle:
[1,2]
Youcaneasilyrevertfromformattedcitationsbacktounformattedcitations atanytime.SeeUnformattingCitations.
Related Topics:
Customizing IndividualCitations
FieldCodes
Finding andInsertingCitations
Showing WordProcessorCodes
Finding and Inserting Citations (Microsoft Word)
YoucansearchforEndNotereferencesandinsertthemwithouteverleavingWord.
ThisistheeasiestwaytofindandinsertacitationintoaWorddocument:
1. OpentheEndNotelibrariesthatcontainthereferencesyouwishtocite.
2. OpentheWorddocumentandpositionthe cursoratthelocationwhereyouwouldlikethecitation.
3. Word 2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,selecttheEndNoteX6submenuandFindCitation(s) todisplaytheEndNoteFind
InsertMyReferencesdialog.
Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsert CitationandthenFindCitation.
4. Inthetextboxatthetop,entertext toidentifythereferenceyouwishtocite.EndNoteassumesan"and" betweeneach
word,andwillsearchallfieldsinyourrecords.
5. ClickFind andEndNotecomparesthetexttotextinyourEndNotereferencesandliststhematchingreference(s).Ifnoref-
erencesmatchyourtext,youneedtomodifyyoursearchtext andclickFindagain.
6. Identifyandhighlighttheappropriate reference(s).
7. UsetheInsertbuttontriangletodisplay amenu,andselect from:
l Insert: Toinsertthecitationandformatitasdefinedbythecurrently selectedoutputstyle
l Insert & Display as: Author (Year)
l Insert & Exclude Author
l Insert & Exclude Year
l Insert in Bibliography Only
Note:Youcanclick Insert (notthetriangle)toquicklyselectthedefaultInsertcommand.
Citationsareinserteddirectlyintoyourpaperinthesamefontas thesurroundingtext.Onceacitationisinserted,itcontainscom-
plete referenceinformationinhiddencodes.
Youcaninsertcitationsinanexistingmanuscript orasyouwrite. Remembertosaveyourdocumentasyouwork.
Toformatyourcitationsandgenerateabibliography,seeFormatting theBibliography.Inmostcases,InstantFormattingapplies
asyouinsertcitations.
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
Finding andInsertingfromHighlightedText
IncludingNotesintheListofReferences
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
InsertingFromMultipleLibraries
InsertingSelectedCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Using Drag-and-DroporCopyandPaste
Inserting Selected Citations (Microsoft Word)
ToinsertreferencesselectedinEndNote:
1. OpentheWorddocumentandpositionthecursor atthelocationwhereyouwouldlikethecitation.
2. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenuinWord,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandthenGotoEndNote.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickGo toEndNote.
3. Highlightthedesiredreference(s) inyourEndNotelibrary.
4. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenuinEndNote,selecttheCiteWhileYouWritesubmenuandselectInsert SelectedCita-
tion(s).
Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsert Citation,and thenInsert SelectedCitation(s).
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
Finding andInsertingCitations
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
Finding andInsertingfromHighlightedText
Forms ofCitations
IncludingNotesintheListofReferences
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
InsertingFromMultipleLibraries
InsertingMultipleCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Using Drag-and-DroporCopyandPaste
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text (Microsoft Word)
Tofindandinsertacitationfromhighlightedtext:
1. Asyouaretyping,entertexttoidentifythereferenceyouwishtocite,andhighlightthattext.
2. Word 2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,selecttheEndNoteX6submenuandFindCitation(s) todisplaytheEndNoteFind
InsertMyReferencesdialog.
Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsert Citation,and thenFind Citation.
EndNoteinsertsyourhighlightedtextintotheFindbox.UsetheFind&InsertMyReferencesdialogasdescribedinFinding and
InsertingCitations.
Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste (Microsoft Word)
YoucandragselectedcitationsfromyourEndNotelibraryanddropthem intoyourpaperatthedesiredlocationforthecitation.
YoucanalsocopycitationsfromtheEndNoteLibrarywindowandpastethemintothedocument(usingCopyfromEndNotesEdit
menuandthenPaste fromWordsclipboard).
Inserting Multiple Citations (Microsoft Word)
Thereareseveralwaystoinsertmultiplereferencesinonein-text citation.Whenformatted,theyappearasonemultiplecitation,
sorted asyourbibliographicstylerequires:
Unformatted:{Hall, 1988#77;Baker, 1988#16}
Formatted:(Baker, 1988;Hall,1988)
Youcaninsertupto250consecutivein-textcitations,althoughthe limitcouldbelowerdependinguponthenumberoffieldsbeing
formattedwiththeoutput styleyouhavechosen.
Note:Ifoneofthecitationsinamultiplecitationisnotmatchedduringformatting, theentirecitationremainsunformatted.Notes
cannotbeinsertedaspart ofamultiplecitation.
ToinsertmultiplecitationsfromWord:
1. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenuinWord,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselectFindCitation(s).
Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsert CitationandthenFindCitation.
2. Enteragenericsearchtermthatwillfindthe referencesyouwant,andclickFind.
3. HolddowntheCtrl keywhileclickingonthedesiredreferencesinthelist(orhold downtheShiftkeytoselectacontinuous
rangeofreferences)in ordertohighlightthereferences.
4. ClickInsert.
ToinsertmultipleselectedcitationsfromEndNote:
1. InEndNote,holddowntheCtrlkeywhileclickingonthedesiredreferencesinyourlibrary(orholddowntheShiftkeyto
selectacontinuousrangeofreferences).
2. Word 2003: FromEndNotesToolsmenu,gototheCiteWhileYou WritesubmenuandselectInsertSelectedCitation(s).
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsertCitationandthenInsertSelected.
Toinsertmultiplecitationsindividually:
Anotheroptionistoinsertcitationsindividually,butimmediately nexttoeachother.CiteWhileYouWritemergesadjacentcita-
tionsduring formatting.Citationsdonotmergeifanycharacterseparatesthemincludingaspaceorpunctuationmark.
Unformatted:{Hall,1988 #77}{Baker,1988#16}
Merged when Formatted: (Baker,1988;Hall,1988)
Note:Youcanadd citationstoanexistingin-textcitation,orchangetheorderofcitations withinthedelimiterswiththeEditCita-
tionsdialog.
Toinsert,remove,oreditcitationswithinanexistingin-textcitation:
1. Clickontheformattedcitation.
2. Word 2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandEditCitation(s)todisplaytheEndNoteX6Edit
ManageCitationsdialog.
Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickEditAllofthecitedreferencesinthedocumentare
listedinthe leftcolumnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitationappears withintext.Thelinebelowshowsthe
citedreference(s)
3. Highlightacitation,andthen:
l ClickRemovetodeleteit.
l ClickInserttoinsertanothercitationwithin thesamesetofdelimiters.
l Usethearrowbuttonstochangetheorderof thecitationinamultiplecitation.(IfaCitationSortOrderis appliedbythecur-
rentoutputstyle,changingtheorderofcitationsinamultiplecitationhasnoeffect.)
YoucanusetheotherfeaturesonthisdialogasdescribedinCustomizing IndividualCitations.
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
Finding andInsertingCitations
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
Forms ofCitations
IncludingNotesintheListofReferences
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
InsertingFromMultipleLibraries
InsertingSelectedCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries (Microsoft Word)
Youcancitereferencesfrommultiplelibraries.Simplyopentheselected librariesbeforeyoubegininsertingcitations.
Ifpossible,though,werecommendthatyouuseasinglelibrarywhen writingapaper. Keepingallofyourreferencesinonelibrary
simplifies thewritingprocessbecauseyouknowexactlywheretofindeachreference, thereislittlelikelihoodofduplicateref-
erences,andyouonlyneed tohaveonelibraryopenwheninsertingcitations.
Note:Ifyouplan toinsertcitationsfrommorethanonelibraryintoapaper,readabouttheMergeDuplicatesinBibliography pref-
erence
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
Finding andInsertingCitations
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
Forms ofCitations
IncludingNotesintheListofReferences
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
InsertingMultipleCitations
InsertingSelectedCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Customizing Individual Citations
Theremaybecaseswhereyouwantindividualcitationstodifferfromthestandardformat.Youmaywanttoremovetheyearor
authorfroma citationifeitherwasmentionedinthecontextofthesentence.Or,you mightwanttoaddapagereferenceorcom-
mentbeforeorafterthecitation.
Forexample,assumeaformattedcitationlookslikethis:
Hallsdiscovery(Hall,1988)
Youcanomittheauthorsnamefromthe citation:
Hallsdiscovery(1988)
Youcanomitthedatefromthecitation:
the 1988discovery(Hall)
Youcanaddasuffixwithpagenumbertothecitation:
the discovery(Hall,1988p.4)
Youcanaddaprefixtothecitation:
the discovery(seeHall,1988)
Tocustomizeaformattedcitation:
1. Insertandformatthecitation.
2. Clickontheformattedcitation.
3. Word 2003: FromWords Toolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6 submenuandselectEditCitation(s) todisplaytheEndNote
X6Edit ManageCitationsdialog.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickEditAllofthecitedreferencesinthedocumentare
listedintheleft columnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitationappearswithin text.Thelinebelowshowsthe
citedreference(s)
4. Highlightthecitationyouwanttocustomize.
5. Customizeas needed:
Default Format: Selectthis menuoptiontodisplaythecitationandformatitasdefinedbythe currentlyselectedoutput
style.
Display as: Author (Year): Select thismenuoptiontodisplayboththeauthornameandtheyearinthe highlightedcita-
tion.
Exclude Author:Selectthistoomittheauthornamefrom theformattedcitation.
Exclude Year:Select thistoomit thedatefromtheformatted citation.
Prefix:Entertextheretoprintimmediately beforethecitationtext(spacesaresignificant).
Show Only in Bibliography: Selectthisoptiontodisplaytheselectedcitationonlyinthebibliography,notinthebodyof
thepaper.
Suffix:Entertexthereto printafterthecitationtext (spacesaresignificant).Youcanenterpagenumbershereifyou
always wantthemtoprintafterthecitation.
Pages: Pagenumbers enteredhereareconsideredenteredintoa"CitedPages"field,sotheycanbemanipulatedonout-
put justlikeanyotherEndNotefield.Inordertoprint,theCitedPages fieldmustbelistedinthecitationtemplateand/or
footnotetemplate ofyouroutputstyle.Thisistypicallyusedtoprintthepagenumbers withinafullfootnotecitation.Most
EndNotestylesthatrequire aspecialformatforcitationsinfootnotesarealreadyconfiguredthisway.Youcanmodifythe
CitationTemplateinyouroutputstyle toincludeCitedPages.
6. ClickOKtoimplementthechange(s) tothecitation.
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
EditingCitations
Examples ofModifiedCitations
Forms ofCitations
IncludingNotesintheListofReferences
IncludingSemicolons&OtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Including Notes in the List of References (Microsoft Word)
Somejournalstyles(suchasScience)requirethatyouincludenotes alongwiththelistofworkscitedattheendofthedocument.
Insuch asystem,notesarenumberedjustlikecitations,andareincludedin thereferencelistinorderofappearance, alongwith
bibliographicreferences.
Includingnotesinthiswaymakessenseonlywhenyouareformatting yourpaperwithanumberedstyle(notanauthor-date
style).
Toinserttextasanumberednoteinthereferencelist:
1. Positionthecursoratthelocationinyourtext whereyouwouldlikethenumberindicatingthenote.
2. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenu,gotothe EndNoteX6submenuandselectInsertNote todisplaytheEndNoteInsert
Notedialog.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsert Citationand thenInsert Note.
3. Typeyournotetextintothetextbox.Thereis nolimitontheamount oftextyoucanenter.
4. ClickOKtoinsertanumberednote.
WhenyourpaperisformattedbyEndNoteusinganumberedstyle,the notetextisassignedanumberandlistedalongwiththeref-
erencesat theendofthepaper.
Thewaythatnotesaredisplayedwhenunformattedcanbechangedin theTemporaryCitations preferences.
Tomanuallytypetextasanumberednoteinthereferencelist:
1. Typethetextintothebodyofyourdocumentwhereyouwouldwantthenumberforthenotetoappear.
2. Besuretosurroundtheentiresectionoftext withyourTemporaryCitationDelimiters(curlybracesbydefault), andbeginit
with"NOTE:".Forexample:
{NOTE:Theauthorswouldliketoacknowledgethe supportof...}
Restrictions on the Use of the "NOTE" Feature:
l Thisfeaturerequiresthatanumberedstyle beusedforformatting;otherwise,thenoteappearsastextinthe bodyofyour
paper.
l Enteralphanumerictextonly.Donotentergraphics, equations,orsymbols.
l Donotusethetemporarycitationdelimitersaspartofthetextofthenote.Othermarkers,suchastherecord number
marker,theprefixmarker,andthemultiplecitationseparator maybeused.
l Notescannotbecombinedwithregularbibliographic citationswithinthesamesetofdelimiters(suchasparenthesesor
brackets).Theymustbecitedseparatelyeachinitsownsetofdelimiters.
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
Finding andInsertingCitations
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
Forms ofCitations
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
InsertingFromMultipleLibraries
InsertingMultipleCitations
InsertingSelectedCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper (Microsoft Word)
Ifyouneedtoaddoneormorecitationstoapaperthathasalready beenformatted,simplyinsertthenewcitationsintothetext
(asdescribed earlierinthischapter)andselectFormat Bibliographywhenyouareready toupdatethebibliographyandcitations.
Toaddanewreferencetoanexistingcitation,insertthenewreference nextto(notwithin)theexistingcitation,likethis:
(HockneyandEllis, 1996){Argus, 1984#1}
Adjacentcitationsaremergedduringformatting,andtheformattedcitations aresortedaccordingtothestyle:
(Argus,1984;Hockney andEllis,1996)
Note:Donotinsert acitationintothemiddleofaformattedcitation.Insertitimmediately beforeoraftertheexistingcitation,with
nospacebetweenthem.
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
Finding andInsertingCitations
Finding andInsertingfromHighlightedText
Forms ofCitations
InsertingFromMultipleLibraries
InsertingMultipleCitations
InsertingSelectedCitations
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes (Microsoft Word)
Onceyouhavecreatedafootnoteorendnote inWord,youcancitereferencesinthatfootnoteorendnotejustlikeyoucitethemin
thebodyofthedocument.
Tociteareferenceinafootnoteorendnote:
1. UsetheappropriatecommandinWordtocreatethefootnoteorendnote.(EndNotedoesnot createthefootnoteorendnote
inthedocument,butisusedtoinsertandformatcitationsinthenote.)
2. Positionthecursorinthefootnoteorendnotewhereyouwouldlikethecitationtoappear.
3. Insertthecitationasyounormallywould.
Note:Youcaneditafullreferencefootnotecitationtoexcludeauthorname,year,or author/year.NotethattheAuthor(Year)
optiondoesnotapplytofootnotes.
TheEndNotestylethatisselectedwhenyouselect FormatBibliography determineshowcitationsinfootnotesandendnotes are
formatted.EndNotecanformatthesecitationsasbriefin-textcitations orlikecompletereferencesinthebibliography.Itcanalso
createaspecialformatspecifictofootnotesorendnotes,includingoptionslike"Ibid."andothervariationsofshortenedref-
erenceswhenacitationappearsmorethanonceinthefootnotesorendnotes.SeeBibliographyandFootnoteTemplates.
Ifyouarecitingfullreferencesinfootnotes,youcanincludespecific pagenumberstobeformattedlikearegularEndNotefield.
SeeCustomizing IndividualCitations.Or,ifyouaremanuallytypingcitations,see CitingSpecificPageNumbers inFootnotes.
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotesandEndnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
Finding andInsertingCitations
Finding andInsertingfromHighlightedText
Forms ofCitations
IncludingNotesintheListofReferences
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
InsertingFromMultipleLibraries
InsertingMultipleCitations
InsertingSelectedCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Therearemanywaystoinsertcitationsinyourpaper.Themostflexible wayistomanuallytypetemporarycitationsdirectlyinto
yourpaper.
TherulesdescribedinthefollowingtopicsgovernhowEndNoterecognizes andinterpretstemporary(unformatted)citations.Use
theseruleswhen typingtemporarycitationsdirectlyintoyourdocument.
Note: Fornewdocuments ordocumentsthathaveneverbeenformatted,whenInstantFormattingis enabled,itisnottriggered
whenyoumanuallytypeareferenceintoa document.YoumustusetheTools>EndNoteX6menu inWord2003ortheEndNote
tabinWord2007toeither insertanothercitationorformat thecitationsandareferencelist. Ifadocumenthasbeensuccessfully
formatted,andyoumanually typeinatemporarycitation,thatcitationisinstantlyformatted.
l NotesAboutTemporaryCitations
l ComponentsofaTemporaryCitation
l OmittingAuthorsorYearsfrom Citations
l CitationPrefixes
l CitationSuffixes
l IncludingSemicolons&Other CitationDelimitersinaCitation
l ExamplesofModifiedCitations
Related Topics:
Finding andInsertingCitations
Forms ofCitations
IncludingNotesintheListofReferences
InsertingCitationsintoaFormattedPaper
InsertingFromMultipleLibraries
InsertingMultipleCitations
InsertingSelectedCitations
InstantFormatting
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Overview oftheCiteWhileYouWriteProcess
Using Drag-and-DroporCopyandPaste
Notes About Temporary Citations
l Eachcitationmustmatchonlyonereference inthelibrary.
l WhenInstantFormattingisturnedoff,atemporarycitationisenclosedincitationdelimitersandtypicallyincludes thefirst
authorslastname,theyearofpublication,andtherecordnumberforthatreference:{Schwartz,1990#5}.
l Withinonesetofcitationdelimitersyoucanhaveseveralcitationsseparatedbysemicolons:
{Schwartz,1990#5;Billoski,1992#28}.
l Curlybraces("{"and"}") arethedefaulttemporarycitationdelimiters,althoughtheycanbechanged(seeTemporary Cita-
tions).EndNotelooksforthesemarkerstofindcitations inyourwordprocessingdocuments.
l Inadditiontothecitationdelimiters,there areotherpossiblecomponents toatemporarycitation:Author,Year,Record
Number,PrefixText, SuffixText,andanyothertextfoundintherecord.Youcanalso useaspecialtagtoformatthecita-
tionasAuthor(Year).
l Anypartofatemporarycitationcanbeomitted, aslongasenoughinformationremainstomatchjustonereferenceinthe
library.Ifyouomitanauthororyearfromatemporarycitation,thosecomponentsareomittedfromtheformattedcitationas
wellalthough youcanchangethispreference.SeeOmitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitationsformoreinformation.Addi-
tionally,youcanomittheentirecitationsothattheentryonlyappearsin thebibliography.
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Examples ofModifiedCitations
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
TemporaryCitationPreferences
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Components of a Temporary Citation
ThetypicalEndNotetemporary(unformatted)citationconsistsofan authorslastname,ayear,andarecordnumber,allenclosed
incitation delimiters.However,temporarycitationscantakeonvariousotherformats.
Temporarycitationsmustbeginandendwiththeopeningandclosing citationdelimiters,buttheothercomponentsofatemporary
citation canvary.
Youcantypeanystringoftextfoundinthereference,asin:
{dinosaurextinction}
Or,youcantypeanyoftheseitemsinthisorder(commaplacementissignificant):
{Prefix\Author,Year#RecordNumberSuffix}
{Prefix\Author,Year,AnyText,Suffix}
Eachcomponentisbrieflydescribedbelow;moredetailedinformation follows.
Authors Last Name: Onlythelast nameofoneauthorislistedinatemporarycitation.Itcanbeanyauthor associatedwiththe
reference,andnotjustthefirstauthor.Includeacommaaftertheauthorsnametolimitthesearchonlytoauthorfields:
{Schwartz,1990}
Year: Theyearshouldappearexactly asitdoesinthereference,anditshouldbeprecededbyacomma.Even ifyouleaveoutthe
authorname,includeacommabeforetheyeartolimit thesearchtotheYearfield:
{, 2001}
Record Number: TherecordnumberisEndNotesuniquenumberforareference.Itistheonlypartofatemporary citationthat
youcancountontoalwaysidentifyjustonereferencein yourlibrary.Therecordnumbermustbeprecededbyanumbersign:
{Jones, 1987#84}
Any Text: Anytextthatappearsin thereferencecanbeusedtohelpEndNotelocatethereferenceinthelibrary.Inorderforthis
tobehelpful,selectwordsthatareunique tothatreference.Enterthespecifictextonly,orenterthetextin placeoftherecord
numberpartofthetemporarycitationandafterasecondcomma:
{greenhouse}
{Schwartz,1990,
{Schwartz,,
Inthethirdexample,wherethedateisomitted, youmustinsertaspacebetweenthetwocommasorEndNotewillnotrecognize
anycitationmatches.
Prefix Text:Toaddtexttoprint beforetheformattedcitation,typethetextimmediatelyaftertheopening braceandthenaback-
slash"\"toseparateprefixtextfrom thesearchtext:
{see\Jones,1987#84}
Suffix Text: Toaddtexttoprint afteraformattedcitation,enterthesuffixtextimmediatelyafterthe recordnumberorenterathird
commaafterthesearchtextandthentype thesuffixtext:
{Smith,1995#98p.293}
{Smith,1995,dinosaur,p.293}
Author (Year) format:ToaddacitationthatisformattedasAuthor(Year)inyourtext,include@author-yearafterthepagesdes-
ignator:
{Hesse,2003#95@@author-year}or{Hesse,2003#95@p.237@author-year}
Bibliography Only format:Toinsertacitationthatonlyappearsinthebibliography, include@@hidden,wherethefirst@is
neededasthepagesplaceholder:
{Smith,1995#98@@hidden}
Note:Foraneasy waytomodifyindividualCiteWhileYouWritecitationsoncetheyare formatted,seeEditingCitations.
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Examples ofModifiedCitations
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
TemporaryCitationPreferences
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Whileyourstylemaynormallyincludetheauthorsnameanddatein eachin-textcitation,youmaywanttoomittheauthorand/or
yearfromaparticularcitation.Thisisusefulifyouhavementionedtheauthor oryearinthecontextofthesentenceanddonot
wanttorepeattheinformation inthecitation.
Toremovetheauthorsnameordatefromacitation,simplyleavethat informationoutoftheunformattedcitation.
Toomittheauthorsname,enter:
...Wyattsrecentdiscovery {,1993#38}.
whichwillformatas:
...Wyattsrecentdiscovery(1993).
Toomitthedate,enter:
...abouthis1993discovery{Wyatt,#38}.
whichwillformatas:
...abouthis1993discovery(Wyatt).
Note:Numberedcitationsdonotprinttheauthornameoryearinanycase,sothesesettings wouldbeignored.
Ifyouwantareferencetoappearinyourbibliography,butnotasa citationinyourpaper,youcanexcludeboththeauthorand
year,leaving onlytherecordnumber.Whenyouformatyourpaperwithastylethatformats authorsandyearsinthecitations,this
particularcitationwillnot displayintext,butwillbeincludedinthebibliography.
However,ifyouwouldratherhavetheauthorandyearappearinthe formattedcitationregardlessofwhetherornottheyareinthe
temporarycitation,selectPreferencesfromEndNotesEdit menu,select theFormattingoption,anduncheck thesettingtoOmit
Authorand/orYearfromformattedcitationif removedfromtemporarycitation.Withthissettingturnedoff,you mayenterjustthe
recordnumber{#34}asatemporarycitation, andstillformatthepaperaccuratelywithastylethatrequiresauthors andyearsin
thein-textcitations.
Note:Foraneasy waytomodifyindividualCiteWhileYouWritecitationsoncetheyare inserted,seeEditingCitations.
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Components ofaTemporaryCitation
Examples ofModifiedCitations
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Citation Prefixes
Youcantypeaprefixinfrontofanyunformattedin-textcitation, usingabackslashtoseparatetheprefixtextfromthereference.
For example,anin-textcitationsuchas:
{seealso\Hall,1988#77}
formattedintheAPAstylewouldbe:
(seealsoHall,1988)
Whenthereisonlyoneprefixinamultiplecitationanditisatthebeginningofthecitation,itwillstaythereregardlessofhowthe
citationsaresorted.Forexample,thiscitation:
{e.g.\Hall,1988#77;Argus,1991#11}
afterbeingformattedintheAPAstyle willappearas:
(e.g.Argus,1991;Hall,1988)
Iftheprefixisnotatthebeginningofthemultiplecitation,orifthereismorethanoneprefixinamultiplecitation,theprefixtext
remainswiththereferenceitprecedes.Forexample,thiscitation:
{Argus,1984#11;especially\Hall,1988#77}
formattedintheAuthor-Datestylewillbe:
(Argus,1984;especiallyHall,1988)
Changing the Citation Prefix Marker
YoucanchangetheprefixmarkerfromabackslashtoanothercharacterbyselectingPreferencesfromEndNotesEditmenu,
selectingtheTemporaryCitationsoption,andchangingthecharacter inthe"CitationPrefixMarker"box.Useacharacterthatis
nototherwiseusedinthecitations.Letters,numbers,semicolons,"@" andcommascannotbeprefixmarkers. SeeTemporary
Citations.
Related Topics:
CitationSuffixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Components ofaTemporaryCitation
Examples ofModifiedCitations
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Citation Suffixes
Texttypedaftertherecordnumberorsearchtextinanunformatted citationappearsimmediatelyafterthecitationwhenitisfor-
matted. Forexample,thesecitations:
{Hall,1988#77,p.5}
{Smith,1995,dinosaur,,p.293}
afterbeingformattedintheAPAstyle willappearas:
(Hall,1988,p.5)
(Smith,1995,p.293)
Inmultiplecitations,thesuffixtextremainswiththecitationthatitfollows,evenifthecitationsaresorteddifferentlyduringthefor-
matting process.Forexample,thiscitation:
{Hall,1988#77p.5;Argus,1991#11}
formattedintheAuthor-Datestylewillbe:
(Argus,1991;Hall,1988p.5)
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Components ofaTemporaryCitation
Examples ofModifiedCitations
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Inordertoprintanactualsemicolonortheprefixmarker(\)aspart ofacitation,typeanaccent grave(`)beforethecharacter.The
accent gravetellsEndNotetotreatthefollowingcharacterasregulartext, andnotasasignificantcharacterforparsingthecita-
tion.Forexample, tocreateacitationthatisformattedas:
(seeFigure1;Jackson,1994)
theunformattedcitationmustlooklikethis:
{seeFigure1`;\Jackson,1994#28}
The`characterbeforethesemicolontellsEndNotenottotreatthe semicolonasaseparatorbetweencitations.
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Components ofaTemporaryCitation
Examples ofModifiedCitations
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Whencitingfullreferencesinfootnotes,youmightwanttoinclude specificpagenumbers.EndNoteprovidesawaytodothis
wherethepagenumbersthatyoutypeintoatemporarycitationcanbemanipulatedbytheEndNotestylejustlikeafieldinyour
EndNotereference.Youcan addspecificpagestothetemporarycitation,andhavetheEndNotestyleincludethemwherever
theyneedtobeintheformattedcitation.Thestyle canalsoapplyspecialpagesformatting,likedecidingwhethertoadd "p."or
"pp.beforethepagenumbers,andhowtolisttherangeofpages.
TheeasiestwaytoaddcitedpagesistousetheEdit Citationdialog.
Tomanuallyincludespecificpagenumberstoareferenceinanunformattedfootnotecitation,simplyenterthepagenumberpre-
cededby"@" attheendofthetemporarycitation:
{Smith,1999#24@145-6}
Alltextthatfollowsthe@symbol(uptothenextspace)isconsidered the"CitedPages."YoumustalsoconfiguretheEndNote
style usedtoformatthepapertouse"CitedPages"inthefootnote template.MostEndNotestylesthatrequireaspecialformatfor
citationsinfootnotesarealreadyconfiguredthisway.
WhenEndNoteformatsthecitation,thecitedpages("145-6"intheexampleabove)areinsertedinthecorrectlocationandfor-
matted asappropriateforthestyle.
Note:Ifyouenter pagenumbersattheendofthetemporarycitationwithoutthe"@"character,theywillstillappearinafor-
mattedin-textcitation,but EndNotewillnotbeabletomanipulatethembychangingthepageformat orbymovingthemtoadif-
ferentpositionintheformattedcitation.They willsimplyappear,asentered,attheendoftheformattedin-textcitation. Thisisa
perfectlyacceptablewaytoenterpagenumbersforin-textcitations (orforfootnotesformattedjustlikeyourin-textcitations).
SeeCitationSuffixestoseehow thisworks.Thismethodwillnotworkforcitationsinfootnotesthat areformattedasfullbib-
liographicreferencesorwithaspecialfootnote format.Forthosecases,youmustusethe@symboltoidentifythecited pages
inthetemporarycitation.
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Components ofaTemporaryCitation
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Examples of Modified Citations
Thefollowingexamplesdemonstratehowdifferentmodificationstoa temporarycitationaffectitsformattedcitationineitheran
author/year ornumberedstyle.Inthefirstcolumnisanexampleofamodifiedtemporary citationbeforeformatting,andtotheright
aretwoexamplesofthat citationformattedindifferentstyles.
Examples of Modified Citations
Unformatted
Citation
Formatted
with Author-
Date
Formatted
with Num-
bered
Comments
{Hall, #77} (Hall) [1] Toremovetheyearfromthefor-
mattedcitation,simplydeleteitfrom
theunformatted citation.
{, 1988#77} (1998) [1] Toremovetheauthor fromthefor-
mattedcitation,deletejustthe
authorsnamefromtheunformatted
citation.Notethatthecomma
remainsinthetemporary citationto
indicatetheomis-sionoftheauthor.
{#77} Nocitation
appears
[1] Thistemporarycitationremovesthe
authorandtheyearfromthefor-
mattedcitation.When formattedwith
anauthor-datestyle,thein-textcita-
tioniseliminated, butthereference
stillappearsinthebibliography.Num-
bered citationsappearasusual.
{Hall,1988
#77p.4}
(Hall1988p.4) [1p.4] Toaddtextafterthe formattedcita-
tion,additaftertherecordnumberin
theunformatted citation.Withthis
temporarycita-tion,thetextafterthe
record number,includingspacesand
punctuation,isaddedtothefor-
matted citation.
{see\Hall,
1988#77}
(seeHall1988) [see1] Toaddtextbeforethe formattedcita-
tion,typethetextimme-diatelyafter
theopening curlybrace, andtypea
backslash"\"toseparatethe text
fromtheauthorsname.(SeeCita-
tion Prefixes.
{Hall, #77,
p.4}
(Hall,p.4) [1,p.4] Thistemporarycitationeliminates
theyearfromtheformattedcitation,
butaddsthe additionaltext",p.4".
Typeadditionaltextafter therecord
numberorafterathirdcommawhen
usingadditional searchtext.
Modified Citations Table

Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Components ofaTemporaryCitation
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Changing Existing Citations
Editing Citations (Microsoft Word)
Onceyouhaveinsertedandformattedacitation,youshouldnotedit itdirectly(althoughyoucandoso).Directeditsarelostthe
nexttimeEndNoteformatsthebibliography.
YoucanalmostalwaysgetEndNotetoformatyourcitationsexactlytoyourspecificationsbyeditingthestyle,theEndNoteref-
erence,orthecitation(asdescribedhere).
Note:Aneasyway toomittheAuthororDatefromanindividualcitationistoselect thecitation,right-clickwithyourmouse,
selectEditCitation(s)andthenExcludeAuthororExcludeYear.
Tosafelyeditaformattedcitation:
1. Clickonthecitationyouwishtochange.
2. Word 2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenu,andselect EditCitation(s)todisplaytheEndNote
EditCitation dialog.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickEdit.
Allofthecitedreferencesinthedocumentare listedintheleft columnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitation
appearswithintext.Thelinebelowshowsthecitedreference(s).
3. Selecttheappropriatecitationfromthelistat theleftofthedialog(youcanscrollthroughallcitationsinthe document)and
makeanyofthefollowingchangestothehighlighted citation:
Default Format: Select thismenuoptiontodisplaythecitationandformatitasdefined bythecurrentlyselectedoutput
style.
Display as: Author (Year): Selectthismenuoptiontodisplayboth theauthornameandtheyearinthehighlightedcita-
tion.
Thisfeature doesnotapply wheneditingacitationina footnote.
Exclude Author:Selectthistoomittheauthornamefrom theformattedcitation.
Exclude Year: Select thistoomitthedatefromtheformatted citation.
Show Only in Bibliography: Select thisoptiontodisplaytheselectedcitationonlyinthebibliography,notinthebodyof
thepaper.
Prefix:Entertextheretoprint immediately beforethecitationtext(spacesaresignificant).
Suffix:Entertexthereto print afterthecitationtext (spacesaresignificant).

Pages: Enterpagenumbershereto printas CitedPages. Toprint, theCitedPagesfieldmustbelistedinthecitationtem-
plate orfootnotetemplateoftheoutputstyle.
4. Youcanaddorremovecitationsfromamultiple citationorchangetheorderofcitations.

Insert:Use thistoaddanothercitationwithinthe samesetofdelimiters.

Remove:Highlightacitationand clickRemovetodelete itfromthein-textcitation.

Up and Down Arrows:Highlightareferenceandusethearrowstochangetheorderofdisplay.(IfaCitationSortOrder
isappliedbythecurrentoutputstyle,usingthisdialogto changetheorderofcitationsinamultiplecitationhasnoeffect.)
5. ClickOKtoimplementyourchange(s).
Aftermakingchanges,selectFormatBibliographyto(re)formatthe newormodifiedcitationsandregeneratethebibliography.
Word 2003:SelectFormatBibliographyto(re)formatthenewormodified citationsandregeneratethebibliography.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab, intheBibliographygroup,clickUpdateCitationsandBibliographyorclickthecorner
arrowtochangebibliographypreferencesandFormat Bibliography.
Related Topics:
CitationPrefixes
CitationSuffixes
Citing SpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Customizing IndividualCitations
DeletingCitations
Examples ofModifiedCitations
IncludingSemicolons&OtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Moving orCopyingCitations
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
Unformatting Citations
Unformatting Citations (Microsoft Word)
Unformattingrevertsformattedcitationstotemporarycitations,removes thebibliography,andturnsoffinstantformatting.
Ifyourcitationsareformattedinanumberedstyle,youcanunformatyourpapertoeasilyidentifycitationsasyouwork.Youcan
Format Bibliographyagainlater.
Note:Unlikeformatted citations,unformattedcitationsrequirethatyouhavethecorresponding EndNotelibraryopeninorderto
formatthepaperagain.Unformatting removestheTravelingLibrary.
Tounformatcitations:
1. Determinewhichcitationsyouwanttounformat:
l Tounformataparticularcitation,highlightonlythatcitation.
l Ifthecitationyouwanttounformatispart ofamultiplecitation,highlightthemultiplecitation.Allcitations withinthedelim-
iterswillbeunformatted.
l Tounformatasectionofthedocument,highlight thatsection.
l Tounformattheentiredocument,eitherselect nothingorhighlighttheentiredocument.
2. Word2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandUnformatCitation(s).
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickConvert CitationsandBibliographyand select
Convert toUnformattedCitations.Ifyouareunformattingtheentiredocument,thisunformatsallof thein-textcitationsand
removesthecurrentbibliography.
Youcantellwhenapaperisunformattedbecausethecitationsappearinthetemporarycitationformat(suchas"{Smith,1999
#25}").
Unformattedcitationsaretemporaryplaceholdersthatdonotreflect finaloutput.Youcanformatthepaperagainatanytime.To
savethe formattedpaperastext,seeRemoving FieldCodes.
Note:Whenyou unformatcitations,InstantFormatting isdisabled.Toformatyourpaper:Word 2003: GototheToolsmenu,
thentheEndNoteX6submenu, andselectFormat Bibliography.Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,inthe Bibliography
group,clickthecornerarrow.FromtheFormat Bibliographydialog,youcanenableInstantFormattingagainontheInstant For-
mattingtab.
Related Topics:
Components ofaTemporaryCitation
FieldCodes
Forms ofCitations
Showing WordProcessorCodes
Moving or Copying Citations (Microsoft Word)
Youcanhighlightanytextthatincludescitations,thenusetheClipboardcommandstoCutorCopy,andthenPasteitelsewhere
inthedocument. Youcandothiswithformattedortemporary(unformatted)citations.
Tomoveorcopyonlythecitationitself,makesureyouhighlighttheentirecitation(includingsurroundingdelimiters). ThenCutor
Copyand Pasteitelsewhereinthedocument.
Deleting Citations
Todeleteanunformattedcitation,simplyhighlighttheentirecitation (includingdelimiters), andpresstheBackspaceorDelete
key.
Whileitispossibletohighlightaformattedcitationandsimplypress thedeletekeyonyourkeyboard,wedonotrecommendthat
youdothat. Ifyoudonotcompletelydeletethecitationandallassociatedcodes, youcouldcorruptyourdocument.
Tosafelydeleteaformattedcitation:
1. InWord,highlightthecitationyouwanttodelete.
2. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenuinWord,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselectEdit&Manage Citation(s)todisplay
theEndNote X6Edit ManageCitationsdialog.
Word2007and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickEdit Manage
3. IntheEdit&ManageCitationsdialog,ensurethatthecitationyouwanttodeleteishighlighted. Ifthecitationispartofa
multiplecitation,makesureyouselectjustthecitationyouwanttodelete.
4. FromtheEditReferencemenu,clickRemoveCitation.
5. ClickOK.
Generating Bibliographies
Generating Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
Formattingabibliographyservestwofunctions:
l Itformatseachin-textcitationaccordingto theselectedbibliographicstyle.
l Itaddsacompletebibliographytothedocument (unlessyouoverridethiswithasettingintheoutputstyle).
l Theformatusedforcitationsandreferencesisdeterminedbytheoutputstyleselected.Whenyouhavefinishedwritingyour
paperinWord,andallofyourEndNotecitationshavebeeninsertedintothetext,youarereadyforEndNotetoformatthepaper
andgenerateabibliography.Thiscanbedoneinoneoftheseways:
l InstantFormattingactuallyworksasyouinsert citationsandisenabledwhenyoufirststartusingCiteWhileYouWrite.
EndNoteusesthecurrentlyselectedstyletoformat citations andupdatethebibliographyeachtimeacitationisinserted.
However, ifyouwanttochangethestyleorlayoutofreferences, youcanuse theFormatBibliographycommand.
l FormatBibliographyallowsyoutomodifybibliography preferencessuchasstyleandlayout beforeformattingyourdoc-
ument. ThisisalsowhereyouenableordisableInstantFormatting.
Word 2003:FromtheEndNoteX6submenuontheToolsmenu,selectFormat Bibliography.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickthebottomcornerarrow.
UpdateCitationsandBibliographyisavailableinWord2007.YouwillfinditontheToolsmenuontheEdit&ManageCita-
tiondialog.EndNoteusesthecurrentlyselectedstyletoformatcitations,thebibliography,plusfiguresandtables.You
couldalsosimplyselectanewstylefromtheStylelistintheBibliographygroup.
Thesearethebasicformattinginstructions:
1. Word 2003:FromtheToolsmenuinWord,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselectFormatBibliography.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickthebottomcornerarrow.
2. OntheFormatBibliographytab,usetheWithOutputStyleoptiontoselectanoutputstyletoformatreferences.Itisokayto
experimentwithdifferentstylesbecauseyoucansimplyreformatagain.
3. ClickOKtoformatallcitationsandbuildthebibliography.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
Creating aBibliographyfromMultipleDocuments
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Formatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliography
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
InstantFormatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Instant Formatting (Microsoft Word)
InstantFormattingworkswhileyouwriteyourpaper.Asyouinsertcitations, EndNoteusesthecurrentlyselectedstyletoformat
citationsandupdatethebibliography.Bydefault,InstantFormattingisenabledthefirst timeyouusetheTools>EndNoteX6
menuinWord2003ortheEndNote tabinWord2007and2010toinsertacitationorformatthebibliography.
Tochangethestyleorlayoutofreferences,ortochangeInstantFormatting settings,youcanusetheFormatBibliography com-
mand,whichisdescribedinthenextsection.
Insomecases,InstantFormattingisdisabled,suchaswhenyouunformat yourpaper.
Fornewdocumentsordocumentsthathaveneverbeenformatted,when InstantFormattingisenabled,itisnottriggeredwhen
youmanuallytype areferenceintoadocument.YoumustusetheTools>EndNoteX6menu inWord2003ortheEndNotetabin
Word2007toeitherinsertanothercitationorformatthecitationsandareferencelist.Ifadocumenthasbeensuccessfullyfor-
matted,andyoumanuallytypein atemporarycitation,thatcitationisinstantlyformatted.
TouseInstantFormatting inWord2007,smart tagsmustbeenabled(theyareturnedonbydefault).
ToverifythatSmartTags areenabled:
l Word 2007 and 2010:ClicktheOffice icon,thenWordOptions,thenProofing,thenAutoCorrect Options.OntheSmart
Tagstab,selecttheLabeltextwithsmart tagscheckboxandmakesureIn-textCitation(CwywCitationRecognizer)"is
selected.
ToenableordisableInstantFormattinginthecurrentdocument:
1. Word 2003:FromtheToolsmenuinWord,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselect FormatBibliography.
Word 2007 and 2010 :OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickthebottomcornerarrow.
2. ClicktheInstantFormattingtab.
3. ClickTurnOnorTurnOfftotoggleInstantFormatting.

Whenenabled,youcanclicktheSettingsbuttontochangetheseInstant Formattingcontrols:
l Scan for temporary citationsturnsonscanningoftemporarycitations. Thisfindsandformatsallcitations,includ-
ingthoseyoumay haveenteredmanually.Youcanselect howoftenEndNotescansyourdocument.
l Check for citation changesturnsonbackgroundscanningthatlooks forcitationchanges.
4. ClickOKtosavechangestotheInstantFormattingsettings.
5. ClickOKtoformatallcitationsandbuildthe bibliography.
WhenInstantFormattingisenabled,leavingtheFormatBibliography dialog-whetheryouclickOKorCancel-willalwaystrigger
formatting inyourdocument.
Note:ToturnInstant FormattingonorofffornewWorddocuments,seeGeneral Preferences.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
BasicInstructions
Creating aBibliographyfromMultipleDocuments
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Formatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliography
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings (Microsoft Word)
Youmaybehalfwaythroughinsertingcitations,oryoumayhavefinished writingyourpaper.Youmayhaveinstantformattingena-
bled,oryoumay havemanuallyinsertedcitationswithformattingdisabled.Itdoesnotmatter.Aslongasyouhavecitations
enteredinyour document,youcanformatyourpaperatanytime.Youcanreformatafter addingmorecitationsortochangethe
styleorlayout settings.
Note:Thefirst timeacitationisformatted,thecorrespondingEndNotelibrarymustbe open.Afterthat,EndNotecanusethe
TravelingLibraryforreferenceinformation.
Toformatcitationsandgenerateabibliography:
1. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenuinWord,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselectFormatBibliography.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickthebottomcorner arrow.
2. OntheFormatBibliographytab,changeorverify thesesettings.
Format document:MakesuretheappropriateWorddocument isselectedfromthelistofopenWorddocuments.
With output style:Selecttheappropriateoutputstyletoformatreferences.Youcanexperimentbyreformattingwithvar-
iousoutputstyles.Toaddmoreoutputstylestothelist,seeAddingStylestotheOutput StylesList.
Temporary citation delimiters:hesearetheopening andclosingdelimitersfortemporarycitations.Makesuretheyare
uniquedelimiters,andnotcharactersyouwouldnormallyuseinyour paper. Thedefaultsarecurlybraces
Link in-text citation to reference in the bibliography:Thisoption isselectedbydefault.Cleartheselectiontoremove
linkedin-textcitationsinthebibliographyofyourpaperinWord.
Underline linked in-text citations:Selectthisoptiontoadd underlinestoin-textcitations.Clearthecheckboxtoremove
underlines fromin-textcitationsinyourpaper.Thisoptionisonlyavailableifthe"Linkedin-textcitationtoreferenceinthe
bibliography" isturnedon.
3. OntheLayouttab,changeorverifythesesettings:
Font and Size:Thesearethetextfontandsize usedforthebibliography.
Bibliography title:Toprintatitleatthetopofyour bibliography,typethetitleinthistextbox.
Text Format:Highlightthebibliographytitle textandthenusetheTextFormatbuttontodisplayadialogwhere youcan
changetheformatofthehighlightedtext.
Start with bibliography number:Enterastartingreferencenumberifyouwanttonumberyourbibliography.
First line indentandHanging indent:Usethesesettings tosetaparagraphindent,ahangingindent,ornoindent atall.
Thehangingindentappliestothesecondandsubsequentlinesofa referenceinthebibliography.Typemeasurementsas
centimeters(cm), inches(in),lines(li),orpoints(pt).LinespacingandSpaceafter:SettheLinespacing forwithinaref-
erenceandtheSpaceafterforspacingbetweenreferences.
4. OntheInstantFormattingtab,youcanTurnOn orTurnOffInstantFormatting.SeeInstant Formatting.
5. ClicktheLibrariesUsedtabtoseewhichlibraries arereferencedinthedocument.Thistabliststhenameofthelibrary or
librariesthatwereusedfortheformattedcitationswithinthe document.Ifyourdocumentisunformatted, thelistisempty.
6. ClickOKtosavechangesandformatyourcitationsandbibliography.
Note:Youdonot havetoverifyeachtabeverytimeyouformat.Ifallyouwanttodois changetheoutputstyle,select Format
Bibliography,select theoutput styleontheFormat Bibliographytab,andclickOK.Word 2007 and 2010:Aneasieroptionisto
go totheEndNotetab,lookintheBibliographygroup,andsimplyselect anewStyle.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
Creating aBibliographyfromMultipleDocuments
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Generating Bibliographies
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
InstantFormatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Adding Styles to the Output Styles List
ThebibliographicstyleselectedontheFormat Bibliographydialogdetermines howEndNoteformatsthecitationsinyourpaper
andthereferencesin thebibliography.Thestyletakescareoftextstyles,punctuation,and sortingrequiredforthecitationsand
bibliography,aswellaswhichfieldsareincludedinthebibliography.
YoucanuseFormatBibliographytoselect adifferentstyleandreformat yourdocumentatanypoint.
Foratypicalinstallation,EndNoteinitiallyinstallonlythemost popularoutputstyles,althoughmorethe4,500styles areavailable.
SeeInstallingAdditionalOutputStyles
Tomarkaninstalledoutputstyleasafavoritesoitwillappearin theOutputStylelist:
1. InEndNote,gototheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenselect OpenStyleManager.
2. Findthestylethatyouneed.
l Youcanquicklyselectastylebytypingitsname,orscroll throughthelisttofindwhatyouneed.
l Clickonthecolumnheadingstosortthestylesbyeithernameorcategory.Clickasecondtimetoreverse thesort
order.
l UsetheFind bybutton intheStyleManagerwindowtofindentirecategoriesofstyles ortosearchforastylebya
wordinitsname.Forexample,click theFindby buttonandselect Chemistrytodisplayallofthe stylesinthecat-
egory"Chemistry."
The"StyleInfo"itemintheinformationpanelcanbe changedfromStyleInfotoStylePreviewtodisplayapreview
ofhowtheselectedstyleformatsEndNotessamplereferences.
3. Clickinthecolumnboxtotheleftofthestylesnametoselect itasoneofyourfavorites.Or,tomarkallofthe stylesthat
aredisplayed,perhapsawholecategory,clickMarkAll.
4. ClosetheStyleManagerbyclickingtheclosebutton orselectingCloseStyleManagerfromtheFilemenu.
StylesmarkedasfavoritesappearintheOutputStyleslistofEndNotes EditmenuaswellasthestyleslistinMicrosoftWord
andOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Allstylescanbemodifiedtomeetyourspecifications. Youcanalso createcompletelynewstylesifnecessary.SeeModifying
StyleTemplatesforinstructionsaboutcreatingandmodifyingstyles.
Related Topics:
Creating aBibliographyfromMultipleDocuments
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Formatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliography
Generating Bibliographies
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
InstantFormatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
The StyleManager
Reformatting Papers (Microsoft Word)
Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers
Ifyouaddmorecitationstoyourpaperaftertheformattingprocess,youcanupdatethecitationsandthebibliographybyselecting
theFormatBibliographycommandagain.Word 2007 and 2010:ClickUpdate CitationsandBibliographyor clickthecornerarrow
tobringuptheFormatBibliographydialog.
Note:Youdonot needtounformatyourcitationsinordertoreformatthem.
Reformatting with Different Styles
Toreformatyourpaperinadifferentstyle:
1. Word 2003: GototheToolsmenu,thentheEndNoteX6submenu,andselectFormatBibliography again.
Word 2007 and 2010:YoucanselectanewStyleintheBibliographygroup,orclickthe cornerarrowtobringuptheFor-
matBibliographydialog.
2. SelectanewstylefromtheFormatBibliography dialogandclickOK.
Yourcitationsandbibliographyareupdatedforthenewbibliographicstyle.SeeAddingStylestothe OutputStylesListforinfor-
mationaboutexpandingthelistof availablestyles.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
Creating aBibliographyfromMultipleDocuments
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Formatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliography
Generating Bibliographies
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
InstantFormatting
Moving Bibliographies
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents (Microsoft Word)
YoucanuseWordsMasterDocumentfeaturetogenerateasinglebibliography frommultipledocuments.Thisallowsyouto
createacumulativebibliography fromanynumberofbookchapters.(Asanalternative, werecommendusing asingleWorddoc-
umentsplitintoSections.SeeCreating MultipleBibliographiesinaSingleDocument.)
Togenerateasinglebibliography:
1. Ineachofyourdocuments,orchapters,insert yourcitationstolinkthemtoreferencesinanEndNotelibrary.
2. Word 2003: Ineachdocument,gototheToolsmenu,thentheEndNote X6submenu,andselect UnformatCitationsto
unformatallofthecitationsinthedocument.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickConvert CitationsandBibliographyand select
Convert toUnformattedCitations.
3. Closeallofyourdocuments.
4. Createanewdocument.
5. UsetheOutlineviewtodesignatethenewdocumentasamasterdocument,theninsertanddisplayeachofyourchapters
assubdocuments.(CheckWordsdocumentationifyouneedstep-by-stepinstructions.)
Note: IfyouhavecollapsedsubdocumentstohidetheircontentinOutlineview,makesureyouexpandtheminorderto
displaythecontentsofallsubdocuments beforecontinuing.
6. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselect FormatBibliography.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,clickthebottomcorner arrow.
Note: Yourdocumentsmustallowread/writeaccess;theycannotbedesignated Read-only(locked).
7. VerifytheformattingoptionsandclickOK.
EndNotecreatesthebibliography,usingcitationsfromthemasterdocumentandalldisplayedsubdocuments,andplacesitatthe
endofthemaster document.Youcanmovethebibliographyanywherewithinthemasteror subdocuments,anditwillremainin
thatlocationevenwhenyoureformat.
Note:If youselectWordsInsert>Filecommand,andthenselect theLinkoption toinsertadocumentintothetext,EndNotewill
notformatthelinked documentwhenyouformat themaindocument.Thetextfromthelinkeddocumentwillbeskipped.
Ifyouwanttoformat abibliographyforeachsubdocumentplusacumulative bibliographyattheendofthemasterdocument,fol-
lowtheinstructions above,butuseanoutputstylethatallowsformattingofSections.See thedescriptionaboutCreating Multiple
BibliographiesinaSingleDocumentandSections foradditionalinformation. Inthecaseofamasterdocument,subdocuments are
treatedassections.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
Creating MultipleBibliographiesinaSingleDocument
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Formatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliography
Generating Bibliographies
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
InstantFormatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document (Microsoft Word)
Bydefault,EndNotecreatesasinglebibliographyattheendofeach ofyourWorddocuments.However,youmaywanttocreatea
separatebibliography foreachsection(orchapter)inyourdocument.Outputstyleoptionsareavailablesothatyoucanchooseto:
l Createasingle,completebibliographyatthe endofthedocument(thedefaultsettingforalmostallofthesupplied output
styles).
l Createabibliographyforeachsectioninthedocument.
l Createabibliographyforeachsectionandalso acompletebibliographyattheendofthedocument.
Note:Theseoptions areignoredbyversionsofEndNotepriortoversionX6.
In Microsoft Word, break your document into sections
EndNotecanformateachsectionindividually.Youmaywanttobreak eachchapterintoitsownsection.Inthecaseofamaster
document,subdocumentsaretreatedassections.
In Microsoft Word 2003:
FromtheInsert menu,selectBreaks,andthenselectoneofthefour optionsunderSectionbreaktypes:NextPage,Continuous,
EvenPage,or OddPage.
In Microsoft Word 2007 and 2010:
OnthePageLayouttab,click onBreaks,andthenselect oneofthefouroptionsunderSectionBreaks: extPage,Continuous,
EvenPage,orOddPage.
Note:Ifyouneed additionalinformationaboutsectionbreaks,pleaseseeyourMicrosoft Worddocumentation.
Modify the output style as needed
Ifyouwanttouseapredefinedstylethatformatssections,tryAPA 5th(sections)orChicago15thB(sections).Thesestylesare
already definedtoformat abibliographyforeachsection,anddonotrequire modification.
Otherwise,werecommendthatyoustartbycopyinganexistingoutput styleandgivingitauniquename.Thisleavestheoriginal
styleintact. SeeCopyingStyles.
Next,clickontheSectionspanelintheoutputstyle.Thisiswhere youselecttheappropriateoptionforcreatingasinglebib-
liographyfromallsections,aseparatebibliographyforeachsectionindividually,or both.Foracompletedescriptionofthefor-
mattingoptionsforMicrosoft Wordsections,seeSections.
Saveyourchangesandclosetheoutputstyle.
Format your Word document with the new output style
Formatyourbibliographyasyounormallywould,butmakesureyoufirst selectthenewoutputstylethatyoucreated.SeeFor-
matting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliographyinWord.
Again,youcanusethepredefinedstylesAPA5th(sections)orChicago 15thB(sections).Thesestylesarealreadydefinedtofor-
matabibliography foreachsection.
Additional Formatting Notes
WhenworkingwithsectionsinWord,pleasenotethat:
l EndNotewillalwaysinsert ablanklinebetween thefinaltextofeachsectionandthereferencelistforthatsection.
l Whenyouformat areferencelistattheend ofeachsection,thebibliographytitlewillbeusedfromtheLayout tabofFormat
Bibliography.Ifyoudonotwantatitleforeachsectionbibliography,makesurethe"BibliographyTitle" textboxontheLay-
outtabisempty.SeeFormatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliographyinWord.
l IfyouhaveinstructedtheoutputstyletoCreateabibliographyforeachsectionandacompletebibliographyatthe endof
thedocument,"butyouhaveonlyonesectionintheWord document,acompletebibliographywillappeartwiceoncefor
the endofthesection,andonceasacompletebibliographyfortheentiredocument.
l IfyouhavemultiplesectionsinyourWorddocument, andswitchfromformattingwithastylethatformatssectionsindivid-
ually toastylethatformatsasingle,cumulativebibliography...youwillseethesectionbibliographiesdisappear!Ifyou
wantthemback,make suretoformat withastylethatformatssectionsindividually.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
Creating aBibliographyfromMultipleDocumentsinWord
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Formatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliography
Generating Bibliographies
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
InstantFormatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Sections
Directly Editing Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
ItisalwaysbesttomakechangestoyourfinalbibliographybycorrectingthedataintheEndNotelibrary,editingtheoutputstyle
youareusing,oraddingordeletingcitationsfromyourpaper.Then,aftermakingthe necessarychanges,formatthebibliography
toautomaticallymakethecorrections.
ItisnotalwayspossibleforEndNotetoformatthebibliographyexactly asneeded,soyoumightneedtomanuallyeditthefor-
mattedbibliography. Ifyoumustdothis,rememberthatifyoureformatapaperafterediting thebibliography,EndNotewillnotpre-
serveyouredits.WhenEndNotereformatsabibliography,itdeletestheexistingoneandputsanewoneinits place.
Youcaneditthebibliographyasyouwouldanytext.Thebibliographymaybeshaded,butyoucanstilleditit.Ifyoulaterreformat
thepaper,youreditswillbegone.
Youcanaddtextafterthebibliography,butmakesuretoputitafter theendoftheformattedbibliographyoutsideofthebib-
liographyfield.
Note:SeeModifyingStyleTemplatesforinstructionsabouteditingstyles.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
Creating aBibliographyfromMultipleDocuments
Directly EditingBibliographies
Formatting theBibliographyand/orChangingBibliography
Generating Bibliographies
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
InstantFormatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Moving Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
CiteWhileYouWritealwayscreatestheinitialbibliographyatthe endoftheWorddocumentthatithasformatted.Ifyoumovethe
bibliography toadifferentlocationinthedocument,EndNotekeepsitthereevenifyoureformatthepaper.Youcandrag-and-drop
thebibliography,or,if InstantFormattingisdisabled,youcanCutandPastethebibliography.
Note: WhenInstant Formattingisenabled,usedrag-and-droptomoveabibliography.If youtrytouseCutandPaste,InstantFor-
mattingwillcreateanewbibliographyattheendofthedocumentbeforeyouhaveachancetoPaste.
Related Topics:
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly EditingBibliographies
Generating Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Deleting Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
Todeleteabibliography,makesureInstant Formattingisdisabled,selectthebibliography,andthendeleteit.
Makesureyoudragthecursoracrosstheverybeginningofthebibliography toselect theentirebibliographyfield.PresstheBack-
spaceorDelete key.YoucanalsoCutthebibliographyifyouwanttopasteitsomewhere else.
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
OnceimagesareorganizedinanEndNotelibrary,theyareavailable forinsertingintoamanuscriptwithCiteWhileYouWritecom-
mands.The finishingtouchistheautomaticcreationofafigurelistand/oratablelistthatpresentsasequentiallistofallgraphics
insertedinamanuscript.
Afigurecitationisabriefnumberedcitationinthebodyofapaperthatrefersthereadertoafigureattheendoftheparagraphorto
a figureinacompletelistoffiguresattheendofthepaper.
In-textfigurecitationsaresequentiallynumberedandformattedlikethis:
Marrellaisasmall"arthropod" somewhatreminiscentofatrilobite.Thisillustrationalsoshowsthe dark"blob"producedby
bodycontentswhichweresqueezedout oftheanimal afterburial.(Figure 1)
Itincludestheword"Figure"(or"Table"),the sequentialnumber,andsurroundingparentheses. ThefieldmaybeshadedbyWord
tohelpyouseecitations,butshadingdoesnotprint.Youcan turnfieldshadingoffinWord.
Thecurrentoutputstyledeterminestheplacementofformattedfigures andtables.Theyappeareitherwithinthebodyofthe
paper,directly aftertheparagraphwheretheyarecited,orinalistattheendofthe document,afterthebibliography.
SeeFindingandInsertingFigures andTables.
Related Topics:
Deleting aFigureCitationorFigureList
Figure andTablePreferences
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
Moving FiguresandTables
Notes AboutFormattingFiguresandTables
Placing FiguresandTables
Updating FiguresandTables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
l DonotuseMicrosoftWordCaptioninginconjunction withEndNotefigurecaptioningorin-textcitations.
l Imagesfoundinthe"Chart orTable"referencetype areinsertedintowordastables,whicharelabeledandnumberedsep-
arately fromfigures.(YoustillusethegenericFindFigureandGenerate FigureListcommands.)
l Ifyouopenanexistingdocumentthatalready hasfigurecitationsinthebody(thatwerenotinsertedwithEndNotes Find
Figurecommand),thosefigureswillnotbeincludedinthefigure list.Youwillneedtoaddtheexistingfigurestoreferences
inEndNote, andthenusetheFindFigurecommandtoinsertthemintothedocument.
l Youcanformatfigureseitherdirectlyafter theparagraphinwhichtheyarecited,orinalistattheendof thedocument.See
Figures andTablesinWord.
l TheInstantFormattingthatappliestobibliographies doesnotapplytofigures.In-textfigurecitationsarealwaysformatted
asyouinsertthem,butifyoumoveordeleteafigurecitationin yourpaper,youmustmanuallyselectGenerateFigureList
fromthe Toolsmenutoupdatethedocument.Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,in theBibliographygroup, select
Update CitationsandBibliography.
l FigureandtablecaptionsareaddedfromtheCaptionfieldintheEndNotereference.
l Ifmorethanonein-textfigurecitationreferences thesamefigurewiththesamecaption,thosecitationsareassignedthe
samefigurenumber,andthefigureappearsonlyonceinafigurelist.
l Youcanmanuallyinsertapagebreakbetweenfiguresifyouprefereachfigureonaseparatepage.Thesepagebreaks will
berememberedifyouselectGenerateFigureList(or UpdateCitationsandBibliographyin Word2007and2010)again.
Related Topics:
Deleting aFigureCitationorFigureList
Figure andTablePreferences
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Moving FiguresandTables
Placing FiguresandTables
Updating FiguresandTables
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
YoucansearchEndNotereferencesandinsertagraphicorfilefrom thefigurefieldofareferenceintoyourWorddocument.The
figurefield inyourreferencesmaybetitledfigureorhaveacustomnameassigned byyou.
Note:ThefiletypesacceptedaredependentonyourversionofWordandothersoftware installedonyourcomputer.Forexam-
ple,someversionsofWordwillnot acceptPDFfiles.
ToinsertagraphicorfilethatisstoredinanEndNotereference:
1. OpentheEndNotelibrarythatcontainsthefigure youwishtoinsert.
2. IntheWorddocument,positionthecursoratthe locationwhereyouwouldlikethefigurecitationtoappear.
3. Word 2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,selectthe>EndNoteX6submenuandFindFigure(s)todisplaytheEndNoteFind
Figuresdialog.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,clickInsert CitationandthenFindFigure.
4. Inthetextboxatthetop,entertexttoidentifythereferencethatcontainsthefigure.EndNoteassumesan"and" between
eachword,andwillsearchallfieldsinyourrecords,including theCaptionfield.
5. ClickFind,andEndNotecomparesthetexttotextinyourEndNotereferencesandlistseachmatchingreferencethat con-
tainsanimage.
EndNotedisplaystheAuthor,Year,Title,andCaptionfieldfromeachmatchingreference.Dragtheverticalbarsbetween
thecolumntitles todisplaymoreorlessofafield.TheCaptionfieldshouldcontain adescriptionofthefigure.
6. Identify,highlight,andinsert theappropriate figure.
Ifnoreferencesmatchyourtext,youneedtomodifyyoursearchtext andclickFindagain.
EndNoteplacesanin-textfigurecitationatthecursorlocationand insertsandlabelsthefigureitself.
Note:Imagesfound inthe"ChartorTable"referencetypeareinsertedintowordastables,which arelabeledandnumberedsep-
aratelyfromfigures.
Thefigureortablenumberrepresentstheorderoftheimageinthe document.
EndNoteinsertstheimageitself,alongwiththecaption,immediatelyaftertheparagraphthatcitesit.Youcanmodifytheoutput
styleto placefiguresandtablesinlistsattheendofthedocument,afterthe bibliography.SeeFigures andTables.
Youcaninsertfiguresandtablesinanexistingmanuscriptorasyouwrite.Remembertosaveyourdocumentasyouwork.
Note:TheInstant Formattingthatappliestobibliographiesdoesnotapplytofigures.In-textfigurecitationsarealwaysformatted
asyouinsertthem,butifyoumoveordeleteafigurecitationinyourpaper,youmustmanuallyselectGenerate FigureListfrom
theToolsmenutoupdatethedocument.Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,inthe Bibliographygroup, selectUpdate
CitationsandBibliography.
Related Topics:
Deleting aFigureCitationorFigureList
Figure andTablePreferences
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Moving FiguresandTables
Notes AboutFormattingFiguresandTables
Placing FiguresandTables
Updating FiguresandTables
Updating Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
In-textfigurecitationsarealwaysformattedasyouinsertthem.By default,theyappeardirectlyaftertheparagraphinwhichthey
arecited. However,youcandirecttheoutputstyletoformattablesandfigures inlistsattheendofthedocument.
Ifyoumoveordeleteafigurecitationinyourpaper,youmustmanually generatethefigurelisttoupdatethefigurecitationnum-
beringandplacement.
Word 2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,select theEndNoteX6submenuandselectGenerateFigure List.Or,clicktheGenerate
FigureListbuttonontheCWYWtoolbar.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,selectUpdate CitationsandBibliography.
EndNotewillnumbereachfigureandtablecitationsequentiallyinthe Worddocument,asshowninthisexample:
Thisfamilytreeisnotachronologicalprogression. Rather,itillustrateshowevolutionincorporatestraitsthatevolved for
unrelatedreasonsintoanovelstructure.(Table 1)
Marellaisasmall"arthropod" somewhatreminiscentofatrilobite.Thisillustrationalsoshowsthe dark"blob"producedby
bodycontentswhichweresqueezedout oftheanimal afterburial.(Figure 1)
Asresearcherslookatevidence,eventhecrestonthemodernCockatielprovidesinsightintotheevolutionoffeathers. (Fig-
ure2)
EndNotealsoinsertsanddisplaystheactualfigures(graphics,figures, tables,charts,equations,orfiles)andlabelsthemwithfig-
ureortable numbers(tomatcheachin-textreference)andCaptiontextfromtheCaption fieldintheEndNotereference.
Ifyourfiguresarelistedattheendofthedocument:
l Inafigureortablelist,ifmorethanone citationreferencesthesamefigurewiththesamecaption,thosecitations are
assignedthesamefigurenumber,andthefigureappearsonlyonceinthelist.
l Youcancontinuetoaddfigurecitationsto theWorddocument.Ifyouchangethepositionoffigurecitationsinyour
document(withtheCopyandPastecommands),selectGenerate FigureListagaintoupdatefigurenumbersandthecor-
respondingfigures.Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,selectUpdate CitationsandBib-
liographytoupdatefiguresandtables.
l Youcanmanuallyinsertapagebreakbetweenfiguresifyouprefereachfigureonaseparatepage.Thesepagebreaks will
berememberedifyougeneratethefigurelistagain.Or,direct theoutputstyletoalwaysinsertpagebreaksbetweenfig-
ures.
Related Topics:
Deleting aFigureCitationorFigureList
Figure andTablePreferences
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Moving FiguresandTables
Notes AboutFormattingFiguresandTables
Placing FiguresandTables
Placing Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
Figuresandtablesareformattedeitheraftertheparagraphwherecited orinalistattheendofthemanuscript.Thisplacementis
determined bythecurrentoutputstyle.
Note:Imagesfrom anyreferencetypeotherthan"ChartorTable"areinsertedandformattedasFigures.Imagesfromthe"Chart
orTable"referencetypeareinsertedandformatted asTables.BothareinsertedwiththeFindFigurecommand.Botharefor-
matted withGenerateFigureList(in Word2007,useUpdate CitationsandBibliography) .
Automatic Placement by the Output Style
Theselectedoutputstyledetermineswherefiguresandtablesareinitially placedinadocumentandwhenyouGenerateFigure
ListorUpdateCitationsandBibliography.
Bydefault,outputstylesaresetuptoplacefiguresandtablesimmediately aftertheparagraphinwhichtheyarecited.Youcan
editindividualoutput stylestoplacefiguresandtableseitheraftertheparagraphinwhich theyarecitedorinalistattheendofthe
document.
Forinformationabouteditingyouroutput styleforfigureplacement,seeFiguresandTables. TheFigurespaneldeterminesthe
placementoffiguresandtheircaptions,theTablespaneldeterminestheplacementoftables(imagesfromthe"ChartorTable" ref-
erencetype)andtheircaptions,andtheSeparationandPunctuation paneldeterminesimageseparationandpunctuationoflabels
andcaptions.
Selecting a Different Output Style
ToapplyadifferentoutputstyleinWord:
Word 2003:FromtheToolsmenu,selectEndNoteX6andthenFormatBibliography.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,you candirectlychooseadifferentstyle,orclickthebot-
tomcornerarrow.
SelectanoutputstyleontheFormat BibliographytabandclickOK. Youcanselectadifferentoutputstyleevenifyouhavenobib-
liographic citationsinyourpaper.Ifyoudohavebibliographiccitations,rememberthatyouroutputstylechoiceaffectsbothbib-
liographiccitationsand figureandtablecitations.
Cite While You Write Override of the Output Style
Asyouworkinyourdocument,youmayadjusttheplacementofactual figuresandtablesbycuttingthepicturesandpastingthem
elsewhereinthedocument.Normally,whenthefigurelistisgeneratedagain,the outputstyleputsthembackintheirinitialloca-
tion!Youcanoverride theoutputstyle,andtellEndNotetoleaveexistingfiguresandtableswheretheyarecurrentlyplaced.See
Figures andTablesinWordforinformationaboutCiteWhileYouWritepreferencesthataffectFiguresandTables.
Related Topics:
Deleting aFigureCitationorFigureList
Figure andTablePreferences
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Moving FiguresandTables
Notes AboutFormattingFiguresandTables
Updating FiguresandTables
Moving Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
Moving In-text Figure and Table Citations
Tomoveorcopyafigureortablecitation:
1. Highlighttheentirecitation,includingthesurrounding parentheses.Forexample:(Figure1)
2. UseCopyorCutfromtheEditmenutocopyormovethecitationtotheClipboard.Word 2007 and 2010:Thesecom-
mandsarefound inaClipboardgroup.Youcouldalsousedrag-and-droptomoveafigurecitation.
3. Movethecursortothenewlocation.
4. FromtheEditmenu,PastetheClipboardcontents atthenewlocation.
5. Word 2003: FromtheTools>EndNoteX6 menu,selectGenerateFigureListtorenumberthein-textcitations andupdate
figuresandtables.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,selectUpdate CitationsandBibliography.
Theselectedoutputstyledetermineswhetherfiguresandtablesappear directlyaftertheparagraphwherecitedorinalistatthe
endofthedocument.Tomodifythissectionofyouroutputstyle, seeFigures andTables.
Moving Individual Figures and Tables
Tomoveanindividualfigureortablewithinthetextofthemanuscript:
1. Cutthefigure(ortable),includingthelabel andcaption,andPasteitintheappropriatepositioninyourmanuscript.
2. Word 2003: InWord,gototheToolsmenuandselectEndNoteX6>CiteWhileYouWritePreferences.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheToolsgroup, selectPreferences.
3. OntheFiguresandTablestab,selectthebottom buttonforcustomplacementoffiguresandtablesandclickOK.
4. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenu,selectEndNote X6>GenerateFigureList.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,selectUpdate CitationsandBibliography.
EndNotewillupdatefigureandtablenumbering, butwillnotchangethepositionofexistingfiguresandtables.
Note:Thiscustom placementishonoredonlywhenthecurrentoutputstyleissetuptoprint figuresandtableswithinthetextof
themanuscript. Whentheoutput styleissetuptolistfiguresandtablesinlistsattheendofthe document,regeneratingthefig-
urelistwillmovefiguresandtablestotheappropriatelistattheendofthedocument.
Moving Figure and Table Lists
Whenanoutputstyleismodifiedtoprintfiguresandtablesinalist attheendofadocument,thelistsappearafterthebib-
liography.However,youmaywantthelisttoappearelsewhereinyourdocument.Somepublishers evenrequirethatfiguresbe
providedinaseparatefile.
Tomoveafigureortablelistelsewhereinyourdocument,suchasbefore thebibliography:
1. Highlighttheentirelist,especiallythevery beginningofthelistwhichcontainsahiddenmarker.
2. CutthelisttomoveittotheClipboard.
3. Movethecursortothenewlocation.
4. PastetheClipboardcontentsatthenewlocation.
Eachtimeyouselect GenerateFigureList(orUpdate CitationsandBibliographyinWord2007and2010),EndNotelooksforthe
beginningmarker, sothelistwillbeupdatedinitscurrentlocation.
Ifmultiplein-textfigurecitationsreferencethesamefigurewith thesamecaption,thosecitationsareassignedthesamefigure
number, andthefigureappearsonlyonceinafigurelist.
Toprovideafigureortablelistinaseparatefile:
1. Finalizeyourmanuscriptandfigurelist.
2. Highlighttheentirelist,andthenusetheCopy andPastecommandstopastethelistintoanotherWorddocument.
3. Deletethefigureortablelistfromthemanuscript file.
Note:Donotselect GenerateFigureListor UpdateCitations andBibliographyagainwithineitherdocument.
Related Topics:
Deleting aFigureCitationorFigureList
Figure andTablePreferences
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Notes AboutFormattingFiguresandTables
Placing FiguresandTables
Updating FiguresandTables
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List (Microsoft Word)
Todeleteafigureortablecitation:
1. Highlighttheentirecitation,includingthesurrounding parentheses.
2. PresstheBackspaceorDeletekey.
3. Word 2003: FromtheTools>EndNoteX6 menu,selectGenerateFigureListtorenumbertheremainingin-text figureand
tablecitationsandupdatetheformattedfiguresandtables.
Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,selectUpdate CitationsandBibliography.
Todeleteafigureortablelist:
Toremoveasinglefigureortablefromthelist,deletethecorrespondingin-textfigurecitation.Then,useGenerateFigureListto
generatean updatedlistattheendofthedocument.Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,select
Update CitationsandBibliography.
Ifyouwanttocompletelyremovethefigureortablelist,firstdelete allin-textfigurecitationsandupdatethelistwithGenerateFig-
ure ListorUpdateCitations andBibliography. Then,tocompletelyremoveanymentionofafigureortablelist,highlighttheListof
FiguresmarkerorList ofTablesmarkerandpressDelete.
Note:Donotdelete thefigure(picture)itselffromthedocument.Removethein-textfigure citationandthenGenerateFigure
ListorUpdateCitations andBibliography.Ifyoudonotremovethein-textcitation, regeneratingthefigurelistwillusethein-text
citationtodisplay thepictureagain!
Related Topics:
Figure andTablePreferences
Finding andInsertingFiguresandTables
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Moving FiguresandTables
Notes AboutFormattingFiguresandTables
Placing FiguresandTables
Updating FiguresandTables
Figure and Table Preferences
Setting Cite While You Write Preferences
Setting Cite While You Write Preferences (Microsoft Word)
YoucanaccessandsetCiteWhileYouWritepreferencesfromeither EndNoteorWord.Thesamedialogappears,andchanges
aresavedinthe sameplace:
l FromEndNotesToolsmenu,gototheCiteWhile YouWritesubmenuandselectCWYWPreferences.
l Word 2003:FromWordsToolsmenu,gototheEndNotesubmenuandselectCWYWPreferences.
l Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheToolsgroup,selectPreferences.
CiteWhileYouWritepreferencesincludegeneral preferences,theabilitytoassignkeyboard shortcutstomenucommands,and
theabilitytocontrolplacement offigures.
ForinformationaboutotherEndNotepreferencesthatdirectlyaffect CiteWhileYouWrite, seeRelated EndNotePreferences.
Making Changes to the EndNote Library
Finding Cited References in a Library (Microsoft Word)
Youcanquicklyjumpfromabibliographicin-textcitation(notafigure citation)tothecorrespondingEndNotereference.
TofindanEndNotereference:
1. MakesurebothyourWorddocumentandyourEndNote libraryareopen.
2. Highlightthecitation(s) inyourWorddocument.
3. Word 2003:FromtheToolsmenuinWord,gototheEndNoteX6submenuand selectEditLibraryReference(s). Word
2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheCitationsgroup,select Edit Library.
EndNoteopensthecorrespondingreferenceforediting.
Editing a Reference in the Library (Microsoft Word)
YoumayinsertacitationinaWorddocument,andthenlatereditthecorrespondingreferenceinEndNote.Arethosechanges
reflectedinyour Worddocument?
Yourcitationsandbibliographywillreflecttheeditsthenexttime youreformatthepaperwiththeEndNotelibraryopen.Openyour
document,openyourEndNotelibrary,andselectFormatBibliographyfromtheEndNoteX6submenuontheTools menuinWord.
Word 2007: OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,selectUpdate CitationsandBibliography.
EndNotewillnotbeabletomaketheupdateifthelibraryisnotopen duringformatting.Instead,itwilltaketheoriginalreference
information fromWordsTravelingLibrary.
Note:Theauthors lastnameandthepublicationyeararebothusedtoidentifyareference, sochangestotheseitemsinanEnd-
Notereferencearenotreflectedinthein-textcitation.CiteWhileYouWritewillnolongeridentifyamatch betweenthecitation
andthereference,andwillusereferenceinformation fromWordsfieldcodes(thetravelinglibrary).
IfyoumakechangestoafigureinanEndNotereference,youmustmanuallyreplacethefigureinyourWorddocument.
Deleting a Reference from the Library
Thefirsttimeacitationisformatted,EndNoteusesinformationfromtheunformattedcitationtolookintheopenlibraryandfind
thecorresponding reference.Ifyoulaterreformat,EndNoteagainlooksinthelibraryfor thatreference.Ifthereferencehasbeen
deletedfromthelibrary,EndNote takesthereferenceinformationfromhiddenfield codesinWord(theTravelingLibrary).
So,ifyoudeletedacitedreferencefromthelibrary,therequired informationisstillavailableinthehiddenfieldcodessurrounding
eachformattedcitationeventhoughthereferenceisnolongerinthelibrary.
However,anunformattedcitationissimplyatemporaryplaceholder. Ifacitationisunformatted,andyouhavedeletedthecor-
respondingreference fromtheEndNotelibrary,EndNotewillnotbeabletofindthereference informationforformatting.
Ifyouaddthereferencetothelibraryagain, itwillbeassigneda differentrecordnumber.Youwouldneedtore-insertthecitationin
Word.
Record Numbers
EndNoteassignsauniquerecordnumbertoeachreferenceasitisadded toyourlibrary.Theserecordnumbersappearintem-
porarycitationsto ensurethatthecorrectreferenceisusedwhenthepaperisformatted:
{Argus,1991#11}
TherecordnumberforareferenceisalsovisibleinthetitlebaroftheReferencewindow.
Keepthefollowingpointsaboutrecordnumbersinmind:
l EndNote automaticallyassignsarecordnumbersequentiallytoeachreference asitisaddedtoalibrary.
l If thesamereferenceappearsintwodifferentlibraries,therecord numberswillmostlikelybedifferent.
l Record numbersareneverreusedorreassignedwithinalibrary.Whenyou deleteareference,thecorrespondingrecord
numberisneverused againinthatlibrary.
l You cannot modifyorreassignrecordnumbers.
l We recommendthatyounotrelyonEndNotesrecordnumbersasameansoffilingornumberingyourofficereprints,because
youhavenocontrol overthisnumber.Instead,enteryourownuniquenumberintotheLabel field,oranyCustomfield,anduse
thatnumberforyourreprints.
Ifyouaddthereferencetothelibraryagain, itwillbeassigneda new,differentrecordnumber,soEndNotestillwillnotbeableto
finditwhenformattingyourpaper. Youwillneedtoreinsertthecitationintothepaperusingthenewreferenceinyourlibrary.
Related Topics:
Editing aReferenceintheLibrary
InsertingandFormattingFiguresandTables
Sharing Your Word Documents
Sharing Your Word Documents
Youcandirectlyshareyour Word2003,2007,orWord2010fileswithcolleagues. Eachformatted citationissurroundedbyfield
codeswhichcontainfullreferenceinformation (alsoreferredtoastheTraveling Library).
Ifyouwanttoconvertyourdocumentforusewithapreviousversion ofWordoradifferentwordprocessor,youshouldUnformat
Citationsbeforesavinginthedifferentfileformat.Then,youmay beabletoreformat.ThecorrespondingEndNotelibrary(or
libraries) mustbeavailableinordertoformat.
Tosendafinal,formatteddocumenttosomeone,youmaywanttoRemove FieldCodestosavetheformattedcitationsandbib-
liographyastext.
Ofcourse,ifyoujustwanttoprintacopyofthepaperforsomeone,youdonotneedtodoanythingtoyourdocumentotherthan
printit!
Note:Cite WhileYouWritecodesaredirectlycompatiblebetweenWord2003and2007.
Related Topics:
ExportingWord'sTravelingLibrarytoanEndNoteLibrary
Removing FieldCodes
Saving FilesforOtherVersionsofWordandOtherWord
Submitting theFinal PapertoaPublisher
TheTraveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working onDifferentComputers
The Traveling Library (Microsoft Word)
EachformattedcitationinyourWorddocumentissavedwithfield codesthatembedreferencedatainthedocument.Thepaper
contains a"TravelingLibrary"ofreferencescited.
Thefirsttimeacitationisformatted,EndNotelooksintheopenlibrary andfindsthecorrespondingreference.Ifyoulaterreformat,
EndNote againlooksintheopenlibraryforthatreference.However,ifthelibrary isnotavailableornotopen,EndNoteusesthe
TravelingLibraryforreference information.
Becausereferencedataiskeptwitheachformattedcitation,youcan collaboratewithotherauthorsonapaperwithouteach
authorhavingthe sameEndNotelibrary.
Thereferencedatasavedwitheachcitationincludesallfieldsexcept Notes,Abstract,andFigure.
Note:Donotunformat yourdocumentifyoudonothavetheoriginalreferencesinyourlibraries. Unlikeformattedcitations,unfor-
mattedcitationsrequirethatyouhave thecorrespondingEndNotelibrariesopeninordertoformatreferences.
Related Topics:
ExportingWord'sTravelingLibrarytoanEndNoteLibrary
Removing FieldCodes
Saving FilesforOtherVersionsofWordandOtherWord
Sharing YourWordDocuments
Submitting theFinal PapertoaPublisher
Unformatting Citations
Working onDifferentComputers
Exporting Words Traveling Library to an EndNote Library
Theremaybeoccasionswhereyouwanttocopyallofthereferences usedinaMicrosoftWorddocumenttoanEndNotelibrary.
PerhapsyoureceivedonlytheformattedWorddocumentfromacolleague,andwouldliketocreate EndNotereferencestouse
later.Or,youmayhavealargeEndNotelibrary, butwanttocreateasmallerEndNotelibrarywithonlythesubsetofreferences
usedinyourpaper.
Note:TheTravelingLibrarydoesnotcontainNotes,Abstracts,Figures,orCaptions.
ToexportreferencesfromaWorddocumenttoanEndNotelibrary:
1. OpenthedocumentinWord.
2. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselectExportTraveling Library.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheToolsgroup,selectExport toEndNoteand thenExportTravelingLibrary.
3. OntheExportTravelingLibrarydialog, select either:
l AnexistingEndNotelibrary:
Selectalibraryfromthedrop-downlistofavailablelibraries,orclickBrowsetolocatealibrary.
l AnewEndNotelibrary:
Youwillbepromptedtonameandsavethenewlibrary.
Note:Werecommend thatyouexporttoanewEndNotelibrary,soyoucanreviewtherecords beforeaddingthemtoanexisting
library.
ThereisanalternatewaytocopyreferencesfromyourWorddocument toanEndNotelibrary.OpenbothyourWorddocument
andtheEndNotelibrary. Then,inEndNote,gototheToolsmenu,thentheCiteWhileYouWritesubmenu,andselectImportTrav-
elingLibrary.
Note:Whenyou usetheExport/ImportTravelingLibrarycommands,theexportedreferences arerenumberedanddonotretain
theiroriginalreferencenumbers.
Related Topics:
Removing FieldCodes
Saving FilesforOtherVersionsofWordandOtherWord
Sharing YourWordDocuments
Submitting theFinal PapertoaPublisher
TheTraveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working onDifferentComputers
Converting Word 2007 and 2010 Citations to EndNote
Word2007and2010includesaReferencetab,whereyoucanuse commandstoinsertMicrosoftWordfootnoteorendnotecita-
tions.These footnoteandendnotecitationsarenotuseddirectlybyEndNotesCite WhileYouWritefeature(althoughyoucan
insertanEndNotecitationwithin aWordfootnote).IfyouhavecitationsalreadyenteredintoWord,youcancopythereference
informationintoanEndNotelibraryandthenconvert theWordcitationsintoEndNoteCiteWhileYouWritecitations.
Note:TheWordcitationconversionfeaturesrequiresthatyourcomputerhavetheMicrosoft .NetFrameworkinstalled.
ToexportWord2007and2010citationstoanEndNotelibrary:
1. OpentheWorddocumentthatcontainsthecitations.
2. OntheEndNotetab,intheToolsgroup,select ExporttoEndNoteandthenExport Word2007Citations.
ToexporttheWord2007and2010mastercitationlisttoanEndNote library:
1. OpentheWorddocumentthatcontainsthecitations.
2. OntheEndNotetab,intheToolsgroup,select ExporttoEndNote,andthenExportWord2007MasterList.
ToconvertWord2007and2010citationstoEndNotecitationswithin thedocument:
1. OpentheWorddocumentthatcontainsthecitations.
2. OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup, selectConvertCitationsandBibliography,andthenConvertWord2007
CitationstoEndNote.
Working on Different Computers (Microsoft Word)
Ifyouareworkingonasinglepaperandmovingbetweendifferentcomputers, itisbesttokeepacopyofyourreferencelibrary
withyourpaper.That wayyouwillalwaysaccessthesamelibrarywheninsertingcitations. Ifyouseparatelyaddreferencestoa
copyofthelibraryathomeand toadifferentversionatwork,recordnumbersmaynotmatchupcorrectly andEndNotemayhave
torelyontheTravelingLibraryforreferenceinformation.Thatisnotnecessarilybad,butyouwanttomakesurethatanylibrary
editsarereflectedinyourWorddocument.
Ifyouareinsertingcitationsononlyonemachine,itisfinetomove thedocumentitself toothermachinesaslongasyouwillbe
accessingthedocumentwiththesameversionofWord.
Note:If youarecollaboratingwithotherauthors,youwillwanttorelyontheTravelingLibrary.
Related Topics:
ExportingWord'sTravelingLibrarytoanEndNoteLibrary
Removing FieldCodes
Saving FilesforOtherVersionsofWordandOtherWordProcessors
Sharing YourWordDocuments
Submitting theFinal PapertoaPublisher
TheTraveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word Processors
FormattedcitationsareWord"fields"specifictotheversion ofWordthatcreatedthemandtheothercompatibleversions(Word
2003,2007,and2010).Ifyouopenyourdocumentwithadifferent versionofWord,orusetheSaveAscommandtosaveafor-
mattedcopyof yourpaperinanotherformat,youmaylosetheabilitytoformatcitationsinthatdocument.
Ifyouplantouseyourdocumentwithadifferentwordprocessor,a differentversionofMicrosoftWord,oronaMacintosh
machine,youshouldeitherUnformatCitationsorRemoveFieldCodes(Convert toPlainTextin Word2007and2010)fromthe
Wordfilebeforeconverting thedocumenttotheotherfileformat.
l Unformatting Citations:Unformatted citationsareregulartext;however,theyaretemporaryplaceholdersthatdonot
reflectfinaloutput.SeeUnformatting Citations.Youmaybeabletounformatcitations,savethedocument asanRTFfile,
anduseFormatPapertoformatcitationsfromtheseplaceholders.
l Removing Field Codes:Whenyouremovefieldcodes, yousaveacopy ofthedocumentandconvertformattedfieldsto
regularformatted text.Graphicsarenolongerlinked,butaresavedasthoughyouhad usedtheCopyandPastecom-
mands.Thecopyreflectsfinal, formatted output,butyoucannotreformatlater. SeeRemoving FieldCodes.
Note:Cite WhileYouWritecodesaredirectlycompatiblebetweenWord2003,2007,and2010.Becausereferencedataiskept
witheachformattedcitation,youcancollaboratewithotherauthorsonapaperwithouteachauthorhavingthesameEndNote
library.
Forinformationaboutusing yourWorddocumentwithOpenOffice.orgWriter,seeMovingDocuments betweenWordandWriter.
Related Topics:
ExportingWord'sTravelingLibrarytoanEndNoteLibrary
Removing FieldCodes
Sharing YourWordDocuments
Submitting theFinal PapertoaPublisher
TheTraveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working onDifferentComputers
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher (Microsoft Word)
Manypublishersaskthatyousubmitanelectroniccopyofyourpaper inadditiontoaprintedcopy.Becausethefieldcodesinyour
document maybeincompatiblewiththepublishingsoftware,youmaybeaskedto submit acopyofyourpaperwithoutfield
codes,asdescribedinRemoving FieldCodes.
Removing Field Codes
YoumayneedtoremoveCiteWhileYouWritefieldcodesinordertoshareyourdocumentwithapublisherorcolleague.
l Ifyourcolleagueisusingthesameversion ofWordthatyouare,youcanshareyourformatteddocumentasis; thedoc-
umentincludesaTraveling Library,whichincludesallrequiredinformationfortheformatted citationsandbibliography.
l Ifyourcolleagueisusingadifferentword processororanincompatibleversionofWord,youcouldremovefield codesto
shareyourfinaldocument.However,removingfieldcodes savestheformattedcitationsandbibliographyastext,anddoes
not allowreformatting.
l RemovingfieldcodesmeansdeletingWordsCite WhileYouWritefieldcodesandsavingtheformattedcitationsandbib-
liographyastext.ThisremovesonlyCiteWhileYouWritefield codes, andnotallotherWordfieldcodes.
l Whenfieldcodesareremoved,in-textfigurecitationsarenolongerlinkedtoanEndNotereferenceortothefigure list.In-
textfigurecitationsbecomeplaintext. Picturesinthe figurelistbecomeGIFfilesasthoughthey werecopiedandpasted
intothedocument.
l BecauseEndNoteandCiteWhileYouWritecannot reformatorunformatyourpaperoncefieldcodesareremoved,the
RemoveFieldCodescommand(ConverttoPlainTextinWord2007)makes acopyofyourdocumentwithoutcodes.
Note:Ifyouare workingwithmasterandsubdocumentsinWord,theRemoveFieldCodesor ConverttoPlain Textcommand
warnsthatitwillstripcodesfromtheoriginal documents.Youshouldfirstmanuallysavecopiesofthemasterandsub-
documents, andthenremovecodesfromthecopies.
Toremovefieldcodesandsavetheformattedcitationsandbibliography astext:
1. OpenyourformattedWorddocument.
IfyouareworkingwithMasterandSubdocuments,workwithcopiesof yourdocuments.
2. Word 2003: FromtheToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandselectRemoveFieldCodes.
Word 2007: OntheEndNotetab,intheBibliographygroup,selectConvert CitationsandBibliographyand thenConvert to
PlainText. Acopyofthedocument,withoutfieldcodes,appearsinanewdocumentwindow.
3. Word 2003: FromtheFilemenu,selectSavetosavedocument.
Word 2007: ClicktheOfficeiconandthenSave.
4. Single document: InWordsSaveAsdialog,typeanewnameforthiscopyofyourdocumentandclickOK.
Master and Subdocuments:Youmaybeadvisedtosaveacopyofthe masterandeachsubdocument.
Wordsavesyourdocumentwithoutembeddedformattingcodes,soyoucan submityourpapertoapublisherorshareyourfinal
paperwithacolleague usingadifferentwordprocessor(includingadifferentversionofWord).
Note:ThecopydoesnotcontainCiteWhileYouWritefieldcodes, soyoucannotreformat withCiteWhileYouWrite. Torefor-
mat,startwiththeoriginaldocument, whichretainsfieldcodes.
IfyoufindthatremovingEndNotefieldcodesproducesundesiredlayout orotherformattingchangestoyourdocument,youcan
removeallMicrosoft Wordfieldcodes,whichmayyieldbetterresults.
ToremoveallMicrosoftWordfieldcodes:
1. Firstsaveabackupcopyofyourdocument,becausethiswillirretrievablyremovethelinksbetweenyourdocumentand
yourEndNotelibrariesaswellasallotherWordfieldcodes.
2. Selectalltextinthedocumentbypressing Ctrl+A.
3. PressCtrl +6toremoveallMicrosoftWordfieldcodesfromthedocument(not justCiteWhileYouWritecodes!)andleave
thetext,citations,and bibliographyastheyappear.
Related Topics:
ExportingWord'sTravelingLibrarytoanEndNoteLibrary
Saving FilesforOtherVersionsofWordandOtherWord
Sharing YourWordDocuments
Showing WordProcessorCodes
Submitting theFinal PapertoaPublisher
TheTraveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working onDifferentComputers
OpenOffice.org Writer/Cite While You Write
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process (OpenOffice.org Writer)
UseCiteWhileYouWrite

(CWYW)withOpenOffice.orgversion3Writertoeasilyandquicklycitereferencesandcreatea
paperwith properlyformattedcitationsandabibliography.CiteWhileYouWritegivesyouaccesstoEndNotereferencesandfor-
matting commandswithanEndNotemenuinOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Youcanstartbyinserting acitationintothedocument.Then,youcanformatthecitationandabibliographyaccordingtoanyone
ofthousandsofstyles.
Word Processor Compatibility (OpenOffice.org Writer)
YoucanCiteWhileYou WritewithOpenOffice.orgversion3Writer.OpenOffice.orgWriterdisplaysCiteWhileYouWritecom-
mandsonanEndNotemenu.
IfyouuseMicrosoftWordasyourwordprocessor,seeHow toCiteWhileYouWritewithMicrosoftWord.
IfyouuseawordprocessorotherthanMicrosoftWordorOpenOffice.org Writer,oranolderversionofthesewordprocessors,
saveyourdocument asanRTFfileanduseFormat Paper.
Tocreateastand-alonebibliographythatisnotbasedonthecitations inapaper,seeIndependentBibliographies.
Note:Onlyone wordprocessoratatimeshouldbeopenwheninsertingcitationsandformattingdocuments.
How to Cite While You Write (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Thebasicstepsrequiredtociteareferenceandgenerateabibliography withOpenOffice.orgversion3Writeraresummarized
below.
ToCiteWhileYouWrite:
1. OpentheEndNotelibraryorlibrariesthatcontainthereferencesyouwishtocite.
2. StartOpenOffice.orgWriterandopenthepaper youarewriting.
3. Whenyouarereadytociteasource,positionthecursorinthetextwhereyouwouldliketoputthecitation.
4. InOpenOffice.orgWriter,gototheEndNotemenu andselectFindCitation(s).AnEndNoteFindCitationsdialogappears,
whichshowstheprevious searchresults.
Note: IfthisisthefirsttimeyouhaveusedtheFindCitationsdialog,itmaybecompletelyblankbecausetherearenopre-
vioussearchresultsto display.
5. IntheFindbox,enteridentifyingtextforEndNote tolocatetheappropriatereference.Thiscouldbeanauthorslastname,
ayear,akeyword,oranyothercombinationoftermsfoundin thereference.
6. ClickSearchandEndNotecomparestheidentifying texttoyourEndNotereferencesandthenliststhematchingref-
erence(s).
7. Identify,highlight,andInsert theappropriate reference(s).
8. Gobacktostep3toinsertthenextcitation, andcontinuecitingreferencesthisway.
Note: Eachtimeyouinsertacitationitisinstantlyformatted,andabibliography isupdatedattheendofyourdocument.
Whenyouaredoneinsertingcitations, yourdocumentisdone!
9. Ifyourcitationsarenotautomaticallyformatted, andabibliographyisnotupdatedeachtimeyouinsert acitation, gotothe
EndNotemenuandselectFormatBibliography.
AFormatBibliographydialogappears,whereyoucanchange,orsimplyverify,thestyleandlayoutofthebibliography.
(YoucanFormat Bibliographyatanytimeinordertochangethestyleorlayoutof yourcitationsandbibliography.)
Note: Thedialogliststhestylesthatarecurrentlyselectedasyour"favorites" intheStyleManager.Ifyouneedtochoose
astylethatisnotinthe list,clickBrowsetolocateit.
10. ClickOK.EndNotescansyourpaperand,usingtheselectedstyle, formatsanytemporarycitations,reformatsformatted
citations,andappendsabibliographytotheendofyourpaper.
Yourpaperisreadyforpublication!
Notes about OpenOffice.org Writer
Installing Cite While You Write Support (OpenOffice.org Writer)
EndNotesinstallationprograminstallsCiteWhileYouWritesupport forOpenOffice.orgversion3Writer.IfyouinstalledtheOpe-
nOfficesuite afterinstallingEndNote,youmusteitherreinstallEndNoteorRepair orModifyyourinstallation.Formoreinfor-
mation,seeNo EndNotecommandsinWordorWriter.
EndNotecommandsappearonanEndNoteX6menuinOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Cite While You Write Commands (OpenOffice.org Writer)
WhenCiteWhileYouWriteisinstalled,severalEndNotecommandsappear onanEndNotemenuinOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Whenyouselect anEndNotecommandfromthemenu,theEndNoteprogramstarts(ifnotalreadyrunning).
ThesearebriefdescriptionsoftheCiteWhileYouWritecommandsfound ontheEndNotemenuinOpenOffice.orgWriter:
l Find Citation(s) SearchforEndNotereferencestoselectandinsertascitations inyourOpenOffice.orgdocument.See
Finding andInsertingCitations.
l Go To EndNoteBring EndNotetothefrontofyourscreen.ThiscommandlaunchesEndNote ifitisnotalreadyrunning.
l Format BibliographyFormat (orreformat)yourpaperaccordingtotherulesoftheselectedstyle. Theformattingprocess
replacesthetemporarycitationsinyourpaper withformattedcitations,andbuildsabibliographyattheendof thedoc-
ument.SeeFormatting theBibliography.
l Insert Selected Citations Insert acitationforeachreferencecurrentlyselectedintheopenEndNote library.Youcan
insertanynumberofconsecutivein-textcitations; however,attemptingtoinserthundredsofEndNotereferencesatone
timemaycauseasystemslowdownorfreezing.SeeInsertingSelectedCitations.
l Edit CitationsEditexistingindividualormultiplecitations.Youcanomitauthorand/oryearfromcitations,oraddprefixor
suffixtext(suchaspagenumbers) tocitations.SeeEditingCitations.
l Unformat Citation(s)Unformat aselectedcitationbeforeeditingit,orunformatthewholedocument. Thisremovesstyle
formattingfortheselectedcitations,andleavestemporarycitationswhichusuallyconsistoftheauthorslastname, the
year,andtherecordnumbersurroundedbydelimiters.SeeUnformatting Citations.
l Cite While You Write Preferences ChangegeneralCiteWhileYou Writepreferences.SeeSettingCiteWhileYouWrite
Preferences.
l HelpDisplay helpaboutCiteWhileYouWritefeatures.
YoucanalsousethecorrespondingEndNote X6toolbarinOpenOffice.orgWriterforeasyaccess.Holdyourmousepointerover
anicontoviewatooltip.
Note: SeveralCiteWhileYouWritecommandsalsoappearontheToolsmenuin EndNote.Tousethesecommandsfromwithin
EndNote,youmustuseatleastoneCiteWhileYouWritecommandfromwithinOpenOffice.orgWriterduringthecurrentses-
sion.
Citing Sources as You Write
Forms of Citations (OpenOffice)
A"citation"isthebrief bibliographic informationinthebodyofapaperthatrefersthereadertoacomplete referenceinthebib-
liography.Acitationtypicallyconsistsofabibliography numberortheauthorandyearinparentheses:
...ofthespeciesathand
1
.
...ofthespeciesathand(Argus,1991).
Citationscanappearaseitherunformatted orformattedinyourOpenOffice.orgWriterdocument.
Unformatted (Temporary) Citations
Anunformattedcitationisatemporaryplaceholder, anddoesnotreflect finaloutput.ItwillappearwhenyouUnformatCitation(s)
ormanuallyenterunformattedcitations.Itcontainsinformationtofind aunique,correspondingEndNotereferenceinthecurrently
openlibrary.
Anunformattedcitationtypicallyconsistsofthefirstauthorslastname,year,andtheEndNoterecordnumber,withcitationdelim-
itersat eachendtoidentifythetext:
{Author,Year#RecordNumber}.
Forexample:
{Alvarez,1994 #8}
Theunformattedcitationmakesiteasytoidentifytherecordcited. Evenifyourfinalgoalisnumericcitations,youcanseemean-
ingfulinformation whileyouareworkingonyourdocument.
EndNotereliesonthesetemporarycitationstodeterminewhichreferences toincludeinthebibliography.
Formatted Citations
TheFormat Bibliographycommandusesanoutputstyletoconvertall unformattedcitationsintoformattedcitations,andreflects
finaloutput.
FormattedcitationsincludehiddeninformationincaseyouwanttoFormat Bibliographyagainlater,eitherafteraddingmorecita-
tionsorbecause youwanttoformatinadifferentstyle.
CitationsformattedinanAuthor-Datestylemightlooklikethis:
(Alvarez1994;
ThisisthesamecitationformattedintheNumberedstyle:
[1,2]
Youcaneasilyrevertfromformattedcitationstounformattedcitations atanytime.SeeUnformattingCitations.
Finding and Inserting Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
YoucansearchforEndNotereferencesandinsertthemwithouteverleavingOpenOffice.orgWriter.
ThisistheeasiestwaytofindandinsertacitationintoanOpenOffice.org Writerdocument:
1. OpentheEndNotelibrariesthatcontainthereferencesyouwishtocite.
2. OpentheOpenOffice.orgWriterdocumentandposition thecursoratthelocationwhereyouwouldlikethecitation.
3. FromtheEndNoteX6menu,selectFindCitation(s)todisplaytheEndNoteFindCitations dialog.
4. Inthe"Find"textbox,entertextto identifythereferenceyouwishtocite.EndNoteassumesan"and" betweeneachword,
andwillsearchallfieldsinyourrecords.
5. ClickSearch,andEndNotecomparesthetextto textinyourEndNotereferencesandliststhematchingreference(s).
6. Identify,highlight,andInsert theappropriate reference(s).Ifnoreferencesmatchyourtext,youneedtomodifyyoursearch
textandclickSearchagain.
Citationsareinserteddirectlyintoyourpaperinthesamefontas thesurroundingtext.Onceacitationisinserted,itcontainsref-
erence informationinhiddencodes.
Youcaninsertcitationsinanexistingmanuscript orasyouwrite. Remembertosaveyourdocumentasyouwork.
Toformatyourcitationsandgenerateabibliography,seeFormatting theBibliography.
Inserting Selected Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
ToinsertreferencesselectedinEndNote:
1. OpentheOpenOffice.orgWriterdocumentandposition thecursoratthelocationwhereyouwouldlikethecitation.
2. GototheEndNoteX6menuandselect GotoEndNote.
3. Highlightthedesiredreference(s) inyourEndNotelibrary.
4. SwitchbacktotheOpenOffice.orgWriterdocument.
5. FromtheEndNotemenu,selectInsert SelectedCitation(s).
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Tofindandinsertacitationfromhighlightedtext:
1. Asyouaretyping,entertexttoidentifythereferenceyouwishtocite,andhighlightthattext.
2. FromtheEndNoteX6menu,selectFindCitation(s)todisplaytheEndNoteFindCitations dialog.
EndNoteinsertsyourhighlightedtextintotheFindbox.UsetheFindCitation(s)dialogasdescribedinFindingandInsertingCita-
tions.
Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste (OpenOffice.org Writer)
YoucandragselectedcitationsfromyourEndNotelibraryanddropthem intoyourpaperatthedesiredlocationforthecitation.
YoucanalsocopycitationsfromtheEndNoteLibrarywindowandpastethemintothedocument(usingCopyfromEndNotesEdit
menuandthenPaste fromtheOpenOffice.orgclipboard).
Inserting Multiple Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Thereareseveralwaystoinsertmultiplereferencesinonein-text citation.Whenformatted,theyappearasonemultiplecitation,
sorted asyourbibliographicstylerequires:
Unformatted:{Hall, 1988#77;Baker, 1988#16}
Formatted:(Baker, 1988;Hall,1988)
Youcaninsertanynumberofconsecutivein-textcitations;however, attemptingtoinserthundredsofEndNotereferencesatone
timemaycauseasystemslowdownorfreezing.
Note:Ifoneofthecitationsinamultiplecitationisnotmatchedduringformatting, theentirecitationremainsunformatted.
ToinsertmultiplecitationsfromwithinOpenOffice.orgWriter:
1. FromtheEndNoteX6menu,selectFindCitation(s).
2. Enteragenericsearchtermthatwillfindthe referencesyouwant,andclickSearch.
3. HolddowntheCtrlkeywhileclickingonthedesired referencesinthelist(orholddowntheShiftkeytoselectacontinuous
rangeofreferences)inordertohighlightthereferences.
4. ClickInsert.
ToinsertmultipleselectedcitationsfromEndNote:
1. InEndNote,holddowntheCtrlkeywhileclickingonthedesiredreferencesinyourlibrary(orholddowntheShift keyto
selectacontinuousrangeofreferences).
2. SwitchbacktotheOpenOffice.orgWriterdocument.
3. FromtheEndNoteX6menu,selectInsertSelected Citation(s).
Toinsertmultiplecitationsindividually:
Anotheroptionistoinsertcitationsindividually,butimmediately nexttoeachother.CiteWhileYouWritemergesadjacentcita-
tionsduring formatting.Citationsdonotmergeifanycharacterseparatesthemincludingaspaceorpunctuationmark.
Unformatted:{Hall,1988 #77}{Baker,1988#16}
Merged when Formatted: (Baker,1988;Hall,1988)
Note:Youcanadd citationstoanexistingin-textcitation,orchangetheorderofcitations withinthedelimiterswiththeEditCita-
tionsdialog.
Toinsert,remove,oreditcitationswithinanexistingin-textcitation:
1. Click ontheformattedcitation.
2. InOpenOffice.org Writer,gototheEndNoteX6menuandthenEditCitation(s) todisplaytheEndNoteEditCitationdialog.
Allofthecitedreferencesinthedocumentarelistedintheleft columnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitation
appearswithintext.Thelinebelowshowsthecitedreference(s)
3. Highlightacitation,andthen:
a. ClickRemovetodeleteit.
b. ClickInserttoinsertanothercitationwithinthesamesetofdelimiters.
c. Usethearrowbuttonstochange theorderofthecitationinamultiplecitation.(IfaCitationSort Orderisappliedbythecur-
rentoutputstyle,changingtheorderofcitationsinamultiplecitationhasnoeffect.)
YoucanusetheotherfeaturesonthisdialogasdescribedinCustomizing IndividualCitations.
Inserting From Multiple Libraries (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Youcancitereferencesfrommultiplelibraries.Simplyopentheselected librariesbeforeyoubegininsertingcitations.
Ifpossible,though,werecommendthatyouuseasinglelibrarywhen writingapaper. Keepingallofyourreferencesinonelibrary
simplifies thewritingprocessbecauseyouknowexactlywheretofindeachreference, thereislittlelikelihoodofduplicateref-
erences,andyouonlyneed tohaveonelibraryopenwheninsertingcitations.
Note:Ifyouplan toinsertcitationsfrommorethanonelibraryintoapaper,readabouttheMergeDuplicatesinBibliography pref-
erence.
Customizing Individual Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Theremaybecaseswhereyouwantindividualcitationstodifferfromthestandardformat.Youmaywanttoremovetheyearor
authorfroma citationifeitherwasmentionedinthecontextofthesentence.Or,you mightwanttoaddapagereferenceorcom-
mentbeforeorafterthecitation.
Forexample,assumeaformattedcitationlookslikethis:
Hallsdiscovery(Hall,1988)
Youcanomittheauthorsnamefromthe citation:
Hallsdiscovery(1988)
Youcanomitthedatefromthecitation:
the 1988discovery(Hall)
Youcanaddasuffixwithpagenumbertothecitation:
the discovery(Hall,1988p.4)
Youcanaddaprefixtothecitation:
the discovery(seeHall,1988)
Tocustomizeaformattedcitation:
1. Insertandformatthe citation.
2. Clickontheformatted citation.
3. FromtheEndNote menu,selectEditCitation(s)todisplaytheEndNoteEditCitationdialog.Allofthecitedreferencesinthe
documentarelistedintheleft columnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitationappearswithin text.Thelinebelow
showsthecitedreference(s).
4. Highlightthecitationyouwanttocustomize.
5. Customize asneeded:
Exclude Author:Selectthistoomittheauthorname fromtheformattedcitation.
Exclude Year:Selectthistoomitthedatefromthe formattedcitation.
Prefix:Entertextheretoprintimmediatelybefore thecitationtext(spacesaresignificant).
Suffix:Entertextheretoprintafterthecitation text(spacesaresignificant).Youcanenterpagenumbershereif youalways
wantthemtoprintafterthecitation.
Pages: Pagenumbersenteredhereareconsideredentered intoa"CitedPages"field,sotheycanbemanipulatedonoutput
justlikeanyotherEndNotefield.Inordertoprint,theCited Pagesfieldmustbelistedinthecitationtemplateand/orfootnote
templateofyouroutputstyle.Thisistypicallyusedtoprintthe pagenumberswithinafullfootnotecitation.MostEndNote
styles thatrequireaspecialformat forcitationsinfootnotesarealready configuredthisway.YoucanmodifytheCitationTem-
plateinyour output styletoincludeCitedPages.
6. Click OKtoimplementthechange(s)tothe citation.
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Ifyouneedtoaddoneormorecitationstoapaperthathasalready beenformatted,simplyinsertthenewcitationsintothetext
(asdescribed earlierinthischapter)andselectFormat Bibliographywhenyouareready toupdatethebibliographyandcitations.
Toaddanewreferencetoanexistingcitation,insertthenewreference nextto(notwithin)theexistingcitation,likethis:
(HockneyandEllis, 1996){Argus, 1984#1}
Adjacentcitationsaremergedduringformatting,andtheformattedcitations aresortedaccordingtothestyle:
(Argus,1984;Hockney andEllis,1996)
Note:Donotinsert acitationintothemiddleofaformattedcitation.Insertitimmediately beforeoraftertheexistingcitation,with
nospacebetweenthem.
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Onceyouhavecreatedafootnoteorendnote inOpenOffice.orgWriter,youcancitereferencesinthatfootnoteorendnotejustlike
youcitetheminthebodyofthedocument.
Tociteareferenceinafootnoteorendnote:
1. UsetheappropriatecommandinOpenOffice.orgWriter tocreatethefootnoteorendnote.(EndNote doesnotcreatethe
footnoteorendnoteinthedocument,butisusedtoinsertandformatcitationsinthenote.)
2. Positionthecursorinthefootnoteorendnotewhereyouwouldlikethecitation(s)toappear.
3. Insertthecitationasyounormallywould.
TheEndNotestylethatisselectedwhenyouchooseFormatBibliographydetermineshowcitationsinfootnotesandendnotesare
formatted.EndNotecanformatthesecitationsasbriefin-textcitationsorlikecompletereferencesinthebibliography.Itcanalso
createaspecialformatspecifictofootnotesorendnotes,includingoptionslike"Ibid."andothervariationsofshortenedref-
erenceswhenacitationappearsmorethanonceinthefootnotesorendnotes.SeeBibliographyandFootnoteTemplates.
Ifyouarecitingfullreferencesinfootnotes,youcanincludespecific pagenumberstobeformattedlikearegularEndNotefield.
SeeCustomizing IndividualCitations.Or,ifyouaremanuallytypingcitations,see CitingSpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes.
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Typing Citations into Your Paper (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Manuallyenteringcitationsisthesamewhetheryou areusingCiteWhileYouWritewithOpenOffice.orgWriter,orCiteWhileYou
WritewithMicrosoftWord,orFormat PaperwithanRTFfile.Seethese topics:
l Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
l Components ofaTemporaryCitation
l Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
l Citation Prefixes
l Citation Suffixes
l IncludingSemicolons&OtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
l Examples ofModifiedCitations
Changing Existing Citations
Editing Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Onceyouhaveinsertedandformattedacitation,youshouldnotedit itdirectly(althoughyoucandoso,ifyoufeelyoumust).
Directedits arelostthenexttimeEndNoteformatsthebibliography.
YoucanalmostalwaysgetEndNotetoformatyourcitationsexactlytoyourspecificationsbyeditingthestyle,theEndNoteref-
erence,orthecitation(asdescribedhere).
Note:Aneasyway toomittheAuthororDatefromanindividualcitationistoselect thecitation,right-clickwithyourmouse,
selectEditCitation(s) andthenExcludeAuthororExcludeYear.
Tosafelyeditaformattedcitation:
1. Clickonthecitation youwishtochange.
2. FromtheEndNotemenu, selectEditCitation(s)todisplay theEndNoteEditCitationdialog.Allofthecitedreferencesinthe
documentarelistedintheleft columnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitationappearswithin text.Thelinebelow
showsthecitedreferences.
3. Selecttheappropriate citationfromthelistattheleftofthedialog(youcanscrollthrough allcitationsinthedocument)and
makeanyofthefollowingchanges tothehighlightedcitation:
Exclude Author:Selectthistoomittheauthorname fromtheformattedcitation.
Exclude Year:Selectthistoomitthedatefromthe formattedcitation.
Prefix:Entertextheretoprintimmediatelybefore thecitationtext(spacesaresignificant).
Suffix:Entertextheretoprintafterthecitation text(spacesaresignificant).
Pages: EnterpagenumbersheretoprintasCitedPages. Toprint,theCitedPagesfieldmustbelistedinthecitationtem-
plate orfootnotetemplateoftheoutputstyle.
4. You canaddorremovecitationsfromamultiplecitation,orchangethe orderofcitations.
Insert:Usethistoaddanothercitationwithinthe samesetofdelimiters.
Remove:HighlightacitationandclickRemovetodelete itfromthein-textcitation.
Up and Down Arrows:Highlight areferenceandusethe arrowstochangetheorderofdisplay.(IfaCitationSort Orderis
appliedbythecurrentoutputstyle, usingthisdialogto changetheorderofcitationsinamultiplecitationhasnoeffect.)
5. Click OKtoimplementyourchange(s).
Aftermakingchanges,selectFormatBibliographyto(re)formatthenew ormodifiedcitationsandregeneratethebibliography.
Unformatting Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Unformattingrevertsformattedcitationstotemporarycitationsand removesthebibliography.
Ifyourcitationsareformattedinanumberedstyle,youcanunformatyourpapertoeasilyidentifycitationsasyouwork.Youcan
Format Bibliographyagainlater.
Note:YoumusthavethecorrespondingEndNotelibraryopeninordertoformatthepaper again.
Tounformatcitations:
1. Determinewhichcitationsyouwantto unformat:
l Tounformataparticularcitation,highlightonlythatcitation.
l Ifthecitationyouwanttounformatispart ofamultiplecitation,highlightthemultiplecitation.Allcitations withinthedelim-
iterswillbeunformatted.
l Tounformatasectionofthedocument,highlight thatsection.
l Tounformattheentiredocument,eitherselect nothingorhighlighttheentiredocument.
2. FromtheEndNoteX6menu,selectUnformat Citation(s).Ifyouareunformattingtheentiredocument,thisunformatsallof
thein-textcitationsandremovesthecurrentbibliography.
Youcantellwhenapaperisunformattedbecausethecitationsappearinthetemporarycitationformat(suchas"{Smith,1999
#25}").
Unformattedcitationsaretemporaryplaceholdersthatdonotreflect finaloutput.Youcanformatthepaperagainatanytime.
Note:Toformat yourpaperagain,gotheEndNoteX6menuandselectFormatBibliography.
Moving or Copying Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Youcanhighlightanytextthatincludescitations,thenusetheClipboardcommandstoCutorCopyandthenPasteitelsewhere
inthedocument.Youcandothiswithformattedortemporary(unformatted)citations.
Tomoveorcopyonlythecitationitself,makesureyouhighlighttheentirecitation(includinganysurroundingdelimiters)aswell
asanextra characterbeforeandafterthecitation.Includingthecharactersbeforeandafterthecitationensuresthatyouinclude
thehiddenbookmarkassociated withthecitation.(Ifthehiddenbookmarkisnotpartoftheselection, youwillcopyplaintext,and
notanEndNotecitation.)ThenCutorCopy andPasteitelsewhereinthedocument.
Deleting Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Todeleteanunformattedcitation,simplyhighlighttheentirecitation (includingdelimiters), andpresstheBackspaceorDelete
key.
Whileitispossibletohighlightaformattedcitationandsimplypress theDeletekeyonyourkeyboard,wedonotrecommendyou
dothat.Ifyou donotcompletelydeletethecitationanditsassociatedbookmark,you couldcorruptyourdocument.
Tosafelydeleteaformattedcitation:
1. InOpenOffice.orgWriter,highlightthecitation youwanttodelete.
2. FromtheEndNoteX6menu,selectEditCitation(s)todisplaytheEndNoteEditCitationdialog.
Note:Allofthecitedreferencesinthedocumentarelistedintheleft columnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitation
appearswithintext.Thelinebelowshowsthecitedreference(s).Thecitationyouhighlightedinthedocumentshouldbehigh-
lightedinthelist.
3. Intheleftcolumn,makesurethehighlightedcitationistheoneyouwanttodelete.Ifthecitationispartofamultiplecitation,
makesureyouselectjustthecitationyouwanttodelete.
4. ClickRemove.
5. ClickOK.
Generating Bibliographies
Generating Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Formattingabibliographyservestwofunctions:
l Itformatseachin-textcitationaccordingto theselectedbibliographicstyle.
l Itaddsacompletebibliographytothedocument (unlessyouoverridethiswithasettingintheoutputstyle).
Theformatusedforcitationsandreferencesisdeterminedbytheoutput styleselected.
Whenyouhavefinishedwritingyourpaper,andallofyourEndNotecitations havebeeninsertedintothetext,youarereadyfor
EndNotetoformat thepaperandgenerateabibliography.Thiscanbedoneinoneoftheseways:
l InstantFormattingactuallyworksasyouinsert citations,andisenabledwhenyoufirststartusingCiteWhileYou Write.
EndNoteusesthecurrentlyselectedstyletoformat citations andupdatethebibliographyeachtimeacitationisinserted.
However, ifyouwanttochangethestyleorlayoutofreferences, youcanuse theFormatBibliographycommand.
l FormatBibliographyallowsyoutomodifybibliography preferencessuchasstyleandlayout beforeformattingyourdoc-
ument.
FromtheEndNotemenu,selectFormatBibliography.
Thesearethebasicformattinginstructions:
1. InOpenOffice.orgWriter,gototheEndNoteX6 menuandselectFormatBibliography.
2. OntheFormatBibliographytab,usethe"Withoutputstyle"optiontoselectanoutputstyletoformatreferences.Itisokay
toexperimentwithdifferentstylesbecauseyoucansimply reformatagain.
3. ClickOKtoformatallcitationsandbuildthe bibliography.
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Youmaybehalfwaythroughinsertingcitations,oryoumayhavefinished writingyourpaper.Aslongasyouhavecitations
enteredinyourdocument, youcanformatyourpaperatanytime.Youcanreformatafteraddingmorecitationsortochangethe
styleorlayout settings.
Note:Eachtime acitationisformatted,thecorrespondingEndNotelibrarymustbeopen.
Toformatcitationsandgenerateabibliography:
1. InOpenOffice.org Writer,gototheEndNoteX6menuandselectFormatBibliography.
2. Onthe FormatBibliographytab,changeorverifythesesettings
With output style:Selecttheappropriateoutputstyle toformat references.Youcanexperimentbyreformattingwithvar-
iousoutputstyles.Toaddmoreoutputstylestothelist,seeAddingStylestotheOutput StylesList.
Temporary citation delimiters:Thesearetheopening andclosingdelimitersfortemporarycitations.Makesuretheyare
uniquedelimiters,andnotcharactersyouwouldnormallyuseinyour paper. Thedefaultsarecurlybraces.
Link in-text citation to reference in the bibliography:Select thischeckboxtoviewin-textcitationsinaWorddoc-
ument.Clear theselectiontoremovelinkedin-textcitationsinthebibliography ofyourpaperinWord.
Underline linked in-text citations:Selectthisoptiontoadd underlinestoin-textcitations.Clearthecheckboxtoremove
underlines fromin-textcitationsinyourpaper.Thisoptionisonlyavailable ifthe"Linkedin-textcitationtoreferenceinthe
bibliography isturnedon.
3. OntheLayouttab,changeorverifythesesettings:
Font and Size:Thesearethetextfontandsizeusedforthebibliography.
Bibliography title:Toprintatitleatthetopofyourbibliography,typethetitleinthistextbox.
Text Format:HighlightthebibliographytitletextandthenusetheTextFormatbuttontodisplayadialogwhereyoucan
changetheformatofthehighlightedtext.
Start with bibliography number:Enterastartingreferencenumberifyouwanttonumberyourbibliography.
4.
5. ClickOKtosavechangesandformatyourcitationsandbibliography.
Note: Youdo nothavetoverifyeachtabeverytimeyouformat.Ifallyouwantto doischangetheoutputstyle,select Format
Bibliography,select the output styleontheFormat Bibliographytab,andclickOK.
Reformatting Papers (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers
Ifyouaddmorecitationstoyourpaperaftertheformattingprocess,youcanupdatethecitationsandthebibliographybyselecting
theFormatBibliographycommandagain.
Note:Youdonot needtounformatyourcitationsinordertoreformatthem.
Reformatting with Different Styles
Toreformatyourpaperinadifferentstyle:
1. InOpenOffice.orgWriter,gototheEndNoteX6menuandselectFormatBibliography again.
2. SelectanewstylefromtheFormatBibliography dialogandclickOK.
Yourcitationsandbibliographyareupdatedforthenewbibliographicstyle.SeeAddingStylestotheOutputStylesListforinfor-
mationaboutexpandingthe listofavailablestyles.
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents (OpenOffice.org Writer)
YoucanusetheOpenOffice.orgWriterMasterDocumentfeaturetogenerate asinglebibliographyfrommultipledocuments.This
allowsyoutocreateacumulativebibliographyfromanynumberofbookchapters.
Togenerateasinglebibliography:
1. Ineachofyourdocuments,orchapters,insert yourcitationstolinkthemtoreferencesinanEndNotelibrary.
2. Ineachdocument,gototheEndNoteX6menuandselectUnformatCitations tounformatallofthecitationsinthedoc-
ument.
3. Closeallofyourdocuments.
4. CreateaFile>New>Masterdocument.
5. Insertanddisplayeachofyourchaptersassubdocuments. (ChecktheOpenOffice.orgWriterhelpdocumentationifyou
needstep-by-step instructions.)
Note: IfyouhavecollapsedsubdocumentstohidetheircontentinOutlineview,makesureyouexpandtheminorderto
displaythecontentsofallsubdocuments beforecontinuing.
6. FromtheEndNoteX6menu,selectFormatBibliography.
Note: Yourdocumentsmustallowread/writeaccess;theycannotbedesignated Read-only(locked).
7. VerifytheformattingoptionsandclickOK.
EndNotecreatesthebibliography,usingcitationsfromthemasterdocumentandalldisplayedsubdocuments,andplacesitatthe
endofthemaster document.Youcanmovethebibliographyanywherewithinthemasteror subdocuments,anditwillremainin
thatlocationevenwhenyoureformat.
Note:If youselectWriter'sInsert>Filecommandandselectthe"Link" optiontoinsertadocumentintothetext,EndNotewill
notformatthe linkeddocumentwhenyouformat themaindocument.Thetextfromthelinked documentwillbeskipped.
Directly Editing Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
ItisalwaysbesttomakechangestoyourfinalbibliographybycorrectingthedataintheEndNotelibrary,editingtheoutputstyle
youareusing,oraddingordeletingcitationsfromyourpaper.Then,aftermakingthe necessarychanges,formatthebibliography
toautomaticallymakethecorrections.
ItisnotalwayspossibleforEndNotetoformatthebibliographyexactly asneeded,soyoumightneedtomanuallyeditthefor-
mattedbibliography. Ifyoumustdothis,rememberthatifyoureformatapaperafterediting thebibliography,EndNotewillnotpre-
serveyouredits.WhenEndNotereformatsabibliography,itdeletestheexistingoneandputsanewoneinits place.
Youcaneditthebibliographyasyouwouldanytext.Thebibliographymaybeshaded,butyoucanstilleditit.Ifyoulaterreformat
thepaper,youreditswillbegone.
Youcanaddtextafterthebibliography,butmakesuretoputitwellaftertheendoftheformattedbibliographyoutsideofthebib-
liographyfield.
SeeModifyingStyle Templatesforinstructionsabouteditingstyles.
Moving Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
CiteWhileYouWritealwayscreatestheinitialbibliographyatthe endoftheOpenOffice.orgWriterdocumentthatithasfor-
matted.Werecommend thatyouleavethebibliographyattheendofthedocument,butrealize thatisnotalwayspossible.Below
aresomeoptionsformovingthebibliographytoadifferentlocationinyourpaper.
Note:Pleaseback upyourdocumentbeforeyoubegin!
Add Text After the Bibliography
Youmaywanttoaddtextafterthebibliography.Youcandothis,butmakesureyouarewellbeyondtheendofthebookmarked
bibliographyfield. Ifyouaddtexttothebibliographyfield,itwilldisappearthenexttimeyougenerateabibliography.
Copy and Paste the Bibliography
Youcancopyandpastethebibliography,butitgetstricky!First, highlighttheentirebibliographyfieldbutmakesureyouinclude
the twoparagraphmarkersbeforethestartofthebibliography(orthetwoparagraphmarkersbeforethebibliographytitle,ifyou
haveincluded one),plusthecompletebibliography,plustheparagraphmarkerafter thebibliography.Then,Cutthebibliography
andPasteitinthenewlocation.
Note:Ifyouhave notselectedthecomplete,bookmarkedbibliographyfield, youwillhavecopiedandpastedplaintext.Thetext
inthenewlocationwillnevergetupdated,andthebibliographyintheoldlocationwillchangeasyou updatecitationsorreformat
thebibliography.
Onceyouhavemovedthecomplete,bookmarkedbibliographyfieldtoa differentlocationinthedocument,EndNotekeepsitthere
evenwhenyou reformatthepaper.
Deleting Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Todeleteabibliography,selectthebibliographyandthendeleteit.
Makesureyoudragthecursorfromthelineabovethebibliographytotheendofthebibliographyinordertoselecttheentirebib-
liographyfield.PresstheBackspaceorDeletekey.Youcanalsocutthebibliography ifyouwanttopasteitsomewhereelse.
Setting Cite While You Write Preferences
Setting Cite While You Write Preferences (OpenOffice.org Writer)
ToaccessandsetCiteWhileYouWritepreferences:
InOpenOffice.orgWriter,gototheEndNoteX6menu andselectCiteWhileYouWritePreferences.
Open EndNote When Starting OpenOffice.org Writer
SelectthisitemtoalwaysopenEndNotewhenyoustartOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Close EndNote When Leaving OpenOffice.org Writer
SelectthisitemtoalwayscloseEndNotewhenyouleaveOpenOffice.org Writer.ThisworksonlywhentheEndNoteprogram
waslaunchedwithone oftheCiteWhileYouWritecommandsfromwithinWriterorifthe"Open EndNoteWhenStartingWriter"
preferenceisselected.
ForinformationaboutotherEndNotepreferencesthatdirectlyaffect CiteWhileYouWrite, seeRelated EndNotePreferences.
Making Changes to the EndNote Library
Editing a Reference in the Library (OpenOffice.org Writer)
YoumayinsertacitationintoanOpenOffice.orgWriterdocument,andthenlatereditthecorrespondingreferenceinEndNote.Are
thosechanges reflectedinyourWriterdocument?
Yourcitationsandbibliographywillreflecttheeditsthenexttime youreformatthepaperwiththeEndNotelibraryopen.Openyour
document,openyourEndNotelibrary,andselectFormatBibliographyfromtheEndNoteX6menuinOpenOffice.orgWriter.End-
Notewillnotbeabletomaketheupdateifthelibraryis notopenduringformatting.
Note:Theauthors lastnameandthepublicationyeararebothusedtoidentifyareference, sochangestotheseitemsinanEnd-
Notereferencearenotreflectedinthein-textcitation.CiteWhileYouWritewillnolongeridentifyamatch betweenthecitation
andthereference.
Deleting a Reference from the Library (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Thefirsttimeacitationisformatted,EndNoteusesinformationfromtheunformattedcitationtolookintheopenlibraryandfind
thecorresponding reference.Ifyoulaterreformat,EndNoteagainlooksinthelibraryfor thatreference.
IfyouhavedeletedthecorrespondingreferencefromtheEndNotelibrary, EndNotewillnotbeabletofindthereferenceinfor-
mationforformatting.
Ifyouaddthereferencetothelibraryagain, itwillbeassigneda differentrecordnumber.Youwouldneedtore-insertthecitation
withOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Record Numbers
EndNoteassignsauniquerecordnumbertoeachreferenceasitisadded toyourlibrary.Theserecordnumbersappearintem-
porarycitationsto ensurethatthecorrectreferenceisusedwhenthepaperisformatted:
{Argus,1991#11}
TherecordnumberforareferenceisalsovisibleinthetitlebaroftheReferencewindow.
Keepthefollowingpointsaboutrecordnumbersinmind:
l EndNoteautomaticallyassignsarecordnumbersequentiallytoeachreferenceasitisaddedtoalibrary.
l Ifthesamereferenceappearsintwodifferent libraries,therecordnumberswillmostlikelybedifferent.
l Recordnumbersareneverreusedorreassignedwithinalibrary.Whenyoudeleteareference,thecorrespondingrecord
numberisneverusedagaininthatlibrary.
l Youcannot modifyorreassignrecordnumbers.
l WerecommendthatyounotrelyonEndNotes recordnumbersasameansoffilingornumberingyourofficereprints,
becauseyouhavenocontroloverthisnumber.Instead,enteryour ownuniquenumberintotheLabelfield, oranyCustom
field,anduse thatnumberforyourreprints.
Ifyouaddthereferencetothelibraryagain, itwillbeassigneda new,differentrecordnumber,soEndNotestillwillnotbeableto
finditwhenformattingyourpaper. Youwillneedtoreinsertthecitationintothepaperusingthenewreferenceinyourlibrary.
Sharing Your Writer Documents
Sharing Your Writer Documents (OpenOffice.org Writer)
YoucandirectlyshareyourOpenOffice.org.ODTfileswithcolleagues.
Ifyouwanttoconvertyourdocumentforusewithapreviousversion ofWriteroradifferentwordprocessor,youshouldUnformat
Citationsbeforesavinginthedifferentfileformat.Then,youmaybeabletoreformat. ThecorrespondingEndNotelibrary(or
libraries)mustbeavailablein ordertoformat.
Ofcourse,ifyoujustwanttoprintacopyofthepaperforsomeone,youdonotneedtodoanythingtoyourdocumentotherthan
printit!
Working on Different Computers (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Ifyouareworkingonasinglepaperandmovingbetweendifferentcomputers, itisbesttokeepacopyofyourreferencelibrary
withyourpaper.That wayyouwillalwaysaccessthesamelibrarywheninsertingcitations. Ifyouseparatelyaddreferencestoa
copyofthelibraryathomeand toadifferentversionatwork,recordnumbersmaynotmatchupcorrectly. Youwanttomakesure
thatanylibraryeditsarereflectedinyourWord document.
Ifyouareinsertingcitationsononlyonemachine,itisfinetomove thedocumentitself toothermachinesaslongasyouwillbe
accessingthedocumentwiththesameversionofWriter.
Youcannot formatcitationsinyourOpenOffice.orgWriterdocumentunless theassociatedEndNotelibraryisavailable.
Saving Files for Other Versions of Writer and Other Word Processors
IfyouopenyourdocumentwithadifferentversionofWriter,oruse theSaveAscommandtosaveaformattedcopyofyourpaper
inanotherformat,youmaylosetheabilitytoformatcitationsinthatdocument.
Ifyouplantouseyourdocumentwithadifferentwordprocessor,a differentversionofOpenOffice.orgWriter,youshouldUnfor-
matCitations beforeconvertingthedocumenttotheotherfileformat.
Unformattedcitationsareregulartext;however,theyaretemporary placeholdersthatdonotreflectfinaloutput.SeeUnformatting
Citations.
YoucanunformatcitationsandthensavethedocumentasaMicrosoft Wordfile,asanolderversionWriterODTfile,orasan
RTFfile.For Wordfiles,useCiteWhileYouWriteforMicrosoftWordtoreformatthepaper.ForolderODT filesorRTFfiles,use
Format Papertoformatcitationsfromtheseplaceholders.
Moving Documents between Microsoft Word and Writer
YoucanconvertyourMicrosoftWorddocumentsforOpenOffice.orgWriter andviceversa.Alwaysstartbymakingabackupof
theoriginaldocument!
Withtheoriginalwordprocessor,makesureyoufirstunformatcitations, thensavethedocument,andthenclosethewordproc-
essor.Then,open thefilewiththeotherwordprocessor.YoumusthavetheassociatedEndNotelibraryavailableandopenin
ordertoformat thecitationsandbibliography.
Note:Ifyouhave bothMicrosoftWordandOpenOffice.orgWriteropen,theCiteWhileYou Writecommandsavailablewithin
EndNoteareactiveforthewordprocessor thatwaslaunchedfirst.
ThereareseveralCiteWhileYouWritefunctionsthatareavailable onlyinMicrosoftWord,andnotinOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Theseinclude:
l usingthetemplatewizard
l insertingnotes
l insertingfiguresandtables
l constantbackgroundinstantformatting
l creatingmultiplebibliographiesinasingle documentwithsections
l usingatravelinglibrary(ratherthanalways havingthelibraryavailableandopen)
RTF Files/Scanning and Formatting
Word Processor Compatibility (Format Paper)
YoucancreateformattedcitationsandbibliographiesforyourpaperswithoutusingCiteWhileYouWriteforMicrosoftWordor
OpenOffice.orgWriter.UseFormatPapertocitereferencesandcreatebibliographiesfordocuments thatcanbesavedasRTF,
includingdocumentscreatedwith:
l MicrosoftWord
l WordPerfect
l OpenOffice.orgWriter
l StarOfficeStarWriter
l MicrosoftWorks
l WordPad
l AlmostanyapplicationthatcansaveasRTF(RichTextFormat)
Note:EndNoteuses Unicodetoappropriatelydisplaydiacriticsandotherextendedcharacters. Ifthesecharactersdonotdis-
playcorrectlywhenyouformat EndNotecitations andreferencesinyourwordprocessordocument,itmaybebecauseyourword
processorlacksUnicodesupport.Pleaserefertoyourwordprocessor's documentation.
Toformatreferencesandcreateabibliography(CiteWhileYouWrite)withMicrosoftWord2003or2007 ,seeHowtoCiteWhile
YouWritewithMicrosoftWord.
Toformatreferencesandcreate abibliography(CiteWhileYouWrite)withOpenOffice.orgWriter,see How toCiteWhileYou
WritewithOpenOffice.orgWriter .
WhileyoucanusetheFormatPaperfeaturetoformatWordfilessavedasRTF,orOpenOfficedocuments withtheextension
ODT,itismucheasierandmoreefficienttouseCiteWhileYouWrite.
Tocreateastand-alonebibliographythatisnotbasedonthecitations inapaper,seeIndependentBibliographies.
Forup-to-datecompatibilityinformation, seeourWebsiteathttp://www.endnote.com.
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Thistopicdescribeshowtocreateformattedcitationsandbibliographies foryourpaperswithoutusingCiteWhileYouWrite

for
Microsoft

WordorOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Thebasicstepsrequiredtocitereferencesinapaperand"format" thatpaperusingEndNotearecoveredhere.Moredetailsabout
howtoswitch betweenprogramsandvarioustipsforcitingreferencesaredescribed inthesectionsfollowingthesebasicinstruc-
tions.
Citingreferencesisastraight-forwardprocessofcopyingtemporary citationsfromEndNoteandpastingthemintoyourwordproc-
essingdocument. Whilewritingapaperinyourwordprocessor,youcanhaveEndNoterunning inthebackgroundsothatitseasy
toswitchbetweenthetwoprograms whenyouneedtociteasource.AlthoughyoucanentertheEndNotetemporary citationsinto
apaperatanytime,mostwritersfinditconvenienttoenterthecitationsastheyarewritingthepaperinsteadofwaitingto insert
themafterthetextiswritten.
Note:TheFormat PapercommandworksonRTFdocuments orOpenOffice.orgWriterdocuments.Youcreateyourpaperand
insert citationswithyourwordprocessor.YoucanscanOpenOffice.orgWriter documentsdirectly.Whenyouarereadytoscan
andformat citationsforotherdocumenttypes, youmustfirstsaveacopyofyourpaperasRTF, andthenscanthatcopyofthe
paper..
TopracticeusingtheFormatPaperfeature,youcanfollowthisprocedure usingoneoftheexampledocumentsfoundinthe End-
NoteX6\Examplesfolder.WerecommendexperimentingwiththeSample_RichText.RTForSample_OpenDocType.ODTfile
alongwiththeSample_Library_X6.
To cite a reference in a paper:
1. Startyourwordprocessorandopenthepaperyou arewriting.
Asanexample,youcanlocateandopenSample_RichText.RTF foundintheEndNoteX6\Examplesfolder.IfyouuseOpe-
nOffice.orgWriter,youcanuseSample_OpenDocType.ODTasanexample.
2. Whenyouarereadytociteasource,positionthecursorinthetextwhereyouwouldliketoputthecitation.
...acommonlydocumentedphenomena|.
3. StartEndNoteandopenyourlibrary(ifitisnot alreadyopen).SeeOpening aLibraryifyouneedhelpwiththisstep.
4. Selectthereference(s) inyourEndNotelibrarythatyouwanttocite.PresstheCtrlkeywhileclickingonthereferences to
selectmultiplereferences;presstheShiftkeytoselectarange ofreferences.
5. SelectCopy(Ctrl+C)fromtheEditmenu, thenreturntoyourwordprocessorandPaste (Ctrl+V)thetemporarycitation into
thetextofyourdocument.
OR
Drag-and-droptheselectedcitationsintoyourpaper.
ThepastedcitationappearsinEndNotestemporaryformat:firstauthors lastname,yearofpublication, andrecord
number,allenclosedin curlybraces:
{Morehouse,1993#125}
Ifmultiplereferenceswereselected,theircitationsappeartogetherwithinonesetofdelimitersintheorderinwhich
theyarelistedin theLibrarywindow.
{Hall,1999#90;Baker,1988#38}
Thiscitationisnotthefinalcitation,butratheratemporarycitation thatwillbeformattedlater.Thenumberinthe
temporarycitationis notabibliographynumberbutauniquerecordnumber.Whenyouformat thispaper,EndNote
buildsabibliographybasedonthetemporarycitationsthatitfindsinthepaper,andreformatsthemaccordingtothe
selected style.
Continuefollowingsteps2-5toinsertcitationsasyouwriteyourpaper.
Tosaveyourdocument:
6. Whenyouhavefinishedaddingcitations, select SavefromyourwordprocessorsFilemenutosaveallchangestoyour
document.
7. IfthefileyoucreatedisnotanOpenOffice.org WriterdocumentoranRTFdocument,saveacopyofthefileasRTF. From
theFilemenu,selectSaveAs.Inthefiledialog,setthetype offileasRTF.RTFretainsmoststylesandformatting.
8. CloseyourdocumentbyselectingClosefromthe Filemenu.Youcanleaveyourwordprocessorrunning.
To generate the bibliography:
1. ReturntoEndNote.
2. NavigatethefiledialogtolocateandselecttheRTFdocumentorODTdocument.ThenexttimeyouselectFormatPaperyou
willseeyourrecentlyusedfileslistedforeasyaccess.
3. ChecktheCitationswindowtomakesurethatEndNotewasabletofindmatchingreferencesforallofthecitations.
Duringthescanningprocess,EndNotelocatestemporarycitationsinthepaper,andsearchesthelibrarytofindreferencesthat
matcheachofthecitations.Whenscanningiscomplete,EndNotedisplaystheCitationswindow.TheCitationswindowlists
thecitationsfoundinthepapertogetherwiththenumberofmatchingreferencesintheopenlibraries.
ThecitationsintheCitationswindowappearintheordertheyarecitedinthepaper.Ifareferenceiscitedmorethanonceina
paper,itislistedmorethanonceinthiswindow;howeverthereferencewillappearonlyonceinthebibliography.
EverycitationlistedintheCitationswindowshouldhavea"1"nexttoitintheMatchescolumn,meaningthatEndNotefound
exactlyonereferenceinthelibrarytomatchthecitationinthepaper.Whenallofthecitationsinthewindowhavea"1"nextto
them,youarereadytogoontothenextstepofformattingapaper.Ifa"0"oranumbergreaterthanoneappearsintheMatches
column,youmayneedtoresolvemismatchedcitations.
4. SelectastylefromtheOutputStyleslistontheCitationwindow.Enterastartingbibliographynumberifyouwish.
Theindividualstyleslistedarethestylesthatarecurrentlyselectedasyour"favorites"intheStyleManager.Ifyouneedto
chooseastylethatisnotinthelist,chooseSelectAnotherStyletoopentheStyleManager.Markyourfavoritestylesthere,
andstartthisstepagain.SeeAddingStylestotheOutputStylesList.
5. ClickFormattohaveEndNotecreateacopyofyourpapercompletewithformattedcitationsandabibliography.
6. Youarethenpromptedtonameandsavetheformattedcopyofthepaper.
EndNoteautomaticallyaddsthenameoftheoutputstyletoyourexistingfilename.Youcanchangethenameoftheformatted
documentifnecessarybytypinganewnameinthetextbox.Youcanalsousethe"Savein:"listatthetopofthewindowto
changethelocationwhereEndNotesavesthefile.BydefaultEndNotesavestheformattedfileinthesamelocationasthe
unformattedfile.
Important!Neversavetheformattedpaperwiththesamenameastheoriginalunformatteddocument.Youmusthavethe
unformatteddocumentifyoueverwanttoformatthepaperagain.
WhileEndNoteisformatting,thecursorchangestoawaitcursor.Whentheformattinghasfinished,thecursorreturnstoan
arrowandtheCitationswindowremainsopen.NowthatEndNotehasgeneratedaformattedcopyofthepaper,youcanopen
thatpaperinyourwordprocessor.
7. Switchtoyourwordprocessor(seeSwitchingBetweenEndNoteandaWordProcessor).
8. SelectOpenfromthewordprocessorsFilemenu,andthenselectandopentheformattedversionofthepaper.Rememberthat
youwanttoopenthefilethathasthenameofthestyleappendedtothefilename.
Intheformattedpaper,EndNotehasreplacedthetemporarycitationswithformattedcitationsandinsertedabibliography.The
paperisreadytobeprintedandsubmitted!
Making Changes to the Paper
Ifyouneedtomakechangestothepaper(suchaschangeacitation,addmoretext,orchangethebibliographic style),youshould
edittheoriginalunformatteddocument,andthenformat itagain. EndNotewillgenerateanewformattedcopyofthepaper.See
ReformattingaPaper.
Related Topics:
Citing ReferencesinFootnotes
Multiple ReferencesinOneCitation
SwitchingBetweenEndNoteandaWordProcessor
Temporaryvs.FormattedCitations
The CitationsWindow
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
WordProcessorCompatibility
Tips on Citing Sources
Temporary vs. Formatted Citations
A"citation"isthebibliographicinformationinthebody ofapaperthatrefersthereadertoacompletereferenceinthebibliography.
Normallyacitationconsistsofabibliographynumberortheauthorand yearinparentheses:
...ofthespeciesathand
1
.
...ofthespeciesathand(Argus,1991).
WhenyoufirstcopyanEndNotecitationandpasteitintoyourpaper,itappearsinEndNotestemporarycitationformat.Thisfor-
matconsistsofthefirstauthorslastname,year,andtheEndNote recordnumber,withcitationdelimitersateachend.
{Author,Year#RecordNumber}
WhenEndNoteformatsthispaperitreplacesthetemporarycitations withformatted citations.
Temporary Citation:{Argus,1991#11}
Formatted Citation (in APA):(Argus&Matthews,1991)
EndNotereliesonthetemporarycitationstodeterminewhichreferences toincludeinthebibliography.Duringformatting,End-
Notescansyour wordprocessingdocumentfortemporarycitations,findstheirmatching referencesintheEndNotelibrary,and
createsaduplicateofyourdocument completewith"formatted"in-textcitationsandabibliographyattheend.Thisnewdocument
iscalledyour"formatted"paper.
Note:Bydefault, citationdelimitersarecurlybraces.Ifyouhaveothertextwithincurly braces,youmaywanttochangeyour
citationdelimiters.
Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor
WithyourEndNotelibraryandwordprocessingdocumentbothopen,youcanswitchbetweenthetwofileswithoutclosingeither
program.
Torunbothprogramssimultaneously inWindows:
1. StartEndNotebyclickingtheWindowsStartbutton inthetaskbar,thenselectPrograms,selectEndNote,andpickEnd-
NoteProgram.EndNotestartsandprompts youtoopenyourlibrary.(Tosetalibrarytoopenautomatically, seeSettinga
DefaultLibrary.
2. YoucanstartyourwordprocessorinasimilarfashionbyclickingtheStartbutton,selectingProgramFiles,andselecting
theoptionforyourwordprocessor.
3. OnceyouhaveEndNoteandyourwordprocessorrunning,youcanswitchbetweenthetwoprogramsbyclickingthetask
barbuttonalongthebottomofthescreenfortheprogramyouwishtouse.
YoucanalsopressAlt+Tabtoswitchbetweentheprograms.IfyouarerunningmorethanjustEndNoteandyourwordproc-
essor,keeptheAltkeypressed,andpresstheTabkeyrepeatedlytocyclethroughallopenprograms.Whenyouseethe
nameoftheprogramyouwant,releasebothkeys.
Multiple References in One Citation
Ifyouneedmultiplereferencesinonein-textcitation,youcanaccomplish thisinoneoftwoways.Oneoptionistoinsertallofthe
citationstogether:
Toinsertmultiplecitations:
1. HolddowntheCtrl keywhileclickingonthedesiredreferencesinyourlibrary(orhold downtheShiftkeytoselectacon-
tinuousrangeofreferences).
2. FromtheEditmenu,selectCopy.
3. Positionthecursorinyourwordprocessingdocument whereyouwantthecitations,andselectPastefromtheEditmenu.
Thecitationsareinsertedtogetherinonesetofdelimiters. Onceformatted, theyappearinonemultiplecitation,sortedasyourbib-
liographicstyle requires:
Unformatted:{Hall, 1999#90;Baker, 1988#38}
Formatted:(Baker, 1988;Hall,1999)
Theotheroptionistoaddthecitationstothepaperindividually. EndNotemergesadjacentcitationsautomaticallyduringthefor-
matting process.Citationsdonotmerge,however,ifanycharacter,including spacesorpunctuation, separatesthem.
Unformatted:{Hall, 1999#90}{Baker, 1988#38}
Merged when Formatted: (Baker,1988;Hall,1999)
Note:Ifoneofthecitationsinamultiplecitationcannotbematchedduringformatting,theentirecitationwillremainunformatted.
Related Topics:
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Citing ReferencesinFootnotes
RecordNumbers
SwitchingBetweenEndNoteandaWordProcessor
Temporaryvs.FormattedCitations
The CitationsWindow
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
WordProcessorCompatibility
UsingMacintosh Services
Citing References in Footnotes (Format Paper)
Onceyouhavecreatedafootnoteoranendnote inyourwordprocessingdocument,youcancitereferencesinthefootnotes or
endnotesjustlikeyoucitetheminthebodyofthetext.
Tocitereferencesinfootnotes:
1. InyourEndNotelibrary,select thereference(s)thatyouwouldliketociteand selectCopyfromtheEditmenu.
2. Createthefootnoteorendnoteusingtheappropriatecommandinyourwordprocessor.EndNotedoes notactuallycreate
thefootnoteorendnoteinthedocument,butitisusedtoinsert andformatthecitationsinthenotes.
3. Positionthecursorinthefootnoteorendnoteinyourpaperwhereyouwouldlikethecitation(s)toappearandselectPaste
fromtheEditmenu.
Note:Youcanedit afullreferencefootnotecitationtoexcludeauthorname,year,or author/year.NotethattheAuthor(Year)
optiondoesnotapplytofootnotes.
TheEndNotestylethatisselectedwhenyouselect FormatBibliography determineshowthecitationsinthefootnotesorend-
notes willbeformatted.EndNotecanformatthesecitationsasbriefin-text citationsorlikethecompletereferencesinthebib-
liography.Itcan alsocreateaspecialformat specifictofootnotesorendnotes,includingoptionslike"Ibid."andothervariations
ofshortenedreferenceswhenacitationappearsmorethanonceinthefootnotesorendnotes.
Related Topics:
The CitationsWindow
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
WordProcessorCompatibility
UsingMacintosh Services
Typing Citations into Your Paper (RTF Files)
Manuallyenteringcitationsisthesamewhetheryou areusingFormatPaperwithanRTFfileorCiteWhileYouWritewithMicro-
softWord.Seethesetopics:
l Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
l Components ofaTemporaryCitation
l Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
l Citation Prefixes
l Citation Suffixes
l IncludingSemicolons&OtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
l Examples ofModifiedCitations
Record Numbers (Format Paper)
EndNoteassignsauniquerecordnumbertoeachreferenceasitisadded toyourlibrary.Theserecordnumbersappearinthetem-
porarycitations toensurethatthecorrectreferenceisusedwhenthepaperisformatted:
{Argus,1991#31}
TherecordnumberforareferenceisalsovisibleinthetitlebaroftheReferencewindow.
YoumayalsoseerecordnumbersintheLibrarywindowbyselectingRecord NumbersasoneofthedisplayfieldsfortheLibrary
window.SeeDisplay Fields.
Because these record numbers are so important, keep the following points in mind:
l We recommendthatyoudonotrelyonEndNotesrecordnumbersasameans offilingornumberingyourofficereprints,
becauseyouhavenocontrol overthisnumber,anditissubjecttochangeundercertainconditions (readon).Instead,enter
yourownuniquenumberintotheLabelfield,oranyCustomfield, andusethatnumberforyourreprints.
l EndNote automaticallyassignsarecordnumbersequentiallytoeachreference asitisaddedtoalibrary.
l If thesamereferenceappearsintwodifferentlibraries,therecord numberswillmostlikelybedifferent.
l The recordnumbersareneverreusedorreassignedwithinalibrary.If youdeleteareference,thatnumberisneverusedagain
inthatlibrary.
l You cannot modifyorreassignrecordnumbers.
Deleting References in the Library
Ifyoudeleteareferencefromyourlibraryafteryouhavecitedit inapaper,EndNotewillnotbeabletofinditwhenittriestoformat
thatpaper.Ifyouaddthereferencetothelibraryagain,itwillbe assignedanew,differentrecordnumber,soEndNotestillwillnot
be abletofinditwhenformattingyourpaper. Youwillneedtoreinsert thecitationintothepaperusingthenewreferenceinyour
library.
Related Topics:
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Multiple ReferencesinOneCitation
SwitchingBetweenEndNoteandaWordProcessor
Temporaryvs.FormattedCitations
The CitationsWindow
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
WordProcessorCompatibility
UsingMacintosh Services
Formatting Citations and Creating Bibliographies
The Citations Window (Format Paper)
TheCitationMatcheswindowopensintheEndNoteprogramafter youformat apaper(oriftheformattingprocessiscanceled).It
listsallofthe citationsfoundinadocument,intheorderinwhichtheyappearinthe paper.
IntheCitationswindow,EndNotebringsspecialattentiontounmatchedandambiguouscitations.Youcanchoosefromthecheck
boxoptionsto showonlytheMatchedCitations,UnmatchedCitations,orAmbiguousCitations.
TheCitationswindowlistsallofthecitationsfoundinthedocumentanddisplaysthenumberofmatchingreferencesforeachcita-
tion.
Ifanynumberotherthana1appearsintheMatchescolumn,thecorresponding citationwillbeleftunformattedinthedocument
andwillnotbeincluded inthebibliographyEndNotegenerates.
Ambiguous Citations (Matches Greater than 1)
Anumbergreaterthan1indicatesthatmultiplereferencesinthecurrently openlibrary(orlibraries)matchthecitationandEnd-
Notedoesnotknow whichreferencetouse.(EndNoteautomaticallychecksthematchingreferences toseeifanyareduplicates.
Ifso,theyarenotlistedasseparatepossible matches.)Toseewhichreferencesareconsideredmatches,highlightthecitationin
theCitationswindowandclickLookup.Reinsertthecorrectcitationintothepaper.
Unmatched Citations (A "Zero" Match)
AzerointheMatchescolumnindicatesthatthereisnomatchingreferenceinanyopenlibraryforthatparticularcitation.The
Author,Year,and RecordNumber(ifusedinthetemporarycitation)mustallmatchtheAuthor,Year,andRecordNumberofaref-
erenceinthelibraryinorderforEndNote toconsideritamatch.
Iftextinyourdocumentissurroundedbycitationdelimiters(such as"{sic}),EndNotewilltreat thetextasamismatchedcitation.
Youcanignorethewarningaboutitbeingamismatchedcitation,andEndNotewillsimplyleavethetextas itwasbeforefor-
matting.(YoucouldalsochangetheCitation Delimiters.)
UnchecktheUnmatchedCitations boxatthetopoftheCitationswindowtohidetheseitemsfromviewif youhavenumeroussec-
tionsofbracketedtextinyourdocumentandthe correspondingunmatchedcitationsarejustclutteringtheCitationswindow.
Correcting Mismatched Citations
Mismatchedcitationsmustbecorrectedeitherinthewordprocessing documentorintheEndNotelibrarywhichevercontains
theincorrectinformation. Normally,theeasiestwaytofixamismatchedcitationistosearchthe wordprocessingdocumentfor
themismatchedcitation(usetheFindcommand inyourwordprocessorsEditmenu),deleteit,andthenreinsertthe citationfrom
thelibrary.
IfthereisacitationforwhichEndNotelistsmultiplematches,you canhighlightthecitationintheCitationswindowandclick
Lookup.EndNote displaysthematchingreferencesintheLibrarywindow.Youmaythenselect theappropriatereferenceandrein-
sertitintothepaper.Mismatchesof thistypeareonlypossiblewhentherecordnumberhasbeenomittedfrom thetemporarycita-
tioninthetext.
Afteryouhavecorrectedthemismatchedcitationsandsavedyourchanges tothepaper,Formatagain. (TheCitationswindowis
stillavailableafter formattingifyouwanttoseethelistofcitations.)
Thebestwaytoavoidcitationmismatches:
l Keepallofyourreferencesinonemainlibrary.
l CopyandpasteyourcitationsfromEndNoteto yourwordprocessingdocumentsinsteadoftypingthem.
Related Topics:
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Citing ReferencesinFootnotes
Multiple ReferencesinOneCitation
SwitchingBetweenEndNoteandaWordProcessor
Temporaryvs.FormattedCitations
The CitationsWindow
Typing CitationsintoYourPaper
WordProcessorCompatibility
Bibliographic Styles (Format Paper)
ThebibliographicstyledetermineshowEndNoteformatsthecitations inyourpaperandthereferencesinthebibliography.The
styletakes careofalltextstyles,punctuation,andsortingrequiredforthecitations andbibliography,aswellaswhichfieldsare
includedinthebibliography.
SelectastyleontheCitations windowafterselectingFormatPaper.YoucanalwaysrunFormatPapertoselect adifferentstyle
andreformatyourunformatted(original)RTFdocumentatanypoint.
TheEndNoteStylescollectionincludesmorethan1900styles,allof whichcanbemodifiedtomeetyourspecifications.Youcan
alsocreate completelynewstylesifnecessary.Relatedtopics:
l SeeAdding StylestotheOutput StylesListtolearnmoreaboutthe StylesManagerandhowtogetthestylesyouneedto
appearinEndNotesOutputStyleslist.
l Tolearnabouthowthestyleswork,andhow youcanmodifythem,seeWhat isanOutputStyle?
l Forhelpwithchoosingtherightstyleforyour paper,seePreviewingFormattedReferences(orStyles).
Related Topics:
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Copying FormattedReferences
Creating OneBibliographyFromSeveralPapers
Finding EndNoteReferencesforEditing
ModifyingReferencesinYourLibrary
Reformatting aPaper
RescanningthePaper
Specifying theStartingNumberofaBibliography
The CitationsWindow
Previewing Formatted References (or Styles)
ThePreviewtabintheLibrarywindowdisplayshowthecurrentlyselected referencewillbeformattedinthebibliographybythe
currentstyle.ThisPreviewtabshowsonlyonereferenceatatime.
Topreviewhowmultiplereferenceswillappearinabibliography:
1. SelectthereferencesintheLibrarywindow.
2. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStylesandselect thestylethatyouwouldliketouse.
3. FromtheEditmenu,selectCopyFormatted (Ctrl+K).
4. UsetheWindows ClipboardViewertoviewthecontentsofthe Clipboard,orPastetheformattedreferencesintoaword
processordocument.
Reformatting a Paper
SinceEndNotecreatesacopyofthepaperduringtheformattingprocess, youcanalwaysreformattheoriginaldocument,ifnec-
essary,tocreate anewdocumentwiththechangesthatyouneed.
Reformatting with Different Styles
Theappearanceofboththein-textcitationsandthebibliographyin theformattedpaperisdeterminedbytheselectedstyle. Ifyou
needto createacopyofyourpaperinadifferentstylethanwhatyoudidoriginally:
1. FromtheToolsmenuinEndNote,selectFormatPaper >Format Paper.Opentheoriginalunformattedcopyofyourpaper
(theonewiththeEndNotecitationssurroundedbycurlybracesor brackets).
2. OntheCitations window,select anewoutputstylefromtheOutputStyledrop-down list.Youcanselectoneofthe"favor-
ite"stylescurrently inthelist,orchooseSelectAnotherStyletopickastylefromthe 4,500+stylesshipped withEndNote.
3. IftheCitationswindowshowsthatallthecitations inthepaperarecorrectlymatched,clicktheFormat button.
4. EndNotewillpromptyoutonameandsavethenew formattedcopyofthepaper.Noticethatthestylenameisincluded as
partofthenewpapersname.Thatwillhelpyoudistinguishbetween variouscopiesofonepaper(perhapsformattedtobe
submittedto differentjournals).
Whenyouopenthenewformattedcopyofyourpaper, youshouldseethat yourcitationsandbibliographyusethenewbib-
liographicformat.
Important:When youneedtomakechangesinyourpaper, remembertoworkonlywiththe unformattedcopyofthepaper(the
onewiththebracketedtemporarycitations),ratherthantheformattedcopythatEndNotecreated.
Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers
Ifyouhavealreadyformattedyourpaper, andyouseethatitneeds tobeeditedbyeitheraddingorremovingcitations,youmust
returnto theoriginal,unformattedcopyofthedocument(theonewithEndNotes "temporarycitations").Openthatdocumentin
yourwordprocessor. Add,modifyordeletecitationsasnecessary,andthensavethepaper asRTF.Youmaynowformatthe
paper(asdescribedabove)tocreatean updatedcopyofit.
Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers
EndNotecanformataseriesofseparatewordprocessingdocumentsandputacumulativebibliographyattheendofthelastone.
ThisisusefulifyouarecollaboratingwithotherEndNoteusersandyouhaveeachwritten aseparatepartofthepaper, orifyou
haveseparatedalengthypaperintodifferentchapters.
Tocreateonebibliographyfromseveralpapers:
1. FromtheToolsmenu,selectFormatPaper>FormatPapertoopenandscanthefirstpaper.
2. AScanNextbuttonappearsontheCitations window.(TheFormatPapercommandonthemenuchangestoScan Next).
ClickScanNextinthewindow,orselectitfromthemenu, toopeneachofthesubsequentpapersinthecorrectorder.
Eachpapers citationswillbeaddedtothelistofcitationsintheCitations window.
3. Whenthelastpaperhasbeenscanned,selectan outputstyleontheCitationswindowandclickFormat.
Duringtheformattingprocess,EndNotemakesaformattedcopyofeachpaperandputsacumulativebibliographyattheendof
thelastpaper. Onlythelastpaperintheserieswillincludethebibliography.Bydefault, eachformattedpaperretainsitsoriginal
namewiththestylenameincorporated intoit;however,youhavetheoptiontochangethenames.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Copying FormattedReferences
Finding EndNoteReferencesforEditing
ModifyingReferencesinYourLibrary
Reformatting aPaper
RescanningthePaper
Specifying theStartingNumberofaBibliography
The CitationsWindow
Specifying the Starting Number of a Bibliography (Format Paper)
Whenyouselect FormatPapertodisplayaCitations window,EndNoteincludesanoutputstylelisttoconfirmorchange thestyle
thatshouldbeusedtoformatthepaper.Italsogivesyouthe optiontochangethestartingnumberforyourcitationsandbib-
liography.
IfyouwouldlikeEndNotesnumberingtostartwithanumberotherthan "1"forthedocumentthatyouareformatting,enterthat
number here.Thissettingisignoredifyouareformattingthepaperwithastyle thatdoesnotcreatenumberedreferencesinthe
bibliography.
Copying Formatted References
Theremaybetimeswhenyouwanttoinsertafullyformattedreference intothebodyorfootnotesofyourpaperwithouthavingto
formatanentire document.
Toinsertafullyformattedreference:
1. SelectastylefromthelistofstylesontheMaintoolbar.
2. Selectthereference(s) intheLibrarywindow.
3. SelectCopyFormattedfromEndNotesEditmenu.
4. Switchtoyourwordprocessingdocument,positionthecursorinthetext,andselectPastefromtheEditmenu.
Ifyourwordprocessorsupportsdrag-and-drop,youmayalsodragthe referencesanddropthemonyourpaperwiththeCtrlkey
pressed.Thisproducesthesame resultsasusingtheCopyFormattedcommand.
Multiplereferencesaresortedaccordingtotherulesoftheselectedstyle.Fontsandcharacterstylesaretransferredifyouare
pastinginto aprogramthatinterpretsstyledtextorRich TextFormat (RTF)informationontheClipboard.
Related Topics:
Adding StylestotheOutputStylesList
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Creating OneBibliographyFromSeveralPapers
Finding EndNoteReferencesforEditing
ModifyingReferencesinYourLibrary
Reformatting aPaper
RescanningthePaper
Specifying theStartingNumberofaBibliography
The CitationsWindow
WordProcessorCompatibility
Rescanning the Paper
IfthereisaproblemwithyourcitationmatchesafterselectingFormat Paper,leavetheCitationswindow openandswitchtoyour
wordprocessortomakethenecessarychanges.Aftersavingyourchanges,closeyourdocumentandswitchbacktoEndNote.
OntheCitationswindow,clickRescanPaper.
EndNotethenupdatestheinformationintheCitationswindowtoreflect therecentchangesmadetothepaper.Ifthepaperwas
modifiedandsaved sinceitwaslastscanned,EndNotepromptsyoutorescan thepaperbeforeformatting.
Managing Your EndNote Library
Modifying References in Your Library
IfyouaddorchangeareferenceinyourlibrarywhiletheCitations windowisopen,makesureyouclickRescan tohavethose
changesreflectedintheCitationswindowandintheformatted paper.
Forexample,ifyoutypedthecitation{Geoffery,1988}intoyourpaperbutforgottoenterthereferenceinthe library,EndNote
wouldlista0intheMatchescolumnforthatcitationontheCitationswindow.YoucanleavetheCitationswindowopenandenter
theGeofferyreferenceintoyourlibrary.BringtheCitationswindowforwardandusetheRescanbuttontorecheckthelibraryfor
matchingreferences. Thisshouldchangethe"0"matchtoa"1."
Related Topics:
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Bibliographic Styles
Copying FormattedReferences
Creating OneBibliographyFromSeveralPapers
Finding andLabelingReferencesUsedinaPaper
Finding EndNoteReferencesforEditing
Formatting withMultipleLibraries
Reformatting aPaper
The CitationsWindow
Working onDifferentComputers
Finding EndNote References for Editing (Format Paper)
IntheCitationswindow, youcanselectanynumberofmatchingreferencesandthenclickLookup tosearchanddisplaythoseref-
erencesinEndNotesLibrarywindow.Youcanopeneachrecordforviewingorediting.Ifyoueditareference, makesureyouRes-
canyourpapertoreflect thechanges.
Formatting with Multiple Libraries
AlthoughEndNotecanformatpapersusingreferencesfrommorethanone library,wedonotrecommendthatyouusemultiple
librarieswhenwriting apaper. Keepingallofyourreferencestogetherinonelibrarysimplifies thewritingprocessbecauseyou
knowexactlywheretofindeachreference, andyouonlyneedtohavetheonelibraryopenwhenformatting.
Ifyouarecollaboratingwithotherauthorsonadocument,however, usingmultiplelibrariesforapapermaybeauseful andnec-
essarything todo.
Ifcitationshavebeeninsertedintoonedocumentfrommultiplelibraries,allofthenecessarylibrariesmustbeopenedinorderfor
EndNote toformatthepapercorrectly.
Note:Readabout theMergeDuplicatesinBibliography preferenceifyouplantoinsertcitationsfrommorethanonelibrary intoa
paper.
Related Topics:
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Bibliographic Styles
Copying FormattedReferences
Creating OneBibliographyFromSeveralPapers
Finding andLabelingReferencesUsedinaPaper
Finding EndNoteReferencesforEditing
ModifyingReferencesinYourLibrary
Reformatting aPaper
The CitationsWindow
Working onDifferentComputers
Finding and Labeling References Used in a Paper
TheCitationMatcheswindowappearswhenyouformatawordprocessingdocument.Itlistsallofthecitationsfoundinadoc-
ument,anddisplays thenumberofmatchingcitationsfoundinthecurrentlyopenlibraries.
TheCitationswindowisvisibleintheEndNoteprogramaftertheformatting isfinished,oriftheformattingprocessiscanceled.(If
thereareproblems duringformatting,consulttheCitationswindow.Thisinformationcan helpyouresolveproblems.)
Double-clickcitationsintheCitationswindowtofindthematching referencesinyourEndNotelibrary.
Tolocateallofthereferencesinalibrarythatwerecitedinapaper:
1. Afterformattingyourpaper,selectallofthe citationslistedintheCitationswindowbychoosingSelectAll> fromtheEdit
menu.
2. Double-clicktodisplaythelistofreferences intheLibrarywindow.
Toaddakeywordtoallofthesereferencesforyourownfilingpurposes:
1. SelectChangeFieldfromtheReferencesmenu.
2. SelectKeywords(oranyotherfieldyouwouldlike tousefromthefieldpopupmenu.
3. Enterthetermorphraseyouwanttousetoidentify thesereferences, andclickChange.
Related Topics:
BasicInstructions (FormatPaper)
Bibliographic Styles
Copying FormattedReferences
Creating OneBibliographyFromSeveralPapers
Finding EndNoteReferencesforEditing
Formatting withMultipleLibraries
ModifyingReferencesinYourLibrary
Reformatting aPaper
The CitationsWindow
Working onDifferentComputers
Working on Different Computers
Ifyouareworkingonapaperondifferentcomputers,besuretokeepacopyofyourreferencelibraryonthesamediskasyour
paper.That way,youwillalwaysaccessthesamelibrarywheninsertingcitations. Ifyouaddreferencestoacopyofthelibraryat
homeandtoadifferent versionatwork,therecordnumbersmaynotmatch,andEndNotewillbeunabletofindreferenceswhenit
scansyourpaper.
Independent Bibliographies
Independent Bibliographies
Theremaybetimeswhenyouwanttocreateabibliographywithoutan associatedpaper.Wecallthisan"independent bib-
liography" becauseEndNotedoesnotgeneratethebibliographybasedoncitations foundinapaperinstead,thebibliographyis
generatedindependently ofapaper.
Anyoneoftheproceduresdescribedinthischaptercanbeusedtocreate anindependentbibliography.Eachhasitsownadvan-
tages,solookfor theoptionthatbestsuitsyourneeds:
l Drag-and-drop toinstantlytransferabibliographytoawordprocessingdocument
l Copyformattedreferencesfromalibraryandpastethemintoawordprocessingdocument
l Export referencesfromalibraryasRTF,TextOnly,HTML,orXML
l Preview and/orPrintreferencesfrom EndNote
Styles Determine the Look of the Bibliography
Theappearanceofyourindependentbibliographydependsentirelyon whichEndNotestyleisselectedintheOutputStylessub-
menuoftheEdit menu(orthedrop-downstylelistontheMaintoolbar). Thestylesdeterminewhatinformationisincludedinthe
bibliography, howitisarranged,andwhatpunctuationandtextstylesareused.
Selectastylethatmeetsyourneedsbeforeexporting,printingorformatting references.Ifyoudonotseethestylethatyouneed
intheOutputStylessubmenuoftheEditmenu,selectOpenStyleManagerfromtheOutputStyles submenu,andmarkthestyles
thatyouneed.Oncethestylesaremarked as"favorites"intheStyleManager,theywillshowupinyourstylesmenus.Formore
information,seeAdding StylestotheOutputStylesList.Forinformationaboutmodifyingstyles,seeModifying StyleTemplates.
Using Drag-and-Drop to Create an Instant Bibliography
"Drag-and-drop" isawayofmovingorcopyingselectedtext(orotheritems)byclickingonthetextanddraggingittoanewloca-
tion. Simplyreleasethemousebuttonwhenthecursorisoverthedestination, andthetextwilleitherbemovedorcopiedtothe
newdestination.
Ifyourwordprocessorsupportsdrag-and-drop,youcandragabibliographyfromanEndNoteLibrarywindowdirectlyintoyour
paper.
Todragyourbibliography:
1. Openyourlibraryandselectthedesiredreferences.
2. SelectthenecessarystylefromtheOutputStyle submenuofEndNotesEditmenu.
3. HolddowntheCtrl keyasyoudragthereferencesfromthelibraryanddropthemdirectlyontoawordprocessingdocument
inthebackground.
Thiscreatesafullyformattedbibliographywiththereferencesformatted andsortedaccordingtotheselectedstyle.Thefontused
forthebibliography inthiscaseisthe"GeneralDisplayFont."YoucanchangethisfontbyselectingPreferencesfromtheEnd-
Note
Editmenu,selectingDisplayFonts,andselectinganewfontandsizeundertheGeneralDisplayFontheading.Alltextstyleinfor-
mation(such asboldanditalic)isretainedifyou"drop"thebibliography intoaprogramthatrecognizesRTF (RichText
Format)text.
Ifyourwordprocessordoesnotsupportdrag-and-drop,readabouttheCopyFormattedcommand.
Note:DraggingwiththeCtrl keypressedtransferstheformattedreferencestothewordprocessing document.Ifyoudonothold
downtheCtrl key,onlythetemporarycitationistransferred. Usethislattermethodtocitereferencesinyourpaper.
Related Topics:
CopyFormatted
ExportingReferences
IndependentBibliographies
Copy Formatted
UsetheCopyFormattedcommandtoquicklycreateandcopyabibliography thatyoucanpasteintoawordprocessingdoc-
ument,oranywhereelse. Thereferencesaresortedandformattedaccordingtotherulesoftheselectedstyle.
ThefontusedfortheCopyFormattedcommandisthe"GeneralDisplay Font"whichcanbechangedbyselectingPreferences
fromtheEditmenu,selecting DisplayFonts,andselectinganewfontandsizeundertheGeneralDisplayFontheading.Alltext
styleinformation(suchasboldanditalic)is retainedifyoupasteintoaprogramthatrecognizesRTF(RichTextFormat) orstyled
text.
TocopyformattedreferencesfromEndNoteandpastethemintoaword processingdocument:
1. Onthetoolbar,gototheOutputStylelistand selectthenecessarystyle.
2. OpenyourEndNotelibraryandselect thedesired referencesintheLibrarywindow.
3. FromtheEditmenu,selectCopyFormatted(Ctrl+K)tocopythereferences totheClipboard.
4. Openadocumentinyourwordprocessor,putthe cursorwhereyouwouldlikethereferencestoappear,andselectPaste
(Ctrl+V)fromthewordprocessorsEditmenu.
Exporting References
Exporting References
ExportingbibliographiesfromEndNoteiseasyandflexible.Whenyou export fromalibrary,EndNotecreatesafileofreferences
formattedaccordingtothechosenstyle.
Youcanexporteitherallofthereferencesinthecurrentreferenceslist,oronlytheselected(highlighted)referencesinthecurrent
list. IfanyreferencesintheLibrarywindowareselected,theEndNoteexport dialoggivesyoutheoptionofexportingjustthose
selectedreferences.
ToexportabibliographyfromEndNote:
1. Openthelibraryfromwhichyouwillexport,andshowthereferencesyou wanttoexport.
l Toexportallofthereferencesinthelibrary, clicktheAllReferencesgrouporselectShowAllReferencesfrom theRef-
erencesmenu.
l Toexportasubsetofreferences,displaya grouporusetheSearchLibrary,HideSelectedReferences,orShow Selected
References>commandstoshowthesubsetofreferences youwanttoinclude.Youcanfurtherlimitthelistofreferencesto
exportbyhighlightingjustthosereferencesinthecurrentlist.
2. (Optional) Referenceswillbeexportedintheorderspecifiedbytheselected outputstyle.Ifyouwanttochangethesortorder,
youmustmodify theoutputstyle:
l FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenOpenStyleManager.
l SelecttheoutputstyleandclickEdit.
l Intheleftpanelofthewindow,underBibliography, selectSortOrder.
l Changethecurrentsortorderintherightpanel.Ifyouwanttoexportreferencesintheorderinwhichtheyarelisted inthe
currentLibrarywindow,selectOrderofappearance.
l Closetheoutputstyleandthestylemanager.
3. FromtheFilemenu,selectExport.
4. FromtheSaveFileasTypelistatthebottomofthedialog,selectthe typeoffiletobeexported.
5. FromtheOutput stylelistatthebottomofthedialog,selectastyle (orchooseSelectanotherstyletochoosefromallavailable
output styles).
6. Select theExportSelectedReferencesoptionifdesired.Ifyouwanttoexport allofthereferencesinthecurrentlist,clearthe
checkbox.
7. Enter anamefortheexportedfile andusetheSave Inlistto specifywhereitshouldbesavedandusethetriangle buttonto
allowyoutobrowsetotheappropriatefolderandspecify wherethefileshouldbesaved.
Note:TheExport featurecreatesanewfile;itdoesnotappendtoanexistingfile.If youenterthenameofafilethatalready
exists,thatfilewillbeoverwritten.
8. Click Save.(Itisbesttokeeptheassignedfileextensionsaspartof theexportedfilename.)
9. Opentheexportedfileinawordprocessortoeditorprintit.Atthis point,thefileisjustlikeanyothertextdocument.Youcan
change thefont,margins,linespacing,orotherpagelayout featuresif necessary.(IfyouusetheOpencommandinyourword
processor,makesurethattheopenfiledialog issettoshowfileswiththecorrectextension.)
IfyouexportedthereferencesinHTMLformat,yourexportedreference listisreadytobeposteddirectlytoyourwebsite.In
yourWeb browser,setencodingto"Unicode-UTF 8toappropriatelydisplayextendedUnicodecharacters.
Note:TheExport commandexportsonlytext;imagesarenotincluded.
Supported Formats (Exporting)
UsetheExportcommandtocreate afree-standingbibliographyinanyofthefollowingformats:
l Text File
TheTextFileexport optionissuitablefordraftpurposesorexporting referencestobeimportedintoanotherdatabase.
l RTF (Rich Text Format)
TheRTFexportisanidealwaytocreateafree-standingbibliography thatcanbeeditedorprintedusingawordprocessor.
Thisformat canbeopenedbyallpopularwordprocessorsandpreservesfontandtextstyleinformation.
l HTML
DocumentsexportedinHTML(HyperText MarkupLanguage)provideaneasywaytopostreferencelistsonthe WorldWide
Web.
InyourWebbrowser,setencodingto"Unicode-UTF8"toappropriatelydisplayextendedUnicodecharactersintheexported
document.
l XML
TheXMLoptionexportsinaproprietaryEndNoteXMLformat.
Note:TheExport commandexportsonlytext;imagesarenotincluded.However,ifyouimport thereferencesbackintoanEnd-
Notelibrary,youcanrestoreimagesby copyingthefigurefilesfromtheoriginallibrarys.DATAfolderinto the.DATAfolderfor
thenewlibrary.
Related Topics:
CopyFormatted
ExportingReferences
IncludingNotes,Abstracts,andOtherInformation
Independent Bibliographies
Using Drag-and-DroptoCreateanInstantBibliography
Printing and Previewing References
Printing and Previewing References
ToprintreferencesdirectlyfromEndNote,gototheFilemenu, andthenselectPrint (Ctrl+P)tosendacopyto yourprinter.Or,
selectPrintPreviewtoformatreferencesonscreen. Thesearequickwaystoviewyourformattedreferencesonpaperor
onscreennospecialpagelayout optionsareprovided.Typicalusesmight includetryingoutvariousoutputstyles,printingalist
ofreferencesto taketothelibrarywithyou,printingyournotes,orgeneratinga completeprintoutofthereferencesinanEndNote
library.
Important Points (Printing)
Thecurrentlyactive(topmost)windowaffectswhichreferencesareprintedwiththePrintcommand:
l IfaLibrarywindowisdisplayed,youcanprint eithertheselected(highlighted)referencesorallreferencesshowing inthe
list.
l Ifanindividualreferenceisopenforviewing, EndNoteprintsonlythatspecificreferenceasdisplayedonthescreen with
fieldlabels.Nooutputstyleisapplied.
l TheSortReferencescommandunselects anyselectedreferences,sousetheShowSelectedReferencescommand ifnec-
essarybeforesortingtoretainthesubsetofreferencesyouselected.
Inadditiontotheselectedstyle,theappearanceoftheprintedreferences isdeterminedbythefollowingitems:
l Referenceswillbeprintedintheorderspecified bytheselectedoutputstyle.Ifyouwanttochangethesortorder, youmust
modifytheoutputstyle.Ifyouwanttoexportreferences intheorderinwhichtheyarelistedinthecurrentLibrarywindow,
changetheoutputstyle'ssortordersettingtoOrderofappearance.
l Eachprintedpagehas1-inchmargins,left-justified text,andaheaderthatdisplaysthelibrarynameintheupperleft corner
andthepagenumberintheupperrightcorner.Therearenooptionstocustomizethemargins,headersorfooters ofthe
printouts.Useoneoftheotheroptionsforcreatinganindependent bibliographyifyouneedtomodifytheseaspectsofyour
printout.
l Thefontandsizeoftheprintedreferences aredeterminedbytheGeneralDisplayFont,ifthatfontisaTrue Typefont;
otherwiseafontsubstitutionwillbemade.SelectPreferences fromtheEdit menu,andclicktheDisplayFontsoptionto
changethefontandsizeifnecessary. Thedouble"T"totheleftofthefontnameindicatesaTrueTypefont.
l Select PageSetup fromtheFilemenutospecifyotherprintingoptionsincludingthepapersizeandpageorientation.Page
setupoptionsvarydepending ontheprinterused.
Related Topics:
Previewing References
Printing andPreviewingReferences
Printing Instructions
Printing Instructions
ToprintalistofreferencesdirectlyfromEndNote:
1. Makesurethatallofthereferencesyouwanttoprintareeitherselected(highlighted)orshowingintheLibrarywindow.
2. FromEndNotesEditmenu,gototheOutputStylessubmenuandselecta style(orusethestylemenuontheLibraryMain
toolbar).
3. (Optional) Referenceswillbeprintedintheorderspecifiedbytheselected outputstyle. Ifyouwanttochangethesort
order,youmustmodify theoutputstyle:
a. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenOpenStyleManager.
b. SelecttheoutputstyleandclickEdit.
c. Intheleftpanelofthewindow,underBibliography, selectSortOrder.
d. Changethecurrentsortorderintherightpanel.Ifyouwanttoprintreferencesintheorderinwhichtheyare
listed inthecurrentLibrarywindow,selectOrderofappearance.
e. Closetheoutputstyleandthestylemanager.
4. FromtheFilemenu,selectPrint(Ctrl+P).
Intheprintdialog,specifythenumberofcopiesandtherangeofpagestoprint.Bydefault,EndNoteprintsonlytheselectedref-
erences.ToprintallofthereferencesshowingintheLibrarywindow,changetheprintrangeoptiontoAll.turnthe"Print
SelectedReferences"optionoff.Dependingonyourprintersoftware,youmightneedtoselectEndNoteX6fromthepopuplist
inthedialoginordertoseethe"PrintSelectedReferences"option.Ifnoreferencesareselected,thisoptionisnotavailable.
5. ClickPrinttoprintthereferences.
Related Topics:
ImportantPoints (Printing)
Previewing References
Printing OnlytheNotes
Previewing References
Topreviewalistofreferencesonscreen:
1. MakesurethatthereferencesyouwanttoprintarelistedintheLibrary window.
Youcanselect individualreferencesandthenselectShowSelected ReferencesfromtheReferencesmenu.
2. Ifyou wouldliketofurtherlimitthereferencestoprint,select(highlight) thosereferences.
3. FromEndNotesEditmenu,gototheOutputStylessubmenuandselecta style(orusethestylemenuontheMaintool
bar).
4. (Optional) Referenceswillbedisplayedintheorderspecifiedbytheselected output style.Ifyouwanttochangethesort
order,youmustmodify theoutputstyle:
l FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenOpenStyleManager.
l SelecttheoutputstyleandclickEdit.
l Intheleftpanelofthewindow,underBibliography, selectSortOrder.
l Changethecurrentsortorderintherightpanel.Ifyouwanttoprintreferencesintheorderinwhichtheyare
listed inthecurrentLibrarywindow,selectOrderofappearance.
l Closetheoutputstyleandthestylemanager.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectPrintPreview.
Fromtheonscreenpreview,youcanclickPrint tosendacopytoyourprinter.
Related Topics:
ImportantPoints (Printing)
IncludingNotes,Abstracts,andOtherInformationinaReferenceList
Independent Bibliographies
Printing andPreviewingReferences
Printing Instructions
Printing OnlytheNotes
Including Notes, Abstracts, Etc.
Including Notes, Abstracts, and Other Information in a Reference List
MostofthestylesincludedwithEndNoteproducestandardbibliographies withoutincludingadditionalinformationsuchasnotes
orabstracts.Two ofEndNote'sstandardstylesaretheAnnotatedstyleandtheShowAll Fieldsstyle.TheAnnotatedstyle
includestheAbstractfieldaftereach reference,andtheShowAllFieldsstylelistsallofthefieldnames andtheinformationfound
inthosefieldsforeachreference.
SeeModifying StyleTemplatesforinformationabouteditingandcreatingstyles. Thesearetwoexamplesofcommonwaysyou
mightwanttoeditstylesfor yourprintoutsorforstand-alonebibliographies:Creating AnnotatedBibliographiesandPrinting Only
theNotes.
Related Topics:
Creating AnnotatedBibliographies
ImportantPoints (Printing)
Printing Instructions
Printing OnlytheNotes
Creating Annotated Bibliographies
Tocreateabibliographythatincludesabstracts,youcanusetheAnnotated styleincludedwithEndNote.TheAnnotatedstyleis
basedontheAuthor-Date style, andcreatesanalphabeticallistingofthereferences(byauthor), withtheabstractappendedto
eachreference.YoucanmodifyanyotherstyletoincludetheNotesorAbstractfieldaswell.
Forthisexample,wemodifytheNumberedstyletoincludetheAbstract field.
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenselectOpenStyleManager.
2. SelectastylefromthelistintheStyleManagerwindow,andclicktheEditbutton.TheStylewindowopens.
3. SelectLayoutfromtheoptionsundertheBibliography headingandclickinthetextboxunderthe"Endeachreference with"
heading.Textorfieldsinsertedintothissectionappear attheendofeachreferenceinthebibliography.
4. Toinserttheabstractsonanewlineaftereach reference:selectEndofParagraphfrom theInsertFieldlist,andthen
selectAbstractfromthesamelist.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAsandgivethe styleanewname,butkeepthe".ENSextension.
ThisannotatedversionofthestylewillappearintheOutputStyles submenuoftheEditmenu(andinthestylesmenuontheMain
toolbar).Ifyouformatapaper,print,orexportreferencesusingthisstyle,the abstractsareincludedinthebibliography.
Printing Only the Notes
Toprintonlythenotesforeachreference,createanewstylethat includesonlytheNotesfield.
Tocreateastylethatprintsonlynotes:
1. FromtheEditmenuselectOutputStyles,andthen select NewStyle.
2. ClicktheTemplatespanelundertheBibliography heading.
3. ClickintheGenerictemplateandselectNotes fromtheInsertFieldlist.PresstheEnterkey toaddablanklineafterthe
notesforeachreference.
4. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.Nameandsavethestyle. YoushouldnowseethisnewstyleintheOutputStyles sub-
menuoftheEditmenu.
5. Closethestylebyclickingtheclosebutton.
SelectthisstylewheneveryouwanttoprintorexportonlytheNotesfromyourreferences.Thisstyleisalsousefultopreviewjust
thenotesonthePreviewtaboftheLibrarywindow.
Related Topics:
ImportantPoints (Printing)
Previewing References
Printing Instructions
Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists
Overview of Subject Bibliographies
Youcancreatesubjectbibliographies andsubjectlists.
Subject List Subject Bibliography
Archaeology
Astronomy
Biology
Geochemistry
Geology
Hydrology
Archaeology
Parker,F.andB.
Astronomy
Lowman, P.D.,
Subject List Example
Ageneralbibliographyisacontinuouslistingofcitationsinaparticular order.Asubjectbibliographyismadeupofsmallerlistings,
eachappearingunderadistinctheading.Despitethename,asubjectbibliography(or asubjectlist)canbebasedonanyEndNote
fieldorcombinationoffields.
Subjectbibliographieshavediverseuses,including:generating listsofjournalabstracts;currentawarenesslists;subject
indexes; orlistsofholdingsbycategory.Typicalsubjectbibliographyheadings arebyKeyword,Author,JournalTitle,orCall
Number.
Youcanprintentirebibliographiccitations,informationfromoneormorefields,recordIDs,ornothingatallunder eachheading.
Related Topics:
Printing aSubjectBibliography
Printing aSubjectList
Subject BibliographySettings
Printing a Subject Bibliography
Toprintasubjectbibliography:
1. InthecurrentLibrarywindow,showonly thereferencesyouwishtoincludeinasubjectbibliography.
l FromtheReferencesmenu,selectShowAllReferences toincludeallreferencesinthesubjectbibliography.
l ClickonaGroupnametodisplayonlythereferences inaspecificgroup.
l FromtheToolsmenu,selectSearchLibraryto findasubsetofreferencesforyoursubjectbibliography.
l HighlightindividualreferencesandthenusetheShowSelectedReferencescommandtolistthosereferencesfor thesub-
jectbibliography.
2. Clickinthereferencelisttomakeittheactive panel.
3. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSubjectBibliography todisplayalistoftheEndNotefieldsbydefaultfieldname.
4. Highlightthefield(s)whosecontents youwishtouseassubjectheadings.
l ThemostcommonselectionisthesingleKeywords fieldtocreateasubjectbibliography.
l Youcanincludeanynumberoffields.Ifyou buildthelistofheadingsfrommorethanonefield,thesubjectheadings
generatedfromthesefieldsarecombinedintoasinglelist.
l Ifyoumixdatefieldswithotherfields,dates willsortbeforealphabeticsubjectheadings.
l Toquicklyselectallfieldsorclearallfields, usethebuttonsontherightsideofthedialog.Youcan clickonindividualfields
toselectordeselect them.
5. Selectthecheckboxesasneededtodeterminewhether anentirefieldisusedasaheading,orwhetherafieldshouldbe
splitintomultipleheadings.
l "Listeachauthorseparately", when checked,willlisteachauthornameasaseparateheading.Ifnot checked,allauthors
fromasinglefieldwillappearasasingleheading.
l "Inotherfields,listeachentrythat isseparatedbyslash,carriagereturn,orlinefeed",whenchecked, separatesanynon-
authorfieldintomultiplesubjectheadings.
l TermsintheKeywordsfieldarealwayslistedasseparateheadings.
6. ClickOKtodisplaythetermsfoundinthefields youselected.
7. Selectthosetermsyouwishtoincludeassubject headings.
l Toquicklyselectalltermsorclearallterms, usethebuttonstotherightofthedialog.
l Youmaywanttoselectalltermsandthen clicktodeselectthefewtermsyoudonotwantincluded.
8. ClickOKtoformatthesubjectbibliographyon thescreen.
Ifyouwanttomodifythetermselectionsyoujustset,toeitheradd orremovetermsfromtheselectedfield(s),clickonthe
Termsbutton.
Note: Subjectheadingsprintastheyappearinyourrecords.Nospecialformatting ofauthornamesandnojournaltitlesub-
stitutionisapplied.
9. ClickontheLayoutbuttontomodifythelayout andstyleofyoursubjectbibliography.Verifythesettingsonthe
References,Terms, PageLayout, andBibliography Layout tabs,particularlytheseitemsontheReferencestab:
l OutputStyle,whichdeterminesthebibliographic styleusedtoformateachreference.
l ReferenceListTitle,whichprintsatthetopofthebibliography
l ReferenceListOrder,whichdeterminestheorder ofreferencesundereachsubjectheading
UsetheTerms tabtosetoptionsspecificallyforsubjectheadings.Forasubjectbibliography, itisimportanttoselecttheSub-
jectTermsandReferenceListitem.
ClickOKtosavechangesto alloftheLayouttabs.
10. Onceyoursubjectbibliographyissetuptheway youwantit,youcandooneofthese:
l DisplayaformattedpageviewbyclickingPrint Preview.
l PrinttoyourprinterbyclickingthePrint button.APrintdialogwillappear.VerifysettingsandclickOKor Print.
l Printtoadiskfile(Text,RTF,orHTML)by clickingtheSave button.Adialogappearsforyoutonamethefile.Select the
filetype,nameandplacethefile,andclickSave.
Note: InyourWebbrowser,setencodingto"Unicode-UTF8toappropriatelydisplayextendedUnicodecharacters inan
exportedHTMLdocument.
11. ClosetheSubjectBibliographywindowwhenyou aredoneviewingit.
Printing a Subject List
Asubjectlistisasortedlistofuniqueterms(wordsorphrases)that occurinparticularfieldsoftherecordsyouchoose.Youcan
baseasubjectlistonanyEndNotefieldorcombinationoffields.
Toprintasubjectlist:
1. DeterminewhichreferencesyouwantEndNoteto usewhenbuildingthesubjectlist,anddisplayonlythosereferences in
theLibrarywindow.
l FromtheReferencesmenu,selectShowAllReferences toincludeallreferencesinthesubjectlist.
l ClickonaGroupnametodisplayonlythereferences inaspecificgroup.
l FromtheToolsmenu,selectSearchLibraryto findasubsetofreferencesforyoursubjectlist.
l HighlightindividualreferencesandthenusetheShowSelectedReferencescommandtolistthosereferencesfor thesub-
jectlist.
2. ClickintheReferencelisttomakeittheactive panel.
3. FromtheToolsmenu,selectSubjectBibliography.ASubjectFieldsdialogappears,listingtheEndNotefieldsbydefault
fieldname.
4. Highlightthefield(s) whosecontentsyouwishtouseassubjectheadings.
l Youcanincludeanynumberoffields.
l Ifyoubuildthelistfrommorethanonefield, thetermsgeneratedfromthefieldsarecombinedintoasinglelist.
l Toquicklyselectallfieldsorclearallfields, usethebuttonstotherightofthedialog.
l Clickonindividualfieldstoselect ordeselect them.
5. Selectthecheckboxesasneededtodeterminewhether anentirefieldisusedasaterm,orwhetherafieldshouldbesplit
intomultipleterms.
l "Listeachauthorseparately", when checked,willlisteachauthornameasaseparateentry.Ifnotchecked, allauthors
fromasinglefieldwillappearasasingleentry.
l "Inotherfields,listeachentrythat isseparatedbyslash,carriagereturn,orlinefeed",whenchecked, separatesanynon-
authorfieldintomultipleentries.
l TermsintheKeywordsfieldarealwayslistedasseparateentries.
6. ClickOKtodisplaythetermsfoundinthefield(s)youselected.
7. Selectthetermsyouwantinthesubjectlist.
l Toquicklyselectalltermsorclearallterms, usethebuttonsontherightsideofthedialog.
l Youmaywanttoselectalltermsandthen clicktodeselectthefewtermsyoudonotwantincluded.
8. ClickOKtodisplayyoursubjectlist.Ifthewindow doesnotdisplayasimplelistofterms,youmustmodifysettings onthe
ConfigureSubjectBibliographydialogasdescribednext.
9. ClicktheLayoutbuttontodisplaytheConfigure SubjectBibliographydialog.
10. OntheReferences tab,enteraReferenceListTitle,whichwillprintatthetopof thelist.
Whenyouprintasubjectlist,theothersettingsontheReference Listtabaresimplyignored.Theoutputstyleisignored
becauseyou arenotprintingformattedreferences,andthesortordersethere appliesonlytoformattedreferences.The
sortorderoftermsisset ontheTermstab.
11. OntheTermstab:
l ReferenceListmustbesettoSubjectTerms Only.
l IncludemayincludeSubjectTermCountsand/or aListofRecordIDsifyouwish.
l SubjectTermLayoutcanbesettoprinttermsinAlphabeticalorTermCountorderandinAscendingorDescending order.
l DonotincludeaPrefix,andincludeacaret-p(^p)asaSuffixsoeachtermprintsasa newparagraphonanewline.
l ApplyStylesasyouwish.However,ifyouprint toatextfileallstylesarestripped.
12. ClickonthePage Layouttabifyouwishtochangethefont,size,orpagemargins.
Note: TheBibliographyLayouttabappliestosubjectbibliographiesonly,and doesnotaffectasimplesubjectlist.
13. ClickOKtosavechangestothedialogandupdatethelistintheSubjectBibliographywindow.
Ifthewindowstilldoesnotshowthelist youneed,youcanclickontheTermsbuttontoselectordeselect termsfromthe
selectedfield(s)orclickLayoutagaintomakemorechangestotheConfigureSubjectBibliographydialog.
14. View,printordismissthelist:
l ClickPrintPreviewtoseeapagelayoutviewofthebibliography.
l ClickPrinttoprinttoaprinter.ThePrint dialogappears.VerifysettingsandclickOKorPrint.
l ClickSave toprinttoadiskfile.Afiledialogappearsforyoutonamethe file.Select thefiletype(text,RTF,orHTML),
namethefile,and clickSave.
l ClickClosetodismisstheSubjectBibliography windowandreturntoyourrecordlist.
Note:Termsareprintedastheyappearinyourrecords.Nospecialformattingofauthor namesandnojournalabbreviationsare
applied.
Subject Bibliography Settings
Subject Bibliography Settings
Toaccesssubjectbibliographysettings,firstgenerateasubjectbibliography fromtheToolsmenu.Oncethesubjectbibliography
orsubjectlistis displayed,aLayoutbuttonbecomesavailable.WhenyouclicktheLayout button,thesetabsareavailable:
l TheReferencesTab
l TheTermsTab
l ThePageLayout Tab
l TheBibliographyLayoutTab
Note:Somesubject bibliographysettingsareupdatedfromthecurrentoutputstyle,sochangesyoumakearenotsavedfor
futuresubjectbibliographies. Ifyouhave specialsettingsthatyouwanttoalwaysuseforsubjectbibliographies, itmaybeeasier
tocopyandmodifyanoutputstylespecificallyforgenerating subjectbibliographies.
The References Tab
Whenyouselect SubjectBibliographyfromtheToolsmenutoformata subjectbibliographyorsubjectlist,aLayout buttonisavail-
ableto displayaConfigureSubjectBibliographydialogandchangesettings.This topicdescribestheReferencestabavailableon
thatdialog.
Output Style:Usethedrop-down listtoselect anoutputstylefromthelistortoSelectAnotherStyle thatdoesnotcurrently
appearinthelist.
IfyouopttoSelect AnotherStyle,EndNotewilldisplaytheChoose aStylewindow,whereyoucanchoosefromover4,500output
styles.UsetheFindby buttontonarrowthelistofoutputstylesbydiscipline. SelectastyleinthelistandclickChoose.
Note:EndNoteincludes morethan4,500individual bibliographicstyles.Bydefault,onlythemostpopularstylesare storedas
individualfilesintheStylesfolderinyourEndNotefolder. Toinstalladditionalstyles,seeInstalling AdditionalOutputStyles.
Theoutputstyleisusedtoformatthereferencesinasubjectbibliography. Thissettingisignoredforasubjectlist.
Reference List Title:Type atitleinthetextboxtoprintatthetopofyoursubjectlistorsubject bibliography.Toapplycharacter
stylestotheReferenceListTitle, select thetextandusekeyboardshortcuts.

Bold Ctrl+B
Italics Ctrl+I
Underlining Ctrl+U
Bibliography Sort Order:Clickonabuttontoselectthesortorderyouwishtousefortheformatted referencesprintedunder
eachsubjectheadinginasubjectbibliography. Thissettingisignoredforasubjectlist.
Related Topics:
TheBibliography LayoutTab
ThePage Layout Tab
TheTermsTab
The Terms Tab
Whenyouselect SubjectBibliographyfromtheToolsmenutoformata subjectbibliographyorsubjectlist,aLayout buttonisavail-
ableto displayaConfigureSubjectBibliographydialogandchangesettings.This topicdescribestheTermstabavailableonthat
dialog.
Selecting a Subject List or Subject Bibliography
IntheReferenceListareaoftheTermstab,select oneofthetworadio buttons:
l Subject TermsOnlyprintseachuniquesubjectterm.ItdoesNOTprintformattedreferencesbeloweachterm.
l Subject TermsandReferenceListprintseachsubjecttermwithrelated referenceslistedbelowit.
Note:Theoptions onthistabaresavedforthissubjectbibliographysessionandforfuture sessions,untilyouchangethem
again.So,ifyougeneratealistofSubject TermsOnly,thenexttimeyouselectSubjectBibliography,youwillproduce asimple
subjectlistagain.Toincludeformattedreferences,clickthe LayoutbuttonandtheTermstabtoselectSubjectTermsandRef-
erence List.
Whenprintingsubjecttermswithreferencelists,EndNotetypically printseachuniquesubjectheadingonlyoncewiththerelated
references listedbelow.YoucanselecttheRepeatingSubjectTermsboxtoprint asubjecttermbeforeeachformattedreference.
Forexample:
American Museum of Natural History
1. Personalities in Paleontology. 2002, American Museum
of
Natural History.
Antarctica
2. Quilty,
Antarctica
3. Whitney, J.R.,
SelecttheRecyclingReferenceNumbersboxtorestartreferencenumbering foreachsubjectheading.Forexample:
Recycling Reference
Numbers
Continuous Reference
Numbers
Heading Number One
1.Firstformattedreference
2.Secondformattedreference
Heading Number Two
1.Firstformattedreference
2.Secondformattedreference
Heading Number One
1.Firstformattedreference
2.Secondformattedreference
Heading Number Two
3.Firstformattedreference
4.Secondformattedreference
Including Subject Term Counts or Record IDs
IntheIncludeareaoftheTermstabyoucancheckaboxtoinclude, fortherecordsselectedforoutput:
l Subject Term Countsprintsanumbernexttothesubjecttermtoindicatehowmanyrecordscontainthe term.Forexample:
Evolution(1)
Excavation(4)
Extinction(12)
SubjectTermCountsalwaysprintonthesamelineasthesubjectterm, surroundedbyparentheses,andseparatedfromtheterm
bythreespaces.
l List of Record IDs printstherecordIDsoftherecordsthatcontaintheterm.Youcanprintthelistofrecord
Excavation34,33,6,48
Extinction34,46,6,48,96,98,10,125, 132,148,162,
11
or
Excavation
34,33,6,48
Extinction
34,46,6,48,96,98,10,125,132,148,162,11
Whenyouprinttheseitemsonthesamelineastheterm,theyarealways separatedbythreespaces.Thatway,youcansavetoa
wordprocessorfile,replacethethreespacesbyatabcharacter,andconvertthetext toatable,usingthetabasaseparator.You
canprintbothtermcounts andrecordIDs:
Excavation(4)
34,33,6,48
Extinction(12)
34,46,6,48,96,98,10,125,132,148,162,11
Sorting the Subject Terms
Youhavefouroptionsfororderingyoursubjectterms:
l By Term - Alphabeticalsortssubject termsbyDatefordatefields,andthenalphanumericorder(1-9,A-Z)forallotherfields.
l By Term - Inverse Alphabeticalsimply reversestheByTerm-Alphabeticalorder(Z-A,9-1,Dates).
l By Term Count - Ascendinglists termsbasedonhowoftentheyappearinrecords.Forexample,aterm thatappearsinonly
onereferencewoulddisplayatthetopofthelist,whereasatermusedin20referenceswouldappearfurtherdowninthelist.
l By Term Count - DescendingreversestheByTermCount-Ascendingorder,sothemost-usedtermsarelisted first.
Note:Thissort ordersettingaffectssubjectheadingsonly.Ifyouwanttochangethe orderofthereferencesprintedbeloweach
heading,dosoontheReferences taboftheConfigureSubjectBibliographydialog.
Inserting Space or Text Around Subject Terms
Usethe"Prefix"and"Suffix"textboxestoprinttextorpunctuationbeforeoraftereachsubjectterm.
Eachtermmayincludeasubjecttermcountand/oralistofrecordIDs.Theorderofoutputis:
TextBefore|SubjectTerm|SubjectTermCount|
ListofRecordIDs|TextAfter|ReferenceList
Youcanusethesespecialformattingcodesinthetextboxes:
NewParagraph: ^P
NewLine: ^L
Special Formatting Codes
Tab: ^T
Bold: Ctrl+B
Italics: Ctrl+I
Underlining: Ctrl+U
Bydefault,thePrefixboxcontains"^p"andtheSuffixboxcontains"^p^pinordertoleave blanklinesbetweeneachsubjecthead-
ingandthefirstcitationlisted belowit.
WhenyouprintSubjectTermsOnly,youwillprobablywanttoprintonly asingle"^p"aftereachterm,soeachsubjecttermbegins
on anewlinewithnoblanklinesbetweenthem.
Applying Styles
IntheStylesareaoftheTermstab,checktheappropriateboxesto separatelyapplystylestoSubjectTerms,SubjectTerm
Counts,andtheListofRecordIDs.Youcancombinestylesin anyway,suchas:
Antarctica(2)144, 12
1. Quilty,Cycleryon. Journal of
Paleontology, 2000. 62(4): p. 619.
2. Whitney, J.R.,Evidence for
Triceratops in Antarctica, in New Directions in Pale-
ontology,
Applystylestobibliographicreferencesbymodifyingtheoutputstyle.
Ifyousaveyourlisttoatextfile,allstyleswillbestripped.
Related Topics:
TheBibliography LayoutTab
ThePage Layout Tab
TheReferencesTab
The Page Layout Tab
Whenyouselect SubjectBibliographyfromtheToolsmenutoformata subjectbibliographyorsubjectlist,aLayout buttonisavail-
ableto displayaConfigureSubjectBibliographydialogandchangesettings.This topicdescribesthePageLayouttabavailable
onthatdialog.
Select the Default Font and Size: Usethedrop-downliststoselectadefaultfontandsizeforyoursubject headingsorsubject
terms.Fontandsizeforbibliographicreferencesaresetintheoutputstyle.
Set Margins:Enteryourpage marginsininches.
Position Page Numbers:Usethecheckboxestodeterminewhetheryourpagesarenumberedandwhetherto suppressthefirst
pagenumber.Usethedrop-downliststodeterminelocation andalignmentofpagenumbers.
Related Topics:
TheBibliography LayoutTab
TheReferencesTab
TheTermsTab
The Bibliography Layout Tab
Whenyouselect SubjectBibliographyfromtheToolsmenutoformata subjectbibliographyorsubjectlist,aLayout buttonisavail-
ableto displayaConfigureSubjectBibliographydialogandchangesettings.This topicdescribestheBibliographyLayouttab
availableonthatdialog.
TheoptionsavailableontheBibliographyLayouttabaffectonlythe bibliographicreferencesprintedinasubjectbibliography.
Thesesettingsarenotusedwhenyouprintasimplesubjectlist.
Note:Whenyou select anoutput style,thesettingsonthistabchangetoreflectthe settingsfoundintheoutputstyle.Youcan
overridethosesettingsfor thissession,butchangestothistabarenotsavedafteryouclosethesubjectbibliographywindow.If
youwanttomakethechangespermanent,edittheoutput style.Youcanmakeacopyoftheoutputstyletoedit specificallyfor
subjectbibliographies.
Starting and Ending Each Reference with a Special Character or Text
Usethe"Starteachreferencewith"andthe"Endeach referencewith"textboxestoenterfields,text,orpunctuation toprint
beforeandaftereveryformattedreference.
Simplyclickinoneofthetextboxesandtypetext.Youcanusethe Insert Fieldbuttontoentercontrolcharactersorfieldsofinfor-
mation asdescribedbelow.
l Use oneoftheInsert Fieldbuttonstoinsertthesecontrolcharacters inatextbox:
End of Paragraph insertsaparagraphmarker,whichmovesthefollowingtexttothenext line.
Tab insertsatabcharacter.Thespacingfortabsisdeterminedbytheruler settingsinyourwordprocessor.
Forced Separation insertsaverticalbar.Useverticalbarstoattachpunctuationtoaspecific field,sothatifthefieldis
emptythepunctuationwillnotprint.
Forexample,toincludethetext"Note:"beforethenotefield,firstinsertaverticalbar,typethetext "Note:",insertthe
Notesfield,theninsertanothervertical bar.Your"Notes:"textwillprintonlywhenaNotesfield containsinformation,and
notwhenitisempty.
Link Adjacent Textkeepstexttogethersothatitwillnotbebrokenbetween linesorpages.
Singular/Plural changesbetweenthesingularandplural versionofaword,suchaseditorversuseditors.
l Enter thesefieldsofinformationinthe"Starteachreferencewith" boxbyclickingtheInsert Fieldbuttonandselectingthefield
name:
Reference TypeprintstheReferenceType(suchasJournalArticleorBook)ofeachreference.
Label printsthelabelfieldfromeachreference.
Citation printsthein-textcitationformofeachreference.
Bibliography Numberprintsthesequentialnumberassignedtothereferencein thesortedlistbeloweachheading.
Record Number printstheuniqueEndNoterecordnumberfromeachreference.
l Enter thesefieldsofinformationinthe"Endeachreferencewith" boxbyclickingtheInsertFieldbuttonandselectingthefield
name:
Label printstheLabelfieldfromeachreference.
Keywords printstheentireKeywordsfieldforeachreference.
Abstract printstheAbstractfieldfromeachreference.
Notes printstheNotesfieldfromeachreference.
Record Number printstheuniqueEndNoterecordnumberfromeachreference.
Setting a Hanging Indent
Usethedrop-downlisttoapplyahangingindenttoparagraphsineach formattedreference.
Numbering References
Enterastartingreferencenumberforbibliographicreferencesprinting beloweachheading.Thissettingisignoredifreferencenum-
beringisnotappliedfromthecurrentoutputstyle.
Related Topics:
ThePage Layout Tab
TheReferencesTab
TheTermsTab
Examples of Subject Bibliographies
Using Author Names as Subject Headings
Thisexampleusesauthornamesassubjectheadings.The"Listeach authorseparately"boxwascheckedontheSubjectFields
dialog, sothatsingleauthornamesareusedforheadingsratherthanentireauthor fields.Uppercasingwasappliedtothe Subject
Terms.
BAKER, V.R.
1. V. R. Baker,Geological Society of America Bul-
letin,
100, 1157 (1988).
BARLOW, CONNIE
2. C.Natural History110, 62 (Sept., 2001).
BARNES,
3. C. R.Geological Magazine125, 381 (1988).
Related Topics:
Using CallNumbersasSubjectHeadings
Using KeywordsasSubjectHeadings
Using Keywords as Subject Headings
Thisexampleuseskeywordsassubjectheadings,andrestartsreference numberingaftereachsubjectheading.Youwouldselect
RecycleNumbering intheConfigureSubjectBibliographydialogontheTerms tab.ThestartingreferencenumberissetontheBib-
liographyLayouttab.

Geochemistry
1. J. A.Dissertation Abstracts International, 61,
2957 (2000).
2. C.Bulletin , 37, 142 (June, 2000).
Geology
1. S. A. Lebedev, Ph.D., Princeton University
(2000).
Related Topics:
Using AuthorNamesasSubjectHeadings
Using CallNumbersasSubjectHeadings
Using Call Numbers as Subject Headings
Youcancreateatwo-columnoutputwithCallNumbers,suchas:
DL312 Forbes, C. S. (1860).
Iceland:Its volcanoes, geysers,
and glaciers. London, J. Mur-
ray.
Tocreateatwo-columnoutput:
1. Inthe SubjectFieldsdialog,select theCallNumberfield.
2. Select anoutputstylethatdoesnotnumbercitations.
3. Onthe Layout/Termstab:
l SelectSubjectTermsandReferenceListwithRepeatingSubjectTerms.
l DonotincludeSubjectTermCountsoralist ofRecordIDs.
l InsertatabbetweeneachsubjectheadingandreferencewiththeSuffixbox(insert^t).
4. Savethesubjectbibliographytoawordprocessorfile.
5. Withyourwordprocessor,converttheoutputtoatwo-columntable,sort bythefirstcolumn,adjust thecolumnwidths,and
reformattheparagraph style.
Related Topics:
Using AuthorNamesasSubjectHeadings
Using KeywordsasSubjectHeadings
Reference Types
About Reference Types
YourEndNotelibrarycancontainreferencesfromavarietyofdifferent sources,suchasbooks, journalarticles,andnewspaper
articles.Wecall thesedifferentsourcesreferencetypes. EndNoteprovidesbuilt-informsfortheseandothercommonreference
types.
Inadditiontoanall-encompassingGeneric referencetype,EndNotehasthreeUnusedand47pre-definedreference types:
l AggregatedDatabase
l AncientText
l Artwork
l AudiovisualMaterial
l Bill
l Blog
l Book
l BookSection
l Case
l Catalog
l ChartorTable
l ClassicalWork
l ComputerProgram
l ConferencePaper
l ConferenceProceedings
l Dataset
l Dictionary
l EditedBook
l ElectronicArticle
l ElectronicBook
l ElectronicBookSection
l Encyclopedia
l Equation
l Figure
l FilmorBroadcast
l GovernmentDocument
l Grant
l Hearing
l JournalArticle
l LegalRuleorRegulation
l MagazineArticle
l Manuscript
l Map
l Music
l NewspaperArticle
l OnlineDatabase
l OnlineMultimedia
l Pamphlet
l Patent
l PersonalCommunication
l Report
l Serial
l Standard
l Statute
l Thesis
l UnpublishedWork
l WebPage
SeetheList ofReferenceTypes.
Important Points About Reference Types
l Youcanassignaparticularreferencetypeto eachreferenceenteredintoyourlibrary.
l TheReferenceTypespreference,accessiblethrough EndNotesPreferences,determineswhichfieldsareavailablefor
eachofthedifferentreferencetypes.
l TheReferenceTypespreferenceallowsupto 48differenttypesofreferences,eachcapableofsupportingupto 54fields
(includingthenameofthereferencetype).
l Ofthe48referencetypes,allbuttheGeneric typecanbemodified.
l UsetheReferenceTypespreferencetoadd,delete,orrenamefields.Youcanalsoaddorhidecompletereferencetypes.
l Thelayout oftheGenericreferencetypeshould beusedasaguidewhenmodifyingorcreatingreferencetypes. Rows
reservedforAuthorsshouldbeusedonlyfornames.
l ChangesmadetotheReferenceTypespreference applytoalllibrariesopenedunderthecurrentuseraccount.
l Ifyoumoveyourlibrarytoadifferentcomputer, yourreferenceswillfollowthelayoutoftheReferenceTypespreference for
thecurrentuseraccountonthatcomputer,unlessyoualsotransfer acopyofyourreferencetypetable.SeeSharing Your
ReferenceTypeTable.
l "DonotenterreferencedataintotheReference Typespreference". Thisdialogisdesignedtostorejustthe namesofthe
referencefields.
l WhenyouuseCiteWhileYouWritetoinsert figuresinMicrosoftWord,figuresfoundintheChartorTablereference type
areinsertedastables.FiguresfoundinanyotherreferencetypeinEndNotewillformatasfiguresinWord.
Reference Types and Data Entry
ThechosenreferencetypespecifieswhichfieldsappearintheReference window.Forinstance,anEndNotejournalarticleref-
erenceincludesthe fields"Journal,""Volume,"and"Issue," whileabookreferenceincludesfieldssuchas"Publisher"and "City."
TheReferencewindowonlydisplaysthefieldsthatarerelevanttothechosenreferencetype.
Itisbesttoselect thereferencetypebeforeenteringthebibliographicinformationinareference.However, youcanchangetheref-
erencetypeofareferenceatanytimeusingthe ReferenceTypelistatthetopoftheReferencewindow.
Relationship Between Reference Types and Styles, Filters, and Connections
Styles,filters,andconnectionfiles canincludetemplatesforallofthedifferentreferencetypes.Thisenablesvarioustypesofref-
erencestobeformatteddifferentlyinabibliography orimporteddifferently,asnecessary.
Thereferencetypesandfieldsavailabletoyouwheneditingastyle,filter,orconnectionfiledependonhowthereferencetypes
areconfiguredintheReferenceTypespreference.Thesefilesupdateautomaticallyto reflectchangesmadeintheReference
Typespreference(suchaschanging thenameofafield).
Setting a Default Reference Type
Bydefault,theJournalArticlereferencetypeappearswhenyouinsert anewreference.Whileyoucanchangetheassignedref-
erencetypeduring dataentry,youmaywanttochangethedefaultsetting
Tochangethedefaultreferencetypesetting:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. ClickonReferenceTypes.
3. ClicktheDefaultReferenceTypelistandchoose fromoneoftheavailablereferencetypes.
4. ClickApplytosavethechange.
The Generic Reference Type
Whenenteringreferencesintoyour library,usetheGenerictypeonlyforreferencesthatdonotfitanyoftheotherreferencetypes.
ThemoreimportantfunctionoftheGenericreferencetypeistosetup aguidefortheotherreferencetypestofollow.
TheGenericfieldnamesareusedthroughouttheEndNoteprogram(for example,intheSortReferencesdialogandtheSearch
panel)toreferto asimilarcategoryoffieldsthatcanbefoundinthedifferentreference types.WhenyouchooseaGenericfield
nameinanyofthesedialogs,it referstoallfieldnamesassignedtothatGenericrowoftheReferenceTypespreference.For
example,ifyouusetheSearchcommandtosearch theAuthorfield,EndNotesearchesallfieldsthatappearintheGeneric
"Author"rowoftheReferenceTypespreference,includingfieldssuchas"Artist,""Reporter,"and"Cartographer."
Note:Whenediting theReferenceTypespreferenceitisimportantthatyoukeepsimilarfieldsinthesamerow,asdefinedbythe
Genericfieldnamesatthestartoftherow.Eachreferencetypecancallthesefields byadifferentname;however,thecontentof
thefieldsshouldbesimilar.
Using the Generic Type in Styles
AlthoughtheGenericreferencetypeisrarelyusedfordataentry,itplaysanimportantroleinformattingbibliographies.Inaddition
toformatting Genericreferences,theGenerictemplateinastyleisusedtoformat anyreferencetypesthatarenotspecifically
definedinthestyle.Consequently, everybibliographicstyleshouldcontainaGenerictemplatesothatall referencesgetfor-
mattedwhenEndNotecreatesabibliography.
Customizing Reference Types
Allofthereferencetypes,exceptforGeneric,canbemodifiedusingtheReferenceTypespreference.Wheneveryoumakea
changetoareference type,youshouldalsoedityourstylestomakesurethattheycorrectly format thenewormodifiedreference
types.
Ifyouplantoshareyourlibrarieswithotherusers,youmaywanttolimittheuseofnewandmodifiedreferencetypes.
l TheReferenceTypestableappliestoalllibrariesopenedonacomputerfromyouruseraccount.
l Ifyourlibraryisopenedfromadifferentcomputer oradifferentuseraccount,yourreferenceswillfollowthelayoutofthe
ReferenceTypespreferenceforthatcomputeranduser,unless youalsotransferacopyofyourreferencetypetable.See
Sharing YourReferenceTypeTable.
l IfyoumodifyareferencetypeforrecordsinyourEndNotelibrary,youshouldmakesurethatthereferencetype isalso
createdormodifiedonothercomputersthatwillaccessthelibrary.
DonottrytoedittheReferenceTypespreferencetorearrangeinformationwithinyourreferences.Forexample,ifyoudeletethe
"Journal"fieldandretype"Journal"elsewhereinthecolumnforJournal Articles,youaresimplytellingEndNotetoclosethe
original"Journal" fieldanddisplayanewfieldcalled"Journal"inanotherlocationthis doesnotmoveyourdatafromtheoriginal
"Journal"fieldto thenewone.Anyreferencesthathaddataintheoriginal"Journal" fieldwillstillshowthatinformation, butthe
fieldwillhaveits"Generic" nameof"SecondaryTitle."Thenew"Journal"field willremainempty.
Thesetopicscanguideyouineditingreferencetypes:
l AboutReferenceTypes
l ListofPredefinedReferenceTypes
l TheGenericType
l SpecialFields
l TheReferenceTypesPreference
l AddingandDeletingReference Types
l Adding,Deleting,andRenaming Fields
l SharingYourReferenceTypeTable
The Reference Types Preference
TheReferenceTypespreferencedisplaystheavailablereferencetypesandthefieldsthateachreferencetypecontains.Usethe
ReferenceTypes preferencetoadd,remove,orrenamefieldsortorenameareferencetype.
ToaccesstheReferenceTypespreference:
1. FromtheEdit menu,selectPreferences.
2. ClicktheReferenceTypesoptioninthelistof preferences.
3. ClicktheModifyReferenceTypesbuttonandthe ReferenceTypespreferencewillopen.
4. Usethedrop-downlistatthetoptodisplayone ofthe48referencetypesintheright-handcolumn.
ThefirstcolumnoftheReferenceTypespreferenceisreservedforthe Genericreferencetype,whichlistsalloftheavailable
fields.
Therowscorrespondtotheeditablefieldsthateachreferencetype cancontain(includingthenameofthereferencetype).Each
namedcell inacolumnrepresentsafieldthatappearsinthereference.Thenames ofthefieldsineachreferencetypeshould
closelycorrespondtotheir Genericfieldnamesintheleftcolumn.
TheGenericcolumnisthecompletesetoffieldsthatcanbeincludedinanytypeofreferencenofieldscanbeaddedtothislist,
norcan thenamesoftheGenericfieldsbechanged.TheGeneric referencetypeservesasamodelforconstructingallotherref-
erence types.
Navigating in the Reference Types Dialog
l Usetheverticalscrollbartoseetheadditionalfieldsavailableforeachreferencetype.
l TheUporDownArrowkeysselectthepreviousornextfield, respectively,withinthesamereferencetype.
l ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandtoclosethe ModifyReferenceTypesdialog.ClickApplywhenyoureturntotheEnd-
NotePreferencedialogsaveyoursettings.
l ClickEndNoteDefaultstoreturnyourreference typesettingstotheiroriginalEndNotesettings.Forexample,if youmake
changestooneormorefields,clickthisbuttonifyouwant torestoretheoriginalsettings.
l ClickApplytoAllRefTypestochangethefield forallreferencetypes.Forexample,ifyoumakechangestooneor more
fields,clickthisbuttontoapplyyourchangestoallreferencetypes.
l PresstheEsckeyorclickCanceltoexitfrom theReferenceTypespreferencewithoutsavinganychanges.
Adding, Changing, and Hiding Reference Types
TherearethreeReferenceTypestitledUnused,whereyoucandefine anewtypeofreference.Ifthesearealreadyinuse,youcan
overwriteotherreferencetypesthatyoudonotneedinordertocreatenewreference types.Forexample,ifyoursubjectarea
neverinvolvesart,youmayhave nousefortheArtworkreferencetype;youcouldreplaceitwithanother referencetype.
Toaddanewreferencetype:
1. Fromthe Editmenu,selectPreferences.
2. SelecttheReferenceTypeoptioninthelistofpreferences,andthenclickModifyReferenceTypestoopentheReference
Typespreference.
3. Usethedrop-downlistatthetoptoselectone oftheUnusedreferencetypes.Ifallofthe"Unused"reference typesarein
use,selectareferencetypethatyouarewillingto overwrite.
4. Typeanameforthatnewreferencetypeintothe columnheading.
Note:Areferencetypemust havefieldsdefinedinordertoappearinthereferencetypelist forneworexistingreferences.
IfyousimplychangethenameofanUnusedreferencetype,itwillnotappearinyourreferencetypelist. Youmustalso
includefieldsinthereferencetypeasdescribednext.
5. Continuedownthecolumnforthatreferencetype,addingnewfieldsasnecessary.(Deleteorrenameunwantedfields if
youareoverwritinganotherreferencetype.)Remembertomatch themeaningofthefieldsyouaddwiththeGenericrow
headings.It isoftenhelpfultousetheotherreferencetypesasguides,too.
6. ClickOKafteryouhaveaddedallofthenecessaryfields,andyouwillreturntothemainPreferenceswindowforRef-
erence Types.
7. ClickOKtosave yourchanges.
Youcannowusethisnewreferencetypewhenenteringreferences. Youshouldalsoedityourstylessothattheycorrectlyreflect
thetypeof formatrequiredforthisnewreferencetype.Ifyouoverwriteanexisting referencetype,anyreferencesthatusedthe
oldreferencetypewillchangetousethenewreferencetype.
Note:Ifyouever plantousejournalarticlesinyourlibrary,donotoverwritetheJournal ArticleorElectronicArticlereference
types.Thesetworeferencetypes aretheonlyonesforwhichJournalAbbreviationreplacementscanbemade withtheJournals
TermList.
To globally change a reference type:
Youcaneasilychangeareferencetypeofasinglereferencebyselecting thatreferenceandgoingtotheReferencewindow.In
thetoolbar,open theReferenceTypemenu,andthenselecttheneededreferencetype.When youreturntotheLibrarywindow,
theRefTypecolumnwillshowthenew referencetypethatyouselected
Thefollowinginstructionsmaybeusedtochangethereferencetype forallreferencestoanother referencetype.
1. GototheLibrarywindowandclickthe RefTypecolumnheadingtosortallreferencetypesofthesametype.
2. DecidewhichreferencetypeyouwantEndNotetochange.MakesureonlythosereferencesareshowingintheLibrary
windowthatyouwanttochange.Usethefollowingcommandstocontrolwhichreferencesareshowing:ShowAllRef-
erences,HideSelectedReferences,ShowSelectedReferences, orSearchLibrary.
3. FromtheEditmenu,selectFindandReplace.
4. FromtheSelect aFieldlist,select theReferenceTypeoptionthatappearsatthebottomofthelist.Itis thelastoptionin
thelist.
5. Inthe"Searchfor"box,type thereferencetypethatyouwanttochange.
6. ChangetheMatchCaseorMatchWordssettingsifnecessary.
Bydefault,theMatchWordsoptionisalwaysselected.Ifyouchangethissetting,paycloseattentiontowhetherornotthe
termyouare changingcouldappearaspartofanotherword(forexample,Newspaper Article).
7. Inthe"Changethetextto:" box,typethereferencetypethatshouldreplacetheoriginalreference type.
8. SelecttheRetainCapitalizationoptiontomaintainthesamecapitalizationasthetextbeingreplaced.
9. ClickChangetosearchthereferencetypes forthespecifiedtextandreplaceitwiththenewtext.Beforereplacing anyref-
erencetype,EndNotehasyouverifythechange.Thedialog EndNotepresentsprovidesthisinformation:
l Whichreferencesweresearched
l Whatreferencetypewillbereplaced
l Howmanyreferenceswerefoundofthespecified referencetype.
l Whatreferencetypewillreplaceit
10. ClickOKifallofthoseitemsarecorrect. EndNotereplacesthereferencetypeanddisplaysthenumberofreferences that
werechanged.
Important Points About the Find and Replace Command
l TheFindandReplaceTextcommandappliesonlytothe referencesshowingintheLibrarywindow.
l WhenusingFindandReplace,thenewtextdoesnotadopt thetextstyleofthetextbeingreplaced.Forexample,ifyou
replaceanitalicizedwordorphrase,thenewtextwill notbeitalicized.Inthisinstance,EndNotechangesthetexttothe
currentstyle(forexample,PlainTextandPlainSize).
l Ifyouneedtosearchfortextandthendelete it,simplyleavethe"Changethetextto"boxempty.
l WhenusingtheRetainCapitalizationoption,EndNotemaintainsALLCAPITALLETTERSand"Sentencestyle" cap-
italization.Itwillnotrecognize"HeadlineStyle." Ifthefirstletterofthetexttobereplacedislowercase,thereplacement
textwillbecapitalizedexactlyasitwasenteredinthedialog.
l ToenteraCarriageReturnorTabinthetextbox,usetheInsert Specialbutton.
To hide an unwanted reference type:
1. FromtheEditmenu,select Preferences,select theReferenceTypeoptioninthelistofpreferences,andthenclickModify
ReferenceTypes toopentheReferenceTypespreference.
2. Usethedrop-downlistatthetoptofindthereferencetypethatyouwanttohide.
3. Addaperiodbeforethereferencetypesnamein thecolumnheadertohaveEndNoteremovethatitemfromtheReference
TypelistintheReferencewindowsandelsewhere.Thedefinition, however,remainsincaseyoulaterwishtorestoreitby
removing theperiod.
Forexample,ifyouwerehidingtheMapreferencetype,thecolumn headingwouldbe".Map".
4. ClickOKtoreturntothemainPreferenceswindowforReferenceTypes.
5. ClickOKtosave yourchanges.
Onceyouhavehiddenareferencetype,youshouldnotselect itunderPreferencesasthedefaultreferencetypefornewref-
erences;ifyoudo, EndNotewilldefaulttotheGenericreferencetype.
Adding, Deleting, and Renaming Fields
Therearedifferentwaysyoucancustomizethevariousreferencetypes. Ifanexistingreferencetypedoesnotcontainallofthe
fieldsthat youneed,youcandefineanewfieldorrenameanexistingfield.Similarly, ifthereisafieldthatyouknowyouwillnever
use,youcandeleteit fromthereferencetypesothatitnolongerappearsinyourreferences.
Note:Besureto readaboutSpecialFieldsbeforechanging anyfields.
Toaddafieldtoareferencetype:
1. FromtheEditmenu,select Preferences,select theReferenceTypeoptioninthelistofpreferences,andclickModifyRef-
erenceTypes toopentheReferenceTypespreference.
2. Usethedrop-downlistatthetoptofindthereferencetypethatyouwanttochange.
3. LookatthefieldnameslistedintheGenericcolumn andfindtheonewiththemostsimilarmeaningtothefieldthatyou
wanttoadd.Makesurethatthecorrespondingcellisblankforthe referencetypethatyouaremodifying.Ifitisnotblank,
thenyou shoulduseanotherfield.
4. Clickintheblankcellandtypethenameforthenewfield.
5. (Optional)Ifyouwanttoaddthenewfieldto allreferencetypes,clicktheApplytoAllRefTypesbutton.
6. ClickOKtoreturntothemainPreferenceswindowforReferenceTypes.
7. ClickOKtosave yourchanges.
Torenameafield:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences,selecttheReference Typeoptioninthelistofpreferences, andclickModifyRef-
erence TypestoopentheReferenceTypespreference.
2. Usethedrop-downlistatthetoptofindthereferencetypethatyouwanttochange.
3. Withinthecolumnforthatreferencetype,find thefieldnamethatyouwanttochange,clickonit,andtypeanew namefor
thefieldtoreplacethecurrentname.
4. (Optional)Ifyouwanttochangethefieldfor allreferencetypes,clicktheApplytoAllRefTypesbutton.
5. ClickOKtoreturntothemainPreferenceswindowforReferenceTypes.
6. ClickOKto saveyourchanges.
Styles,filters,andconnectionfilesupdateautomaticallytousethenewname.
Todeleteafieldfromareferencetype:
1. FromtheEditmenu,select Preferences,select theReferenceTypeoptioninthelistofpreferences,andclickModifyRef-
erenceTypes toopentheReferenceTypespreference.
2. Usethedrop-downlistatthetoptofindthereferencetypethatyouwanttochange.
3. Findthenameofthefieldyouwanttodeleteandselectit.
4. PresstheDeleteorBackspacekeytoclearthat fieldname.
5. (Optional)Ifyouwanttodeletethefieldfrom allreferencetypes,clicktheApplytoAllRef Typesbutton.
6. ClickOKtoreturntothemainPreferenceswindowforReferenceTypes.
7. ClickOKtosave yourchanges.
Thedeletedfieldnolongerappearsinanyreferencesusingthatreferencetype.However,iftherewasanyinformationinthe
deletedfield,itstill appearsinthereference,butthefieldisdisplayedwithitsGeneric name.Forexample,supposeyouremove
theEditorfieldfromtheBookreference type.Thereafter,whenyouaddnewbookreferencestoyourlibrary,therewillbenoavail-
ablefieldforenteringaneditor.However,ifyoueditanoldbookreference,oneinwhichyouhadenteredaneditorsname, the
namewillbedisplayedinthefieldtitledSecondaryAuthor.Itis thesameEditorfieldthatwasusedoriginally,howeveritisnow
displayedwithitsGenericname.
Datainafieldisnotdeletedbydeletingafieldfromareference typeformat.Toremovealltextfromafield,usethe"ClearField"
optionintheChangeFieldcommand.Youcanalsomovedatafromonefield toanotherusingtheMoveFieldcommandontheRef-
erencesmenu.
Sharing Your Reference Type Table
AnEndNoteusercanshareacustomizedreferencetypetablewithanother EndNoteuser.Keepinmind,however,thatwhenyou
dothis,youcompletely replacetherecipientsexistingreferencetypetable.
First,exportthereferencetypetableyouwishtoshare:
1. Fromthedonorsuseraccount,startEndNote.
2. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
3. ClicktheReferenceTypesoptioninthelistof preferences.
4. UnderReferenceTypeTable,clickExport todisplay afiledialog.
5. Namethefile,selectafolderwhereyouwillbe abletofinditlater,andclickSave.EndNotewillappendan.xmlsuffixto
thefilename.
6. Copytheexported.xml filetotherecipientscomputer.
Then,importthetableforadifferentuser:
Note:Replacing anotheruser'sreferencetypetableoverwritesallchangestohis/her currentreferencetypetable.
1. Fromtherecipientsuseraccount,start EndNote.
2. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
3. ClicktheReferenceTypesoptioninthelistof preferences.
4. UnderReferenceTypeTable,clickImport todisplay afiledialog.
5. Inthefiledialog,locate,highlight,andopen the.xmlfilethatwaspreviouslyexported.
Special Fields
EndNoteincludes54fields(including thefirstfield,whichcontainsthenameofthereferencetype).Each ofthedifferentEndNote
datafieldsisavailableforusebythedifferentreferencetypes.Initially,onlytheGenericreferencetypeincludesall fields.Few
restrictionsareplacedonthetypeoftextthatcanbeentered.However,thereareafewfieldsthatarereservedforspecificfunc-
tions.
Author Fields
TheAuthor,SecondaryAuthor,TertiaryAuthor, andSubsidiaryAuthorrowsintheReferenceTypespreferencearespecially con-
figuredtohandleauthor names, andshouldnotbeusedforanydataotherthannames.
WhenEndNotecreatesabibliography, theinformationinthesefieldsisformattedaccordingtothespecifications oftheselected
stylesAuthorListandEditorListsettings.(TheAuthor ListisusedfortheAuthorfield;EditorListisusedforSecondaryAuthor,
TertiaryAuthor,andSubsidiaryAuthorfields.)Ifyouputtextotherthanpersonalnamesinanyofthesefields,EndNotewillstill
tryto interpretitandformatitasapersonsname.
TheLibrarywindowdisplaysthelast nameofthefirstauthorthatitfindsintheAuthorfield.Thatname isalsousedinthetem-
porarycitationsinsertedintowordprocessing documents.
Note:Ifyouhave acorporateauthornameinanAuthorfield,putacommaafterthename sothatEndNotedoesnotinterpretitas
afirstandlastname.Forexample,AcmeCorporationshouldbeenteredas"AcmeCorporation,".
Title Fields
ThethreefieldsthattheGenerictypeuses fortitlesTitle,SecondaryTitle, andTertiaryTitleareusuallyfoundunderdifferent
namesinotherreferencetypes.Forexample,asectionofabookwhichispartofaserieswill useallthreetitlefields:thechapter
titlewouldbelonginthemain Titlefield,thebooktitlecorrespondstotheSecondaryTitlefield, andtheseriestitlecorrespondsto
theTertiaryTitlefield.
TheGenericSecondaryTitleandAlternateTitlefieldsmaptotheJournal andAlternateJournalfields,respectively.Thefields
listedbelow,foundinspecificreferencetypes,aretheonlyonesthatcanbeusedwiththe Journalstermlisttomodifyjournal
namesinformattedbibliographies.
l JournalArticlereference typeJournalfield
l JournalArticlereference typeAlternateJournalfield
l ElectronicArticlereference typePeriodicalTitlefield
Pages Field
Thefieldsintherowreservedforpage numbersaretheonlyonesthatworkwiththePageNumbersoptionin thestyles.Thisfea-
tureletsyouspecifyhowEndNoteshouldformatthe pagenumbersinthebibliography(firstpageonlyorafullorabbreviated
rangeofpages).Similarly,anyfieldinthePagesrowoftheReference Typespreferencecantakeadvantageofaspecialfor-
mattingcharacter inthestyles:thecaret(^).Thischaracterallowsyoutopickasingular andpluralformofatermtoprecedeorfol-
lowthepagesinabibliography, forexample"p.25"and"pp. 32-45.Ifyouenterpagenumbersinanyotherpartofthereference,
theycannotbeusedwiththesefeatures.
URL Field
WhenacorrectlyformattedURLis enteredintothisfield,theOpenURLcommandintheReferencesmenucan beusedtolaunch
yourWebbrowserandtakeyoutothatsite.
WhenareferenceisselectedandOpenURL ischosen,EndNotecheckstheURLfieldforaURL.Nootherfieldsare checked.
SeeURL andLinkingaURLtoanEndNoteReference.
File Attachments Field
UsetheFile Attachmentsfieldtostorethepathtofilesonyourharddrive(such asgraphics,wordprocessingdocuments,and
PDFfiles).Youcanspecify anabsolutepathtoaspecificfolder,oryoucanspecifyarelativepath tocopythefiletoyourlibrarys
.DATA\PDF folder.Youcanlinkupto45filestoeachreference.
Whenacorrectlyformattedpathandfilenameisenteredintothisfield,theOpenFilecommandintheReferencesmenu canbe
usedtoopenthefile.SeeLinking aFiletoanEndNoteReference.
Figure Field
TheFigure fieldstoresasinglegraphicorfileattachmentspecificallyforuse inMicrosoftWord.Thisfieldisincludedinallref-
erencetypes.See InsertingFiguresfor informationaboutaddingfigurestoareference.
ToaddorremovetheFigurefieldfromareferencetype,usethePreferencesdialogtoeditreferencetypes,as describedinAdd-
ing,Deleting,andRenamingFields.
UsethetextfieldimmediatelyfollowingtheFigurefield,theCaption field,toenterrelevantinformationpertainingtotheimageor
file.
Date Stamp Fields
TwoAutoDateStampfieldsareavailablethatyoucanaddtotheLibrarywindow.
TheAddedtoLibraryandLastUpdateddatefieldsareinsertedwhenyousave anewreference.TheLastUpdateddateisreset
eachtimeyou savechangestoareference.ThedateformatoftheAutoDateStampfieldsmatchesyourdefaultoperatingsystem
settings(forexample,4/16/2012).
ToaddthetwoAutoDateStampfieldstotheLibrarywindow,selectPreferences>DisplayFields.FromtheFieldcolumn,select
theAddedtoLibraryand/orLastUpdatedfields.EndNotepopulatestheHeadingcolumnwithyourselection.
Youcannot edit,print,orexporteitheroftheAutoDateStampfields.Youcan,however,displayandsortthese fieldsfromthe
LibrarywindowjustasyoucanwithanyotherEndNotefield.
Note:ForreferencesenteredwithEndNoteversionX1orearlier,theAddedtoLibraryfieldisleftblankandtheLastUpdatedfield
displaysthe dateofconversiontoEndNote.
Table of Predefined Reference Types
UsetheListofReferenceTypestodisplayindividualreferencetypesandthedefault fieldsandfieldnamesusedineachone.
Bibliographic Styles
Introduction
What is an Output Style?
Thetermoutput style(orjust"style")isusedtodescribeaparticularmethodofdocumentingyourwork.Eachstyleisdesigned
asacompletesolutionforformattingandeditingin-textcitations,footnotecitations, andbibliographiesforalltypesofreferences.
YoucanthinkofstylesastemplatesthatshowEndNotehowtoarrangetheinformationineachofyourEndNotereferencesfor
citationsandbibliographies. Forexample,asinglereferencecouldbeformattedintheChicagostyle likethis:
Argus,MicheleV.,andEdwardK.
OritcouldbeformattedintheNaturestylelikethis:
1. Argus,M.V.
EndNoteincludesmorethan4,500individual bibliographicstyles.Onlythemostpopularstylesarestoredasindividualfilesinthe
StylesfolderinyourEndNotefolder.(Toaddmore,seeInstalling AdditionalOutputStyles.)
Thenameofthestylereferstothejournalorpublisherthathasdefined thebibliographicformat.TheNaturestyle,forexample,is
basedonthe formatrequiredbythejournalNature,andtheChicagostyleisnamed aftertheChicagoManualofStyle.Stylesin
theExportcategory,such as"RIS"arenotbibliographicstyles,butratherexportstylesdesignedtoaidintransferringEndNote
dataintootherdatabases.
ToseetheavailablestylesinEndNotesStylesfolder,selectOutputStylesfromtheEditmenu,andselectOpenStyleManager.
Ifyourstyle isnotavailable,youcandownloadadditionalstyles,anystylecanbemodifiedtosuityourneeds,plusyoucancreate
newstyles.
l Stylescanbedownloadedor edited,andnewstylescanbecustomized,withEndNote'sStyleManager.
l TheStyleManagerallowsyou tofindandpreviewinstalledstyles.Commonlyusedstylescanbemarkedas"favorites,"
whichwillappearintheOutput Styles submenuoftheEditmenuandinthelistofavailablestylesinCite WhileYouWrite.
Related Topics:
AccessingStylesinOtherPlaces
Basic ComponentsofaStyle
Previewing StylesandShowingInformation
TheOutput StylesMenu
TheStyleManager
WhatShouldIDoifMyStyleIsNotIncluded?
The Output Styles Menu
ThestyleselectedintheOutputStylessubmenuoftheEditmenu(or thestylemenuonthetoolbar)determineshowreferences
areformatted forthepreviewintheLibrarywindowaswellasfortheFormatBibliography, Format,Print,Export,andCopyFor-
mattedcommands.
Bydefault,EndNotesfourstandardbibliographicstylesareinstalled inyourOutput Stylesmenu:
l Annotated:generatesanAuthor-Datestylebibliographywithabstracts.
l Author-Date:generatesbibliography alphabetizedbyauthorname,andin-textcitationswithAuthorand Year.
l Numbered:generatesanumberedbibliography withcorrespondingnumberedin-textcitations.
l Show All Fields:generatesalistof thereferencesasentered,includingallfieldsandthenamesofthe fields.
MarkindividualstylesasyourfavoritesintheStyle ManagertohavethemappearintheOutput Stylesmenu,thestylemenu in
theMaintoolbar,andtheconfirmformattingdialog.
Related Topics:
AccessingStylesinOtherPlaces
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Basic ComponentsofaStyle
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Previewing StylesandShowingInformation
Whatis anOutputStyle?
WhatShouldIDoifMyStyleIsNotIncluded?
The Style Manager
EndNoteincludesmorethan4,500individual bibliographicstyles.Bydefault,onlythemostpopularstylesarestoredasindividual
filesintheStylesfolderinyourEndNotefolder.Toinstalladditionalstyles,seeInstalling AdditionalOutputStyles.
Thenameofthestylereferstothejournalorpublisherthathasdefined thebibliographicformat.TheNaturestyle,forexample,is
basedonthe formatrequiredbythejournalNature, andtheChicagostyleis namedaftertheChicago Manual of Style.Stylesin
theExportcategory, suchas"RIS"arenotbibliographicstyles,butratherexport stylesdesignedtoaidintransferringEndNote
dataintootherdatabases.
ToseeifyourjournalsstyleisincludedinEndNote,perusethelistofstylesintheStyleManager.Ifyourstyleisnotavailable,
anystylecanbemodifiedtosuityourneedsandyoucancreatenewstyles.
To seetheavailablestylesinEndNotesStylesfolder, selectOutputStylesfromtheEditmenu,andthenselect OpenStyleMan-
ager.
The StyleManagerliststhenamesoftheoriginalstyles available intheProgramFiles\EndNote\Styles folderaswellasanynew
ormodified stylesinyourpersonalStylesfolder,andgivesyoutheoptionstoeditthemorselectthemasfavoritesforquick
accessfromthestylemenuon thetoolbar,theOutputStylesmenuontheEditmenu,ortheconfirm formattingdialog.Youcan
clickanddragthecornerofthedialogtoincreasethe size.
Navigating in the Style Manager
Usethefollowingfeaturestolocatetheoutputstylethatyouwant touse:
l Ifyouknowthenameofthestylethatyouwant touse,youmaystarttypingitandthefirstfilethatmatcheswhat youtype
willbeselected.
l Typetextintothe"QuickSearch" textboxonthetoolbarandpressEnter to searchforthestylebythenameofthefile.You
canenterapartial nameorthefullname.EndNotewilldisplayallmatchingresults.
l ClicktheFind Bybutton andchooseacategory(suchasMedicineorHumanities)tofindonly thebibliographicstylesfora
specificdiscipline.
l ClicktheFind Bybutton andselectAllStylestoreturnallofthestylestothedisplayed list.
l Clickthecolumnheadingstosortthestylesbynameorbycategory.Clickingthesamecolumnheadingasecond timewill
changethesortorderfromascendingtodescending.Click againtosetitbacktoascendingorder.
l ClicktheMoreInfobuttonatthebottomof thedialogtodisplayadditionalinformationabouttheselectedstyle (suchas
modificationandcreationdates,andanycommentsorlimitations). MoreInfotoggleswithLessInfo.Youalsohavethe
optionofdisplaying apreviewofthestyleintheMoreInfopanel.
Marking Your Favorite Styles
Whenyouhavefoundastylethatyouwillwanttouseinthefuture, clickthecheckboxtotheleftofittomarkitasafavorite.All
styles thataremarkedasfavoritesappearintheOutputStylessubmenuofthe Editmenu,andthestylesmenuonthetoolbar.
Thisgivesyoueasyaccess tothestylesyouusemostoften. Allstylescanbemodifiedtomeetyour specifications.Youcanalso
createcompletelynewstylesifnecessary.
ToaddastyletotheOutputStylessubmenu ontheEditmenu:
1. FromtheEdit menu,selectOutputStylesandthenselectOpenStyle Manager.
2. Findthestylethatyouneed.
3. Clickintheboxtotheleftof thestyle'snametochooseitasoneofyourfavorites.
4. ClosetheStyleManagerbyclickingtheclosebuttonorselectingCloseStyleManagerfromtheFilemenu.
Toselectawholecategoryofstylesasfavorites,clicktheFindBybuttonintheStyleManagerwindow,select thecategoryof
interest,andthen clickMarkAllwhenallofthestylesforthatcategoryaredisplayed.ClicktheFindBy buttonandselectAll
Stylestobringallofthestyles backintoview.TheUnmarkAllbuttonmaybeusedtounmarkalloftheoutputstylesthatareshow-
inginthelist.
If you cannot find the style you need:
Manybibliographicstylesaresimplyvariantsofasmallnumberofwell-known bibliographicformats.EndNoteincludesover4,5-
00different styles,butitmaynotincludetheexactstyleyouneed.Ifyoucan't findthespecificstyleyouneed,youcan:
l Checkthesubmissionguidelinesforthepublication toseeifthestyleisaderivativeofawell-knownstyle. Youmay be
abletousethatstyle(perhapswithminormodifications).
l TrytheinteractiveStylesFinderontheEndNote website.AshortcuttotheWebStylesFinderisprovidedontheHelp
menu.
Related Topics:
AccessingStylesinOtherPlaces
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Basic ComponentsofaStyle
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Previewing StylesandShowingInformation
TheOutput StylesMenu
Whatis anOutputStyle?
WhatShouldIDoifMyStyleIsNotIncluded?
Previewing Styles and Showing Information
ClickMoreInfointheStyleManagertoshowtheinformationpanel. (WhenyouselectMoreInfo,thebuttonchangestoLessInfo,
whichwill hidethepanel.)Theinformationpanelisusedtodisplaymoredetail abouttheselectedstyle.
UsetheStyleInfo/Previewbuttontotogglebetweenthesedisplays:
l Style Information:Details aboutthestylearedisplayedintheInformationpanel.Theseinclude thecreationandmodification
dates,category,whichstyleguidethe styleisbasedon,andanylimitationsorcommentsaboutusingthe style.
l Style Preview:Inthepreview section,EndNoteshowshowajournal,book,andbooksectionwould beformattedwiththe
selectedstyle.
Previewing Styles Using Your Own References
EndNoteusesbuilt-inexamplesforthepreviewsintheStyleManager window.Ifyouwanttopreviewastyleusingyourownref-
erences:
1. IntheStyleManager,markthestyleasafavoritebyclickinginthecheck boxnexttoitsname.Thisaddsthestyletothe
OutputStylesmenu.
2. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andselect thestyletopreview.
3. Openalibrary,andthenclickthePreviewtab ontheTabspanel.
4. Selectanyreferenceinyourlibrarytohaveit displayedonthePreviewtab.
ThePreviewtabdisplaysonlyonereferenceatatime.Ifyouwould liketopreviewagroupofreferences,youcanusetheCopy
FormattedcommandandtheClipboard:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStylesandselect astyle.
2. SelectoneormorereferencesinyourlibraryandselectCopyFormatted( Ctrl +K)fromtheEditmenu.
3. PastefromtheClipboardintoawordprocessor documenttoseetheformattedreferencesastheywouldappearina bib-
liography.
Or,usethePrintPreviewcommandfromtheFilemenutoprinttheshowing referencesintheLibrarywindow.
Related Topics:
AccessingStylesinOtherPlaces
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Basic ComponentsofaStyle
InstallingAdditionalOutputStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
TheOutput StylesMenu
TheStyleManager
Whatis anOutputStyle?
WhatShouldIDoifMyStyleIsNotIncluded?
Copying Styles
WhenyoudisplayalistofstylesinEndNote,thelistiscomprised oftheinstalledstylesfoundin theProgram Files\En-
dNote\Styles folderaswellasnewormodifiedstylesfoundinyourpersonalStylesfolder.Foranexplanationofwhereyourfiles
arestored,seeFolderLocations Preferences.
Becauseeachstyleisaseparatefileonyourharddrive,youcancopy themasyouwouldcopyanyfileonyourharddriveusing
theWindows desktop.
Tocopyastyletoaremovabledisk,selectthestyleonyourharddrive anddragitontoadisk.Werecommendthatyoumakea
backupcopyofany newormodifiedstyles.(seeBacking UpYourEndNoteFiles).
TomakeacopyofastylefromwithinEndNote:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStylesandselectOpenStyleManager.
2. SelectthestyleyouwanttocopyandclickEdit.
3. Withoutmakinganychangestothefile,select SavefromtheFilemenu.
4. GivethiscopyofthefileanewnameandSaveit.
ThefileissavedinyourpersonalStylesfolder.Thenewstylewill remainopen.Theoriginalstylewillbeleftuntouched.
Saving Styles
Tosaveanewstylethatyouhavejustcreated,ortosavechangestoastyleyouhavejustmodified,selectSaveorSaveAsfrom
theFilemenu.
Ifyou havemodifiedoneoftheoriginalinstalledfilesintheProgram Files\EndNote\Stylesfolder,youmustuseSaveAstosavea
copyto yourpersonalStylesfolder.Ifyouhavemodifiedastylethatisalready locatedinyourpersonalStylesfolder,youcan
selecteitherSaveto directlymodifythefile,orSaveAstomakeacopywiththechanges. Foradescriptionofwhereyourstyles
arestored,seeFolder LocationsPreferences.
IfyoucloseaStylewindowbeforesavingastyle,EndNotepromptsyou tosaveordiscardthechangesyouhavemade,orselect
Canceltoreturn tothestyle.IfyouquitfromEndNotewhileaStylewindowisopen,thesamedialogappears.
EndNoteautomaticallysavesnewstylestoyourpersonalStylesfolder. Youmayalsospecifyadifferentfolderifnecessary.For
instructions seeFolderLocationsPreferences.
EndNotestylesusethefilenameextensionof".ENS"(forEndNoteStyle),asin"Nature.ens."
Deleting Styles
TodeleteastylefromwithinEndNote:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenselectOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestyletobedeleted.
3. SelectClearfromtheEditmenu,orright-clickonthestyleandselectDeletefromtheshortcutmenu,orpresstheDeletekey.
YoucanalsodeleteanunwantedstylebyswitchingbacktotheWindows desktop,andopeningtheappropriateStylesfolder(see
FolderLocations Preferences).Then,selectthefiletodeleteandselectDeletefromtheFilemenu,ordragthefiletotheRecycle
Bin.
Note:Youmusthaveread/writeaccesstotheStylesfolderinordertodeleteastyle. Ifyoudonothaveadministratoraccess,
youlikelywillnotbeabletodeleteafilelocatedwithintheProgramFilesfolder.
Renaming Styles
RenamestylesusingtheSavecommandfromtheFilemenu.Thisallows youtomakeacopyofanystylethatyouwanttomod-
ify,soyoucankeep severalvariationsofthesamestyle.Youcanalsorenamestylesbyswitching totheWindowsdesktop,
locating thestylefileintheStylesfolder,clickingonthefilename,andtyping anewname.
Foranexplanationofwhere yourfilesarestored,seeFolder LocationsPreferences.
Reverting Changes to a Style
Ifatanytimeyouneedtorevertyourchangesbacktothelastsavedcopyofthestyle,select RevertStylefromtheFilemenu.
OnceyouclosetheStylewindowthechangesarepermanentuntilchangedagain.
Closing a Style
TocloseaStylewindow,clicktheclosebuttonintheupper right cornerofthewindow,orselectCloseStylefromtheFilemenu.If
you havenotsavedyourchangestothestyle,EndNotepromptsyouandgives youtheoptiontosaveordiscardanychangesthat
youhavemade.
What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included?
EndNotesuppliesover4,500journalstylesforyourconvenience;however,becausetherearethousandsofjournals published,
thestyleyouneedmaynotbeincluded.Thisshouldnotbe aproblembecauseyoucancustomizeastyleofyourownoreditany
of EndNotespreconfiguredstyles.
IfastylethatyouneedisnotincludedwithEndNote,werecommend modifyingastylethatissimilartowhatyouneed.Todown-
loadmoreof thepredefinedstyles,seeInstalling AdditionalOutputStyles.
Tofindandmodifyasimilarstyle:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenselectOpenStyleManager.
2. IntheStyleManager,changethesettinginthe informationpanelfromStyleInfotoStylePreview.Thepreviewofthe
selectedstyleshouldnowbedisplayed.
3. Scrollthroughthelistofavailablestylesto seeifyoucanfindonethatissimilartowhatyouneed.
4. Onceyouhavefoundasimilarstyle, selectit, andclicktheEditbutton.TheStylewindowopens.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSave,givethiscopy ofthestyleanewnamethatcorrespondstothenameofthejournal you
wanttouseitfor,andclickSave.Thiswillalsokeeptheoriginal styleunchanged,intheeventthatyouneedtouseitlater.
6. ThenewStylewindowremainsopenforyoutoedititasyouneed.Formoredetailsabouteditingpartsofastyle,readMod-
ifyingStyleTemplates andAdditionalStyleFormattingOptions.
Oncethenewcopyofthestylehasbeensaved, itwillbeaddedtoyour stylemenus.
Related Topics:
AccessingStylesinOtherPlaces
Basic ComponentsofaStyle
ClosingaStyle
CopyingStyles
DeletingStyles
RenamingStyles
SavingStyles
TheOutput StylesMenu
TheStyleManager
Accessing Styles in Other Places
TheStyleManagerdisplaysonlythestylesfoundinspecificfolders.Werecommendthatyoucopyadditionalstylestoyourper-
sonalStylesfolder.
Foranexplanationofwhereyourfilesarestored,ortochangeyour personalStylesfolderlocation,seeFolder LocationsPref-
erence.
Basic Components of a Style
Thebestwaytounderstandhowastyleworksistoopenoneupandlook atit.
l To create a new style:FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStylesandselectNewStyle. Ifyouareinterestedincreatinga
newstyle, seeCreating aNewStyle.
l To edit a style: FromtheEditmenu,selectOutput StylesandthenOpenStyleManager. Selectthefiletoeditandclick
Edit.ThemostrecentlyusedstylecanalsobeopenedbyselectingOutputStylesfromtheEditmenu, andselectingEdit
<style>.
The Style Window
Afterchoosingtheoptiontoeditanexistingstyleorcreateanew one,EndNoteopenstheStylewindow.
Allofthedifferentoptionsforeditingastylearelistedontheleft sideoftheStylewindow.Thefirstfouritems(About ThisStyle,
Anonymous Works, PageNumbers,andJournalNames)applytocitations,bibliographies, andcitationsinfootnotes.Therestof
theoptionsintheStylewindow aregroupedunderoneoffourheadings:
Citations:Panelslistedunderthe Citationsheadingapplyonlytocitationsinthebodyofthetext.
Bibliographies:Theitemslistedunder theBibliographyheadingapplytothebibliographythatEndNotecreates whenyouformat
apaper.ThesesettingsarealsousedwiththeExport,Print,CopyFormatted,andPreviewoptions.
Footnotes:TheitemsundertheFootnote headingapplytocitationsthathavebeeninsertedintothefootnotesorendnotesina
wordprocessingdocument. (Youmustfirstcreatethefootnotesinyourwordprocessor,andthen insertEndNotecitationsinto
them.)
Figures and Tables:The itemsunderFiguresandTablesapplytoEndNotefiguresandtablesthat havebeeninsertedintoa
MicrosoftWorddocument.
Clickontheplusnextto oneoftheheadingstoexpandorcollapsetheviewtoshoworhidethe relatedoptions.Clickonanitem
undertheheadingstoviewtheassociated panel.Youmayswitchbetweenpanelsasneededwhileeditingthefile. Nochanges
aresavedinanyofthepanels,however,untilyouselectSave orSaveAsfromtheFilemenu.
Style Templates
TheCitation,Bibliography,andFootnotesectionsofthestyleallhave aTemplatepanelandotheroptionsforfinetuningthestyle.
TheTemplatespanelsarethemajorcomponentofthestyles.Theyinclude thefieldnamesandpunctuationorganizedintheway
EndNoteshouldformat thereferencesforthatparticularstyle.Thetemplateslooklikecitations orbibliographyentries,except
thatfieldnamesareusedinplaceof theactualdata.Duringtheformattingprocess,EndNotereplacesthefield nameswiththe
correspondinginformationfromthereferences.
FordetailsaboutworkingwithstyletemplatesseeModifying StyleTemplates.
Other Style Options
UndereachheadingintheStylewindow(Citations,Bibliography,and Footnotes)thereareaseriesofoptionsforhowtofine-tune
theformatted referencesincitations,bibliographies,orfootnotes.Manyoftheseoptions arerepeatedforthethreesections(such
asthesettingsthatdetermine howauthornamesaretreated),becauseeachofthesethreeareasofthe documentmightrequirea
slightlydifferentformat.TheFigures andTablessectionappliesspecificallytoEndNotefiguresandtables insertedintoaWord
document.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Installing AdditionalOutputStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
TheStyleManager
Modifying Style Templates
Modifying Style Templates
IfyouarecreatingabibliographythatrequiresastylenotincludedwithEndNote,thenyoucanmodifyastyletosuityourneeds.
(SeeWhatShouldIDoifMyStyle isNotIncluded?)Editingastylerequiresageneralunderstanding ofhowstylesworkandthe
componentsofastyle. ReadBasic ComponentsofaStyletobecomefamiliarwiththeterms. Thesetopics canhelpyouincre-
atingormodifyingstyletemplates:
l CitationTemplate
l BibliographyandFootnoteTemplates
l ChangingthePunctuationina FormattedReference
l AddingandRemovingFieldsin aFormattedReference
l AddingNewReferenceTypes
l FontandTextStyles
l RulesforWorkingwithStyle Templates
l EndNoteCleansUp
l SpecialFormattingCharacters
l AdditionalStyleFormatting Options
Citations Template
ToaccesstheTemplatespanel,selectOutputStylesfrom theEditmenu,andthenclickTemplatesundertheCitationsheading.
TheCitationstemplatetellsEndNotehowtoformat thein-textcitationsinthe bodyofyourpaper. Themostpopularformatsfor
in-textcitationsare(Author,Year),numbered,andAuthor(Year).Forexample:
l An(Author,Year)format displays"(Author,Year)"in theCitationareaofthetemplate.Whenyouinsertanin-textcitationin
yourpaperusingthisformat,thecitationwouldlooklikethisexample:(Binfield,2008)
l Anumberedformatdisplaysa"[BibliographyNumber]"intheCitationareaofthetemplate.Numberedstylescommonly
enclosethebibliographynumberinbracketsorparenthesisoruseasuperscriptnumber.Insteadof(Binfield2008)asyour
in-textcitation,thecitationwouldlooklikethisexample:[1]
Thebibliographynumbercorrespondstoanumberedreferenceinyourbibliography.BydefaultEndNotelinksthein-text
citationtothereferenceinthebibliography.
l AnAuthor(Year)formatdisplays"Author(Year)"intheCitation-Author(Year)areaofthetemplate.Whenyouinsertanin-
textcitationinyourpaperusingthisformat,thecitationwouldlooklikethisexample:Binfield(2008)
Youmaychangethetemplatebydeletingunwantedfieldnamesorpunctuation, retypingthepunctuationyouwant,andinserting
newfieldswiththeInsert Fieldbutton.SeeModifyingStyleTemplatesforinformationabouteditingtemplates.
Note:BoththeCitationandtheCitation-Author(Year) areaofthetemplatemustbecompletedinordertousetheAuthor(Year)
format inapaper.
Multiple Citation Separators
UsetheMultipleCitationSeparatorsfieldto specifythepunctuationtoseparatemultiplecitationsinyourpapers. Amultiplecita-
tionisanin-textcitationthatincludesmorethanone referencewithinasinglesetofdelimiters, suchas:(Argus,1993; Billoski,
1993;Hall,1988).Thisexample usesasemicolonandaspaceastheseparatorbetweencitations.
TheseparatorcanbechangedbytypingothertextintheMultiple CitationSeparatorfield.Remembertoincludeaspaceinthesep-
arator sectionwhennecessary.
Adding Journal Names to In-text Citations
IfyouwouldlikeEndNotetoinsertthejournalnameinthein-textcitationsofyourpaper,selecttheJournal/SecondaryTitlefield
fromtheInsert Fieldmenu.Forexample:
l In theCitationareaofthetemplate,inserttheJournal/SecondaryTitlefieldinthe(Author,Year)field.Forexample:
(Author,Journal/SecondaryTitleYear)
Whenyouinsert anin-textcitationinyourpaper, thecitationwouldlooklikethisexample:(Porter,Journal/BritishJournal
ofAesthetics2009)
l IntheCitation-Author(Year)areaofthetemplate,insert theJournal/SecondaryTitlefieldintheAuthor(Year)field.For
example:Author,Journal/SecondaryTitle(Year)
Whenyouinsert anin-textcitationinyourpaperusingthisformat,thecitationwouldlooklikethisexample:Porter,Jour-
nal/BritishJournalofAesthetics(2009)
Year Format
IfyouwouldlikeEndNotetouse2-digityears(suchas09)inthein-textcitations,checkthe"Use2-digityears"option.Years
fromallcenturieswillbeabbreviatedtodisplayjustthelasttwodigits. Thisappliesonlytotheyearsinthein-textcitations.
Related Topics:
Adding andRemovingFieldsinaFormattedReference
AddingNew ReferenceTypes
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Bibliography andFootnoteTemplates
Changing thePunctuationinaFormattedReference
EndNoteCleansUp
FontsandTextStyles
Rules forWorkingwithStyleTemplates
Special FormattingCharacters
Footnotes: Defining Long and Short Forms
BothfullandshortformtemplatesareavailablefromtheStylewindow. DefineshortformfootnotesettingsforTemplates, Author
Lists,Author Name,EditorLists,and EditorName.
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles>OpenStyleManager.
2. FromtheStyleManagerwindow,selectastylefromthelistofnames(forexample, Chicago),andthenclicktheEdit
button.
3. FromtheStylewindow,selectacategoryundertheFootnotesheading(forexample, AuthorName).
4. Enterallyourchanges.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.
6. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample, "MyChicagoFootnotesSettings"),andthenclicktheSave button.
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
ClickTemplatesundertheBibliographyorFootnotesheadinginOutputStylestoseethe templatesforhowthosereferencesare
formatted.
Forfootnoteandbibliographytemplates,eachhasa"Generic" template,andotherreference-type-specifictemplatestoformat the
various referencetypesinabibliography.
Thefollowingexamplesshowhowjournalarticles,books, andbooksections,respectively,wouldbeformattedwiththeNum-
beredstyle.Noticethateachreferencetypeisformatteddifferently, whichiswhydifferenttemplates arerequired:
1. Emiliani,
2. Jones,V.R.,TheTheoryofForaging,
3. Whitney,J.R.,
Generic Template
TheGenerictemplateisusedtoformatreferencesthatusetheGeneric referencetypeordonothavetheirowntemplateinthe
style.Forexample,ifaBooktemplatehadnotbeenincludedinthestyle,bookreferences wouldbeformattedusingtheGeneric
template.
Generic - Short Form Template
TheGeneric-ShortFormtemplatemaybedefinedforeachreference typejustliketheregularfootnote.Youcanedittheshort
forminatemplate.Theorderofuseisthat:
1. Theshortformdefinitionforaspecificreference isused.
2. Ifthedefinitionisnotavailable,thenthegeneric shortformdefinitionisused.
3. Ifnogenericdefinitionisavailable,thenthe fullformofthereferenceforthattypeisused.
4. Ifthefullformisnotavailable,thenthegeneric fullformisused.
Other Reference Type Templates
TherestofthetemplatesinthestyletellEndNotehowtoformat specificreferencetypes,suchasjournals,books,andbooksec-
tions.Ifacheck markappearsnexttoareferencetypeintheReferenceTypelist,atemplateisalreadydefinedforit(youcanedit
thetemplate).
Footnote Template Options
Styleshavevaryingrequirementsforhowcitationsinfootnotesshould beformatted.TheoptionsatthetopoftheFootnotesTem-
platespanelinOutputStylesallowforthedifferentconditions.
Forsomestyles,citationsinfootnotesareformattedjustlikein- textcitations(inthebodyofthepaper).Inthatcase,thereisno
needtocreateaspecialtemplateforfootnotes,simplyselectthe"Sameascitation"optionfromthe"Formatcitationsinfoot-
notes"list.
Similarly,someformatsrequestthatcitationsinfootnotesareformatted asfullbibliographicreferences,exactlylikethebib-
liography.Forthose styles,youcansetthefootnoteformat optiontoSameasBibliography.
However,ifyouneedthefootnotestousetheirownspecialformat(most stylesforthehumanitiesrequirethis),youwouldselect
theoptionto formatcitationsinfootnoteswithauniquefootnoteformat.Forthis option,youneedtodefinethetemplatesforhow
citationsinfootnotes shouldbeformatted.
Forinformationabouthowtotreatrepeatedcitations,suchasusing ashortformfornon-consecutiverepeatedcitations,andIbid.
forconsecutive repeatedcitations,seeRepeated CitationsinFootnotes.
Whenusingtheshortform,selectthecheckboxthattellthesystem toincludetheTitlefieldonlywhenneededtodisambiguatea
citation.
Related Topics:
Adding andRemovingFieldsinaFormattedReference
AddingNew ReferenceTypes
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Changing thePunctuationinaFormattedReference
EndNoteCleansUp
FontsandTextStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Rules forWorkingwithStyleTemplates
Special FormattingCharacters
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
Punctuationthatappearsinyourformattedreferencescanbechanged byeditingthestyleyouareusing.Whenyoueditastyle,
youcandeleteunwantedpunctuation, replaceitwithotherpunctuation, oraddadditionalpunctuationwherenecessary.
Forexample,iftheNumberedstylecreatesaperfectbibliographyforyourdocumentexcept thatitputsacommaafterthe
authorsnameswhereyouneedaperiod,youcanedittheNumberedstyletomakethischange.
ToedittheNumberedstyle:
1. SelecttheNumberedstyleintheOutputStyles menu.
2. SelectEditNumberedfromtheOutput Stylesmenu toopentheNumberedStylewindow.
3. ClicktheTemplatesoptionundertheBibliographyheading.
4. Foreachreferencetype(suchasGeneric,JournalArticle,andBook),deletethecommathatfollowsthefieldname
"Author" andtypeaperiod.
Thestylesbibliographictemplatesshouldnowlookliketheexample below. NoticethatthepunctuationaftertheAuthor
fieldineach templatehasbeenchangedtoaperiod.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.Inthedialogthatappears,enteranewnameforthismodifiedNumberedstyle,and
thenclickSave.
Nowyoucanusethenewstyletocreateaformattedbibliographythat putsaperiodbetweentheauthornamesandthetitles.
Forinformationaboutmakingpunctuationorspacesappearonlyunder certaincircumstancesseeSpecial FormattingCharacters.
Thattopicalsoexplainstheuseofthenon-breaking spaces(), verticalbars(|),accentgrave(`),andthecarets(^)thatyouseein
thestyletemplates.
Note:Ifyousave anewstyleintoafolderotherthanthecurrentstylesfolder,itwillnotbeavailableintheStyleManager.You
shouldsavenewstylestoyourStylesfolder,orchangeFolder LocationsPreferencesifnecessary.
Related Topics:
Adding andRemovingFieldsinaFormattedReference
AddingNew ReferenceTypes
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Bibliography andFootnoteTemplates
EndNoteCleansUp
FontsandTextStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Rules forWorkingwithStyleTemplates
Special FormattingCharacters
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Thefieldnames(suchasAuthor,Year,andTitle)thatyouseewhen editingastyletemplate,indicatewhatinformationisincluded
inyour formattedreference.Ifyouwanttoincludeafield, suchasnotes, along withyourreferences,youshouldaddtheNotes
fieldtothestylethat youuse.Similarly,toexcludeunwantedinformationthatisappearing inabibliography,youmustdeletethe
fieldnamethatcontainsthatinformation fromthestylesbibliographytemplate.
Theexamplesbelowshowtwocommonscenariosinwhichfieldsareadded toorremovedfromtheformattedbibliography.When-
everyouchangethe fieldsinastyletemplatebesuretocheckthesurroundingpunctuation tomakesurethatitisstillaccurate.
Adding a Field to a Style Template
Toinsertanewfieldintoastyletemplate:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenselectOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwanttoedit,andclickEdit.
3. ClickontheTemplatesoptionundertheBibliography heading,andpositionthecursoratthelocationinthetemplatewhere
youwanttoaddafield.
4. ClicktheInsertFieldbuttonandselectthefieldtobeadded.
5. Afterthefieldisinserted,addanypunctuation orspacingthatisnecessarytocorrectlyincorporatethenewfield intothe
style.
Note:Asashort-cut, youcanusetheoptionsintheLayoutpaneltoaddtextorpunctuation beforeoraftereveryreferenceina
bibliography.SeeBibliography Layout.
Deleting a Field from a Style Template
IfEndNoteincludesinformationinyourbibliographythatyoudonot wanttobethere,youcaneditthestyleanddeletethe
unwantedfields nameandanyassociatedpunctuation.
Forexample,ifastyleincludestheissuenumberinyourjournalreferences, andyoudonotwanttheissuetoappear:
1. IntheStyleManager,selectthestyleandclick theEditbutton.
2. UndertheBibliographyheading,clicktheTemplates option.
3. Selectthetexttobedeleted(forexample,".Issue|),andpresstheDeleteorBackspacekey.
AlongwiththeIssuefield,alsoremovetheperiodthatprecedesit andtheverticalbar,aspecialformattingcharacter,thatfollows
the Issuefield.(SeeSpecialFormattingCharactersformoreinformationabouttheverticalbar.)
Related Topics:
AddingNew ReferenceTypes
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Bibliography andFootnoteTemplates
Changing thePunctuationinaFormattedReference
EndNoteCleansUp
FontsandTextStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Rules forWorkingwithStyleTemplates
Special FormattingCharacters
Adding New Reference Types
Whenastyledoesnotincludeatemplateforaspecificreferencetype, suchasReport,EndNoteusesthestylesGenerictem-
platetoformat that referencetype.AlthoughtherearetimeswhentheGenericformat suffices, oftenitisnotsufficientbecause
theotherreferencetypesneedtobe formatteddifferently.Therefore,youshouldmakespecifictemplatesforthedifferentref-
erencetypesthatyouwillbeincludinginyourbibliographies.
Toaddanewreferencetypetemplatetoastyle:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles>Open StyleManagerandselectthestylethatyouwanttomodify.
2. Withthestyleselected,clicktheEditbutton.
3. IntheStylewindow,clicktheTemplatespanel undertheBibliographyheading.
4. SelectthenameofthedesiredreferencetypefromtheReferenceTypesdropdownlist .(ReferenceTypesthatarealready
definedappearinthelistwith checkmarksnexttotheirname.)
Anewtemplateforthatreferencetypeisaddedatthebottomofthe Stylewindow(scrolltothebottomoftheStylewindowifyou
donotseeit).
Defining the Format for the New Reference Type Template
Definingtheformatforanewtemplateisaprocessofinsertingthe necessaryfieldsandpunctuationinthecorrectorder.Forthis
example, wewantareporttolooklikethis(Author,Title,ReportNumber,Year, Institution,andCity):
Trift,
Wecaninsertthefieldsandtypethepunctuationtocreateatemplate fortheReport referencetype.UsetheInsertFieldbuttonat
thetop oftheStylewindowtoinsertthefieldsinthecorrectorder. Afterinserting afieldname,typethepunctuationandspacing
thatshouldfollowit. Applytextstyles,suchasitalicsfortheTitle,byselectingthetexttochangeandusingtheStyletoolbar.
ThefinaltemplatefortheReportreferencetypelookslikethis:
Report
Author,Title,ReportNumber.Year,Institution:City.
Related Topics:
Adding andRemovingFieldsinaFormattedReference
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Bibliography andFootnoteTemplates
Changing thePunctuationinaFormattedReference
EndNoteCleansUp
FontsandTextStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Rules forWorkingwithStyleTemplates
Special FormattingCharacters
Fonts and Text Styles
Bydefault,textenteredintoaStylewindowappearsinEndNotesPlain Font,PlainSize,andPlainStylesettings,whichallowthe
bibliography thatEndNotecreatestoadoptthefontsettingsinyourpaper. Forexample, ifyoutypeyourpaperin10pointTimes
font,EndNoteusesthatfont forthepapersbibliography.
UsetheEditmenuortheStyletoolbartoapplyanyfont,size,ortext styletoyourStyletemplates.(Note thatonlythestandard
Windowsfontsareavailable.)
AlltextattributesenteredintoastyletemplatecarryoverintothebibliographythatEndNotecreates.Youcanusethisfeature,for
example, toitalicizetitlesormakethevolumenumbersbold.Anyfontortext stylechangesenteredinanEndNoteReferencewin-
dowcarrythroughthe bibliographyaswell.Forexample,anyitalicizedtermsinyourreferences willstillappearitalicizedinyour
bibliography,regardlessofthetext attributesthattheEndNotebibliographicstyleapplies.
Related Topics:
Adding andRemovingFieldsinaFormattedReference
AddingNew ReferenceTypes
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Bibliography andFootnoteTemplates
Changing thePunctuationinaFormattedReference
EndNoteCleansUp
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Rules forWorkingwithStyleTemplates
Special FormattingCharacters
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Therearefourbasicrulesofdependencethatgovernhowtext,spaces, andfieldnamesinfluenceeachotherwhentheyareused
inastyletemplate. Ifnecessary,theserulescanbecircumventedinspecificsituationsusing thespecialformattingcharacters
describedinthenextsectionofthis chapter.
Rule #1: Basic Dependence
Anytextorpunctuationthatisnotseparatedfromafieldnamebyanordinaryspaceisdependentontheadjacentfield.
Inthiscontext,"dependent"meansthatthetextorpunctuation adjacenttoafieldonlyappearsinyourbibliographyiftheadjacent
fieldcontainsdata.Forexample,inthisexcerpt:
Volume(Issue)
theparenthesesaround"Issue"onlyappearinaformatted referenceifthereisanissuenumberforthereference.
Rule #2: The Preceding Field Takes Precedence Over the Following Field
Whenpunctuationappearsbetweentwofieldswithnointerveningspaces, itisdependentontheprecedingfield.
Inthisexample,
Volume:Issue
thecolonisdependentontheVolumefield.Thismeans, ifthereis novolumeinthereference,thecolonwillnotappear.Ifthereis
avolume, thecolonwillappear.
Note:Thisexample showsacasewheretherulesofdependencemightnotdowhatyouwant.Forexample,youmightwantto
havethecolononlyshowwhenthereis anissue.Thiscanbedoneusingthespecial formattingcharacters.
Rule #3: The First Space after a Field is Dependent on that Field. Additional Spaces are Independent.
Thefirstordinaryspacefollowingafieldisalwaysdependentonthatfield.Anyconsecutivespacesafterthatareindependentand
willalways appearintheformattedreferences.
Forexample,ifEndNoteformatsananonymousbookusingatemplatethat hastheAuthorfieldfollowedbyaspaceandtheTitle
field:
Author.Title
thetitlewillnotbeprecededbyaspaceinthefinalformattedreferencebecausethespace,justliketheperiod,isdependenton
theAuthorfield. However,ifthestyleincludestwospacesbetweentheAuthorandtheTitle:
Author.Title
thetitlewillbeprecededbyonespaceforallanonymousreferences.Thefirstspace,beingdependentontheAuthorfield,dis-
appearswhen thereisnoauthor,howeverthesecondspaceisindependent,soitremains intheformattedreference.
Independentspacescanbeforcedtobedependentonanadjacentfieldusingthespecialformattingcharacters.
Rule #4: Independent Text Always Appears in the Bibliography.
Anytextorpunctuationthatisnotdependentonafieldnamealways appearsintheformattedreferences. Forexample,if:
Edition
isenteredintoastylesBooktemplateusingonlyanordinaryspacetoseparatethetext"ed."andthefield"Edition",thetext"
ed."willappearinallBookreferencesregardlessofwhetherornotthereisaneditionforthatreference.
Note:Thenon-breaking spacecanbeusedinplaceofaregularspacetolinkindependenttexttoafield. SeeSpecial Formatting
Characters.
Related Topics:
Adding andRemovingFieldsinaFormattedReference
AddingNew ReferenceTypes
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Bibliography andFootnoteTemplates
Changing thePunctuationinaFormattedReference
EndNoteCleansUp
FontsandTextStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Special FormattingCharacters
EndNote Cleans Up
Tooconfusedaboutalltheserules?Well,evenifyoudontgeteverythingquiterightaccordingtotherules, EndNote willdoits
besttocleanuptheformattedreference.Obviousproblems arefixedautomatically.
Normally,fieldtextisenteredintoEndNotewithoutendingpunctuation, sothattheselectedoutput stylecansupplypunctuation
asrequiredby thatparticularstyle.However,whenyoudownloadreferencesfromvarious sources,someinformationproviders
mayincludepunctuation.
Forexample,whenanoutputstyledirectsEndNotetoinsertaperiod afterafield,EndNotemustdeterminewhattodowithany
punctuation thatalreadyexistsattheendofthefieldinthereference.
Punctuation found, plus punctuation
added by the output style:

Replaced with:
spaces,period period
comma,period (,.) period
semicolon,period (;.) period
colon,period (:.) period
doubleperiods(..) single period
questionmark,period(?.) question mark
exclamationpoint, period(!.) exclamation point

EndNotetreatsotherformsofextrapunctuationlikethis:
Punctuation found, plus punctuation
added by the output style:

Replaced with:
doublespaces single space
doublecommas (,,) single comma
doublesemicolons (;;) single semicolon
doublequestion marks(??) single questionmark
doubleperiods(..) single period
comma,period (,.) period
questionmark,period(?.) question mark
exclamationpoint, period(!.) exclamation point
questionmark,exclamationpoint(?!) question mark
exclamationpoint, questionmark(!?) exclamation point

Onesetofpunctuationthatisneverreplacedistheperiod,comma(.,) becauseitmaybeusedforabbreviationslikeed., etal.,


etc.
Special Formatting Characters
EndNotehasspecialformattingcharactersthataddflexibilityandprecision tothegroupingofpunctuationandfieldsinthestyle
templates.
Link Adjacent Text (Using the Non-breaking Space)
Ifyoutype"Editioned."intoastyletemplateanduseanordinaryspacetoseparatethefieldname"Edition"fromtheabbreviation
"ed.",then"ed."willappearregardlessofwhetherornotthereferencehasanedition(seeRule#4).
Toavoidthisproblem,make"ed. dependentontheEditionfieldbylinking
Youcaninsertanon-breakingspacebyselectingLinkAdjacentTextfromtheInsertFieldlistintheTemplatespanels.Youcan
alsoenteritbytypingCtrl+Alt+Space.Itappearsonthescreenasasmalldiamond.
Thenon-breakingspaceisconvertedtoanormalspaceintheformatting process.Commonusesofthenon-breakingspace
include(where""is usedasanon-breakingspace):
p^ppPages
Editioned.
volVolume
EditorEd.^
Thenon-breakingspaceisalsousedinconjunctionwiththevertical bar(seebelow)tochangethedependencyofapunctuation
markfromone fieldtoanother.
Volume|:Issue|.
Inthiscase,thecolon(:)islinkedtotheIssuefieldwithanon-breaking space,soitdoesnotprintinthebibliographyiftheIssue
fieldis empty.
Forced SeparationUsing the Vertical Bar
Ifyoudonotwanttextorpunctuationtobedependenton theprecedingorfollowingfield,usetheverticalbarcharacter(|), toforce
aseparationofthetextfromafield.Theverticalbarcanbe foundonthesamekeyasthebackslash(\).Itcanalsobeinserted
fromtheInsert FieldlistintheTemplatespanels.
Thinkofaverticalbarasbreakingdependence,orforcingseparationbetweentwodependentitems.(Theverticalbarworksin
exactlytheoppositewayasthenon-breakingspace.)
Forexample,theJournalArticletemplatesinsomestylesrequirea periodbetweenthevolumeandissue.Atemplateforsucha
stylemight looklikethis(where"indicates aspace):
Journal Article
Author."Title."JournalVolume.Issue(Year):Pages.
However,whenthisstyleformatsajournalarticlethatdoesnotinclude anissuenumber,thebibliographyentrywillbeincorrect,
asinthefollowingexample:
Clark,H.andCarlson,T."HearersandSpeechActs."Language58.(1982):332-373.
Noticethattheperiodusedtoseparatethevolumefromtheissueappears hereintheabsenceofanissuebecauseitisdependent
upontheVolume (Rule#2).Andthespaceseparatingthevolumeandtheyearislostbecause thatspaceisdependentuponthe
Issuefield(Rule#3).
EndNotehasawayofavoidingtheseproblems.Theverticalbarcharacter (|)canbeusedtobreaktheautomaticgroupingof
spacesandpunctuation withadjacentfields.
Ifyouinserttheverticalbarbeforetheperiodinourexample,the periodsdependencyswitchesfromtheVolumefieldtotheIssue
field. AddanotherverticalbarbeforethespacethatfollowstheIssuefield, andthespacewillnolongerbedependentontheIssue
field.Usethe verticalbarcharacterinconjunctionwiththenon-breakingspace.With thesechangesthestylelookslikethis:
Journal Article
Author."Title."JournalVolume|.Issue|(Year)|:Pages|.
Andtheformattedreferencewithoutanissueiscorrect:
Clark,H.andCarlson,T."HearersandSpeechActs."Language58(1982):332-373.
Othercommonexamplesforusingtheverticalbarinclude:
Publisher|:City
Pages|.(to makethefinalperiodindependent)
Field Names in Bibliographies
SometimesyoumayneedtousetextinatemplatethatisalsoanEndNote fieldnameforthatreferencetype.Forexample,you
maywanttousethe word"Editor"aftertheeditorsname:
Jones,V.R.,B.K.Marion,andR.L.Zeiss, The Theory of Foraging, inAHistoryofForagingBehavior,B.J.Bloggs,
Editor.1976,SmithandBarnes:NewYork.
Normally,EndNoteinterpretstheword"Editor"asafield namewhenitappearsinabooksstyletemplate.Thisiseventrueof
fieldnamesthatappearaspartofaword,suchas"Editors"or"Issued."Fieldnamesneednotbecapitalizedtoberecognized.
ToforceEndNotetointerpretawordasjusttextandnotasafield nameinatemplate,putanaccentgravecharacterbeforeand
aftertheword:`Editor`.Theaccent graveisfound intheupperleftcornerofmostkeyboardsonthesamekeyasthetilde (~).
Remembertoalsousethenon-breakingspacetolinkthetext,`Editor`,totheEditorfield.
Book Section
Author,Title|.inBookTitle|,Editor,`Editor`|.Year,Publisher|:City|,p.Pages.
Singular/Plural Term Separator (Caret ^)
Youcanspecifybothsingularandpluralformsoflabelsforeditors orpagesinaformattedreferencebyusingacaret(^)tosep-
aratetheterms.Forexample,somestylesput"Ed."afterasingleeditor and"Eds."followsseveraleditorsnames.Or,similarly,
"p."mightprecedeasinglepage,while"pp." precedesmultiplepages. Thisfeaturecanbeappliedtoanyfieldthatcorrespondsto
theGenericfieldforAuthor,SecondaryAuthor,TertiaryAuthor,SubsidiaryAuthor,Pages, andCitedPages.
Inthestyletemplate,enterboththesingularandpluralformsofthe labelseparatedbyacaret(insertitfromtheInsertFieldlistor
typeShift+6).Anytextbeforethecaret, backtobutnotincludingthepreceding space,isusedforthesingularform;textafterthe
caret,uptothe nextspace,isusedfortheplural form.Thesetermsmustalsobelinkedtotherelevantfieldusinganon-breaking
space.Forexample,astyle templatemightlooklikethis:
Edited Book
Editor,ed.^eds.Title. NumberofVolumesvols|.Vol.Volume|,Series Title|.City|:Publisher|, Year|.
Orlikethis:
Journal Article
Author."Title,"JournalVolume|.Issue|(Year)|:p.^pp.Pages|.
Related Topics:
Adding andRemovingFieldsinaFormattedReference
AddingNew ReferenceTypes
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Bibliography andFootnoteTemplates
Changing thePunctuationinaFormattedReference
EndNoteCleansUp
FontsandTextStyles
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Rules forWorkingwithStyleTemplates
Additional Style Formatting Options
Additional Style Formatting Options
Templatesdeterminethe generallayoutoftheformattedreferencesandcitations.Theremainder ofthepanelsintheStylewin-
dowcanbeusedtofine-tunecertainaspectsofabibliographicstyle:
l AnonymousWorks
l PageNumbers
l JournalNames
l Sections(MicrosoftWordOnly)
l AmbiguousCitations
l Numbering
l AuthorLists(Bibliography andFootnotes)
l AuthorLists(Citations)
l AuthorNames(Bibliography andFootnotes)
l AuthorNames(Citations)
l EditorListsandEditorNames
l Layout
l SortOrder
l TitleCapitalization
l RepeatedCitations(inFootnotes)
l FigureandTablePlacementand Captions
Field Substitutions (Bibliography and Footnotes)
TheFieldSubstitutionspanelsundertheBibliographyandFootnotes headingsallowyoutosubstituteanotherfieldinthebib-
liographyand footnotesofareferenceifoneofthefollowingfieldsisempty.
l DOI
l PMCID
l VolumeandPages
Youcanalsospecifywhichfieldtousewhentheeditorandtranslator arethesame.Theeditorandtranslatoroptionisavailable
forallstyles.
ThevaluesthatcurrentlypopulatethefieldsontheFieldSubstitutions panelsaredefaultvalues.Youcanchoosetoactivatefield
substitutions byselectingthecheckbox.Forexample,ifyouselectthe"Ifthe DOIfieldisempty, use"checkbox,EndNoteuses
theURLiftheDOI fieldisemptyinthebibliographyandfootnotesofareference;otherwise,EndNotedisplaystheDOIinfor-
mation.
YoucanalsoselectanotherfieldfromtheInsertFieldlistifyou donotwanttousethedefaultvalue.
Tosubstitutefieldvaluesinabibliographyand/orfootnote:
1. OpentheStyleManagerbyselectingOutputStylesfromtheEditmenu,andthenselectingOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwouldliketoedit,andthenclicktheEditbutton.
3. AftertheStylewindowopens,select FieldSubstitutions fromundertheBibliographyorFootnotesheading.
4. Activatefieldsubstitutionbyselectingthecheckboxofeach field.Thecurrentsubstitute(default)valuedisplaysifthe
field isempty.
Alternatively,youcanselectanotherfieldfromtheInsert Fieldlist.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.Inthedialogthatappears, enteranewnameforthismodifiedstyle, andthenclick
Save.
Examples
l YouarecitingaprepressarticlethathasaDOI numberbutnotvolumeorpageinformation. Theguidelinesindicate thatthe
DOIshouldbeincludedinareferencefortheprepressarticles.Theoutput stylethatyouselecttellsEndNotetousethe
DOIifthe VolumeandPagesfieldsareempty;otherwise,EndNotedisplaysvolume andpageinformation.
l YouarecitingaPubMedarticle,butithasnot yetbeenassignedaPMCID.TherecorddoeshaveaNIHMSID.Theguide-
lines indicatethattheNIHMSIDshouldbeusedasasubstitution.TheoutputstylethatyouselecttellsEndNotetousethe
NIHMSIDifthePMCIDfieldisempty; otherwise,EndNotedisplaysthePMCIDinformation.
Anonymous Works
AnonymousworksaredefinedbyEndNoteasreferenceswheretheAuthorfieldisblank(not"Anonymous").Thesettingsinthe
Anonymous Workspanelapplytoallsectionsofastyle(Citations,Bibliography, andFootnotes).
Leave Author Blank:Theauthorsection oftheformattedreferenceisleftempty. Ifthereferencesaretobe sortedbyauthor
names,theanonymousworkswouldbesortedatthetop ofthelistbecausetheyhavenoauthor.
Use Title in Place of Author:Wheretheauthorwouldhaveappeared,thetitleisusedinstead.Ifthereferences aresortedby
author,theanonymousreferenceswillbesortedasthough thetitleweretheauthor.IfyouwouldpreferthatEndNoteusethecon-
tents ofthe"ShortTitle"fieldinplaceofthefulltitle(where available),clickthe"UseShortTitle"checkbox.IfEndNote
encountersareferencethatdoesnothaveanythingenteredintotheShort Titlefield,itusesthecontentsoftheregularTitlefield
instead.
Use APA Specifications: TheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationformat(usedbymanyjournals) requiresaspecialvariation
ofthe"UseTitleinPlaceofAuthor" option.
Insert Text:Thetextthatyouenter hereappearsintheauthorsplaceintheformattedreference,andit isusedforsortingpur-
posesifthereferencesaretobesortedbyauthornames.Commonlythistextwouldbesomethingliketheword"Anonymous" or
"Anon."
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Page Numbers
ThePage Numberspanelallowsyoutospecifyhowthepagenumbersshouldbe formattedforyourreferences:
l Dont change page numbers
ThecontentsofthePagesfieldare useddirectlyintheformatted reference.Nochangesaremade.
l Show only first page
OnlythefirstcharactersinthePagesfieldupto, butnotincluding, thefirstdashorcommaareincludedinthebibliography.
Example: "123-125"inthePagesfieldbecomes"123"intheformattedreference.
l Abbreviate last page
Anydigitsofthelastpagenumberthatarethesameasthefirstpage numberareeliminated.Example:"123-125"inthePages
fieldbecomes"123-5"intheformattedreference.
l Abbreviate last page, keeping two digits
Anydigitsofthelastpagenumberthatarethesameasthefirstpage numberareeliminated,downtoaminimumoftwodigits.
Example: "123-125"inthePagesfieldbecomes"123-25"intheformattedreference.
l Show range of pages
Leadingdigitsareaddedtothelastpagenumber,ifnecessary,so thefullpagerangeisused.Example: "123-5"in thePages
fieldbecomes"123-125"intheformattedreference.
l Show only first page for Journals and full range for others
Journalarticlesareformatteddifferentlyfromothertypesofreferences.
Note:Special FormattingCharactersdescribeshowtoinstructEndNotetoaddtext suchas"p."vs."pp.",or"page"vs."pages"
totheformattedreferencesusingthecaret(^).
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Journal Names
Differentjournalshavedifferentstandardsforabbreviatingjournalnames. Forexample,somestylesmayrequire"Proceedingsof
theNationalAcademyofScience"tobeabbreviatedas"Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.,""P.N.A.S."or"PNAS."EndNotesJournals
termlistprovidesawayforyoustoreuptofourvariationsofjournalnames(thefullnameandthreeformsofabbreviations)tobe
usedinyourbibliographies.
TheJournalstermlistthatiscreatedforeverylibraryisautomatically linkedtotheJournalandAlternateJournalfields,andthere-
foreitis readytobeusedwiththeJournalNamesoptions.Yousimplyneedtobe surethatthenecessaryinformationisinthe
Journalstermlist,and thatyourstyleissetuptousethecorrectformofthejournalname.
IfyourJournalstermlistincludesthenameofthejournalasitis enteredinyourEndNotereferences,andtheformofthejournal
namethatyouwouldliketoappearinyourbibliographies,youmaysimplysetyour preferenceinastyletohaveEndNotesub-
stituteaformofthenamein theJournalstermlistforwhatwasenteredintoyourreferences.
EndNoteprovidesseveraljournalabbreviationlistsfordifferentdisciplines (includingmedicine,chemistry,andhumanities). Ifyou
areinterestedinusingoneoftheselists,youmayimportitintoyourJournalsterm list(seeLoading SuppliedJournalAbbre-
viations)andsetupabibliographicstyletouseoneoftheabbreviationsfortheformattedbibliography.IfEndNote doesnotpro-
videajournaltermlistthatappliestoyourareaofresearch, youmayalsoenterthejournalabbreviationsyourself.SeeImportant
PointsAboutEnteringJournalNames.
TomodifyastyletousetheabbreviationsinaJournalstermlist:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles, andthenselectOpenStyleManager.
2. SelectthestylethatyouwouldliketomodifyandclickEdit.
3. SelecttheJournalNamespanelfromthelistattheleftoftheStylewindowtoseetheavailableoptions:
l Full Journal Name
Whencreatingabibliography,EndNotereplacestheJournalnamein thereferencewiththeformofthatnameinthefirstcol-
umnofthe Journalstermlist.Thisfirstcolumnisnormallyusedforfullnames.
l Abbreviation 1
Abbreviation 2
Abbreviation 3
Inthebibliography,thejournalnameforeachreferenceisreplaced withtheformofthatnameinthesecond,third,orfourth
column oftheJournalstermlist,respectively.
l Dont Replace
Inthebibliography,EndNoteusesthejournalnameexactlyasitappears inthereferenceintheEndNotelibrary.No
changesaremade.
l Abbreviate in Journal Articles Only
ThesubstitutionsmadewiththeJournalNamesoptioncanapplytoallSecondaryTitlefields,ortotheSecondaryTitle
fieldforonlythe JournalArticlereferencetype.Ifyouuncheck thisoptiontoapplythisfeaturetoallreferencetypes,End-
NotealsoabbreviatesfieldssuchasConferenceName,andthenamesof magazinesandnewspapers.
l Remove Periods
SelectthisoptiontohaveEndNoteeliminatetheperiodsfromalljournal namesinthebibliographythatitiscreating,regard-
lessoftheabbreviationbeingused.Thisoptiondoesnotrequirethatthejournalnamesbe intheJournalstermlist.For
example,ifthejournalnamesareentered intoyourreferencesusingperiods,andyoudonothaveaJournals termlistthat
includesthenameswithoutperiods,youcanstilljust checkthisoptionandtheperiodswillbestrippedoutofthejournal
nameswhenEndNoteformatsabibliography.
IfajournalnameisnotfoundinthespecifiedcolumnoftheJournals termlist,thestyleusesthejournalnameasitappearsinthe
Referencewindow.Noreplacementismadeforthatjournal.
IfnothingisenteredintheJournalstermlistorifthereisnospecial Journalstermlist,theJournalNamesoptionalwaysdefaults
toDont Replace,andEndNoteusesthejournalnameexactlyasitappearsintheoriginalreference.
Note:Noneofthese changesactuallytakesplaceintheEndNotelibrary.Theseoptionsonly determinewhatinformationgoes
intothebibliographythatisgenerated usingtheCopyFormatted,Print,Export,andFormatBibliographycommands.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Sections (Microsoft Word Only)
PreviousversionsofEndNotealwayscreatedasinglebibliographyat theendofyourwordprocessordocuments.Thatisstilltrue
whenyou CiteWhileYouWriteinOpenOffice.org WriterdocumentsorformatRTFfiles. However,EndNote includesadditional
outputstyleoptionsspecificallyforMicrosoft Word.Youcanchooseto:
l Createacompletebibliographyattheendofeachdocument(thedefaultsettingforalmost allofthesupplied outputstyles).
l Createabibliographyforeachsectioninthedocument(asdefinedinthestylesAPA5th(sections)andChicago 15thB
(sections)).
l Createabibliographyforeachsectionandalso acompletebibliographyattheendofthedocument.
FormoreinformationaboutusingsectionsinaMicrosoftWorddocument, seeCreatingMultiple BibliographiesinaSingleDoc-
ument.
Note:TheSections portionofanoutputstyleisignoredbyOpenOffice.orgWriter,RTFfiles,andversionsofEndNotepriorto
versionX6.
Create a complete bibliography at the end of each document
Thisdefaultsettingformatsasinglebibliographyattheendofadocument. Evenifyouhavebrokenthedocumentintomultiple
sections,asingle bibliographywillappearattheendofthedocument.
Create a bibliography for each section in the document
Whenyouselect thisoption,abibliographyiscreatedattheendof eachsection,andincludesonlythecitationswithinasection.
Anadditionalcheckboxisavailableforsections:
Continuenumbering,orapplysettingsfordisambiguationandrepeatedcitationsacrosssections.
When the check box is blank
Whenanumberedbibliographicstyleisselected,citationnumbering willberestartedatthebeginningofeachsection.
Whenanon-numberedbibliographicstyleisselected,ambiguous citationsettingswillberestartedandappliedtoeachsection
individually. Formoreinformationaboutambiguouscitationsettings,seeAmbiguous Citations.
When the check box is selected
Foranumberedstyle,selectingthecheckboxwillassurethatnumbering iscontinuedacrosssections.Forexample,ifcitations
inthefirstsection arenumbered1to10,citationsinthenextsectionwillstartwithnumber 11.
Foranon-numberedstyle, ambiguouscitationsettingswillapplyacross theentiredocument.Formoreinformationaboutambig-
uouscitationsettings, seeAmbiguousCitations.
Create a bibliography for each section and a complete bibliography at the end of the document.
Thisoptioncreatesabibliographyforeachsectionaswellasacomplete bibliographyofallthecitationsinthedocument.
Fornumberedstyles,citationnumberingcontinuessequentiallyacrossallsections,withoutrestartingforeachsection.
Fornon-numberedstyles,ambiguouscitationsettingsareappliedacross theentiredocument,withoutrestartingforeachsection.
Ifadocumentisnotdividedintosections,EndNoteformatsasingle,completebibliographyattheendofthedocument.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Creating MultipleBibliographiesinaSingleDocument
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Ambiguous Citations
Within-textcitationslike(Smith,1995)or(Smith246-9),references canhaveidenticalin-textcitationsiftheyarebythesame
authoror theauthorshavethesamelastname.Thisleadstoambiguityinthecitations thatwouldmakeitimpossibleforthe
readerofyourpapertoknowwhich referencetoSmithyouarereferring.EndNoteprovidesvariouswaysto avoidthissortofambi-
guityinyourcitations.
Anycombinationofthefollowingoptionsmaybeused.Clickinthecheck boxnexttoalloptionsthatapply.Notethattheseset-
tingsassumethe authorisusedinthein-textcitation.Theyarenotrelevantforstylesthatusebibliographynumbersforthein-text
citationsasitisnotpossible tohaveambiguouscitationswhentheyareuniquelynumbered.
Include author initials in citation
CheckthisoptiontohaveEndNoteincludeinitialswithauthornamesto distinguishbetweencitationsbydifferentauthorsthat
happentohave thesamesurname.SelecthowtheinitialsshouldappearfromtheInitials optioninthesection.Forexample,the
MLA styleusesjustauthornamesandpagenumbersincitations.Initialsare addedtoclarifywhichSmithwrotethecitedref-
erence:
(S.Smith241-5)and(L.Smith12-20)
List more authors until citation is unique
Somestylesrequestthatonlyafixednumberofauthorsbelistedinthe in-textcitation,andthen"etal."or"andothers"isinserted
toindicatethattheauthorlistwasabbreviated.Selectthis optionifyouwouldlikeEndNotetolistadditionalauthorstomakethe
citationunique.Forexample,ifthein-textcitationsweresettolist only3authors,andyouhavetworeferencesinwhichthefirst
threeauthors arethesame,EndNotewouldaddafourthauthortothecitations,and continueinthatmanneruntilthelistofauthors
wasdifferentbetween thetwocitations.
Add the title for different works by the same author(s)
Ifyouhavetwoworksbythesameauthor,itwonthelptoaddinitialsorlistmoreauthorstodifferentiatethetwo. Inthiscase,
somestylesrequestthatthetitleofthereference(orashortenedformofthetitle)beaddedtothein-textcitation.Ifyou choose
thisoptionandselecttheShortTitleoption,EndNoteincludes thecontentsoftheShortTitlefieldwhenavailable.Otherwise,it
usesthefulltitle.Theformat ofthetitleistakendirectlyfromthebibliography. ThisisanexampleintheMLAstyle,whichnor-
mallyincludesonlytheauthorandpagenumberinacitation:
(Smith,History of Our Times35)
(Smith,Looking Forward77)
Add a letter after the year
Forcitationsinan(Author,Year)format,EndNotecanaddaletterto theyeartomakecitationsfromthesameauthorpublishedin
thesame yeardistinguishablefromeachother. Theletterappendedtotheyear willappearinboththein-textcitationsandref-
erencesinthebibliography.
(Smith1995a)
(Smith1995b)
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Numbering Citations
ThesettingsinthecitationNumberingpanelapplyonlywhen"BibliographyNumber"isusedintheCitationTemplate. This
createsuniquelynumberedcitationsinthetextofthepaper;the numberscorrespondtoentriesinthebibliography.Forpapersfor-
matted withanumberedstyle,theseoptionsarerelevanttomultiplecitations groupedwithinonesetofcitationdelimiters. When
unformatted,amultiple citationlookslikethis:
{Keys,1998#93;Jen,1996 #88;
Use Number Ranges for Consecutive Citations
Whenthisoptionischecked,consecutivebibliographynumbersappearing inamultiplecitationarejoinedbyasinglehyphen,for
example:
asshownbytheBerkeley studiesconductedin19873-6and19891,7.
Grouped References
TheGroupedReferenceoptionallowsyoutocitewithonenumberany referencesthatalwaysappeartogetherinthepaperasmul-
tiplecitations. Thecitationsarenotgiventheirownnumbers,butratheronenumberis usedbothinthetextandthebibliographyto
identifythewholegroup ofcitations.Withthissetting,youalsohavetheoptiontospecifyhow thegroupedreferencesinthebib-
liographyshouldbeseparated.
Thisoptionshowsasemicolonandaspaceasaseparator:
1. McCormick,MP,GeophysicalResearchLetters(1999)15,907;
Composite Citations
Withingroupedreferences,youcandifferentiateindividualcitationswithletters.
Todefineacompositecitation:
1. SelecttheboxtoUseletterstoseparate groupedreferences.
2. UsethePresentlettersinlisttoselect LowercaseorUppercaseletters.
3. Selecttheappropriateletterformat for in-textformattedcitations.Theexamplesillustratehowlettersandnumbersappear
forconsecutivecitationsandranges.
l (1a,1b),(1a,1b,2a-c)
Thenumberalwaysappearswithastand-aloneletterorwiththefirst letterofarange.Thisisthedefaultsetting.
l (1a,b),(1a,b,2a-c)
Onlytheletterofthefirstcitationofthecompositeispreceded withthenumber.
l (1a,b),(1a,1b,2a-c)
Theletterofthefirstcitationofthecompositeisprecededwith anumber;additionallettersincludeanumberonlyifthere
could beambiguity.
l (1a,1b),(1a,1b,2a-2c)
Lettersarealwaysprecededbyanumber.
4. UsethePrecedebyandFollowbyboxestoenter anycharacter(s)thatyouwantto surroundtheletterinthebib-
liography.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Citation Author Lists
IfthestyleyouareusingliststheauthornamesintheCitationtemplateoftheStylewindow,youcanusetheAuthorListoptions
(aswellastheAuthorNamespanel)tocontrolhowtheauthorsappearinyourin-text citations.Ifyourcitationsdonotincludethe
authornames,ignorethe AuthorListpanel.
Separators Between Author Names
Inthe"AuthorSeparators"box,enteranypunctuationand spacesthatseparatetheindividualauthornamesinacitation.Inref-
erences withmultipleauthors,itisstandardtoseparatethenameswithacomma andaspace.
l Usethe"between"boxtoenteracommaandaspace,oranyotherrequiredpunctuation.
l Inthe"beforelast"box,entertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorinareference.Sometimesthisissomething
otherthanacommaandaspace,suchas",and"oranampersand(&)followedbyaspace.
l Inthe"beforelastinformat:Author(Year)"box,entertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorintheAuthor(Year)for-
mat.Thebehaviorofthisoptionisthesameasthe"beforelast"box.Thisallowsyoutomeetthespecificationsofsomestyles
thatrequiredifferentformatsdependingonwhethertheformatusedisthedefaultformatortheAuthor(Year)format.Byenter-
ingavalueinthisfield,youdonothavetoediteachofthecitations,references,orfootnotes.
NormallyonlythefirstrowintheAuthorSeparatorsboxisused(with therangeofauthorssetat"1to100")sothattheseparators
inthatrowapplytoalloftheauthorscitedinareference.However, therearestylesinwhichtwoauthorsarelistedas"Smithand
Jones" (withoutacomma),andmorethantwoarelistedas"Smith,Jones, andJohnson"(withacommabeforetheword"and").In
thiscase,make"and"the"Separatorbeforelastauthor" whenthereareonlytwoauthors;andenter",and"whenthere are3or
moreauthors.
Note:Includespaces aftercommasaswellasbeforeandaftertheword"and".
Abbreviating the Author List, First Appearance
Somejournalsrequirethatyouabbreviatethelistofauthors,using "etal."oranequivalent, afteracertainnumberofauthors. The
AbbreviatedAuthorListsectionoftheAuthorListspanelallowsyou tospecifythenumberofauthorsneededtotriggerthisabbre-
viation, howmanyauthorstoincludeintheformattedreference,andwhattheabbreviation shouldbe.
List all author names
Selectthisoptionifyoudonotwanttoabbreviatetheauthorlists.
If ___ or more authors, list the first ___ author(s)
Selectthisoptionandfillintheblankswiththeappropriatenumbersifyouwouldlikethelistofauthorsabbreviated.
and abbreviate with
Enteranabbreviationsuchas",etal."Youcanitalicizethe abbreviationbyselectingthe"Italic"checkboxinthedialog.
Abbreviating the Author List, Subsequent Appearances
Insomebibliographicstyles,ifareferenceiscitedmorethanonce inyourpaperthefirstappearanceofitinanin-textcitationis
formatteddifferentlyfromsubsequentcitations.Forexample,thefirstcitation mightlistallauthors,whilesubsequentcitationslist
onlythefirstauthorfollowedby"etal."
UsetheFirstAppearanceauthorlistsettingstospecifythewaythe authorsappearthefirsttimethereferenceiscited.Usethe
Subsequent Appearancesoptionstoformatauthorsinallotherappearancesofthe citation.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Author List(BibliographyandFootnotes)
Citation AuthorNames
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Citation Author Names
Name Format
TheNameFormatsectionallowsyoutospecifyhowtheauthornamesshould lookwhetherthefirstorlastnameshouldcome
first,andwhetherthere shouldbeacommaafterthelastname.
First Author/Other Authors:Using thelistfor"FirstAuthor"and"OtherAuthors",you canhavethefirstauthorappeardifferently
fromtheotherauthorsinareference.Fromtheselists,selecttheexamplethatshowsthename intheorderthatyouwouldlikeit
tobeinthecitation.Ifthein- textcitationsuseonlythelastname,thissettingisnotimportant.
Capitalization: Specifyhowyouwouldliketheauthornamestoappear.
l As Is(asenteredinthereference)
l Normal(first letterofeachnameiscapitalized)
l ALL UPPERCASE
l SmallCaps(these mayormaynotbesupportedbyyourwordprocessor)
Ifyou applyacapitalizationoptiontoauthornames,buthaveaspecificname thatyoudonotwantchanged,youcanusethe
ChangeCasepreferencetoleavethatnameasentered.SeeChangeCasePreferences.
Initials:Selectfromtheavailable optionsinthelisttospecifyhowtheinitialsshouldlookinthecitations. Select LastOnlyifyou
onlyneedthelastnameoftheauthorstoappear inthecitations.
"Use initials only for primary authors with the same name"
Thisoptionallowsforinitialstobeusedonlywhenthereareprimary authorswiththesamelastnameincludedinthebibliography.
Regardless ofwhetherornottheresultingcitationsareambiguous(thatis,they couldbefromdifferentyears),EndNotewilladd
theinitialstothose citationstoclarifythattheyarefromdifferentauthorswhohappento havethesamesurname.
Consecutive Citations by the Same Author
Ifamultiplecitationincludesworksbythesameauthor,somestylesrequestthatyounotrepeattheauthorname.Checktheset-
tingto"omit repeatedauthors"andEndNotewillomittheauthornamefromthe citationafteritfirstappears.Inorderforthisset-
tingtobeused, thecitationsmustallbegroupedtogetherinamultiplecitation,and thecitationsbythesameauthormustappear
onerightaftertheother.
Forexample,areferencesuchasthis:
(Smith,1993;Smith, 1999;Wyatt, 2000)
wouldbechangedtolooklikethis:
(Smith,1993,1999;Wyatt, 2000)
Youhavetheadditionaloptioninthiscasetochoosetheseparator tousebetweenthesecitations.Noticeintheexampleabove,
thestylenormallyusesasemicolontoseparatemultiplecitations.Butwhenthere areaseriesofcitationsbythesameauthor,the
repeatedauthornames aredroppedandtheyearsareseparatedbycommas.Inthiscase,acommaandaspaceshouldbe
enteredasthepunctuationwithwhichtoseparate theconsecutivecitationsbythesameauthor.
Ifyouhaveenteredcitationswithsuffixesandyouwouldlikethose citationsexcludedfromthisformatting,check"Dontomit
authorsfromcitationswithsuffixes.For example,iftworeferencesbythesameauthorincludedpagenumbers:
(Smith,1993p24;Smith,1999p5;Wyatt,2000)
somestylesrequestthatyoudoleavetheauthornameinthesecond citationforclarity.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Author Names(BibliographyandFootnotes)
Citation AuthorLists
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Author Lists (Bibliography and Footnotes)
TheAuthorListspanelsundertheBibliographyandFootnotesheadingsletyouspecifyexactlyhowtheauthorsaretoappearin
theformatted bibliographicreferencesorinyourfootnotes.Youcanformat authornames differentlyinthefootnotesandbib-
liography,sobesurethatyoucheck theAuthorListssettingsunderboththeBibliographyandtheFootnotes headingstoadjust
settings.Thesettingsinthesepanelsapplytoall referencetypesformattedwiththecurrentstyle.
Separators Between Author Names
Inthe"AuthorSeparators"box,enteranypunctuationand spacesthatseparatetheindividualauthornamesinabibliographicref-
erence. Inreferenceswithmultipleauthors,itisstandardtoseparatethenames withacommaandaspace.
l Usethe"between"boxtoenteracomma andaspaceoranyotherrequiredpunctuation.
l Usethe"beforelast" boxtoentertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorinareference. Sometimesthisissome-
thingotherthanacommaandaspace,suchas", and"oranampersand(&)followedbyaspace.
l Usethe"beforelastinformat:Author(Year)"box toentertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorwhenusingthe
Author(Year) bibliographicformat.Byenteringavalueinthisbox,youdonothavetoediteachofthecitationsandfoot-
notes.
NormallyonlythefirstrowintheAuthorSeparatorsboxisused(with therangeofauthorssetat"1to100")sothattheseparators
inthatrowapplytoalloftheauthorscitedinareference.However, therearestylesinwhichtwoauthorsarelistedas"Smithand
Jones" (withoutacomma),andmorethantwoarelistedas"Smith,Jones, andJohnson"(withacommabeforetheword"and").In
thiscase,make"and"the"beforelast"separatorwhen thereareonlytwoauthors;andenter",and"whenthereare 3ormore
authors.
Note:Includespaces aftercommasaswellasbeforeandaftertheword"and".
APA 6th Settings
TheAPA6thsettingsallowsyouto displaythefirstsixauthors(oreditors)followedbythetext(preset to,...)followedbythe
lastauthor(oreditor).Select theradio buttonthatsays:
"Ifeightormoreauthors,listthe first6authors,insert,...andaddthelastauthor'sname."
Whenthissettingisselected,itoverrideswhateversettingsarein theAuthorSeparatorsandEditorSeparatorssettingsatthetop
ofthe panels.
Note:Thedefault valueis",..."Youcan,however,changethisvalue-forexample, youcansetthisvalueto"etal."orwhatever
styleyouchoose.
Abbreviating the Author List
Somejournalsrequirethatyouabbreviatethelistofauthors,using "etal."oranequivalent, afteracertainnumberofauthors. The
AbbreviatedAuthorListsectionoftheAuthorListpanelallowsyou tospecifythenumberofauthorsneededtotriggerthisabbre-
viation, howmanyauthorstoincludeintheformattedreference,andwhattheabbreviation shouldbe.
List all author names
Selectthisoptionifyoudonotwanttoabbreviatetheauthorlists.
If ___ or more authors, list the first ___ author(s)
Selectthisoptionandfillintheblankswiththeappropriatenumbersifyouwouldlikethelistofauthorsabbreviated.
and abbreviate with
Enteranabbreviationsuchas"etal."Youcanitalicizetheabbreviationbyselectingthe"Italic"checkboxinthedialog.
For Subsequent Works by the Same Author
Insomebibliographicstyles,ifathereismorethanoneworkbyan author(orgroupofauthors),thefirstappearanceofthatauthor
nameisformatteddifferentlyfromsubsequent works.Forexample,thefirst referencemightlistthefullauthorname,whilesub-
sequentreferences displayalineofdashesinplaceoftheauthorname.
Youcanprinttheentireauthorlistforeachreference,completely leaveouttheauthorlistforsubsequentworks, orreplace
repeatedauthor listswithatextstring.
Abbreviated Author List - Short Form (for footnotes only)
List all author names
Selectthisoptionifyoudonotwanttoabbreviatetheauthorlists.
If ___ or more authors, list the first ___ author(s)
Selectthisoptionandfillintheblankswiththeappropriatenumbersifyouwouldlikethelistofauthorsabbreviated.
and abbreviate with
Enteranabbreviationsuchas"etal."Youcanitalicize theabbreviationbyselectingthe"Italic"checkboxinthe dialog.
WhenyouarefinisheddefiningyourshortformAuthorListsfootnotestyles:
1. FromtheFilemenu,clickSaveAs.
2. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample, "MyChicago15thAuthorLists"),andthenclickSave.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Author Names(BibliographyandFootnotes)
Citation AuthorLists
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes)
Name Format
ThereisanAuthorNamespanelforbibliographiesandfootnotes,as wellasforcitations.Somestylesrequestthatauthornames
areformatted differentlyinallthreecases.BesurethatyouselecttheAuthorNames panelfromundertheappropriateheading.
Theauthornamesformatfor citationsisdescribedinCitation AuthorNames.Thistopicdescribestheoptionsthatareavailable
forboththefootnoteandbibliographyAuthorNamespanel.
Thesesettingsareforchoosinghowauthornamesshouldlookforexample,whetherthefirstorlastnameshouldcomefirst,
whetherthereshould beacommaafterthelastname,andhowthenamesshouldbecapitalized.
First Author/Other Authors:Using thelistforFirstAuthorandOtherAuthors,youcanhavethefirstauthor appeardifferently
fromtheotherauthorsinareference.Fromtheselists, selecttheexamplethatshowsthenameintheorderthatyouwantinthe
reference.
Capitalization: Specifyhowauthornamesshouldappear.
l AsIs(as enteredinthereference)
l Normal(first letterofeachnameiscapitalized)
l ALLUPPERCASE
l Small Caps(thesemayormaynotbesupportedbyyourwordprocessor)
Ifyou applyacapitalizationoptiontoauthornames,buthaveaspecificname thatyoudonotwantchanged,youcanusethe
ChangeCasepreferencetoleavethatnameasentered.SeeChangeCasePreferences.
Initials:Selectfromtheavailable optionsinthelisttospecifyhowtheinitialsshouldappearintheformattedreferences.Clickthe
Initialslisttochoosehowtheauthorsfirstandmiddlenamesshouldbeformatted.Ifyouhavenotenteredthefullfirst namesand
youselect theFullNamesoption,EndNoteusesthenamesasyouhaveenteredthemintothereference.SelectLastOnlyto
showjustthelastname,withnofirstormiddleinitials.
Note:InitialsenteredintoanEndNotereferencemustbeseparatedbyaperiodoraspace(suchasM.J.SteinorMJStein).Two
letterstogether(suchasMJStein)willnotbeinterpretedastwoinitials,butinsteadasatwo-letterfirstname.
Name Format - Short Form
ThereisanAuthorNamespanelfordisplayingfootnotesinshortform.
First Author/Other Authors:Using thelistforFirstAuthorandOtherAuthors,youcanhavethefirstauthor appeardifferently
fromtheotherauthorsinafootnote.Fromtheselists, selecttheexamplethatshowsthenameintheorderthatyouwantinthe
footnote.
l JaneSmith
l Smith,Jane
l SmithJane
Capitalization: Specifyhowauthornamesshouldappear.Forexample:
l AsIs
l Normal
l AllUppercase
l SmallCaps
Initials:Selectfromtheavailable optionsinthelisttospecifyhowtheinitialsshouldappearintheformattedfootnote.Forexam-
ple:
l FullName
l LastName
l A.B.
l A.B.
l AB
l AB
WhenyouarefinisheddefiningyourshortformAuthorName footnotestyles:
1. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.
2. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample, "MyChicago15thAuthors"),andthenclickSave.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Author List(BibliographyandFootnotes)
Citation AuthorNames
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Editor List and Editor Names
Tospecifyhowtheeditorsnamesaretobeformatted,selectEditor ListorEditorNamefromundertheBibliographyorFootnote
heading.In thosepanelsyouwillfindsomeofthesamesettingsthathavebeendescribedforformattingauthornames.
TheEditorListsettingsapplytothegenericSecondaryAuthor,Tertiary Author,andSubsidiaryAuthorfields.Thesefields
includes"Editor" intheBookSectionandConferenceProceedingsreferencetypes,and"Series Editor"intheBookandEdited
Bookreferencetypes.
TheinstructionsfortheEditorListpanelareidenticaltothosedescribed fortheAuthorListpanel.Similarly, theNameFormat
optionsintheEditorNamepanelarethesameasthoseforAuthorNames.
"Editors" Are Considered Primary Authors for Edited Book Reference Types
TheAuthorListandAuthorNamessettingsapplytotheprimaryauthorfieldofeachreferencetype.Therefore,AuthorListand
AuthorNames applytotheeditorsnameinanEditedBook.AndtheEditorListand EditorNamessettingsapplytotheSeries
EditorsnameinanEditedBook referencetype.
Name Format - Short Form
Tospecifyhowtheeditorsnamesandtheabbreviatededitors' list aretobeformattedinshortform,selectEditorListorEditor
NamefromundertheFootnoteheading.Inthosepanelsyouwillfindsomeofthesamesettingsthathavebeendescribedforfor-
mattingauthornames.
Usethemenustoselecthowyouwanttoformat thefollowinginfootnotes:
l Firstauthor
l Otherauthors
l Capitalization
l Initials
WhenyouarefinisheddefiningyourshortformEditorName / EditorListsfootnotestyles:
1. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.
2. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample, "MyChicago15thEditors"),andthenclickSave.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Bibliography Layout
UndertheBibliographyheadingthereisaLayoutoptionthatprovidesoptionsforinsertingtextbeforeandaftereachreferenceina
bibliography, aswellasapplyinghangingindentstoyourreferences.
Adding Text Before Each Reference
Inthe"Starteachreferencewith"section,youcanspecifywhatinformation,ifany,shouldappearbeforeeachreferenceinyour
bibliography.(Forinformationonhowtoaddaprefixbeforeacitation, seeTemporaryCitations).
Acommonreferenceprefixisthebibliographynumber,whichisused byallnumberedstylestonumberthereferencesinabib-
liography.
Toaddabibliographynumberbeforeeachreference:
1. OpentheStyleManagerbyselectingOutputStylesfromtheEditmenu,andthenselectingOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwouldliketoedit,andthenclickEdit.
3. AftertheStylewindowopens,select Layoutfrom undertheBibliographyheading.
4. Clickinthetextboxbelowthe"Starteach referencewith"section,andselectBibliographyNumberfromtheInsert Field
list.
5. Typethenecessarypunctuationafterthebibliography number(suchasaperiodandaspace)orinsertatabfromtheInsert
Fieldlist.
Withastyleconfiguredinthisway,EndNotecreatesabibliography withnumberedreferences,suchas:
1.Argus,M.V. NewpaleontologicalexcavationtechniquesNature19, 234-237(1993).
Note:Tocreate ahangingindent,wherethesecondandsubsequentlinesofareference areindented,seeHangingIndents
below.
Other Reference Prefix Fields
OthercommonlyusedreferenceprefixesappearintheInsertFieldlist.
SomebibliographicstylesuseaLabelinthecitationandthebibliographytorefertoeachentrywithashortmnemoniccode,often
theauthors nameandthelasttwodigitsoftheyear.Whenyouenterreferencesinto yourlibrary,youcantypethemnemonic
codedirectlyintotheLabelfield.WhenEndNotebuildsabibliography,itcanputthatcodebeforeeachreference.
SelectingCitationasareferenceprefixallowsyou tolabelthereferencesinthebibliographywiththein-textcitation.
Reference Typewillinsert thereferencetype(suchasJournalArticleorBook)beforeeachreference.
Record Numberwillinserttherecordnumberbeforeeachreference.Therecordnumberisthenumber thatEndNoteassignsto
eachreferenceinthelibrary,anditisalsousedinthein-textcitations.AddRecordNumberasareferenceprefix inanystylein
ordertoprintallthereferencesinyourlibrarywiththeiruniqueEndNoterecordnumbers.
Adding Text After Each Reference
Usethe"Endeachreferencewith"sectionoftheLayout panel tospecifywhatinformation, ifany,shouldfolloweachreferencein
yourbibliography.(Forinformationonhowtoaddtextafteranin-textcitation inyourdocument,seeCitation Suffixes).
ThiscommandcanbeusedtoaddthecontentoftheLabel,Keywords, Abstract,orNotesfield,ortheRecordNumber.Anyother
textorpunctuationcanalsobeenteredasareferencesuffixanditwillappearattheend ofeachreferenceintheformattedbib-
liography.Twocommonusesforthe ReferenceSuffixcommandareshownbelow.
Example: Adding Notes to the Bibliography
Ifyouhavenotesthatyouwanttoprinttogetherwithyourreferences, youshouldaddtheNotesfieldasareferencesuffixinthe
stylethat youareusingtoprintorformatthereferences.
1. OpentheStyleManagerbyselectingOutputStylesfromtheEditmenuandselectingOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwouldliketoedit,andclickEdit.
3. AftertheStylewindowopens,select Layoutfrom undertheBibliographyheading.
4. Clickinthetextboxbelowthe"Endeach referencewith"section,andselectNotesfromtheInsertField list.Thiswill
appendtheNotesfieldtoeveryreferenceinthebibliography whenyouformatapaperwiththestyle.
Ifyouwantthenotestobeginonanewlineafterthereference,insert aparagraphmarkfromtheInsert Fieldlistbefore"Notes." If
youwantthenotestobeindented,likethestartofanewparagraph,insertaTabbeforetheword"Notes."
Adding or Removing Blank Lines Between References
AnothercommonusefortheLayoutoptionsistoaddablanklinebetween references.Todothis,editthestyleasdescribed
above,andinsert aparagraphmark(usingtheInsertFieldlist)intothe"Endeach referencewith"section.
Totightenupthebibliographyandgetridoftheblanklineaftereach reference,editthestyle,clickontheLayoutpanel, andselect
anddelete theparagraphmark()togetridoftheblank line.
Hanging Indents
Manynumberedbibliographicstylesrequireahangingindent,asshowninthisexample:
1. Postma,
2. Nyamweru,
EndNoteprovidesafewhangingindentoptions.Normally,eachreference isoneparagraph,sosomeoftheseoptionswouldnot
apply.Butifyou haveareferencethatincludesmorethanoneparagraph,EndNotegives youoptionsforwhichparagraphwithina
referencethehangingindents shouldapply.Examplesofmulti-paragraphreferencesincludeannotated bibliographieswherethe
abstractsfolloweachreference,orastylesuch asthosecommoninanthropologyjournalswheretheauthorsareonaline oftheir
own
Hangingindentoptionsinclude:None,AllParagraphs,FirstParagraphOnly,SecondParagraphOnly,andAllParagraphsbutthe
First.Thefollowing isanexampleofwhenyouwoulduseSecondParagraphOnly.Thestylerequires thatauthorsbeginontheleft
margin,andthentheyear(andtherest ofthereference)startsonanewlineandisindented.Thestyleapplies ahangingindent to
thesecondparagraphonly,andinsertsatabbefore andaftertheyear.Inthewordprocessingdocument,thespacingforthehang-
ingindent shouldbealignedwiththesecondtabstop.
Curtis,
Thespacingusedfortabsandindentsisdeterminedbytherulersettings inyourwordprocessor.
Note:Ifyouare creatinganumberedbibliography,asshowninthepreviousexample,insert atabafterthebibliographynumber
tohavethereferenceslineupcorrectly.
Tabs
TabsmaybeinsertedfromtheInsert Fieldlist.Atabenteredinto astylewillappearasatabintheformattedbibliography.Thetab
appears asanarrowonthescreen.Thewidthofthetabasitappearsinthebibliographyisdeterminedbythetabsettingsinyour
wordprocessor.
Tabsareoftenenteredafterthebibliographynumberaspartofthe Layoutsettings.Thishelpstoalignthestartofeachreference
after thenumber,whichisespeciallyimportantifthebibliographyentries useahangingindent.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Sort Order: Bibliographies and Multiple Citations
Eachstylehasinstructionsforsortingreferencesinthebibliography, andhowtosortformattedmultiplecitationsinthetextof
yourpaper. SelectSortOrderfromundereithertheCitationsorBibliographiesheadings.
Multiple Citation Sort
TheSortpanelundertheCitationheadingallowsyoutosettheorderthatthestyleusestosortmultiplein-textcitations.Forexam-
ple,an unformattedmultiplecitationlookslikethis:
{Lee,1990#5;Jacob, 1994#22;Zoler, 1983#19}
FormattedwiththeAuthor-Datestyle,thecitationsaresortedchronologically andtheformattedcitationlookslikethis:
(Zoler1983;Lee1990; Jacob1994)
Optionsforsortingmultiplecitationsinclude:
l Same as Bibliography
SortsmultiplecitationsinthesameorderastheBibliography SortOrder.
l Author + Title
Sortsmultiplecitationsfirstbyauthorsandthenbytitle.
l Author + Year + Title
Sortsmultiplecitationsfirstbyauthors,thenbyyear,andthenbytitle.
l Year + Author
Sortsmultiplecitationschronologically.Thencitationsfromthesame yeararesortedbasedonauthornames.
l Dont Sort
Multiplecitationsremaininthesameorderastheyappearintheunformatted temporarycitations.
l Other
Acustomsortorderisappliedtomultiplecitations.SeeCustom Sorting.
Bibliography Sort Order
TheBibliographySortOrdersectiondetermineshowthebibliography shouldbesorted.Commonoptionsarelisted,andyoumay
alsoconfigureacustomsortorder.
l Order of Appearance
Referencesarelistedintheorderinwhichtheyarecitedinthepaper.
l Author + Title
ReferencesaresortedbytheAuthorfield.Referenceswithidenticalauthorsaresortedbytitle.
l Author + Year + Title
ReferencesaresortedbytheAuthorfield,thenreferenceswithidenticalauthorsaresortedbyyear.Referenceswithidentical
authorsand yearsarethensortedbytitle.
l First Author + Year + Other Authors
Referencesaresortedbyjustthefirstauthor,thenreferenceswithidenticalprimaryauthorsaresortedbyyear.References
withidenticalprimaryauthorsandyearsarethensortedbasedontheotherauthors inthereference.
l First Author + # of Authors + Year
Referencesaresortedbyjustthefirstauthor,thenbythenumber ofauthorsinthereference.Forreferenceswiththesamepri-
maryauthorandthesamenumberofauthors,theyarethensortedchronologically basedontheYearfield.
l Other
Acustomsortorderisappliedtothereferencesinthebibliography. SeeCustomSorting.
l Sort Edited Works After Original Works By Same Author:
Somestylesrequestthatifthesamepersonistheauthorforabookandtheeditorforaneditedbook,theoriginalworksby
thatauthor aresortedfirst,andthentheeditedworksfollow.Thisisanexceptiontothesortingrulesthatcanbeappliedtothe
othersortoptions provided.
Note:Whensorting byAuthorfield,EndNotesortsbasedonallinformationintheAuthor field, includingallauthornames(not
justthefirstauthor)andinitials. Toseeaboutomittingpartsofauthornamesortheinitialwordsofa titlewhensorting,seeSort-
ingPreferences.
Custom Sorting
Tosortreferencesormultiplecitationsdifferentlyfromtheoptionsinthe"CitationSortOrder"or"BibliographySortOrder" sec-
tions,selecttheoptionforOther, andthenselect fromthelists anycombinationofuptofivefieldsinascendingordescending
order.
ThiswindowisidenticaltotheonethatappearswhenyouselectSortReferencesfromtheReferencesmenu.Youdonotneedto
useallfiveoptions. Thebuttonattherightofeachboxcontrolsthedirectionofthesort, eitherascendingordescendingorder.
Clickingtheseboxestogglesthe sortorderbetweenascendinganddescendingorder.
Onceyouhavesetupyoursortingstrategy,clickOKtoreturntothemainSortOrderpanelforthestyle.TheOtherbuttonwillnow
display yourcustomsortinginstructions.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Title Capitalization
BoththeFootnotesandBibliographysectionshaveaTitleCapitalization panel.Thisletsyouenteronestyleofcapitalizationfor
thetitles inyourbibliographicreferences,andanotherformatforwhenthereferences appearinfootnotes.
Optionsfortitlecapitalizationinclude:
Leave titles As entered: Nochangesaremade.
Headline style capitalization: Thefirstletterofeverysignificantwordiscapitalized.Articlesand prepositionsarenotcap-
italized.
Sentence style capitalization: Onlythefirst letterofeverytitleiscapitalized.
Note:SeeChange CasePreferencestoenterwordsoracronymsthatshouldnotbeadjusted whenEndNotechangesthecap-
italizationoftitles.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Repeated Citations (in Footnotes)
Mostofthecomplexformattinginfootnotesisrelevantonlytostyles inthehumanities.Thereareawidevarietyofformats
requiredforcitingreferencesinthefootnotesofapaper.TheseoptionsareprovidedintheRepeatedCitationspanelunderthe
Footnoteheading.
Somestylestaketheshorteningofreferencesinfootnotesevenfarther whentherepeatedreferencesappearinconsecutivefoot-
notes(orinthe samefootnote).EndNoteprovidesadditionaloptionsforthespecialhandling ofthesecases.
If the Same Reference Repeats in Consecutive Citations
Whenthesamereferencerepeatsinconsecutivefootnotes, youhavetheoptionofreplacingtherepeateddatawithtextofyour
choice. Thisisnormally"Ibid(oravariation oftheterm). SelecttheOmitrepeateddataoptionifyouwishtoreplacerepeateddata.
You mayalsoselectanoptionfromtheInsertFieldlist.Forexample,theCitedPagesoptionliststhepagenumberswhenthe
samereferencerepeats inconsecutivefootnotes.Inthisinstance,youwouldhavetogototheEditManageCitationsdialogand
enterthepagesnumbersifyouwantthemforaspecificcitation.
Ifyoureplacethedefault valuewiththeAuthorfieldoptionfromtheInsertFieldslist,EndNote will onlydisplaytheauthornamein
theformattedreference whenitisprecededbyagroupofreferencesandtheterm"Ibid" wouldbeambiguous.Otherwise,End-
Notewilldisplaythedefaultvalue(forexample,"Ibid")oranothertermofyourchoice. Forexample:
GloverM.Allen, Bats: Biology, Behavior, and Folklore (Mineola,N.Y..:DoverPublications,2004),100;ibid., 200
MichaelV.Argus,"NewPaleontologicalExcavationTechniques,"Journal of Paleontology19, (1993)
GloverM.Allen,ibid.,300
TheOmitRepeatedDataoptionallowsyoutosimplyomit therepeateddataandreplaceitwithnothing.
YoumayalsoapplyNoSpecialHandlingandwhenreferences repeat inconsecutivefootnotes,theywillbehandledjustlikeother
repeatedreferencesinfootnotes.
If the Same Source Repeats in Consecutive Citations
Thissettingdoesnotapplytotheidenticalreferencethatrepeatsinconsecutivefootnotes,butratherifanyofthesource data
repeatsintwoconsecutivecitationsinmultiplecitationformat. Forexample,iftwodifferentreferenceshappentobefromthe
samejournal, thesesettingswouldapplytothejournalname,volume,andissue(or whateverportionofthatsourceinformationis
identical).Youmaychoose the"Nospecialhandling"optionforthesecasessothatthesereferencesarenotabbreviated. Or,you
maychoosetoreplacetherepeated datawith"Ibid"(orthetextofyourchoice).Ifyouchoose thisoption,youmaylimitthe
replacementtoonlytheSecondaryTitle field(thisincludesthejournal,magazine,ornewspapername,orthetitleofabookfora
booksection).
BelowisanexampleofhowEndNoteformatssourcedatawhenitrepeatsinconsecutivecitations.
1.MorrisBirkbeck,"TheIllinoisPrariesandSettlers,"inPraireState:ImpressionsofIllinois,1673--1967,byTrav-
elersandOtherObservers,ed.PaulM.Angle(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1968), 62."TheSoilofthe
Big-Prairie,whichisofnogreatextentnotwithstandingitsname,isarichcoolsand;thatistosay,oneofthemost
desirabledescription"(ibid.,63).
Note:Werealize thatmanyofthesedetailedsettingsforthestylecanbeconfusing.We havedoneourbesttoconfigurethe
stylesforyousothatyouwillnotneedtoeditthemandworkthroughthesedetailsonyourown.However, ifyoufindthatyou
needtomodifythesepartsofyourstyles,pleaseconsultyourstyleguideformoredetaileddescriptionsandexamplesof han-
dlingrepeatedcitationsinfootnotes.
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
ModifyingStyleTemplates
APA 6th Settings
TheAPA6thsettingsallowsyoutodisplaythefirstsixauthors(or editors)followedbythetextpreset to(,...)followedbythe
lastauthor(oreditor).
1. FromtheEditmenu, select OutputStyles,OpenStyleManager.
2. FromtheStyleManagerwindow,selectAPA6thfromthelistofnames,andthen clicktheEditbutton.
3. FromtheStylewindow,selectAuthorLists(orselectEditorListsifyouwishto editsettingsforeditors)undertheBib-
liography.
4. Selecttheradiobuttonthatreads"Ifeightormoreauthors,listthefirst6authors,insert,...andaddthe lastauthor's
name."
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.
6. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample, "MYAPA6thSettings"),andthenclickSave.
Note:Thedefault valueis",..."Youcan,however,changethisvalue-forexample, youcansetthisvalueto"etal."orwhatever
styleyouchoose.
Note:Whenthis settingisselected,itoverrideswhateversettingsareintheAuthor SeparatorsandEditorSeparatorssettingsat
thetopofthepanels.
Thefollowingexampleshowshowyourreferenceswillnow displaywiththeselectedAPA6thsetting.
Gilbert,D.G.,McClernon,F. J.,Rabinovich,N.E.,Sugai,C.,Plath, L.C.,Asgaard,G.,...Botros, N.(2004).Effectsof
quittingsmokingonEEG activationandattentionlastformorethan31daysandaremoresevere withstress,dependence,
DRD2A1allele,anddepressivetraits.Nicotine andTobaccoResearch,6(2),249-267.doi:
10.1080.1462220041000176305
Related Topics:
Additional StyleFormattingOptions
Author Names(BibliographyandFootnotes)
Citation AuthorLists
ModifyingStyleTemplates
Figure and Table Placement and Captions
Figure and Table Placement and Captions
TheFiguresandTablessettingsapplytoimagesinsertedintoaWord documentfromEndNote.Youcanplaceimageswherethey
arecitedina documentorattheendofthedocument,andyouhavecontrolovertheplacementandpunctuationoflabelsandcap-
tions.
Whilestyleguidelinestendtobeveryspecificinregardtoformattedcitationsandbibliographies,theyareoftenvagueaboutfigure
andtableplacement.Theymayrequiredifferentplacementfordifferentdocument types(theses,termpapers,journalarticles,and
soon),ortheymay notofferinstructionsatall.
EndNotesdefaultfigureandtableplacementsettingsarethesamefor alloutputstyles.Pleasecheckyourownstyledoc-
umentation(orcheckwithyoureditororteacher)forspecificguidelinesaboutimageplacement forthetypeofdocumentyouare
creating.
Note:Additional FiguresandTablessettingsareavailableunderCiteWhileYouWritePreferences, andcanoverrideoutput
stylesettings.SeeFigures andTablesinWord.
Related Topics:
Figuresand Tables
Separation andPunctuation(FiguresandTables)
TheStyleManager
Figures and Tables
UndertheFiguresandTablesheadingintheleftcolumnoftheoutputstyleeditor,select eitherFiguresorTables.Tablesare
imagesinserted fromtheFigurefieldinthe"Chart orTable"referencetype.Figuresareimages insertedfromtheFigurefieldof
anyotherEndNotereferencetype.The sameoptionsareavailableundereach,whichallowsyoutoplacefigures differentlythan
tables.
Placement
UnderPlacement,selectabuttontoeitherplacetheimageswithinthe textofthedocument,nearthereferencetothefigure,orto
placeimages inalistattheendofthedocument.
Ifyourimagesareplacedin-text,youcanuseCiteWhileYouWrite preferencestooverridethisautomaticplacementwhenyour
documentis reformatted.Thisishelpfulifyouhavemovedyourimagesaroundinthedocumentandwanttoretaintheirplace-
ment.SeeFigures andTablesinWord.
Caption
Next,underCaption,selectabuttontoplacethelabelandcaption eitheraboveorbelowtheimage. Youcanalsoselect thecheck
boxto placethelabelandcaptiononseparatelines.
Note:Thelabel insertedbyEndNoteis"Figure#"forimagesfoundintheFigure andEquationreferencetypesaswellasfor
mostotherreferencetypes. Thelabelis"Table#"forimagesfoundinthe"ChartorTable"reference type.TheCaptionisthetext
typedintotheCaptionfieldofareference.
Related Topics:
Figure andTablePlacementandCaptions
Separation andPunctuation(FiguresandTables)
TheStyleManager
Separation and Punctuation (Figures and Tables)
UnderImageSeparation,youcanenterseparatorsforimagesinserted withinthetextofadocumentandforimagesthatarelisted
attheendofadocument.
Note:Thesettings onthispanelaffectbothfiguresandtables.
Image Separation
Whenimagesareinsertedin-text,youcanspecifythenumberoflinestoinsertbeforeandaftertheimagetoseparateitfromtext.
Thissetting affectsbothfiguresandtablesthatareplacedin-text.Ifyourimagesareplacedinalistattheendofthedocument,
thissettingisignored.
Whenimagesareplacedinalistattheendofthedocument,youcan separateeachfigureortablewithapagebreakoraspecified
number ofblanklinesbeforeandaftereachimage. Ifyourimagesareplaced in-text,thissettingisignored.
Caption Punctuation
ForeachfigureortableinsertedintoWordfromanEndNotereference, EndNotegeneratesalabelandtheninsertsthecaption
fromtheCaption fieldoftheEndNotereference.Forexample:
Table1.BirdEvolution
Youcanselectthecheckboxestoinsertaperiodafterthelabeland/or afterthecaption.Thisaffectsthelabelsandcaptionsfor
bothfigures andtables.
EndNotewillattempttoremovedoublepunctuationincaseyouinadvertently includeaperiodwithintherecordaswellasselect-
ingonehere.
Related Topics:
Figure andTablePlacementandCaptions
Figuresand Tables
TheStyleManager
Creating a New Style
Creating a New Style
Itisofteneasiertomodifyanexistingbibliographicstylethatclosely resemblesastylethatyouneedthanitistocreateanew
stylefrom scratch.(SeeModifyingStyle Templates.)Ifyoudowishtocreateanewstyle, Example:CreatinganAuthorDate
Stylegivesyouageneraloverviewofthe process.
Creatingabibliographicstyleinvolvesbuildingtemplatesforthein-textcitationsandthebibliographicreferencestomimichow
youwantthem toappearinyourpaper.Thenadjust thevariousoptionstobesurethat authors,titles,pages, andotherfieldsare
beingformattedaccording toyourrequirements.Example: CreatinganAuthorDateStyleguidesyouthroughthecreationofa fic-
titiousauthor-datetypeofstyle.
Example: Creating an Author Date Style
Creating the Templates
AnewstyleneedonlycontainaCitationtemplateandaGenericBibliography templateforittoproducecitationsandbib-
liographiesforanypaper. TheCitationtemplateappliestoallin-textcitations,andtheGeneric bibliographytemplateappliestoall
referencetypesthatdonothave templatesoftheirowninthestyle.TheGenerictemplateshouldbeconsidered adefaulttem-
plate,andyoushouldaddadditionaltemplatesforthestandard referencetypeswhichyouuse.Ifyoudefineaspecifictemplate
forany referencetypes,theyareformattedaccordingtothattemplate,andnottheGenericformat.
Tocreatestyletemplates:
1. Tocreateabibliographicstyle,gototheEditmenu toselectOutputStyle,andthenselectNewStyle,andanewUntitled
Stylewindowappears.
2. Click theTemplatespanelundertheCitationsheadingtospecifytheformat ofthein-textcitations.
Ourstyleusestheauthornameandtheyearinthecitation.Theyare surroundedbyparenthesesandseparatedbyacomma.
3. WiththecursorintheCitationTemplate,typeanopenparenthesis,click theInsertFieldbuttonandselectAuthorfromthelist
ofavailable fields,typeacomma,select YearfromtheInsertFieldlistandthen typetheclosingparenthesis.
Next,definetheGenericformatwhichservesasthedefaulttemplateforreferencetypesthatdonothavetheirowntemplate.
Weknowthat booksshouldbeformattedlikethis,sowecansetuptheGeneric templatetoaccommodatethatformat:
Jones,VR,
4. Click theTemplatesoptionundertheBibliographyheading,thenclickin the"Generic"sectionofthatTemplatespanel.
5. Select AuthorfromtheInsertFieldlisttoaddtheAuthorfieldtothestyle template.(Youcanalsotype"Author"butitissaferto
selectthefieldnamefromthelist.)Typeaperiodandaspace. Andcontinueinsertingfieldsandpunctuationuntilyouhave
createdatemplatethatmimicstheformat ofthereference(where"indicatesaspace):
Author.(Year).Title.PlacePublished,Publisher.
6. Inthis style,thetitlemustbeitalicized,sodouble-clickthewordTitle toselect it,thenfromtheEditmenu,selectStyleand
Italic.
7. SavethenewstylebyselectingSavefromtheFilemenu.Inthedialog thatappears,type"PracticeStyle"asthenameofthis
styleandclickSave.Thiswillsavethestyleandadditasanoption intheOutputStylessubmenuoftheEditmenu.
Test the Style
OpenyourlibraryandselectShowPreviewfromthebottomoftheLibrary window.Selectdifferentreferencesinyourlibraryto
seehowtheyformat.Youwillprobablyseethatthebookslookgood,butjournalarticlesdo notdisplayenoughinformation.You
willneedtoreturntothestyleand createatemplatetoformatjournalarticles.Todoso:
Create a New Template for Journals
IntheTemplatespanelundertheBibliographyheading,selectJournalArticlefromtheReferenceTypelist.Thiswillcreateanew
sectionfor aJournalArticletemplate.Insert thefieldsandpunctuationtocreate atemplateasshownbelow:
Author(Year).
SavethestylebyselectingSavefromtheFilemenu.ReturntotheLibrarywindow,andcheckthepreviewtoseehowjournal
articlereferencesare formatted.
Finishing the Style
Continuetestinghowotherreferencetypesformat,andincludeadditional referencetypetemplatesasnecessary.SeeModifying
StyleTemplatesforspecificsaboutcreatingandmodifyingstyletemplates.
Lookathowtheauthornamesareformatted,andchangethenecessary settings.Youshouldalsotakeacloselookatpages,title
capitalization, thesortorderofthereferences,andvariousotheroptionsprovidedin theStylewindow.Thesearedescribedin
Additional StyleFormattingOptions.
Filters
Introduction to Filters
Introduction to Filters
TheImportcommandonEndNotesFilemenuprovidesawaytoimporttext filesofreferencedataintoEndNotelibraries.End-
Notehasanumberofbuilt-inimport optionsaswellasalargecollectionofconfigurable import"filters."Filtersaredesignedto
importreferences downloadedfromspecificonlineorCD-ROMbibliographicdatabases.
Youcaneditandcreateimportfilters.TheprocessofimportingreferencesusingtheImportcommandisdescribedinGeneral
ImportingInstructions.
EndNoteprovideshundredsofimportfiltersforavarietyofsources.Bydefault,onlythemostpopularfiltersarestoredasindivid-
ualfilesintheFiltersfolderinyourEndNoteprogramfolder.Toinstalladditional filters,seeInstallingAdditionalFilters.
What is a Filter?
Theimport filtersprovideawiderangeofimportoptions.A filterisselectedduringtheimportprocesstoshowEndNoteexactly
how tointerprettheinformationinyourdata file(therecordsdownloadedorsavedfromanonlineorCD-ROMdatabase).Afilter
doesthisbymapping theinformationineachdownloadedreferencetothecorrespondingfields inEndNote.
Becauseeachdatabaseofferedbythevariousinformationprovidershasitsownwaytoorganizereferencedata,thereneedsto
beadifferentfilterforeachdatabase.EachfilterprovidedwithEndNotehasbeenconfiguredtoimportdatafilesfromaspecific
databaseofferedbyasingleinformationprovider.Youcaneasilymodifyanyofthesuppliedfiltersorcreate anewfiltertoimport
fromotherdatabases.
A Comment About Difficult Data Files
Although EndNotesfiltersareverypowerfulandflexibleimporttools,
therearestillsomedatafilesthatcannotbeconquered. Whereassome
databasesprovideverycleantaggeddata,others arealmostimpossible
todiscern.Lackofconsistencyinthe sourcedataandtheomissionof
referencetypetagsoften makeitdifficultforapersontounderstandthe
information; thetaskofcreatingaperfectfiltertohandlethesefiles is
futile.Whenfinetuningourfilters,wehavedoneour besttoalwayscap-
turethenecessarydataevenifthatmeans droppingitallintothe
Notesfield.Ifyoufindfilters thatcanbefurtherimproved,pleaseletus
know.Itmayalso helptocontactyourinformationprovidertoletthem
knowthattheinconsistenciesinthedataentryforthedatabaseare
keepingyoufrommostefficientlymakinguseofit.

Related Topics:
CopyingFilters
Creating aNewFilter
DeletingFilters
SavingFilters
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheFilter Options
Working withFilterTemplates
What is a Filter?
Theimport filtersprovideawiderangeofimportoptions.Afilter isselectedduringtheimportprocesstoshowEndNoteexactly
howtointerpret theinformationinyourdatafile(therecordsdownloadedorsavedfrom anonlineorCD-ROMdatabase).Afilter
doesthisbymappingtheinformation ineachdownloadedreferencetothecorrespondingfieldsinEndNote.
Becauseeachdatabaseofferedbythevariousinformationprovidershasitsownwaytoorganizereferencedata,thereneedsto
beadifferentfilterforeachdatabase.EachfilterprovidedwithEndNotehasbeenconfiguredtoimportdatafilesfromaspecific
databaseofferedbyasingleinformationprovider.Youcaneasilymodifyanyofthesuppliedfiltersorcreate anewfiltertoimport
fromotherdatabases.
A Comment About Difficult Data Files
Although EndNotesfiltersareverypowerfulandflexibleimporttools,
therearestillsomedatafilesthatcannotbeconquered. Whereassome
databasesprovideverycleantaggeddata,others arealmostimpossible
todiscern.Lackofconsistencyinthe sourcedataandtheomissionof
referencetypetagsoften makeitdifficultforapersontounderstandthe
information; thetaskofcreatingaperfectfiltertohandlethesefiles is
futile.Whenfinetuningourfilters,wehavedoneour besttoalwayscap-
turethenecessarydataevenifthatmeans droppingitallintothe
Notesfield.Ifyoufindfilters thatcanbefurtherimproved,pleaseletus
know.Itmayalso helptocontactyourinformationprovidertoletthem
knowthattheinconsistenciesinthedataentryforthedatabaseare
keepingyoufrommostefficientlymakinguseofit.
The Filter Manager
EndNoteprovideshundredsofimportfiltersforavarietyofsources.Bydefault,onlythemostpopularfiltersarestoredasindivid-
ual filesintheFiltersfolderinyourEndNoteprogramfolder.Toinstalladditionalfilters,seeInstallingAdditionalFilters.
TheFilterManagerliststhenames oftheoriginalfilterfilesavailableinthe Program Files\EndNote\Filters folderaswellasany
newormodifiedfilters inyourpersonalFiltersfolder,andgivesyoutheoptiontoeditthemorselectthemas"favorites"forquick
accesswhenyouuse theImportcommand.Youcanclickanddragthecornerofthedialogto increasethesize.
Usethesefeaturestolocatetheimportfilteryouwanttouse:
l Ifyouknowthenameofthefilterthatyou wanttouse,youmaystarttypingitandthefirstfilternamethat matcheswhat
youtypewillbeselected.
l ClicktheFindBybutton andselectaninformationprovidersname(suchasOvid)tofindonlytheimport filtersforaspe-
cificinformationprovider.
l ClicktheFind Bybutton andselect AllFilterstoreturnalloftheimportfilterstothe displayedlist.
l Clickacolumnheadingtosorttheimport filtersbynameorbyinformationprovider.Clickingthesamecolumnheading a
secondtimewillchangethesortorderfromascendingtodescending. Clickagaintosetitbacktoascendingorder.
l ClicktheMoreInfobuttonatthebottomof thedialogtodisplayadditionalinformationabouttheselectedfilter.
Marking Your Favorite Import Filters
Whenyouhavefoundafilterthatyouwillwanttouseinthefuture,clickthecheckboxtotheleft ofittomarkitasafavorite.All
filtersthataremarkedasfavoritesappearintheImportOptions listintheImportdialog.YoucangettotheImportdialogby
selectingImportfromtheFilemenu.Thisgivesyoueasyaccesstothosefilesyou usemostoften.
Tomarkallofthefiltersforaspecificinformationprovider,clicktheFindBy buttonand,fromthatlist,selectthenameoftheinfor-
mation provider.Now,withjustthatsubsetoffilterslistedintheFilterManager window,clickMarkAll.TheUnmarkAllbutton
maybeusedtounmarkallofthefiltersthatareshowinginthelist.
Editing Import Filters
Ifyouwouldliketomodifyafilter,selectitinthelistandclickEdit.Thesetopicscanhelpguideyou:
l TheBasicComponentsofaFilter
l TheFilterEditorWindow
l WorkingwithFilterTemplates
l TheFilterOptions
l ModifyinganExistingFilter: AnExample
Copying Filters
WhenyoudisplayalistoffiltersinEndNote,thelistiscomprised oftheinstalledfiltersfoundintheProgramFiles\En-
dNote\Filtersfolderaswellasnewormodifiedfiltersfound inyourpersonalFiltersfolder.Foranexplanationofwhereyourfiles
arestored,seeFolderLocations Preferences.
Therearetwowaystocopyfilters.Sinceeachfilterisaseparate fileonyourharddrive,youcancopythemasyouwouldcopy
anyfile onyourharddriveusingWindowsExplorer.
TomakeacopyofafilterfromwithinEndNote:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectImportFiltersandselect OpenFilterManager.
2. SelectthefilteryouwanttocopyandclickEdit.
3. Withoutmakinganychangestothefilter,select SavefromtheFilemenu.
4. Givethiscopyofthefilteranewname, andthensaveit.
ThefileissavedinyourpersonalFiltersfolder.Thenewfilterwill remainopen.Theoriginalfilterwillbeleftuntouched.
Saving Filters
Tosaveanewfilterthatyouhavejustcreated,ortosavechanges toafilteryouhavejustmodified,select SaveorSaveAsfrom
theFile menu.
IfyouhavemodifiedoneoftheoriginalinstalledfilesintheProgram Files\EndNote\Filtersfolder,youmustuseSaveAstosavea
copyto yourpersonalFiltersfolder.Ifyouhavemodifiedastylethatisalready locatedinyourpersonalFiltersfolder,youcan
selecteitherSaveto directlymodifythefile,orSaveAstomakeacopywiththechanges. Foradescriptionofwhereyourstyles
arestored,seeFolder Locations.
EndNoteautomaticallysavesnewfilterstoyourpersonalFiltersfolder. Youmayalsospecifyadifferentfolderifnecessary.For
instructions seeFolderLocations.
EndNotefiltersusethefilenameextensionof".ENF"(forEndNoteFilter),asin"Medline.enf.
Deleting Filters
TodeleteafilterfromwithinEndNote:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectImportFilters> OpenFilterManager.
2. Selectthefiltertobedeleted.
3. SelectClearfromtheEditmenu,orright-click onthefilterandselectDeletefromtheshortcutmenu,orpressthe Delete
key.
Youcanalsodeleteanunwantedfilterbyswitchingbacktothe Windowsdesktop,andopeningtheappropriateFiltersfolder(see
FolderLocationsPreferences).Then,select thefiletodeleteandselectDelete fromtheFilemenuordragthefiletotheRecycle
Bin .
Note: Youmusthaveread/writeaccesstotheFiltersfolderinordertodelete afilter.Ifyoudonothaveadministratoraccess,
youlikelywillnot beabletodeleteafilelocatedwithintheProgramFilesfolder.
Basic Components of a Filter
The Basic Components of a Filter
Youneedtoknowthebasiccomponentsofafilterifyouwanttocustomizeorcreateafilter.
l Tocreateanew importfilter:FromtheEditmenu,selectImportFiltersandselect NewFilter.Ifyouareinterestedincre-
atinganewfilter,alsoread CreatingaNewFilter.
l Toeditafilter: FromtheEditmenu,selectImport Filters,andthenselectOpenFilter Manager.Selectthefiltertoeditand
clickEdit.Themostrecently usedfiltercanalsobeeasilyeditedbyselectingImportFilters fromtheEditmenu,andselect-
ingEdit<filter>.
Thesetopicsexplainthebasiccomponentsofafilter:
l TheFilterEditorWindow
l AboutThisFilterPanel
l WorkingwithFilterTemplates
l TheFilterOptions
Related Topics:
Creating aFilterforMARCRecords
Creating aNewFilter
Example: ModifyinganExistingFilter
TheFilter Manager
The Filter Editor Window
Afterchoosingtheoptiontoeditanexistingfilterorcreateanew one,EndNoteopenstheFilterwindow.
Allofthedifferentoptionsforeditingafilterarelistedonthe leftsideoftheFilterwindow.Clickonanitemtoviewtheassociated
settings.Youmayswitchbetweenpanelsasneededwhileeditingthefile. Nochangesaresavedinanyofthepanelsuntilyou
selectSaveorSave AsfromtheFilemenu.
Ifatanytimeyouneedtorevertyourchangesbacktothelastsavedcopyofthefilter,selectRevertFilterfromtheFilemenu.
TocloseaFilterwindow,clickthebuttonintheupperright cornerofthewindow,orselectCloseFilterfromtheFilemenu.Ifyou
havenotsavedyourchangestothefilter,EndNotepromptsyouandgives youtheoptiontosaveordiscardanychangesthatyou
havemade.
Related Topics:
About thisFilterPanel
Creating aNewFilter
SavingFilters
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheFilter Options
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
Unique AspectsofMARCRecords
Working withFilterTemplates
About this Filter Panel
TheFilterwindowopenstodisplaytheAboutthisFilterpanel.This panelcontainsdescriptiveinformationaboutthefilter.Noneof
theinformation usedinthispanelhasanyimpactonestablishingtheconnection.
Name:Displaysthename ofthefilterasitappearsintheFiltersfolderintheEndNotefolder. Thefilenameextension(.ENF)is
notdisplayed.Thenameofthefiltercannotbechangedhere;youwouldneedtoclosethiswindowand switchbacktotheWin-
dowsdesktop torenamethefilter.
Based On:Enteranyinformation aboutwhatdocumentationwasusedtocreatethefilter.Commonlytheserver documentationis
availableontheWeb,soyoucouldenteraURLhereas welltomakeiteasytolaterretrievethatinformation.
Category:Thecategoryistypicallytheinformationprovider(suchasOvid),butyoumayenteranythingthatwillhelpyoucat-
egorizeandorganizeyourfilters.ThecategoryinformationisalsolistedintheFilterManagerwindowinthecolumnnexttothe
nameofthefilter.Inthatwindow,youmaysortfiltersbycategoryandalsosearchforthembycategory.
Created:Thedatethefilterwasinstalled orcreated.
Last Modified:Thedatethefilter waslastmodified.
Comments and Limitations:Enteranyhelpfulinformationsuchashowtodownloadthereferencesintheformat thatworkswith
thisfilter.
AlloftheinformationinthispanelisvisibleintheFilterManagerifyouclicktheMoreInfooptionatthebottomoftheFilterMan-
agerwindow.Thisishelpfulbecauseyoudonotneedtoeditafiltertoview thecommentsorotherdescriptiveinformation.You
maysimplyscrollthroughtheavailablefiltersintheFilterManagerwindowandviewtheinformation there.
Working with Filter Templates
Working with Filter Templates (Import Filters and Connection Files)
ThemostimportantpartofafilterorconnectionfileistheTemplates section.Thetemplatesdefinehowthevariouslinesof
taggeddatain yourdatafileshouldbeimportedandfilteredintothedifferentEndNote fields(suchasAuthor,Year,andTitle).Dif-
ferentsetsoftemplates arerequiredforthedifferentreferencetypesthatmaybeinyourdata file.
TheTemplatespanelconsistsofindividualReferenceTypetemplates whichcorrespondtothewaythereferencedataispre-
sentedinthedata file.Thesetopicswillhelpyou:
l NavigatingintheTemplatesPanel
l TemplatesforDifferentReference Types
l AddingandDeletingRowsin theFilterTemplate
l Cutting,CopyingandPastingRows
l LiteralTextvs. EndNoteFields
l The{IGNORE} Field
l TheSourceLine
l TheReferenceTypeTag
l FieldswithSpecialCharacteristics
l WhenPunctuationRepeatsWithin aField
Navigating in the Templates Panel (Import Filters and Connection Files)
TheTemplatespanelinafilterisdividedintoaTagcolumnandaField(s)column.Thetaganditscorrespondingfield(s)aretwo
separatecellsinarow.Ifacellisactive,anoutlineappearsaroundthecell.
Tag Field(s)
TI: Title

Tomovefromonecelltothenext,presstheTab keyorclickthemouseinthedesiredcell.Tomovebacktotheprevious cell,hold


downtheShiftkeywhilepressing theTabkey.
TochangethewidthoftheTagcolumnintheFilterwindow,position thecursorovertheverticallinedividingtheTagandField(s)
columns.Thecursorchangestoindicatethatyouareinthecorrectplace.Clickanddragtotherightorlefttoresizethecolumn
widths.
ClicktheReferenceTypeslisttochangetheviewtoadifferentreferencetype(suchasfromJournalArticletoBook).
Related Topics:
Adding andDeletingRowsintheFilterTemplate
Cutting, CopyingandPastingRows
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
Working withFilterTemplates
Templates for Different Reference Types (Import Filters and Connection Files)
TheTemplatespanelincludestemplatesforallofthevariousreference types(JournalArticleandBook).
Click theReferenceTypeslisttochangetheviewtoadifferentreferencetype(suchasfromJournalArticletoBook).
Thereferencetypesthathaveacheckmarkdisplayednexttothemalready haveatemplatedefined(youcaneditthetemplateif
youwish). The referencetypethatappearsinboldtypeiscurrentlythedefault referencetype.
Theonlyreferencetypestemplatesthatneedtobefilledinarethe onesthatcorrespondtothereferencetypesinyourdatafile.
Forexample, ifthedatabasefromwhichyouaredownloadingcontainsonlyjournalarticles, youwouldonlyneedtofillinthetem-
platesfortheJournalArticlesection inthatparticularfilter.
WithineachreferencetypetemplatethereisalistoftagsandtheircorrespondingEndNotefieldnames.Thesetemplatesshould
exactlymatch thewaytheinformationisorganizedinthedatafile.Anytextorpunctuation thatyouseethatisnotpartofafield
name(suchas"vol.beforetheVolume)isincludedtomakethe templateexactlymatchthedatafile.
Related Topics:
Adding andDeletingRowsintheFilterTemplate
Cutting, CopyingandPastingRows
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
Working withFilterTemplates
Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Whenaddinganddeletingrows,theorderofthetagsdoesnothavetomatchtheorderofthetagsinthedatafile.Thereisone
caseinwhich theorderofthetagsisimportant:ifyouareenteringmultiplevariationsofonetaggedline,youshouldenterthe
repeatedlinesforthattaginorderfromthemostcomplextothesimplest.ThisisbecauseEndNotelooks formatchesstarting
fromthetopofthewindowworkingdownthelist oftags.Itstopsatthefirsttemplatethatmatchesthetaggeddata.
Tostartanewrowimmediatelybelowtheactiverow,positionthecursorintheField(s)cell,andpressEnter.
Tostartanewrowimmediatelyabovetheactiverow,positionthecursorintheTagcell,andpressEnter.
Todeletearow,highlighttherowandselectClearfromtheEditmenu.
Related Topics:
Cutting, CopyingandPastingRows
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
Working withFilterTemplates
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Rows (Import Filters and Connection Files)
YoumayusetheCut,Copy,andPastecommandstomoveorduplicatea cellorarowofcells.Todoso:
1. Selectarowbydraggingthemouseacrossboth columns.(Draggingthemouseverticallyacrossmorethanonerow
selects arangeofrows.)
2. Toduplicatetheselectedrow(s) elsewhereinafilter,selectCopy(Ctrl+C)fromtheEditmenu.Ifyouwanttodeletethe
selectedrowandmoveittoanotherlocation,selectCut(Ctrl +X).
3. Clickwhereyouwouldlikethecutorcopiedrow toappear,andselect Paste( Ctrl +V)fromtheEditmenu.Thepasted
rowwillbeinserted abovetherowwherethecursoris.IfthecursorisintheField(s)column,thepastedrowwillbeinserted
below.(Pastingwhenanentirerowisselectedwillreplacetherow.)
Copying and Pasting Between Reference Type Templates
BychoosingSelectAll( Ctrl+A)fromtheEditmenu,youcanselectalloftherows inagivenReferenceTypetemplate.Thisis
usefulforcopyinganentire templatetoanewreferencetypeorfilter.Aftercopyingtheentireset oftemplatesforareferencetype,
youmayselectadifferentreference typefromtheReferenceTypelistatthetopofthewindow,clickintheTagcellforthenewref-
erencetype,andselectPaste.
Whenyoucopyinformationfromonereferencetype(suchasJournalArticle), andpastetherowsintoanotherreferencetype
(suchasNewspaper), the fieldnamesautomaticallychangetoreflectthenamesusedbythenewreferencetype.Ifthereisnota
correspondingfieldnameinthenewreferencetype,theoriginalfieldnameinthetemplateisreplacedwith {IGNORE},indicating
thatthedatafor thattagwillbeignored.
Related Topics:
AddingandDeletingRowsintheFilterTemplate
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
TheBasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilterManager
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
WorkingwithFilterTemplates
Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Whenyoulookatafilter,youwillnoticethatsomeofthetemplatescontaininformationotherthanEndNotefieldnames.ForEnd-
Notetoidentify whichdatashouldgointoaparticularEndNotefield, youmustinclude punctuationandanyliteraltextorspaces
thatappearinyourdatafile.PunctuationandliteraltextactasdelimitersallowingEndNotetoparse thedataintomultipleEnd-
Notefields.Noneofthese"delimiters" actuallygetsimportedintoanEndNotelibrary,theymerelyserveasguides forEndNoteto
correctlyimportthedata.
Hereisanexampleofadatafilessourceline(SO:)where, inaddition topunctuation,thereisliteraltextsuchas"v","n" and"p"
precedingthedata:
SO:Youth TheatreJournal.v6n4p3-6
The"v","n"and"p"areconsideredliteral textbecausetheyarenotEndNotefieldnames; theyrepresenttheliteral textfromthe
datafilethatprecedesthedatathatyouwanttoimport. Inthisparticularsourceline,therearefourdifferentpiecesofinformation:
thejournalname,volume,issue,andpages.TohelpEndNotedeterminewhenonefieldendsandthenextonebegins,youmust
inserttheliteral text,punctuation, andspacesfoundinthedatafilenexttotheappropriate fieldname.
Asaresult,theaboveSO:taglineshouldberepresentedinafilterlikethis:
Tag Field(s)
SO: Journal. vVolume
Insomedatabases,youmayfindlinesofdatathatincludeawordthat isalsoanEndNotefieldname.Thefollowingsourceline
containsthe word"pages"beforethepagenumbers:
SO:Town-planning-review. vol.62,no.4,pages461-469.
Ifenteredintothefilter,EndNotewouldnormallyinterprettheword"pages"asafieldname.(Thisistruewhetheryoutypeitin the
filterorinsertitusingtheInsert Fieldlist.)ToforceEndNote toreadafieldsnameasliteraltext,surroundthenamewithaccent
gravecharacters,asin`pages`.Theaccentgravecharacterisfound intheupperleftcorner,underthetilde(~)keyofthekey-
board.To matchtheSO:lineshownabove, thesourcelineinthefiltershouldappear as:
Tag Field(s)
SO: Journal. vol.Volume,no.Issue,`

Related Topics:
Fields withSpecialCharacteristics
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
The{IGNORE}Field
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheReference TypeTag
TheSourceLine
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
WhenPunctuationRepeatsWithinaField
Working withFilterTemplates
The {IGNORE} Field (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Theremaybepiecesofinformationinalineofdatathatyoudonot wantimportedintoyourEndNotelibrary.ToforceEndNoteto
ignorepieces ofinformation,usetheInsertFieldlisttoinsert "{IGNORE}intheappropriateplace.Forexample,supposeyouwant
EndNotetoignorebracketedtextthatsometimesfollows thetitleofanarticle:
TI:Research fundsaredwindling.[letter]
YoushouldaddanewTItagandtemplateto yourfilter(abovetheexistingTI:Titleline)thatlooks likethis:
Tag Field(s)
TI: Title. [{IGNORE}]
Related Topics:
Fields withSpecialCharacteristics
Literal Textvs.EndNoteFields
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheReference TypeTag
TheSourceLine
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
WhenPunctuationRepeatsWithinaField
Working withFilterTemplates
The Source Line (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Thesourcelineistypicallythemostcomplexlineofdatainarecord becauseitcontainsalloftheinformationaboutthesourceof
publication. Forajournalarticle,thesourcelinemaycontainthejournalname,the volumenumber,theissuenumber,page
numbers,andtheyearofpublication. Forabook,thesourcelinemaycontainthepublisher,thecity,andthe numberofpages.
Thesourcelineinyourfiltermustmatchexactlythesourcelinein thedatafileinorderforEndNotetodistinguishonepieceof
information fromanother.Youwilloftenfindmorethanonevariationofasource lineforagivenreferencetypeinasingledatafile,
inwhichcaseyou willneedtocreateaseparatesourcelineforeachvariant,starting withthemostcomplexsource.Thethree
sourcelinesdisplayedbelowcome fromasingledatabase:
SO:Semin-Oncol.76(3):465-711998
SO:Semin-Oncol.127:5-241999
SO:Eur-J-Cancer.118/6(654-657)1998
InthefirstSO:tagline,parenthesesenclosetheissuenumber"(3)". InthesecondSO:tagline,thereisnoissue,soacolonsep-
aratesthevolumenumberandthepagenumbers"127:5-24".Inthethird SO:tagline,aslashseparatesthevolumenumberand
theissuenumber "118/6",andparenthesesenclosethepagenumbers"(654-657)".
Eachvariantinthedatafilessourcelinesmustbedefinedinyour filter.SinceEndNotetriestomatchthesourcelineinthedata
filewiththefirstdefinedsourcelineinyourfilter,youshouldplacethe mostdetailedsourcelinefirst,followedbyprogressively
lessdetailed sourcelines.
Thefilterfortheabovesourcelinesshouldlooklikethis:
Tag Field(s)
AU: Author
TI: Title
SO: Journal. Volume(Issue):PagesYear
SO: Journal. Volume/Issue(Pages)Year
SO: Journal. Volume:PagesYear
KW: Keywords
Note:Ifthefilter failstomatchavariationofthesourcelineforajournalarticle,it ispossibletohaveEndNoteinterpretthedata
onitsown.SeeSource Parsing.
Related Topics:
Fields withSpecialCharacteristics
Literal Textvs.EndNoteFields
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
The{IGNORE}Field
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheReference TypeTag
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
WhenPunctuationRepeatsWithinaField
Working withFilterTemplates
The Reference Type Tag (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Areferencetypetagidentifiesthekindofworkorpublicationbeingreferencedinaparticularrecordinyourdatafile.IntheFilter
window, areferencetypetagisonlydefinedbythecharacteristicofhavingliteraltext,andnofields,enteredintothefieldcolumn.
Thisliteraltext isnotimportedintoEndNote,butitisusedonlytoidentifyarecords referencetype.
Althoughareferencetypetagcanbeanytagatall,twocommonreference typetagsare"DTandand"PT"(whichstandforDoc-
umentTypeandPublicationType).
JN-Am
ToensurethatEndNoteimportsthedataintothecorrectreferencetype, youmusttypetheReferenceTypetagintheTagcol-
umn,andthereference typename(orotheridentifyingtext)exactlyasitappearsinthedatafileintheField(s)column.(Thematch-
ing iscase-sensitive.)TheReferenceTypetagcanbeplacedanywhereinthe appropriateReferenceTypetemplate.
WhenEndNoteimportsarecord,itfirstscansthedatafile,looking forareferencetypetaginyourfilter.Thenitlooksforamatch
in therecorditsimporting.Thefirstreferencetypetagmatchencountered determineswhichoftheReferenceTypetemplates
EndNotewillusetoparsetherecord.ThismatchalsodetermineswhichreferencetypeEndNoteassigns therecordintheEnd-
Notelibrary.
WhenenteringtheReferenceTypetaginyourfilter,thetextyouenter intheFieldcellmustbeinterpretedbyEndNoteasliteral
text.Aproblem canarisewhenyouhavetextthatcontainsanEndNotefieldname.For example,thefollowingReferenceType
tagcontainsthefieldname"Journal":
Tag Field(s)
DT: Journal Article
Becausethefieldname"Journal"appearsinthetemplate, EndNotewillnotinterpretthisDT-tagline astheReferenceTypetag.
Instead,thefilterwouldimportthewordJournal(fromthedatafilesDT:line)intotheJournalfield.
ToforceEndNotetointerpretthewordJournal(oranyotherfieldname) asliteraltext,putanaccentgravecharacteratthestart
andendof theword.(Theaccentgravecharacterisfoundintheupperleftcorner ofthekeyboard,underthetilde(~)key.)The
aboveReferenceTypetag shouldappearinafilteras:
Tag Field(s)
DT: `Journal`Article
IfthedatabaseyouusedoesnotspecifyaReferenceTypetag,allreference typesinyourdatafilewillimportasthedefaultref-
erencetype(see ReferenceType).
Related Topics:
Fields withSpecialCharacteristics
Literal Textvs.EndNoteFields
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
The{IGNORE}Field
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheSourceLine
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
WhenPunctuationRepeatsWithinaField
Working withFilterTemplates
Fields with Special Characteristics
CertainEndNotefieldscontainspecialrestrictionsonwhatsortof datacanbeimported.Thesesettingscannotbemodifiedand
applytoall importfilters.
Author Fields
Thewords"AndOthers"getconvertedto"etal"and theword"and"isomitted.Yearsaswellasparentheticalor bracketedtext
areremovedbydefault.SeeAuthor Parsing.
Year
Only4-digitnumbers(1###or20##)areimported.Youcannot import referencesthathaveadateof2010orlaterinEndNoteX2
andprevious versionsofEndNote.
Title
Thefollowingpunctuationisremovedfromtheendofatitle:
Period,comma,semicolon, colon,forwardslash,backslash,openingparenthesis, dash,andcaret.
Pages
A"P"or"p"beforethenumberisautomaticallyremoved.
Volume
A"V"or"v"beforethenumberisautomaticallyremoved, asisanumberthatappearstobeayear.
Issue
An"N","No"or"No."beforethenumberis automaticallyremoved(thisisnotcasesensitive).
Related Topics:
Literal Textvs.EndNoteFields
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
The{IGNORE}Field
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheReference TypeTag
TheSourceLine
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
WhenPunctuationRepeatsWithinaField
Working withFilterTemplates
When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Aspecialformattingcharactercalleda"verticalbar"(|) canbeplacedinafiltertoindicatearepeatingseparatorwithinafield.For
example,youmayhaveadatafilewhereaperiodfollowedbyaspace separatesajournalnamefromthevolume.However,in
somecases,this separatorispartofthejournalnameitself,withtheresultthataperiod andaspacecannotbereliablyusedto
distinguishajournalnamefrom thevolume.Forexample:
SO:Science. 10(3):p.80-90
Theabovesourcelinewouldbedefinedinafilteras:
Tag Field(s)
SO: Journal. Volume(Issue):p.Pages
Anothersourcelineinthesamedatafilemightlooklikethis:
SO:Proc.Nat.
Theproblemarisesinthesecondsourcelinewheretheseparatorbetween thejournalandvolume(periodandaspace)isfound
repeatedlywithin thejournal.TheSO:lineinthefilterinstructsEndNotetoimport thedatauptotheperiodandspaceintotheJour-
nalfield. Consequently,EndNotewouldparse"Proc."asthejournalname,andeverythingaftertheperiod uptotheopenparen-
thesisasthevolume,sothevolumewouldbe"Nat. Acad.".
Thereisawaytoindicatearepeatingseparatorwithinafieldinthe filter.Ifyouplaceaverticalbar(|)beforetheseparator,this
instructsEndNotetoreaduptothelastoccurrenceofthisseparator.Intheexample above,ifweplaceaverticalbarbeforethe
repeatingJournalfieldseparator (periodandspace),theSO:lineinthefilterwouldlooklikethis:
Tag Field(s)
SO: Journal|.Volume(Issue):p.Pages
ThisSO:lineinthefilterinstructsEndNotetoimport allthedata withtheperiodfollowedbyaspaceseparatorasajournal.Here,
EndNote wouldimport "Proc. Nat." astheJournal,and"13"asthe Volume.
Related Topics:
Fields withSpecialCharacteristics
Literal Textvs.EndNoteFields
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
The{IGNORE}Field
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheReference TypeTag
TheSourceLine
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
Working withFilterTemplates
The Filter Options
The Filter Options (Import Filters and Connection Files)
TheremainderoftheoptionslistedintheFilterwindowbelowTemplates providethetoolsforfinetuningyourfilter.Theseoptions
include, amongotherthings,howauthornamesshouldbeinterpreted,howtextis indentedinyourdatafile,andwhichcharacters
shouldbeomittedwhen youimportrecordsintoanEndNotelibrary.
EndNotes "Smart" Settings
Whenpossible,EndNoteprovidesaSmartoptionforyourchoicesinconfiguring thefilters.WhereveryouselectaSmartoption,it
meansthatEndNote willdoitsbesttointerpretthedata.Ifyoudonotknowexactlyhow thereferenceisconfiguredinthedata
file,orifthereisalotof variabilityamongtheformatofthereferences,thentheSmartoptions areprobablygoingtobethemost
reliablesettings.Incaseswherethe Smartoptiondoesnotworkforyourdatafile,youmaytrytheotheroptionsprovidedforthat
particularsetting.
Thesetopicsdescribethevariousfilteroptions:
l AuthorParsing
l ContinuationLines
l ReferenceType
l FieldEditing
l RecordLayout
l SourceParsing
Related Topics:
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
TheFilter Manager
TheSourceLine
Working withFilterTemplates
Author and Editor Parsing (Import Filters and Connection Files)
UsetheAuthorParsingpaneltospecifyhowauthornamesarearrangedinyourdatafile.Thesesettingsapplyonlytoauthorsin
EndNotesmain(Generic)Authorfield.TheEditorParsingpanelappliestoeditors,translators, andotherauthorsthatareinEnd-
NotesGenericSecondaryAuthor,Tertiary Author,andSubsidiaryAuthorfields.
Name Order
Usethe"NameOrder"settingstospecifytheorderinwhichfirstandlastnamesarearrangedinthedatafile.Examplesappro-
priate toeachsettingareshownbelow:
Last Always Precedes First
AU:Smith, J.;
First Always Precedes Last
AU:J.Smith,
Name Order is Inconsistent
AU:Smith, J.,
Interpreting First Names
The"InterpretFirstNamesas"optionallowsyoutospecifyexactlyhowEndNoteshouldinterpretthepartoftheauthornamethat
ithasidentifiedasthefirstnameorinitials.
ThedefaultissettoSmart,whichusesthefollowingrule:Ifthere arethreeorfewercontiguousuppercaseletters,theseletters
areimported asinitials.Otherwise,thelettersareimportedasawholename.For example,iftheauthorsnameappearsinthe
datafileas:
AU:Childs,
Smartparsingwillinterpret"Jackie"asthefirst name,and "D"asthemiddleinitial.Thisauthornamewouldimportas:
Author:
Childs,JackieD.
Iftheauthorsnameappearsinthedatafileas
AU:von Braun, ED
SmartparsingwillinterpretEDasinitials;thustheauthornamewould importintoEndNoteas:
Author:
vonBraun, E.D.
EndNotewouldonlyimportEDasafirstname"Ed"ifyouselected theWholeNamesoption.
TheWholeNamesandInitialsOnlyoptionsshouldonlybeusedinspecial cases.TheWholeNamesoptionshouldbeusedinthe
casewheretheauthors inyourdatafilearealluppercase,andfullnamesareused.Thisoption preventsEndNotefromconverting
namesconsistingoftwoorthreeuppercase letters,asin"SUE"or"AL"toinitials.Forexample, iftheauthorsnameappearsin
thedatafileas:
AU:TOBIES, SUE
theWholeNamesoptionwouldcorrectlyimport theauthorsfirstnameas"Sue."Bycontrast,EndNotesSmartParsingwould
interpretthewholenameSUEasthreeinitials,as"S.U.E.Likewise,ifyouselectInitialsOnly,EndNoteimportsall firstnamesas
initialsonly.Youwouldonlychoosethislatteroption iftheallthefirstnamesinyourdatafileareinitials.
Author Name Separators
TheAuthorNameSeparatorstellEndNotehowtoextracttheindividualauthorsfromalinecontainingseveralauthors.
Between Authors
The"BetweenAuthors"optionreferstothepunctuationthat isusedtoseparateindividualauthornames.Itisextremelyimportant
thatthissettingiscorrectsothattheauthornamesimport correctly intoEndNote.AuthornamesinanEndNotereferencesare
listedonename perline.
ThedefaultfortheBetweenAuthorsoptionissettoSmart.Withthisoptionselected,EndNotelooksforacommonseparator,
eitherasemicolon (;),acarat(^)oraverticalbar(|),andusethisdelimitertoidentify whereonenameendsandthenextname
begins.
Inthisexample,multipleauthorsareseparatedbyasemicolon:
AU:BuntingME;Hanzlik
EndNotesSmartparsingrecognizesthesemicolonseparatingthetwo authornamesandcorrectlyimportsthemintoanEndNote
libraryas:
Author:
Bunting,M.
Therefore,inthisexample,youdonotneedtochangethesetting.However, ifyourdatafilehasadelimiterotherthanasemicolon
(;),acaret (^),oraverticalbar(|)separatingmultipleauthors,youmustselectanotheroptionfromtheadjacentlist.Totypeany
punctuationsuchas adashoraslash,selectOtherandtypethecharacterthere.Aspaceandareturn(wheretheauthorsare
listedoneperline)canbeselected directlyfromthelist.
IfyouselectImportAsIsfromthelist,EndNotewillnottrytoseparatethenamesthatfollowtheauthortag.Everythingthatfol-
lowsthattag inthedatafilewillbeimportedexactlyasitappearsinthefile.
Last and First Names Separator
OnceEndNoteknowshowtoidentifyanindividualauthornameinalist ofauthors,itlooksatthatnameandtriestodetermine
whatthefirstnameisandwhatthelastnameis.TheLastandFirstNamesseparatorisusedtodothis,alongwiththeName
Ordersettings.
ThedefaultLast&FirstNamessettingisSmart.Withthisoption selected,EndNoteattemptstointerpretanauthorsnamebased
onthe followingseparators:aspace,acomma, oraperiod.Inyourdatafile, iftheseparatorusedbetweenthelastnameandthe
firstnameissomething otherthanaspace,acomma,oraperiod,youcanselect aseparatorfrom theadjacentlist.
Parenthetical Data in Author Field
Itisnotuncommonforinformationproviderstoincludeadditionalinformation abouttheauthors(suchasdateofbirthorinsti-
tutionalaffiliation).
AU:Takahashi,
Whenthisinformationismixedinwiththelistofauthorsonthetagged authorline,EndNoteprovidestwooptionsforwhattodo
withit.
l Discard:Allparentheticalinformation isdiscardedduringtheimport.
l Import Into:Allparentheticaldatamixedinwiththeauthornamesisimportedintothefieldthatyou choose.Wesuggestthat
youimport itintotheNotesfield,Author Address,oranothercustomfieldthatisappropriate.
Note:Itisnot appropriateforEndNotetoimportthatdataintotheAuthorfieldbecauseitwouldproduceanincorrectlyformatted
bibliographytohavetheparenthetical dataincludedwiththeauthornames.
Related Topics:
Continuation Lines
FieldEditing(Import Filters)
RecordLayout(Filters)
ReferenceType
SourceParsing
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
Continuation Lines (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Ingeneral,EndNoteignoreslinesoftextwhichdonotbeginwitha tagunlessthelinesoftextarecontinuationsofaprevious
taggeditem. Wecallthesecontinuationlines. Hereisanabstractfromadatafile illustratingtheconceptofcontinuationlines(all
butthefirstare consideredcontinuationlines):
AB- A single-subject research design that usedmultiple baselines across behaviors com-
paredtraditional adaptations to computers.
BecauseEndNoteonlyimportstaggedlinesandcontinuationlines, it canavoidimportingextraneoustextthatmightinterruptaref-
erence, suchasyourloggingonorloggingofftext.Examplesofextraneouslines are:
-->>Press anyKeytocontinue
<Record 5of42>
EndNoteprovidestwogeneraloptionsfordealingwithcontinuationlines:
Ignore Indents: Untagged lines are always a continuation of the preceding line
Withthisoptionset,everylineoftextinthedatafilewillimportaccordingtothetagsthataredefinedintheTemplatespanel.Do
not select thisoptionifthereisanytextinyourdatafilethatisnot tagged.Ifyouusethisoptionanddonotwanttoimport certain
tagged lines,youmustusethe"{IGNORE}option(seeTheIgnoreField).
Continuation lines must be indented
Thisoptionallowsyoutospecifytheexactnumberofspacesonthe leftmarginforthecontinuationlines.
Thefollowingexampleisanabstractwherethefirstlineofdatais indentedfourspacesfromtheleftmargin,andthecontinuation
lines areproperlyindentedfourspaces.EndNotesdefaultSmartIndentIdentification wouldimportthisabstractcorrectly.
(Spacesareshownasperiodsfor clarity.)
AB-.Two experiments compared the performance of 23 12....old dyslexics with that of 8
age-matched controls on a....battery of tests of motor balance. A dual-task
paradigm....was used: Ss performed each test as a single task and as....a task concurrent
with a secondary task. In all single-....task conditions there was no difference between
groups.
However,youmayfinddatafileswherethecontinuationlinesarenotalignedwiththefirstlineofdata.Inthefollowingexample,
thecontinuation linesareindentedtwospacesfromtheleftmargin,whereasthefirst lineisindentedfourspaces:
AB-.Beyond the inevitability of..is the question of countertransference enactments. From
a..two-person, participant-observer or observing-participant..perspective, enactments are
inevitable. The analyst becomes..influenced by the patient (and influences the patient
as..well) and enmeshed in the patient's internalized..interpersonal configurations.
ForEndNotetotreatthesubsequentlinesascontinuationlinesinthe precedingexample,thefiltermustspecifytheexactnumber
ofspaces indentedontheleftmargin.Intheexamplejustgiven,youwouldenter "2"inthe"Indent_spaces"option.
Ifmostofthelinesinadatafileimportafixednumberofspaces (liketwospacesintheexampleabove),butonetaggedfieldis
indented differently(perhapskeywordsareindentedfourspaces),youcanenterexceptionsinthetableprovided.Simplyenterthe
numberofspacesin theleftcolumnnexttothetag.Youonlyneedtoenteranumberforthe taggedfieldwiththeinconsistent
import.Allotherlinesthatareleft blankwillusethegeneralindentsetting.
Note:Foraquick andreliablewaytocounthowmanyspacesareinsertedontheleftmargin, turnonthesettinginyourword
processortodisplayformattingcharacters.
Related Topics:
AuthorParsing
FieldEditing(Import Filters)
RecordLayout(Filters)
ReferenceType
SourceParsing
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
Reference Type (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Default Reference Type
ThedefaultreferencetypetellsEndNotewhichreferencetypetouse ifitcannotidentifythereferencetypeofarecord.Forexam-
ple,suppose thatinonefilter,youspecifyJournalArticleasyourdefaultreference type,andcreateatemplateforit.Ifyouimport
adatafilecontaining conferenceproceedingsrecordsforwhichyouhavenotdefinedaReference Typetemplate,anyconference
proceedingsrecordswillimport asJournal Articles.Also,ifthedatabasethatyouusedoesnotspecifyaReference Typetag,all
referencetypesinyourdatafilewillimportasyourdefault referencetype.(SeeTheReference TypeTagforinformationabout
definingthereferencetypestaginatemplate.)
Note:Thedefault referencetypeisalwaysindicatedwithboldtextintheReferenceTypes listontheTemplatespanel.
Identifiers
Someinformationproviders,suchasOvidTechnologies,
Theseidentifiersarealsousedtoimport datafilesthatcontainreferences frommultipledatabases.EndNotecanimport multi-
sourcefileslikethat aslongaseachrecordinthedatafilehasavendorandadatabasetagatthestartofthereference.Theiden-
tifiersmustalsobeenteredinto theappropriatefiltersintheFiltersfolder.Whenyouarereadytoimportafilethathasdatafrom
multiplesourcesinit,besuretoselect theMulti-Filterimport optionintheImportdialog.
ThewaythatEndNoteisabletoknowwhichfiltertouseisbythese Identifiertagsenteredintothefilter.Bothidentifiersmustbe
used. Thefirstidentifiershouldbethetagthatincludesthenameoftheinformation provider.Forthisexampleitis"VN.Theexact
textthatfollowsthattagforeachrecordshouldbeentered intothecorrespondingboxintheIdentifierssection.Thenexttagis
usedtoidentifythedatabase,suchasMedlineorBIOSIS.Enterthetagusedforthedatabasename,andthenenterthedatabase
nameexactlyasitappearsineachreference.
Forexample,forEndNotetoreadinthisdata:
<1>
VNOvidTechnologies,Inc.
DBOvidMEDLINE
AUJacobson,R;Campbell,S
PY1999etc.
ForVendorIdentification,entertheTag"VN"andtheText"OvidTechnologies".
ForDatabaseIdentification,entertheTag"DB"andtheText"OvidMEDLINE".
Related Topics:
AuthorParsing
Continuation Lines
FieldEditing(Import Filters)
RecordLayout(Filters)
SourceParsing
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
Working withFilterTemplates
Field Editing (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Toaccessthisfeature,selectImportFiltersorConnectionFilesfromtheEditmenu.OpentheManager andthenselecttheEdit
option.
Converting Text from Uppercase to Lowercase
Ifthetextinyourdatafileappearsentirelyinuppercaseletters, EndNotecanconvertthetexttoeitherSentence,Headline,or
Lowercase format,dependingonwhichoptionyouspecifyintheFieldEditingpanel.
Tocontrolthelowercasingofafield, selecttheappropriatefieldfromtheFieldEditingfor:list atthetopofthewindow.TheEnd-
Notefieldsarelistedherebytheir Genericnames. ThenpickacapitalizationoptionfromtheChange UPPERCASEtextto:list.
Note:ForalistofreferencetypefieldsandtheircorrespondingGenericfieldnames,seetheGeneric ReferenceType.
Forexample,atitlethatappearsinadatafileas"COMPOSTAS AHUMANNUTRIENTANDHORMONECARRIER"would
importinHeadlinecapitalization as:
Compost asaHumanNutrientandHormoneCarrier
orinSentencecapitalizationas:
Compost asahumannutrientandhormonecarrier
Tokeepafieldstextentirelyinuppercasecharacters, selectthe DoNOTLowercaseoption.
Youcanapplylowercasingonanyfield aslongasallthetextinthefieldisuppercase.Ifanyofthetext inthefieldisinmixed
case,EndNotewillimportitinmixedcase.
TheAuthor,Editor,andTranslatorfieldsaretreateddifferentlyfrom allotherEndNotefields.Uponimportingauthorfieldsintoan
EndNote library,thesefieldsareautomaticallyconvertedfromuppercasetoheadline.Duetothespecialcharacteristicsofthese
particularfields,theoption tochangethecaseisnotavailableintheFieldEditingpanel.
Omitting Unwanted Characters
Somelinesofdatahavesuperfluouscharacters,suchasanasterisk (*)oradash(-),thatyoumaynotwanttoimport.Forexam-
ple,inthe followinglinesofdatatherearedashesinthejournalname,andthere isanasteriskbeforeeachkeyword:
SO-American-journal-of-preventive-medicine; 12(9)
DE-*COMPUTER SYSTEMSDESIGN;*DISPLAYDEVICES;*INTERFACES
TopreventunwantedcharactersfrombeingimportedintoyourEndNote library,usetheFieldEditingpaneltospecifythechar-
actersthatyouwanttoomit:
l Fromthe "FieldEditingfor:"list,selecttheEndNotefieldthat containsunwantedcharacters. YouwillfindthattheEndNote
fields arelistedbytheirGenericnames. Foralistofreferencetypefields andtheircorrespondingGenericfieldnames,seethe
ListofReferenceTypes.
l Typethe unwantedtextinthe"Entertexttobeomitted(oneitemperline)"box,andthenclickAddtoaddittotheomissionlist.
WhenyoupreventcharactersfrombeingimportedintoanEndNotefield, youareomittingthecharactersfromthecorresponding
Genericfield, sotheomissionappliestoeveryreferencetypefieldthatcorresponds totheparticularGenericfield.Forexample,
theSecondaryTitlefield correspondstoboththeJournalfieldinaJournalArticlereferencetypeandtheSeriesTitleinaBookref-
erencetype.Therefore,ifyouomitadash(-)fromthejournalname,anydashesfoundinaSeriesTitlefor aBookreferencetype
willalsobeomitted.
Eachitemthatyouwanttoomitshouldbeenteredonaseparateline.Forexample,letssaythatyouwantedtoomitbothunder-
scores(_)and forwardslashes(/)fromyourrecordskeywords.Firstaddtheunderscore,andthenaddtheforwardslash.Entering
bothitemsonthesamelinewould causeEndNotetoomitonlyinstancesof"_/",whileallother instancesofunderscoresandfor-
wardslasheswouldendupinyourkeywords. Youcanomitupto254charactersperEndNotefield.
Toremoveanitemfromthelist,simplyselect theitemandclickRemove. Youmayselectmorethanoneitembyholdingdown
theShiftorCtrl key whileclickingonmultipleitems.
Note:Themoreitemsaddedtothelist,thelongerittakesEndNotetoimportrecords intoEndNote.Toavoidslowingdownthe
importingprocess,youmaywant tostartbyimportingthedataintoanEndNotelibrarywithoutspecifying anyomissions.Then
usetheFindandReplacecommandfromtheEditmenutodeletethe unwantedwordsandothertext.
Related Topics:
AuthorParsing
Continuation Lines
RecordLayout(Filters)
ReferenceType
SourceParsing
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
Working withFilterTemplates
Record Layout (Import Filters and Connection Files)
UsetheoptionsintheRecordLayout paneltomodifyhowEndNoteinterprets theendofareferenceinadatafile.
Smart Record Identification
SmartRecordIdentification,EndNotesdefaultsettingforRecordTermination, createsanewrecordinEndNoteeachtimeatag
inthedatafilerepeats outofsequenceandisprecededbyablankorextraneousline.EndNote willnotcreateanewrecordifthe
sametagappearsinsuccession, providedthattheyarenotseparatedbyablankline.
Forexample,somedatabaseslistauthorsonepertaggedline,withthe AUtagappearingtwoormoretimesinsuccession, asin
thefollowing example:
AU-D'Orazio,MGAU-
WhenEndNoteseesconsecutivetags,itdoesnotstartanewreferenceunlessitfindsthesametagprecededbyablankorextra-
neousline.
More Specific Record Layout Options
Amoreprecisewayofidentifyinganewrecordistospecifyinyour filterexactlyhowtherecordsareterminatedinyourdatafile.
Theremaining optionsintheRecordLayoutpanelallowyoutodothis.
Todeterminehowrecordsareterminated,openyourdatafileineither awordprocessorortexteditor.Checkforthepatterncon-
sistentlyseparating onerecordfromanother.Onceyouhavedeterminedthecorrectrecordtermination, clicktheappropriatebut-
tonontheRecordLayoutpaneltoselectthe bestoptionforyourdatafile.Youmaychooseonlyoneoptionasarecordterminator.
Blank line separates records
Selectthisoptioniftheonlyblanklinesinadatafilearetheones inbetweenreferences.
Using "First Tag" and "Last Tag" Options
Thisoptionletsyouspecifyafirsttagthatstartstherecordand/ orafinaltagthatendseachrecord.Onlyonetagisrequired.
l Beforechoosingthisoptionasyourrecordterminator,verifythatthefirstorlasttagisconsistentlypresentineach record.
Thisoptionwillfunctioncorrectlyonlyifthechosentag appearsineveryrecord.
l Youdonotneedtoenterbothafirstandlast tag;eithertagwillsufficetodistinguishonerecordfromthenext.
l Enterthetagexactlyasitappearsinthedata file,includingthedelimiter(colonanddash)thatfollowsthetag. EndNote
treatsthesedelimitersaspartoftheirrespectivetags.
l Youdonotneedtoincludethesetagsinthetemplatesofyourfilter,unlessyouwishtoimporttheassociated data.
Each record ends with:
Selectthisoptionifyourreferencesconsistentlyendwithaspecific setofuniquecharacters.Notethatwhateveryouenterinto
thisoption needstobeuniqueenoughthatitdoesnotappear elsewhereinyourreferences.Onecommonsetofcharactersthatis
usedtoterminateeachrecordis||.
Each record starts with:
Selectthisoptionifyourreferencesconsistentlystartwithtextthat isnotatag.Forexample,itiscommonforsomeinformation
providerstobegineachreferencewithacountersuchas:
<1>
or
Record1of53
Inthesecases, enterthetextexactlyasitappearsinthedatafile, butsubstituteanumbersign(#)fortheactualnumber.Forthe
examples above, youwouldenter"<#>"and"Record#of#".
Example
Thefollowingexampleillustratesadatafilethatcontainsneither ablankline,nortextterminatingeachrecord.However,thereis
aconsistent firsttag,"ND:"startingeachrecord.Soforthisexampleyou wouldwanttospecify"ND:"astherecordtermination
byclicking the"FirstTag"button,andtyping"ND:"inthebox.
ND: 430529953|
BASE: BA83|
AU: HILDEN
Related Topics:
AuthorParsing
Continuation Lines
FieldEditing(Import Filters)
ReferenceType
SourceParsing
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
Source Parsing (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Thesource linereferstothelineinthedatafilethatrepresentsthesource informationforthejournal(typicallyjournal,volume,
issue,pages, andsometimestheyear).Itismostoftenthemostcomplexandinconsistentlineofdatainyourdatafileanditis
alsothemostimportant.Asa result,theEndNotefiltersprovideasortofsafetynettocatchinconsistently enteredsourcedata.
ThetagsandtemplatesdefinedintheTemplatespanelareusedfirst toimportsourcedata.Ifasourcelineinadatafiledoesnot
match anyoftheoptionsinthetemplates,thenEndNoteprovidesyouwithadditionaloptionsforhowtohandlethat.Thefirstthing
youneedtodoistomakesurethatEndNotehascorrectlyidentifiedthejournalarticlesource tag.
Identifying the Source Tag
IfthesourcetagfortheJournalArticlereferencetypeintheTemplates sectionofafilterisSOorJN,EndNoteautomatically iden-
tifiesthistagasthesourcetag.However,ifthesourcetagdefinedinyourfilterissomethingotherthana"SO"or"JN",youmust
choosetheappropriatetagfromtheJournalArticlesourceTaglist.(AllofthetagsthathavebeendefinedintheJournalArticle
templatewillappearinthe"SourceTag"list.)
When source data and filter templates do not match
Ifajournalarticlessourcelineinyourdatafiledoesnotmatch asourcelineinyourfilter,youcanchoosehowEndNoteshould
treat theunmatchedsourceline.ThedefaultoptionisUseSmartParsing.EndNotes SmartParsingdoesitsbesttodistinguish
thejournalname,thevolume number,theissuenumber,thepagenumbers,andtheyear,andimporteach intothecorresponding
EndNotefield.Anyinformationthatisnotidentified asajournal,volume,issue,pages,oryearisimportedintotheNotesfield,
alongwiththecomment"UsingSmartSourceParsing." (Afterimporting,ifyoususpectthatsomereferencesmaynothave
matched thedefinedsourcetemplate,itishelpfultouseEndNotesSearchcommand tosearchforthetext"UsingSmartSource
Parsing"intheNotes fieldoftheimportedreferences.Youmaythencheckthosespecifically toseeifEndNotecorrectlyinter-
pretedthedata.)
Ifyouchoosetheotheroptiontoimportthesourcedataintoaseparate field,EndNotedoesnotattempttoparsethesourceinfor-
mation,andinstead importstheentireunmatchedsourcelineintowhateverfieldyouhavespecified.
ForanyreferencetypeotherthanaJournalArticle,unmatchedsourcelinesareautomaticallyimportedintotheNotesfield.There-
fore,ifyou havenotdefinedanexactmatchforasourcelinefoundinabookrecord inyourdatafile,EndNoteimportstheentire
sourcelineintotheNotes field.
Related Topics:
AuthorParsing
Continuation Lines
FieldEditing(Import Filters)
RecordLayout(Filters)
ReferenceType
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
TheSourceLine
Importing MARC Records
What Are MARC Records?
"MARC"standsforMachineReadableCatalogingformat.ItisastandardizedformatdevelopedbytheLibraryofCongress forpro-
ducingmachine-readablebibliographicrecords.Itismuchmore difficulttoreadthanregulartaggeddataformats,butitcanstillbe
importedinmuchthesamewayusingEndNotesfilters.
The MARC Format and Connection Files
ManyconnectionfilesusetheMARCformat becauseitisspecifiedas partoftheZ39.50standard.Whencreatinganewcon-
nectionfile,the TemplatesandMARCRecordsportionsoftheconnectionfileareautomaticallysetuptoimportstandard
USMARC(MARC21) data.Ifyouneedtocustomizethesepartsoftheconnectionfile,the instructionsinthissectionwould
apply.
Related Topics:
Creating aFilterforMARCRecords
Rules forMARCImportFilters
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
TheFilter Options
Unique AspectsofMARCRecords
Unique Aspects of MARC Records
MARCrecordsdifferfromotherbibliographicrecordsintwoimportantways:
Numeric Tags
TheprimarywayinwhichMARCrecordsdifferfromnon-MARCbibliographic recordsisintheirrelianceonnumerictags.
Numerictagstypicallyconsistofthreedigitsfollowedbytwospacesandtwomoredigits.Forexample:
245 10 $a When you realize you have too many
kids: $b a guide / $c Hugh B
245 14 $a The angel with a dirty mouth /$c NickSteel ; illustrated by Melissa
Subfields
ThesecondwayinwhichMARCtagsdifferfromotherbibliographicrecords istheuseofsubfields.
EachnumericallytaggedlineinaMARCrecordmaycontainanynumber ofsubfields.Asubfieldtypicallyconsistsoftwocon-
secutivecharacters, thefirstofwhichisthesubfielddelimiterwhichdenotesthestartof anewsubfield.Examplesofsubfields
are"$a"and"$x." Thesubfieldsdonothavetobeconsecutive,asinthesecondrecordin theexampleabove.
Ifyouwerecreatingaconventionalfilterforimportingbibliographic recordsfromaMARCdatabase,youwouldhavetoanticipate
avastnumber ofpossiblecombinations,bothoftagsandofsubfields.
Becauseitisdifficulttoanticipateeverypossiblecombinationof tagsandsubfieldsinMARCrecords,EndNoteprovidesyouwith
asimplified wayofcreatingfiltersforMARCrecords.Thetwosectionsthatfollow tellyouhowtocreateafilterspecificallyfor
MARCrecords,andthen alertyoutothedifferentrulesthatEndNoteuseswhenimportingMARC recordsintoanEndNotelibrary.
Related Topics:
Creating aFilterforMARCRecords
Rules forMARCImportFilters
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
TheFilter Options
WhatAreMARC Records?
Creating a Filter for MARC Records
Onceyouhavecreatedanewfilter,oryouhaveopenedanexistingfilter,selecttheMARCRecordspanelintheFilterwindow.
Clickthe"ProcessdatafileasMARCrecord"checkbox.Thedollarsign($)willappearinthe"MARCSubfieldDelimiter" box,
sincethisisthesubfielddelimiterinmostcases. Ifthesubfield delimiterissomethingotherthanadollarsign,deletethedollar
signandtypeintheappropriatedelimiter.
Data Start Column
ThereferencedatainaMARCreferencenormallystartsincolumn8(that is,thesixthcharacterfromtheleftmargin).Thisisthe
defaultsetting youwillfindinthe"Datastartsincolumn"textbox.IftheMARCrecordsinyourdatafilestarttheactualreference
data(as opposedtotagsandsubfielddelimiters)insomeotherposition,enterthatnumberinthe"Datastartsincolumn"textbox.
Note:Alwaysenter avalueof6orhigherinthe"Datastartsincolumn"textbox. Ifyouenteralesservalue(forexample,you
enterthenumber5),the valuewillchangebackto8whenyouleavetheMarcRecordspaneleven ifyouhavesavedyour
changes.Thisonlyhappensinthe"Datastarts incolumn"textbox.Ifyoumakeotherchanges,thenthose valuesaresaved
whenyoureturntotheMarcRecordspanel.
Accession Numbers
TheAccessionNumberisauniquenumberassignedtoeachrecordina database.(Theinformationprovidersdatabase;notthe
EndNotedatabase.) TheprovidermaynotcallitanAccessionNumber;PubMedusesPMID,andsomesystemsuseuniqueiden-
tifier. Thesenumberssometimesappearimmediatelyafterthenumerictag, andwithoutthetwo-digitsubfieldcodesseeninother
MARCfields.Since acommontypeofaccessionnumberoftenappearsafterthe001tag,EndNote includesanImport001tagsas
AccessionNumbers checkboxwhichletsyouimportthisnumberintoEndNotesAccessionNumber field. Accessionnumbers
whichappearinlinesotherthan001oftenbegin withasubfield,soyoucansetupthefiltertoimportthenumberinto theAcces-
sionNumberfield.
If First Field has no Subfield Delimiter
Normallythefirstcharacterthatprecedestherecorddataisthesubfielddelimiter(commonlyadollarsign$).Ifthissubfielddelim-
iterisnot presentforthefirstfieldofeachtaggedline,youwillneedtotell EndNotehowtointerpretthefirstcharacterbychecking
theappropriate optionundertheMARCrecordsdialog.Isitpartoftherealdataofa referenceorisitafielddesignator(suchas"a"
or"b") thatjusthappenstobemissingthesubfielddelimiter?
Related Topics:
Rules forMARCImportFilters
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
TheFilter Options
Unique AspectsofMARCRecords
WhatAreMARC Records?
Working withFilterTemplates
Rules for MARC Import Filters
EndNoteobservestheseruleswhenimportingMARCrecords:
l EndNote allowsyoutospecifyonlythefirstthreedigitsofthetagwhen designingafilterforMARCrecords.Youcandisregard
spacesand digitsappearingimmediatelyafterthefirstthreedigits.Thetag forbothofthefollowingexampleswouldbe245.
245 10 $a When you realize you have too many
kids: $b a guide / $c Hugh B
245 14 $a The angel with a dirty mouth /$c NickSteel ; illustrated by Melissa
l You donothavetodefineallthesubfieldsinataggedline.Theremay besomesubfieldsthatcontaininformationyoudonot
wanttoimportintoyourEndNotelibrary.EndNotewillignoreanysubfieldsthat arenotdefinedinyourfilter.
l Source linescannottakeadvantageofthe"SmartSourceParsing"option.Youmay,however,entermultiplevariationsofthe
subfieldsinasourceline.Besuretoenterallsubfieldsafterthesametag (donotrepeatthetagforeach),andlistthemost
complexsubfield formatsfirst. Forexample:
773 $gVolume(Issue), p.
l Withtheexceptionofthereferencetypetag,EndNoteallowsyoutodefineatagonlyonce;thereforeyoushouldincludeallof
thesubfields thatcontaindatayouwanttobeimported.Forexample,thefollowing lineinafilterforMARCrecordswouldsuc-
cessfullyimportanyor allofthethreelinesthatfollow:
Tag Field(s)
245 $a Title$bTitle$cNotes

245 14 $a The hollow horn : $b Bob Dylan'sreception in the United States andGermany / $c
by Dennis Anderson.
245 10 $a Bob Dylan, spellbinding songwriter /$c Nathan
245 00 $a Down in the groove.
Related Topics:
Creating aFilterforMARCRecords
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
TheFilter Options
Unique AspectsofMARCRecords
WhatAreMARC Records?
Modifying an Existing Filter
Modifying an Existing Filter (Example)
Modifyinganexistingfilterisusefulifyouwanttocreateanewfilter foradifferentdatabasebythesameprovider.Althoughsome
information providersofferradicallydifferentformatsfortheirdifferentdatabases, thereareotherswhoprovidefairlyconsistent
tagsandorganizeddata acrosstheirdatabases.
Commonreasonsforeditingafilterincludeaddingatagtoimportadditional information; removingatagorusing{IGNORE} to
omitunwanteddata;orfine-tuningthecurrentsettingsforimportingauthorsorjournalsourcedata.Thespecificsabouthowto
workwithtemplatesandoptionsaredescribedearlierinthischapter.Thisexampleisintended toprovideageneraloverviewof
theprocessofeditingafilter.
Adding a Tag and Field to a Filter
LetssaythatyouwanttomodifyafiltertoimportthelanguageofthepublicationintoEndNotesNotesfield.Inthisparticulardata-
base,thelanguageisprecededbythetag"LA-".
TI-ZumbeginndesmathematischenFrauenstudiumsi Preussen.|
TI-<Translated>ThebeginningsofmathematicalstudiesforwomeninPrussia|
AU-Tobies.Renate
JN-NTMSchr.GeschichteNatur. Tech.Medizin|
SO-<JN>NTMSchriftenreihefurGeschichtederNaturwissenschaftenTechnikundMedizin|
SO-<PY>1991|
SO-<VO>28|
SO-<NO>no.2,|
SO-<PG>151-172.|
LA-German|
DT-Journal|
ToaddtheLAtaganddirectitscontentstotheNotesfield:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectImportFilters,and thenselectOpenFilterManager.Themostrecentlyusedfilterwillalso
appearasanoptionintheImportFilterssubmenu.Youmaychoose Edit<filtername>toeditthatfilteraswell.
2. IntheFilterManager,selectthefilterthatyou wanttoedit,andthenclickEdit.
3. SelecttheTemplatesoptionintheleftpanelof thewindow.
4. ClickthemouseinanycelloftheJournalArticletemplate,andthenpressEntertocreatetoanewrow.
5. TypeLA-intheTagcell,andthenpressaTab tomovetotheFieldcell.Insert theNotesfieldfromtheInsert Fieldlist.
DoingsotellsEndNotetoimportthelanguageinformation intoEndNotesNotesfield.
6. YoucanaddtheLA-tagtotheremainingReferenceTypetemplatesinthefilter.UsetheReferenceTypelisttoswitchtoeach
referencetypetemplateinyourfilterandrepeattheprocessdescribedabove.(Referencetypeswithcheckmarksnexttothem
inthelistaretheonesthathavetemplatesdefinedforthem.
7. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.Enteranew nameforthemodifiedversionofthefilter,andthen clickSave.
Related Topics:
The BasicComponentsofaFilter
The FilterEditorwindow
TheFilter Manager
TheFilter Options
WhatAreMARC Records?
Creating a New Filter
Creating a New Filter
Thistopicprovidesageneraloverviewofhowtocreateanewfilter.Youcanviewanexampleofadatafile,andthetemplatespor-
tionofafiltertomatchit(seeExample DataFileandTemplates).
Thebasicstepstocreateanewfilterare:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectImportFiltersandselect NewFilter.
2. Ifyouwouldlike,youmayenteracategoryfor thefilter(usuallytheinformationproviderisusedforthecategory),andany
othercommentsaboutwhatthefilterisbasedonorwhatdata itisusedtoimport.
3. ClickontheTemplatesoption.
4. FromtheReferenceTypeslist,selectthefirst referencetypethatyouwouldliketodefine,andenterthenecessary tags
andthecorrespondingfieldsintothereferencetypetemplate. SeeWorkingwithFilterTemplates.
5. Defineadditionalreferencetypes,asnecessary, byselectingthemfromtheReferenceTypeslistandenteringthetags and
fieldsforthemaswell.
6. ClicktheReferenceTypeoptioninthelistof panelnames,andselect thedefaultreferencetypeforthefilter.
Atthispoint,youmayhaveenteredenoughinformationtousethefilter successfully.Tryitoutbychoosingitastheimportoption
toimportyourdatafileintoanew,emptylibrary.Reviewtheimportedreferences tobesurethattheyimportedcorrectly.Finetune
thefilterasnecessary (seeTheFilterOptions).
Note:Ifyouneed areferencetypethatdoesnotappearintheReferenceTypelist,see AddingandDeleting ReferenceTypes.
Foradditionalhelp,seeTips forEnteringTagsandFieldsandExample DataFileandTemplates.
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Not every tag in your data file needs to be in your filter.
Thereisnoneedtodefineeverytagthatappearsinyourdatafile, providedthatthecontentsofthecorrespondingfieldstartonthe
samelineasthetagitself;andtherecordscontinuationlinearenotflush left.Ifyouneedtodefineeverytagthatappearsinarec-
ord,butonly wanttoimporttheinformationassociatedwithcertaintags,insertthe {IGNORE}fieldfromtheInsertFieldlist where
appropriate.
Note:Youdonot needtospecifyalldatafields,unlesseachtagappearsonalineby itself,withthedatastartingbelowitonthe
nextline.Youmayalso wanttospecifyalltagsifthecontinuationlinesinyourrecordsareflushleft,inwhichcaseanundefined
tagappearingimmediatelyafter acontinuationlinewillbereadinastext.
You might need to enter multiple variations of a source line.
Youwilloftenfindmorethanonevariationofasourcelineforagiven referencetypeinadatabase,inwhichcaseyouwillneedto
definea separatesourcelineinyourtemplateforeachsuchvariant.Themost complexsourcelineshouldappearfirst,followed
bysourcelinesofdecreasing complexity. InthecaseofJournalArticles,besuretospecifytheappropriateSourceParsingoption
(refertoSourceParsing).
MARCformatsareanexception.SeeRules forMARCImportFilters.
A colon, dash, space or other character that appears along with a tag is treated as part of the tag.
Whendefiningtagsinafilter,thesecharactersneedtobeincluded inthetagcolumnofthefilterforEndNotetofindanexact
match.If spacesareinsertedwithinatag,asin"SO-<VO,theyneedtobedefinedaspartofthetagaswell.
Related Topics:
Adding andDeletingRowsintheFilterTemplate
Creating aFilterforMARCRecords
Creating aNewFilter
Cutting, CopyingandPastingRows
Example DataFileandTemplates
Example: ModifyinganExistingFilter
Navigating intheTemplatesPanel
TemplatesforDifferentReferenceTypes
Unique AspectsofMARCRecords
Working withFilterTemplates
Example Data File and Templates
BelowisasampleofarecordinadatafileandthefilterTemplatespanelconfiguredtoimportthedata.SeeWorking withFilter
Templatesfordetailsaboutconfiguringtemplates.
Sample Record from a Data File
FN- DIALOG
Note:Thetrailing verticalbarsattheendofeachlinewillbestrippedoutbyEndNote.Donotincludetheminthefilter.
TocreateatemplatefortheJournalArticlereferencetype:
1. Select"JournalArticle"fromtheReference Typeslist.
2. TypeTI-inthetagcell,thenpressTabtomovetotheFieldcolumn.InserttheTitlefield usingtheInsertFieldbutton.
3. PressEnterto movetothenextline.
4. Typethenexttagtoimportandinsertthecorresponding field.Continueenteringtherestofthetagsandfieldsuntilall ofthe
necessaryinformationiscoveredbythefilter.Skipanytags fordatathatyouarenotinterestedinimporting.
ThisiswhattheresultingTemplatespanelofthefiltershouldcontain:

Tag Field(s)
AN- AccessionNumber
TI- Title
AU- Author
CS- Author Address
JN- Journal; Volume(Issue)pPages
PY- DateYear
SN- ISSN
DT- ANALYTIC;SERIAL
AB- Abstract
GS- Keywords
DE- Keywords
Note:Itisimportanttorememberthatthesourcelinein afiltermustexactlymatchthesourcelineinthedatafileforEndNote to
distinguishonefieldfromanother.Youwilloftenfindmorethanone variationofasourcelineforagivenreferencetypeinadata-
base,in whichcaseyouwillneedtocreateaseparatesourcelineforeachvariant inyourdownload,startingwiththemostcom-
plexsourcelineandending withtheleastcomplexsourceline.Asabackup, selecttheappropriateSourceParsingoption.
Related Topics:
Creating aFilterforMARCRecords
Creating aNewFilter
TipsforEnteringTagsandFields
Working withFilterTemplates
Connection Files
Introduction to Connection Files
Introduction to Connection Files
TheOnlineSearchcommandonEndNotesToolsmenuconnectsyoutoonline databasesandlibrarycatalogssothatyoucan
searchthemfromwithin theEndNoteprogramandretrievereferencesdirectlyintoEndNote.EndNote isabletomakethesecon-
nectionsusingtheinformationstoredinthe hundredsofindividual"connectionfiles."
Thissectiondescribeshowtoeditandcreatetheseconnectionfiles.TheprocessofusingtheOnlineSearchcommandis
describedinQuick Overview(OnlineSearching).
EndNoteprovidesthousandsofconnectionfilesforavarietyofsources. Bydefault,onlythemostpopularconnectionfilesare
storedasindividual filesintheConnectionsfolderinyourEndNoteprogramfolder.Toinstall additionalconnectionfiles,see
Installing AdditionalConnectionFiles.
What is a Connection File?
Aconnectionfilecontainsalltheinformationnecessarytoconnect to,search,andimport referencesfromanonlinedatabaseor
onlinelibrarycatalog.Eachconnectionfilerepresentsadifferentonlinedatabase(suchastheLibraryofCongressorPubMed
fromtheNationalLibraryofMedicine).
TheconnectionfilesarelocatedintheConnectionsfolderinyourEndNotefolder.Youcanviewalloftheavailableconnectionsby
selectingConnection FilesfromtheEditmenuandselectingOpenConnectionManager.
Related Topics:
Basic ComponentsofaConnectionFile
TheConnectionManager
The Connection Manager
EndNoteprovideshundredsofconnectionfilesforavarietyofsources. Bydefault,onlythemostpopularconnectionfilesare
storedasindividual filesintheConnectionsfolderinyourEndNoteprogramfolder.Toinstall additionalconnectionfiles,see
Installing AdditionalConnectionFiles.
ToperusethelistofavailableconnectionfilesinEndNotesConnections folder,selectConnectionFilesfromtheEditmenu,and
selectOpenConnection Manager.
TheConnectionManagerliststhenamesofalloftheoriginalconnection filesavailableintheProgram Files\En-
dNote\Connectionsfolderaswellasanynewormodifiedconnection filesinyourpersonalConnectionsfolder,andgivesyouthe
optionsto editthemorselectthemas"favorites"forquickaccesswhen youusetheOnlineSearchcommand.Youcanclickand
dragthecornerof thedialogtoincreasethesize.
Locating the Connection File You Want to Use
l If youknowthenameoftheconnectionfilethatyouwanttouse,start typingittoselectthefirstfilethatmatcheswhatyou
type.
l Click theFindBy buttonandselectaninformationprovidersname(such asOvidorSilverPlatter)tofindonlytheconnection
filesfora specificinformationprovider.
l Click theFindBy buttonandselectAllConnectionstoreturnallof theconnectionfilestothedisplayedlist.
l Click thecolumnheadingstosorttheconnectionfilesbynameorbyinformation provider.Clickingthesamecolumnheadinga
secondtimewillchange thesortorderfromascendingtodescending.Clickagaintosetit backtoascendingorder.
l Click theMoreInfotrianglebuttonatthebottomofthedialogtodisplayadditionalinformationabouttheselectedconnection
file.Or,click LessInfotohidetheadditionalinformation.
Marking Your Favorite Connection Files
Whenyouhavefoundaconnectionfilethatyouwillwanttouseinthe future,clickthecheckboxnexttoittomarkitasafavorite.
Allconnectionfilesthataremarkedasfavorites(upto500)appearas anOnlineSearchgroupintheLibrarywindow.Thisgives
youeasyaccess tothefilesyouusemostoften.
Aneasywaytomarkawholecategoryofconnectionfiles(suchasalloftheconnectionsforOviddatabases)istoclicktheFind
bybutton , chooseacategoryfromthelist,andthenwhenallofthefilesforthatcategoryareshowing,clicktheMarkAllbutton.
Editing Connection Files
Ifyouwouldliketomodifyaconnectionfile,selectitinthelist andclickEdit.SeetheRelatedTopicslistbelowfortopicsabout
how toworkwithconnectionfiles.
Copying Connection Files
WhenyoudisplayalistofconnectionfilesinEndNote,thelistis comprisedoftheinstalledconnectionfilesfoundintheProgram
Files\EndNote\Connectionsfolderaswellasnewormodifiedconnection filesfoundinyourpersonalConnectionsfolder.Foran
explanationof whereyourfilesarestored,seeFolderLocationsPreferences.
Therearetwowaystocopyconnectionfiles.First,sinceeachconnection fileisaseparatefileonyourharddrive,youcancopy
themasyouwould copyanyfileonyourharddriveusingtheWindowsdesktop.
Or,tomakeacopyofaconnectionfilefromwithinEndNote:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectConnectionFiles>OpenConnectionManagertoopentheConnection Manager.
2. Selecttheconnectionfileyouwanttocopyand clickEdit.
3. Withoutmakinganychangestothefile,select SaveAsfromtheFilemenu.
4. Givethiscopyofthefileanewname,andthen saveit.
ThefileissavedinyourpersonalConnectionsfolder.Thenewconnection filewillremainopen.Theoriginalconnectionfilewillbe
leftuntouched.
Deleting Connection Files
TodeleteaconnectionfilefromwithinEndNote:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectConnectionFiles> OpenConnectionManager.
2. Selecttheconnectionfiletobedeleted.
3. SelectClearfromtheEditmenu,orright-clickontheconnectionfileandselectDeletefromtheshortcutmenu.
Youcanalsodeleteanunwantedconnectionfilebyswitchingbackto theWindowsExplorer,orby opening"MyComputer,"and
openingtheConnectionsfolderintheEndNotefolder.Then,select thefiletodelete,andthenselectDelete fromtheFilemenuor
dragthefiletotheRecycleBin .
Note: Youmusthaveread/writeaccesstotheConnectionsfolderinorderto deleteaconnectionfile.Ifyoudonothaveadmin-
istratoraccess,youlikelywillnotbeabletodeleteafilelocatedwithintheProgramFilesfolder.
Saving Connection Files
Tosaveanewconnectionfilethatyouhavejustcreated,ortosave changestoaconnectionfileyouhavejustmodified,select
SaveorSave AsfromtheFilemenu.
IfyouhavemodifiedoneoftheoriginalinstalledfilesintheProgram Files\EndNote\Connectionsfolder,youmustuseSaveAsto
saveacopy toyourpersonalConnectionsfolder.Ifyouhavemodifiedastylethat isalreadylocatedinyourpersonalConnections
folder,youcanselect eitherSavetodirectlymodifythefile,orSaveAstomakeacopywiththechanges.Foradescriptionof
whereyourstylesarestored,seeFolderLocations.
EndNoteautomaticallysavesnewconnectionfilestoyourpersonalConnections folder.Youmayalsospecifyadifferentfolderif
necessary.Forinstructions seeFolderLocations.
EndNoteconnectionfilesusethefilenameextensionof".ENZ",asin"Medline(Ovid).ENZ".
Basic Components of a Connection File
About this Connection Panel
WhentheConnectionEditorwindowopens, itdisplaystheAboutthis Connectioninformation. Thispanelcontainsdescriptive
informationabout theconnectionfile,andhasnoimpactonestablishingtheconnection.
Name:DisplaysthenameofthefileasitappearsintheConnectionsfolderintheEndNotefolder.Thefile nameextension(.ENZ)
isnotdisplayed.The nameoftheconnectionfilecannotbechangedhere;youwouldneedto closethiswindowandswitchback
totheWindowsdesktoptorenamethefile.
Based On:Enteranyinformationabout whatdocumentationwasusedtocreatetheconnectionfile.Commonlytheserverdoc-
umentationisavailableontheWeb,soyoucouldenteraURL heretomakeiteasytolaterretrievethatinformation.Ifthiscon-
nection fileisamodifiedcopyofanotherconnectionfile,itmaybehelpful toenterthenameoftheoriginalfileinthisfieldforfuture
reference.
Category:Thecategoryistypicallytheinformationprovider(suchasOvidorSilverPlatter), butyoumayenteranythingthatwill
helpyoucategorizeandorganize yourconnectionfiles. Thecategoryinformationisalsolistedinthe ConnectionManagerwindow
inthecolumnnexttothenameofthefile. Inthatwindow,youmaysortconnectionfilesbycategoryandalsosearch forthemby
category.
Created:Thedatetheconnectionfile wasinstalledorcreated.
Last Modified:Thedatetheconnection filewaslastmodified.
Comments and Limitations:Enteranyusefulcommentsherethatwouldhelpyourememberhowtosearchtheonline database.
Limitationstopreconfigured connectionfilesmaybedocumentedhereaswell.
AlloftheinformationinthispanelisvisibleintheConnectionManager ifyouclicktheMoreinformationoptionatthebottomofthe
Connection Managerwindow.Thisishelpfulbecauseyoudonotneedtoeditaconnection filetoviewthecommentsorother
descriptiveinformation.Youmaysimply scroll throughtheavailableconnectionfilesintheConnectionManager windowandview
theinformationthere.
Related Topics:
Basic ComponentsofaConnectionFile
Copying ConnectionFiles
Creating ConnectionFiles
Default ValuesforNewConnectionFiles
Editing aConnectionFile
FilterInformation
SearchAttributes
TheConnectionFileWindow
TheConnectionManager
TheConnectionSettings
Basic Components of a Connection File
Topicsdescribingthebasicsofaconnectionfilearelistedbelow. Thisinformationisusefulifyouwanttomodifyorcreateacon-
nection file.Tocreateanewconnectionfile,seeCreatingConnectionFiles.
l EditingaConnectionFile
l TheConnectionFileWindow
l AboutThisConnectionPanel
l TheConnectionSettings
l SearchAttributes
l FilterInformation
Editing a Connection File
Toeditaconnectionfile:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectConnectionFilesandselectOpenConnectionManager.
2. Selectthefileto edit,andthenclickEdit.
Themostrecentlyusedconnectionfilecanalsobeeasilyeditedby selectingConnectionFilesfromtheEditmenu,and
selectingEdit<connectionfile>.
3. Makeyourchangestotheconnectionfile.
4. Ifyouareeditingone oftheoriginal,installedconnectionfiles:
a. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs(theSavecommandwillnotbeavailable).
b. NamethefileandclickSave.
If you are editing a connection file that you created or that you have already modified before:
a.FromtheFilemenu,selectSave tosavechangesdirectlytothefile.
EndNotesavesthefileinyourpersonalConnectionsfolder.Foradescription ofwhereconnectionfilesarestored,seeFolder
LocationsPreferences.
Filter Information
TheFiltersectionoftheconnectionfilecontainstheinformationused toimporteachreferenceandgetthereferencedataintothe
correctEndNote fields.
Formostconnectionfiles,thefilterissetuptointerpretreferences intheMARCformat.Whenyoucreateanewconnectionfile,
theFilter sectionwillbesetuptointerpretreferencesinastandardMARC21format.
ThispartoftheconnectionfileisidenticaltotheregularImport Filterwindow.Formoreinformationabouteditingafilter,consult
TheFilterManager andWorkingwithFilter Templates.
Iftheretrievedreferencesarenotimportingthewayyouwouldlike,youshouldcomparethefiltersettingsoftheconnectionfileto
theoriginal textthatEndNotereceivesfromtheonlinedatabase.Todoso,select ShowConnectionStatusfromtheWindow
menuwhenretrievingreferences. SettheviewintheStatuswindowtoshowRecordDataandcomparethe recorddatatowhatis
inthefilter.Thisrecorddataisalsostored inthelogfile,Connection.log.Bydefault,theConnection.logfileisstoredinthefolder:
Windows XP:C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\Application
Windows Vista:C:\Users\[UserName]\
Windows 7: C:\Users\[UserName]\
Thisfileissimplyatextfileandmaybeopenedinanywordprocessor toviewit.
TochangethelocationoftheConnect.logfile,seeURLs andLinksPreferences.
The Connection File Window
Afterchoosingtheoptiontoeditanexistingconnectionfileorcreate anewone,EndNoteopenstheConnectionFilewindow.
Allofthedifferentareasoftheconnectionfilearelistedonthe leftsideoftheConnectionFilewindow.Clickonanitemtoview
the associatedsettings.Youmayswitchbetweenpanelsasneededwhileediting thefile.Nochangesaresavedinanyofthepan-
elsuntilyouselect Save orSaveAsfromtheFilemenu.
ToclosetheConnectionEditorwindow,selectCloseConnectionfrom theFilemenuorclicktheclosebuttoninthetop right
cornerofthewindow.
Related Topics:
About thisConnectionPanel
Basic ComponentsofaConnectionFile
Creating ConnectionFiles
Default ValuesforNewConnectionFiles
TheConnectionManager
TheConnectionSettings
Search Attributes
TheSearchAttributessectionofaconnectionfilecontainsatablethatdefinesthevarioussearchoptionsforaparticulardata-
base.
l Search Field Name: Thefirstcolumnidentifiesthenameofasearch.Thisis thewordorphrasethatappearsinthe
menusintheSearchdialog.
UseEndNotesGenericfieldnamesasthesearchfieldnameswhenever possible.Doingsomakesiteasiertohavea
searchapplytovarious onlinesourcesandlocalEndNotelibraries.
EndNotespreconfiguredconnectionfilesoftenuseparentheticaltextafterthesearchfieldnameto helpdescribethe
search,ifnecessary.Thisparentheticaltextis notconsideredpartofthesearchfieldnamewhenyouchangethefocusof
thesearchandEndNotelooksforamatchingsearchfieldname. (SeeChangingtheFocusoftheSearch.Seethe-
GenericreferencetypeforalistofGenericfieldnames.
l Attributes:Therestoftheitemsin aparticularrowarethevarioussearchattributesthatcontrolwhat indexisbeingused
forthesearch,andhowthesearchtermisinterpreted.
What is an "attribute"?
AZ39.50search attributeisavalueusedtodefinethecharacteristics ofasearchterm.Forexample,ifyoursearchtermis
"ebolavirus,"thevariousattributeswouldbesenttotheserveralongwiththatterm totelltheserverwheretolookfor"ebola
virus"andwhat qualifiesasamatchingreference.
Available attributes, as defined by the Z39.50 standard, are:
1. Use:The indextobesearched(suchasKeywords)
2. Relation:Therelationofthesearchterm totheindex(suchasequal, greaterthan,orlessthan)
3. Position:Thepositionofthesearch termintheMARCrecordfield(first,last,anywhere,andsoon)
4. Structure: Thestructureoftheterm, suchasawordorphrase
5. Truncation:Availabletruncationoptions usedtointerpretthesearchterm(forexample:righttruncation,wildcards,notrun-
cation)
6. Completeness:Indicateswhetherornotthesearchtermshouldbethecomplete subfieldintheMARCrecordcor-
respondingtothefieldsearched
The"Use"attributeisthemostimportanthere,indicating whichindexwillbesearchedtofindthesearchterm.Theotherattrib-
uteswillallhavevaryingdefaultvaluesforeachonlinedatabase.Theseoptions aremostoftenleftblanktousetheservers
defaults,butthedefaultattributevaluescanbeoverriddenbyenteringanothervaluefortheattribute.
EachdatabasehasitsownsupportedsubsetofUseattributesandassociated combinationsoftheotherattributes.Consultthe
configurationinformation fortheonlinedatabasetodeterminewhichvaluesfortheseattributes aresupported.ThomsonReuters
doesnotprovidethisinformation.You willneedtoobtainitfromtheorganization(or"informationprovider") thatmaintainsthe
server.
Tip for Editing Search Attributes
Whenmodifyingthesearchattributesinaconnectionfile,itisuseful tofirsttestthesearchwiththenewattributecombination
beforeactually changingtheconnectionfile.Youcandothisbyenteringthenewattribute valuesusingthecommand-linesearch
method.Thisletsyoutestnewattributecombinationswithouthaving toeditandsavetheconnectionfile,andreconnecttothe
serverevery timeyouwanttotestamodification.
The Connection Settings
ClickConnectionSettingstoviewthepanelwhereallthedataisstored toestablishaconnection.TheConnectionSettingsinfor-
mationisrequired forEndNotetobeabletoconnecttotheonlinedatabase.Theseterms anddescriptionsarepartoftheZ39.50
standard.
Server Description:Thenameoftheinformationproviderorinstitution.EndNotedisplaysthisnameinthe titleoftheRetrieved
Referenceswindow,anditisalsolistedinthe ConnectionManagerwindow.Thisinformationisnotusedtoestablishthe con-
nection.
Server Address:Theserveraddress fortheonlinedatabase.ThiscanbeeitheranumericalIP addressoradomainname.
Database Description:Thenameof theonlinedatabase.ThisnameisdisplayedintheTitlebaroftheRetrieved Referenceswin-
dowtohelpyouidentifythedatabasetowhichyouareconnected. Itisnotusedtoestablishtheconnection.
Database Name:Thecommandusedto select thedatabaseontheremoteserver.Thisisoftenafourcharacter code.
Element Set Name:Thisisnormally FforFullorBforBrief. TheElementSetNamedeterminestheamountofinformationthatis
provided bytheserverforeachretrievedreference.Notallserverssupportboth options,andthefieldsreturnedforeachoption
alsovary.
Port ID:TheTCP/IPportattheserverthatis usedforaZ39.50connection.FormostZ39.50connectionsthisisport210.
Batch Download:EndNotetypically retrievesreferencesinbatches,forspeedandmemoryreasons.However, someservers
aretooslow,ortheirrecorddataistoolarge,tosupportbatchdownloads.Youwillneedtoturnbatchprocessingoffforsuch
sites. Ifyouarehavingtroubledownloadingfromasite,youcantrydeselectingthisoption.
Record Syntax:ManyformatsusedbyZ39.50serversaresupportedbyEndNote,suchasUNIMARC(UniversalMachineRead-
ableCataloging),SUTRS(SimpleUnstructuredTextRecordSyntax),andOPAC(OnlinePublicAccessCatalog).Whenyou
createanewconnectionfile,itissetupfortheMARC21format.Forotherformats,thefiltersectionforconnectionfilesmustbe
constructedmanually.UNIMARCandOPACusevariationsoftheMARCformat(OPACcommonlyaddsholdingsdata).The
SUTRSformat,becauseitis"unstructured,"doesnothaveastandardformat amongdifferentdatabases.TheSUTRSformat
oftenusestags(suchas"AU"or"Author")toidentifythereferencedata.Checkwithyourdatabaseproviderfortheappropriate
settings.
Text: TheTextoptionis usedtospecifyhowEndNoteshouldinterprettheincomingtextcharacters.OptionsincludeANSEL,Uni-
code(UTF-8),Unicode(UTF-16),andmanyother languagechoices.Ifyoudonothavethecorrectsetting,extendedcharacters
mayimport asasterisks,ormaybedroppedcompletely.Checkwithyour databaseproviderfortheappropriatesetting.
Login Information Required:Thissectionisdividedintofourseparateoptions:UserID,Password,GroupID,andCustom.
SelecttheoptionsrequiredtologintotheonlinedatabaseinordertohaveEndNotepromptyouforthatinformationwhenyoucon-
nect.Youcanalsostoreyourpasswordand/orIDsintheconnectionfilesothatyoudonothavetoenterthemeachtimeyoucon-
nect.SimplytypethepasswordorIDintotheboxprovided.
Note:Passwords andIDsmaybesavedintheconnectionfile forconvenience, butdosoatyourownrisk:passwordsarenot
protectedorencrypted.Ifsomeoneelsecopiesorusesyourconnectionfile,they willbeabletouseyourstoredpassword.
Custom ID Authentication String
SometimesadatabaseserverrequiresacustomformatforpresentingthepasswordandIDs.Forthesesituations,youmayskip
theregularpasswordorIDoption,checkthe"Custom"option,andenterthetextspecifiedbyyourserversZ39.50doc-
umentation.YoumayeitherenteryouractualpasswordandIDalongwiththetext,oruseoneofthefollowingplaceholdersto
haveEndNotepromptyouforthenecessaryitems:?PASSWORD,?USERID,?GROUPID.
Forexample,asystemmayrequirethatpasswordsbepresentedbyZ39.50clientsinthefollowingmanner:
pass=?PASSWORD/dla_ui=yes
Ifyouwantedtostoreyourpassword("abc123"forthisexample)itwouldlooklikethis:
pass=abc123/dla_ui=yes
Creating Connection Files
Creating Connection Files
Beforeyoubeginactuallycreatingormodifyingaconnectionfile,you mustobtaintheZ39.50client configurationinstructionsfor
thedatabase youwanttoaccess.Contactyourlibrarianorinformationproviderfor thisinformation.
Note:Ifthedatabase isnotavailableonaZ39.50server,youwillnotbeabletouseEndNotes OnlineSearchfeaturetoaccess
itdirectly.Instead,usetheImport featuretoimportreferencesthathavebeendownloadedtotextfiles.
OnceyouhavetheZ39.50client configurationinformationinhand,follow thesestepstocreateanewconnectionfile:
Create the File and Enter the Basic Information
1. FromtheEditmenu selectConnectionFiles,andthenselectNewConnectionFile.
2. ThenewConnectionFilewindowopenstodisplay theAboutthisConnectioninformationpanel.Enteranycommentsor
descriptionshereforyourownuse.(Thesecommentsdonotaffect howtheconnectionfunctions.)
3. ClickontheConnection Settingsoptionandentertheconnectioninformation.
4. ClickontheSearch Attributesoptiontomodifythedefaultsearchattributesifnecessary.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.Namethenew connectionfileandsaveitinyourConnectionsfolder.
Test the Connection and Searching
6. FromtheToolsmenu,selectOnlineSearchandselect yournewconnectionfile.Iftheconnectioncannotbeestablished,
checkthesettingsintheConnectionSettingspaneloftheconnectionfile,saveyourchanges,andtryagain.
7. Iftheconnectionwasestablished,theSearchpanel shouldopenautomatically.Enterasimplesearchtoseeifthesearch
attributeswerecorrectlyconfigured.IftheSearchdoesnotwork correctlyoritreturnsanerror,checktheSearchAttributes
settings intheconnectionfile.(Ifyoumodifytheconnectionfileatthis point,youmustsavetheconnectionfile,thenclose
theRetrieved Referenceswindowandreconnectinorderforyourchangestotakeeffect.)
Test the Filtering of Reference Data
8. Onceyouareabletoconnectandsearch,retrieveadozenorsoreferencestotesthowaccuratelytheyarefiltered intoEnd-
Notereferences.Double-clickaretrievedreferencetoopenittoverifythatthedataareinthecorrectfields.
Notethatifyouarepayingforthereferencesyouretrieve,these maynotcomethroughcorrectly,soitisbesttoretrieve
onlyafew. Allreferencesretrievedaresavedtoa connectionlogfile,sotheyarenotlost.Thislogfileisreplacedthenext
timeyourunEndNote.
9. Ifthereferencedataisnotbeingcorrectlyfiltered intotheappropriatefieldsintheEndNotereferences,youwillneed to
comparethedownloadeddatatothefiltertemplatesinyourconnection file.
ClosetheRetrievedReferenceswindowandopentheConnect .loglogfilein awordprocessortoviewtheoriginalformat
oftheretrieved references.
FromtheEditmenu,selectConnectionFilesandselectEditConnection Filetoeditthenewlycreatedconnectionfile.
LookattheTemplates paneloftheconnectionfileandcomparethetemplatestheretothereferencedatainthe Con-
nect.logfile.Makechangesasnecessary.SeeIntroductiontoFiltersforinformationaboutmodifyingfilters.
Default Values for New Connection Files
Whencreatinganewconnectionfile,afewbasicsearchattributesare enteredbydefault.Itisnotguaranteedthatthesewill
work,aseach databasemayonlysupportitsownsubsetoftheZ39.50attributes.
ConsulttheZ39.50clientconfigurationinstructionsfromyourinformationprovideroryourlibrariantosetuptheconnectionfilecor-
rectlyfor theonlinedatabaseyouwanttoaccess.
Default settings for a new connection file are:
Port ID: 210
Element Set Name:F(Full)
Record Syntax:MARC21
Text: ANSEL
Search Fields (Use Attributes):AnyField(1016),Author(1003),Year(31),Title (4),Keywords(21),andAbstract(62).
Filter: MARC21filtersettingsareused. Allreferencesimportintothe"Book" referencetype.SeeFilterInformation to
importintoadditionalreferencetypes.
Related Topics:
Basic ComponentsofaConnectionFile
TheConnectionFileWindow
TheConnectionManager
TheConnectionSettings
Using Z39.50 Command-Line Syntax
Note:Thistopic isintendedonlyforpeoplewhoarefamiliarwithZ39.50terminologyandhaveaccesstotheZ39.50-clientcon-
figurationinformationfortheironline databases. Theadvancedsearchstrategiesaredocumentedhereonlyfor moretechnical
EndNoteusers;thisknowledgeisnotrequiredforbasic searchingofonlinedatabases.Thesecommand-linesearchesdonot
workwithPubMedorWebofScience.
Itispossibletosetupasearchofanonlinedatabasethatisnot supportedbytheEndNoteSearchpanelortheconnectionfileyou
areusing. Forinstance,ifyouknowabouttheZ39.50attributessupportedbythe onlinedatabase,youcanenteraZ39.50search
whichEndNotepassesdirectly totheserver,withoutanytranslation.Thisletsyouusesearchesthat arenotalreadysupported
byyourconnectionfileandisusefulfortestingvarioussearchattributecombinationswhencreatingormodifyingaconnection
file.
Theseadvancedsearchesareentereddirectlyintothesearchlinejust asyouwouldenterasearchterm.EndNoteignoresthe
searchmenuforthatitemwhenitdetectsthatyouhaveentered anadvancedsearch.Ifothersearchtermsareneeded,enter
themintothesubsequentsearchlinesandselecttheappropriateAND,OR,orNOT connectors(justlikeanyothersearch).
Anadvancedsearchusesthefollowingformat:
\\searchterm/ATTRIBUTETYPE/ATTRIBUTEVALUE
Thefirsttwocharacters(\\)tellEndNotethisisanadvancedsearchofanonlinedatabase.Thenextpart,uptotheampersand,is
thesearchterm.ThenumbersoftheZ39.50attributetypeandvaluesfollow.They areenteredfirstwithaslashandthenumber
fortheattributetype, thenaslash,andtheattributesvalue.Repeatthatpatternforasmany attributesasyouwanttospecify.
Notallattributesneedtobeincluded. SeeSearchAttributes.
Thefollowingisacommonsearchexamplethatshouldworkformostservers. Thissearch,lookinginAnyFieldandusingthe
Containsoperator,should findallreferencesinwhichthetitlebeginswith"child."
\\child/1/4/3/1/5/100
l AUseattribute(1)of4hasbeenspecified, sothesearchwillberestrictedtotheTitleforthisdatabase.
l APositionattribute(3)of1furthernarrowsthesearchbyhavingthesearchtermbefoundasthefirstwordin thefield.
l ATruncationattribute(5)of100specifies notruncationatallsoonly"child"willbeseenasamatch, andwordssuchas
"children"and"childhood"will not.
Tip for Modifying Search Attributes
Ifyouwantedtotesthowvariationsofthesearchattributesettings wouldimpactyoursearch,heresaneasywaytodoitwith-
outhaving toedityourconnectionfile.
1. Withtheconnectionalreadyestablished, select ShowConnectionStatusfromtheWindowmenu.Keeptheviewsetto
StatusMessages.
2. StartwithabasicsearchusingtheSearchpanel (withoutthecommand-linesyntax).Forexample,searchfor"child" inthe
Titlefield.
3. LookintheStatuswindow,andyouwillseewhich attributesarebeingused.Forexample:
Searching for:[child/1/4/3/1/5/100].====Building
4. YoucancopythesearchcommandoutoftheStatuswindow,andpasteitontotheSearchpanel(remembertoaddthe"\\"
prefixtoidentifyitasacommand-linesearch),thenaddormodify theattributevaluesasnecessary.
5. ClickSearchtotryoutyournewcombinationof attributes.
6. Whenyouhavefoundacombinationofsearchattributesthatdoeswhatyouneed,edityourconnectionfileandmakethose
changestotheSearchAttributespanel.
Preferences, Toolbars, & Shortcuts
EndNote Preferences
Change Case Preferences
TheEndNotestylescanbeconfiguredtochangethecapitalizationof theauthornamesortitles.UsetheChangeCasepref-
erencestolistthe wordsthatshouldnotbemodifiedwhenEndNotechangesthecaseoftitles orauthors.Thiscanbeusedfor
specialacronyms,equations,propernouns, orcompoundnamesthatrequireconsistentcapitalization.
Fortitles,thispreferenceisusedonlywhenanoutput styleisset uptoapply"Headlinestylecapitalization"or"Sentence style
capitalization"(ratherthan"Leavetitlesasentered"). Forauthornames,thispreferenceisusedwhentheoutputstyleapplies a
capitalizationoptionotherthan"AsIs."
Toaccessthesesettings,goto theEditmenu,select Preferences, andthenclickonChangeCaseinthelistofpreferences.
Toaddwordstothelist:
l Enter theterminthetextboxatthetopofthedialog,andthenclick Add.
Toremoveanitemfromthelist:
l Select thetermandclickRemove.
Display Fields Preferences
UsetheDisplayFieldspreferencestochoosewhichfieldstodisplay inEndNotesLibrarywindow.Thesesettingsapplytoall
librariesopened onthecomputer.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu, selectPreferences,andthenclickDisplayFieldsinthelistofpreferences.
SelectthedesiredfieldfromeachFieldlist.Youmayselectupto tenfieldstodisplayintheLibrarywindow.Toshowfewerthan
tenfields,select[Donotdisplay]insteadofafieldname.
Bydefault,thefirstcolumnintheLibrarywindowdisplaysaRead/Unreadindicatorfollowedby:
l FileAttachments
l Author
l Year
l Title
l Journal/SecondaryTitle
l Rating
l ReferenceType
l URL
l LastUpdated
Inmostcases,thecolumnheadingintheLibrarywindowisthesame astheGenericnameofthefield.Exceptionstothisrule
includethe Figurefield,whichisindicatedbyafigureiconfig. headerandtheFileAttachmentsfield, whichisheadedbyapaper
clipicon.IfyouwouldliketochangethenamefortheLibrarywindowdisplay,enteranewnameintheHeadingcolumnnexttothe
chosenfield.
Display all authors in the Author field
IfyouwouldliketodisplayallauthornamesundertheAuthorheadingcolumn inthelibraryreferencelist,select the"Displayall
authorsin theAuthorfield"checkbox.Forallnewinstallations,thisisthe defaultsetting.
Display Fonts Preferences
TheDisplayFontspanelgivesyoutheoptionofchangingthefontsthat EndNoteusestodisplaymuchofthetextthroughoutthe
program.
Toaccess thesesettings,gototheEditmenu, selectPreferences, andthenclickDisplayFontsinthelistofpreferences.
Youcancontrolthefollowingdisplayfontsettings:
l Library:TheLibrarytabdeterminesthefontandsizeEndNote appliestothereferenceslistedintheLibrarywindow.
l General:TheGeneraltabdeterminesthefontEndNoteapplieswhen youentertextinafieldintheReferenceandStyle
windows. ItalsodeterminesthefontEndNoteappliestotextthatyouviewinthe Previewpanelandinformationpanelsor
whenyouprintandcopy bibliographicinformationfromEndNote.
l Labels:TheLabelstabdeterminesthefontandsizeEndNoteappliestotheReferencewindowfieldlabels.
l Search:TheSearchtabdeterminesthefontandsizeEndNoteapplieswhenyouentertextinafieldontheSearchpanel.
ChangesmadetothedisplayfontsapplytoallEndNotelibrariesopened onthatcomputer.Theydonotaffectthefontusedwhen
youareformatting bibliographiesinawordprocessingdocument.Thenormal fontofthedocument isusedforthat.
EndNote usesUnicodetoencodespecialcharacters,sothatdatacan beeasilytranslatedbetweenplatforms,programs,and lan-
guages.However, somefontsdonotincludecertainUnicodecharacters. IfsomecharactersdonotdisplaycorrectlyinyourEnd-
Notelibrary,werecommendswitching thedisplayfonttoaUnicodefontorinstallingtheappropriatelanguage pack(see
Displaying Extended/SpecialCharacters).
Tochangethelibrarydisplayfont:
1. FromtheEdit menu,selectPreferences.
2. Click theDisplayFontsoptioninthelist.
3. Click thetabtoindicatewhichdisplayfontsettingyouwanttochange: Library,General,Labels,orSearch.
4. Click theChangeFont button,andselectadifferentdisplayfontand/orsizefromtheFont andSize lists.
5. ClickOKtoclosethefontselectiondialogandreturnto theDisplaysFontspreferencespanel.
6. ClickOKtosavethechangesandclosethePreferencesdialog.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Duplicates Preferences
TheDuplicatespreferencespanelsetscriteriafortheFindDuplicates commandontheReferencesmenu(thatcommandis
describedinFinding DuplicateReferences).Thesesettingsarealsousedtohighlightor discardduplicatereferenceswhenretriev-
ingreferencesfromanonline database.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andclickDuplicatesinthelistofpreferences.
Compare References
Bydefault,EndNoteidentifiesduplicatereferencesinalibraryas referencesofthesamereferencetypewithmatchingAuthor,
Year,andTitlefields.UsethispaneltocustomizethewayEndNoteidentifiesduplicate references.
l To selectthefieldsthatEndNoteshouldcomparewhenfindingduplicate references,clickinthecheckboxestotheleftofthe
fieldnames.
The"Generic"namesofthefieldsareusedhere.Fordetails aboutwhattheGenericfieldnamescorrespondtoforeachreference
type, seeListofReference Types.Youmayselectasmanyfieldsasyouwanttomaketheduplicate detectionmoreorlessstrin-
gent.
Criteria Panel
Youmayalsosetthe"Criteria"tohaveEndNotecomparethefieldsandlookforanexactmatchorbemorelenientinthecom-
parison andignorespacingandpunctuation.
Online Search Results Panel
Whenyouselect theAutomatically discardduplicatescheckbox,EndNoteautomaticallydiscardsduplicatereferenceswhen
retrievingreferencesfromanonlinedatabase.Theduplicatesareneverinsertedintothelibrary.Thissettingapplieswhenyouper-
formasearchinIntegratedLibraryModeorOnlineSearchMode.
l IfyouareusingIntegratedLibrary&Online SearchModewhenperforminganonlinedatabasesearch,itappliestotheper-
manentAllReferenceslibrary.
l IfyouareusingOnlineSearchModewhenperforminganonlinedatabasesearch,itappliestothetemporaryOnlineRef-
erenceslibrary.
Note:Thesesettings donotapplytothe"MergeDuplicatesinBibliography"settingdefined inFormattingPreferences.The dupli-
catesareneverinsertedintothebibliography.
Related Topics:
Discarding DuplicateReference
Finding DuplicateReferences
EndNote Preferences
ThesettingsforconfiguringEndNotesdisplay,formattingpreferences, andotheroptionsareorganizedinthePreferencessection
oftheEndNote program.
ToaccessEndNotepreferences:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. Alistoftheavailablepreferencepanels appearsontheleftsideofthewindow.Clickonthenameofapanel inthelistthat
correspondstothesettingyouwouldliketochange.
l ChangeCase
l DisplayFields
l DisplayFonts
l Duplicates
l EndNoteWeb
l FindFullText
l FolderLocations
l Formatting
l Libraries
l Read/Unread
l ReferenceTypes
l Sorting
l SpellCheck
l Sync
l TemporaryCitations
l TermLists
l URLs&Links
Saving or Discarding Your Changes
Allofthepreferencespanelshavethefollowingoptions:
l EndNoteDefaults:Revertsthesettingsforjust thecurrentpaneltotheoriginalEndNotesettings.
l RevertPanel:Removesanychangesmadetothe currentpanelsinceitwaslastsaved.
l OK:Savesallchangestothepreferencesandcloses thePreferenceswindow.
l Cancel:Discardsallchangestothepreferences andclosesthePreferenceswindow.
l Apply:Savesandappliesallchangestothepreferences andkeepsthePreferenceswindowopensothatyoucancontinue
to modifythepreferencesasnecessary.
Where Preference Settings are Saved
Mostgeneralpreferencesare savedintheWindowsregistry.ThisincludesmanyEndNotePreferences,subjectbibliographyset-
tings,andCiteWhileYouWritesettings.Some preferencesarestoredinuser-specificfolders;thisallowsmultiple usersto
accessasinglelibrarywhilesavingeachuserspreferredsettings. Thepreferencesfolderslistedbelowstorefilessuchasthe
connect.logfilecreatedduringanonlinesearch,theRefTypeTable.xml filethatcontainsreferencetypedefinitions,andaSearch
folderthatcontainssavedsearchstrategies.
Windows C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\ApplicationData\EndNote
Windows Vista and Windows 7:C:\Users\[UserName]\ AppData\Roaming\EndNote
Find Full Text Preferences
Thispanelallowsyoucontroloverwhichsites,services,andtechnology EndNoteuseswhenattemptingtofindthefulltextfora
reference.YoucanlimittheoptionsinordertospeeduptheFindFullTextoperation.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andthenclickFindFullTextinthelistofpreferences.
Thecheckboxesdeterminewhichpiecesofinformationwillbeusedfrom yourEndNotereferences.Theserepresentuniqueiden-
tifiersforlocating exactreferencematches.
IfyourinstitutionallowsaccesstoanOpenURLserver,youcanconfigure thispaneltoallowEndNoteaccesstothesite.Select
theOpenURLcheck box,andentertheOpenURLpathtodirecttotheonlinesite.Ifthesite requiresauthenticationtoverifythat
youareallowedaccess,youcan enteranAuthenticationURL.TheAuthenticationURLsimplydirectsto thesitesloginpage.
WhenyouattempttoFindFullText,youwillbe directedtothatpagetoenterauthenticationinformation(typicallya userIDand
password).
TolearnmoreaboutusingtheFindFullTextfeatureandaboutaddingaccesstoyourinstitutionslibrary,seeFindingFullTextfor
aReference.
Related Topics:
EndNotePreferences
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Folder Locations Preferences
TheFolderLocationspreferencespaneliswhereyousetthepersonal folderlocationsfornewormodifiedstyles,import filters,
andconnectionfiles.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andthenclickFolderLocationsinthelistofpreferences.
Themanystyles,filters, andconnectionfilesprovidedwithEndNoteareinstalledintheStyles, Filters,andConnectionsfolders
whicharelocatedintheEndNoteprogramfolder.
C:\ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6\Styles
C:\ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6\Filters
C:\ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6\Connections
Whenyoudisplayalistofstyles, filters,orconnectionfilesinEndNote, thelistiscompiledfromtwolocations:theinstallation
folderslistedaboveandyourpersonalfolders.
Note: Tochange thedefaultinstallationfolderfortheprovidedstyles,filters,anconnection files,seeChanging theDefaultCon-
tentFileLocation.
Initially,yourpersonalfoldersdonotexist; theyarecreatedonce youcreateanewfileorsavechangestoanexistingfile.For
example, whenyouopenanexistingstyleandmakechanges,youcannotSave,butmustselectSaveAs.Youcangivethefile
thesamenameoramodified name,butthefileissavedtoyourpersonalStylesfolder.Thenexttime youviewalistofoutput
styles,youwillseeyourmodifiedstyle. If yougavethefileadifferentnamethantheoriginalfile,botharelisted. Ifyougavethe
filethesamenameastheoriginal,youwillseethemodified stylelisted,andnottheoriginalfile,althoughitstillresidesin thepro-
gramfolder.
Whydowebotherwithpersonalfolders?Whynotsimplychangeoradd totheinstallationfolders?Weimplementedpersonalfold-
erssothat:
l IfyoureinstallEndNoteforsomereason,youwillnotoverwriteamodifiedfilewiththesamename.(Weknowyou may
havespenthoursgettingyourfilejustright,anddonotwant torisklosingyourwork.)
l Whenyouupgradetoanewer versionofEndNote,youwillnotdeleteanewormodifiedfile.
l WhenyoudownloadEndNoteprogramupdates,youwillnotoverwriteamodifiedfile.
l Youcanwriteprotectasharedprogramfolder,yetstilluseyourowncustomizedstyles,filters, andconnectionfiles.
l You musthaveadministrativerightstomodifyfilesintheProgramFiles folder.Formanyusers,thisisnotanoption,ornot
easilydone. ForusersrunningWindowsVista,makingchangestofilesintheProgramFilesfolderisrestricted.
Bydefault,yourpersonalfoldersaresetto:
Windows XP:
C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\MyDocuments\EndNote\Styles
C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\MyDocuments\EndNote\Filters
C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\MyDocuments\EndNote\Connections
Windows Vista:
C:\Users\[UserName]\ Documents\EndNote\Styles
C:\Users\[UserName]\ Documents\EndNote\Filters
C:\Users\[UserName]\ Documents\EndNote\Connections
Windows 7:
C:\Users\[UserName]\ Documents\EndNote\Styles
C:\Users\[UserName]\ Documents\EndNote\Filters
C:\Users\[UserName]\ Documents\EndNote\Connections
Tochangeyourpersonalfolderlocations:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectPreferences.
2. ClickonFolderLocations.
3. Tochangeafolderlocation,clicktheSelectFolder button.
4. Selectoropenthefolderthatyouwouldliketo designateasthenewStyle,Filter,orConnectionfolder,andthen click
SelectFolder.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Formatting Preferences
TheFormattingpreferencespanelallowsyoutocontroltheformattingofbibliographyentriesinawordprocessorandwhetherEnd-
Noteautomaticallyomitsduplicatereferencesfromabibliography.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andthenselectFormattingfromthelistofpreferences.
Suggest formatting with EndNotes Cite While You Write if the document type is supported
WhiletheFormatPaperfeatureforRTFfilescanbeusedonmostwordprocessorfiles,werecommendthatyoualwaysuseCite
WhileYouWrite forMicrosoftWorddocuments. Itismucheasierandallowsmorecontrol andoptionstogiveyoutheexactout-
putyouwant.
Whenthisitemisselected,andyouattempttouseFormatPaperona documentthatcouldbeformattedwithCiteWhileYou
Write,amessage willappearrecommendingthatyouuseCiteWhileYouWrite.You stilluseFormatPaperifyouwish.
Omit Author and/or Year from Formatted Citation if Removed from Temporary Citation
EndNotesdefaultbehavioristoremovetheauthororyearfromthe formattedcitationifyouremoveeitherofthoseitemsfroma
temporary(unformatted)citation.Forexample,"{,1999#24}"wouldformatasjust"(1999)"whenusingastylethatcreates
(Author,Year)citations.Ifyouprefertotypejusttherecordnumberintoyourpapers asthetemporarycitation,youshouldturnthis
preferenceoffsoEndNotewillnotremovetheauthorandyearfromallofyourformattedcitations.
Merge Duplicates in Bibliography
Whenyouselect thisoption,EndNoteautomaticallyomitsduplicate referencesfromabibliography.Usethisoptionif youarecit-
ingreferencesfrommultipleEndNotelibrariesinonepaper. Inthissituation,thesamearticlereferencemightappearin two
librariesandwouldhavetwodifferentrecordnumbers.EndNotewill notidentifytherecordsasduplicatesunlessyouhavethis
optionset tomergeduplicates.
Whenyouselect thisoption,EndNotechecksthebibliographyforduplicatereferencesduringtheformattingprocess.Ifdupli-
catesarefound,they areremoved.Referencesareconsideredduplicatesiftheyarethesame referencetype(suchasJournal
ArticleorBook)andthefollowingfields areidentical:Author,Year,Title,SecondaryTitle(Journal,Newspaper,Magazine,Book
Title,SeriesTitle,ConferenceName,andsoon),Volume, Issue,andPages.
Note:TheDuplicates Preferencessettingsdonotapplytothisfeature.Thecriteriafordetermining duplicatesisfixedforthe
"MergeDuplicatesinBibliography" setting.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
Omitting AuthorsorYearsfromCitations
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Libraries Preferences
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andthenclickLibrariesinthelistofpreferences.
Choosing a Library to Open
UsetheLibrariespreferencessectiontospecifywhichlibrariesshould openbydefaultwhenyoustartEndNote.First,usethe
drop-downlisttochoosefromtheseoptions:
l Openthemostrecentlyusedlibrary
l Openthespecifiedlibraries
l Prompttoselectalibrary
l Donothing
IfyouopttoOpenthespecifiedlibraries,youmustlistthosespecified librarieshere.Toaddalibrarytothelist:
1. Ifthelibraryisnotalreadyopen,closethepreferences dialogandopenthelibrary.DothisbyselectingOpenfromtheFile
menu,andthenselectingthedesiredlibrary.
2. ReturntotheLibrariessectionofthePreferencesdialog,andclickAddOpenLibrariestoaddallopenlibrariesto thelist.
Toremovealibraryfromthislist,selectitintheLibrariespanel,andthenclickRemoveLibrary.
Ofcourse,onceEndNoteisstarted,youcanalwaysopenalibraryby selectingOpenfromtheFilemenu.
Displaying the Library Name with Each Reference
Clickthe"ShowLibraryNameinReference Window"checkboxifyouwantthelibrarynametoappearatthe topofeachRef-
erencewindow.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Read / Unread Preferences
UsethesesettingstoapplyReadorUnreadstatustagstoyourreferencesinordertotrackyourresearch.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu, selectPreferences, andthenclickRead/Unreadinthelistofpreferences.
Mark as read upon viewing a reference in the Reference window
Bydefault,EndNotechangesthestatusofareferencefromUnreadto ReadafteryouviewareferenceintheReferencewindow.
Ifyouclearthecheckbox,thestatusofanUnreadreferenceremainsthesameafteryouviewareferenceintheReferencewin-
dow.
Mark as read upon viewing a reference in the Reference, PDF Viewer, or Preview Panels
Bydefault,EndNotechangesthestatusofareferencefromUnreadto ReadafteryouviewareferenceintheReference,Preview,
orPDFViewerpanels.
Ifyouclearthecheckbox,thestatusofanUnreadreferenceremainsthesameafteryouviewareferenceintheReference,Pre-
view,orPDFViewerpanels.
Mark as read upon rating change
Ifyouselectthischeckbox,EndNotechangesthestatusofareferencefromUnreadtoReadafteryouchangetheRatingofthe
referencefromtheReferencelistortheReferencewindow.
Ifyouclearthecheckbox,thestatusofanUnreadreferenceremainsthesameafteryouchangetheRatingofthereference.
Read / Unread Features
l AllnewreferencesaremarkedasUnreadbydefault.
l Bydefault,thefirstcolumnintheLibrarywindowdisplaysaReadorUnreadindicator.Youcanchangetheorderofthefieldsin
thecolumnheadingsoftheLibrarywindow.SeeDisplayFieldsPreferencesformoreinformation.
l EachreferencehaseitheraReadoranUnreadstatus.ClickingtheUnreadbuttonchangesthestatetoRead.Clickingthe
ReadbuttonchangesthestatetoUnread.
l EndNoteautomaticallysavesthestatusofareferencewheneveryouchangethestatusfromReadtoUnreadorvice-
versa.
l YoucanselectmultiplereferencesfromtheReferencelistandchangethestatusoftheselectedreferencesfromReadto
Unreadorvice-versa.
l AreferencechangestoanUnreadstatusifyoueditafieldineithertheReferencepanelortheReferencewindow.
l IntheLibrarywindow,thetextofareferencewithanUnreadstatusappearsinbold.ThetextofareferencewithaRead
statusappearsinnormalfont.
Reference Types Preferences
UsetheReferenceTypespreferencespaneltocustomizeyoursettings forthefields(suchasAuthor,Year,andTitle)andref-
erencetypes(such asJournalArticleorBook)thatareusedbyEndNote.Anychangesthatyoumakeinthispanelapplytoallof
thelibrariesthatopenonthecomputer.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andthenclickReferenceTypesinthelistofpreferences.
Default Reference Type
WhenyoucreateanewreferenceinyourEndNotelibrary(byselectingNewfromtheReferencesmenu), thenewreferenceisset
upforajournal articlebydefault.Ifyouwouldratherhavenewreferencesautomatically appearasbooks,patents,orsomeother
referencetype,changethe"DefaultReferenceType"setting:
l Click theDefaultReferenceTypelistandchoosefromoneoftheavailablereferencetypes.
Ifyouneedareferencetypethatisnotinthelist,youwillneed tocreateareferencetypeforitanddefineityourself(seeCus-
tomizing ReferenceTypes).
Defining Reference Types
IfyouneedtomodifyanyofEndNotesfieldsorreferencetypes, click theModifyReferenceTypesbutton.ThisopenstheEnd-
NoteReferenceTypes preferencewhereyoucanadd,delete,andrenameEndNotesreferencetypes andfields.
SeeCustomizing ReferenceTypesformoreinformationaboutreferencetypesandhow tocustomizethem.
SeeFindandReplaceforinformation aboutchangingareferencetype.
Reference Type Table
YoucanusetheExportandImportbuttonstoshareacustomizedreference typetablewithanotherEndNoteuser.SeeSharing
YourReferenceTypeTableforstep-by-stepinstructions.
Note: Replacing anotheruser'sRefTypeTable.xml fileoverwritesallchangestohis/hercurrentReferenceTypestable.
Related Topics:
About thePredefinedReferenceTypes
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
ListofReferenceTypes
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Sorting Preferences
WhenEndNotesortsauthornamesandtitles,youcanidentifywhatwords ornamestoignoreforsortingpurposes.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,selectPreferences, andthenclickSortinginthe listofpreferences.
Toaddwordstobeignoredforsorting:
l Enter theterminthetextboxbeloweitherthe"AuthorFields" or"TitleFields"prompt,andclickAdd.
Toremoveatermfromeitherlist:
l Select thetermandclickRemove.
ClickEndNoteDefaultstorevertbothliststothedefaultsettings.
Note:Iftheterm youenterappearsastheonlywordinanAuthororTitlefield,itwillnotbeignoredasastopwordinthatcase,
andwillbeusedforsorting.
Authors
TheAuthorFieldslistisdesignedsothatyoumayenterpartsofauthor namesthatmaybeomittedforsortingpurposes.Forexam-
ple,prepositions innamessuchas"von,""van,"and"de" areincludedaspartofthelastname,butnotconsideredpartofthe
nameforsortingpurposes.TheentriesintheAuthorFieldslistarecase sensitive;thatis,ifyouenter"von"itappliesonlyto"von"
andnot"Von."
Forcontractions,donotentertheapostropheinthestoplist.So, fortheauthorname"DAngelo, youcouldenterDtothestoplist,
withouttheapostrophe, tosortthenameasAngelo.
ThesesettingsapplytotheGenericfieldsforAuthor,SecondaryAuthor, TertiaryAuthor,andSubsidiaryAuthor.Nonamesare
enteredbydefault.
Titles
WhentermsareaddedtotheTitleFieldslist,thesortingroutineignoresthemwhentheyappearatthestartofthetitle.Cap-
italizationdoesnotmatterforthesewords.Thatis,theword"the"canbeentered (lowercase)andstillapplyto"The."
Forcontractions,donotentertheapostropheinthestoplist.So,fortheterm"l'avenir"youwouldenter"L"tothestoplist,without
theapostrophe, tosortas"avenir."
ThesesettingsapplytotheGenericfieldsforTitle,SecondaryTitle(includestheJournalfield),TertiaryTitle, ShortTitle,andAlter-
nateTitle.Thewords"a,""an,"and"the"are enteredasdefaults.
Note:Whenyou closethePreferencepanelandreturntoyourlibrarylist,youmustresort yourreferencestobuildanewsortthat
usesyourrevisedlist.Youcan dothisbyclickingonacolumnheader,orbyusingtheReferences> SortReferencescommand.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Sorting theLibrary
Spell Check Preferences
OntheSpellCheckpreferencespanel,youcansetgeneralspellcheckOptionsandselectormodifyDictionaries.Forgeneral
informationabout howtostartspellcheckingarecord,seeStarting SpellCheck.
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,selectPreferences, and thenclickSpellCheckinthelistofpreferences.
General Options
YoucanaccesstheseSpellCheckOptionsfromtheEndNotePreferencesSpellCheckpanelorfromthedialogthatappears
whenyourunSpellCheck.ClicktheOptionsbutton.
1. Selectthecheckboxnexttoeachitemyouwant toapplyduringspellchecking.
2. SelectaMainDictionarylanguagefromthelist ofavailabledictionaries.
Foreachlanguage,EndNoteusesacombinationofdictionaryfileslocatedinEndNotesSpellfolder.Selectyourprimary
language.Ifyouwant toapplyadditionallanguagedictionaries,seeAddinganExisting Dictionarybelow.
3. Decidehowfastandaccurateyouwantspellchecking towork.
4. ClickOKtosavethechanges.
Modifying Dictionaries
YoucanaccesstheDictionariespreferencesfromtheEndNotePreferences SpellCheckpanelorfromthedialogthatappears
whenyourunSpellCheck.ClicktheDictionariesbutton.
Usethisdialogtovieworeditthecontentofexistingdictionaries,toaddexistingdictionariesforuse,tocreatenewdictionaries,
and toremovedictionaries.ThedictionarieslistedunderFilesarecurrently inuse(inadditiontotheMainDictionaryselected
underOptions).
Tomodifydictionaries:
1. UnderFiles,selectthedictionaryfileyouwant toviewormodify.
l Ifitisalreadyinthelist,simplyselect it.
l Ifyouneedtolocateanexistingfiletouse, usetheAddFilebuttontolocatethefileonyourcomputerandaddittothelist.
Bydefault,dictionariesarekeptinEndNotesSpell folder.
l Tocreateanewdictionary,clickNewFile.
l Toremoveadictionary,displaythefilenameinthelistandclickRemoveFile.Thisremovesadictionaryfrom use,but
doesnotdeletetheactualdisk file.
2. Thewordsintheselecteddictionaryappearin thetoplist.
l Toaddawordtotheselecteddictionary, type itunderWordsandclickAddWord.
l Todeleteawordfromtheselecteddictionary, selectthewordandclickDeleteWord.
l TochangetheActionappliedtoaword,select thewordandthenpickthenewActionfromthelist.
Adding an Existing Dictionary
YoumayhaveselectedEnglish(oradifferentlanguage)asyourMain DictionaryLanguage,butwanttoapplyanadditionallan-
guageduringspell checking.
1. OntheDictionariesdialog,clicktheAddFile button.
2. InEndNotesSpellfolder,locatethedictionary fileyouwanttouseandOpenit.Thedictionaryisaddedtothelist under
Files.
Importing/Exporting a Dictionary
TheDictionariesdialogincludesImportandExport buttons.
UseImport tolocateandimport aplaintextfileoftermsintothe currentdictionary.Thetextfileshouldcontainalistofterms,with
eachtermonitsownline.Ifyouaretypingthelistintoatextfile, makesureeachtermisfollowedbyacarriagereturn,including
thelast terminthelist.Ifyouarecreatingthelistinawordprocessor,make suretouseSaveAstosavethefileasplaintext.If
yourtermscontain extendedcharacters,savewiththeUnicode(UTF-8)encodingoption.
UseExport tosavealltermsfromadictionarytoaplaintextfile, whereeachtermstartsonanewline.
Dictionaries Supplied with EndNote
ThesedictionariesaresuppliedwithEndNote.Whenyouselectthemain dictionarylanguage,acombinationoffilesareloaded,
includingfiles notlistedhere.
Whenyouwanttoaddadditionallanguages,findtheDictionaryyouwant tousefromtheleftcolumn,thenlookforthecor-
respondingFileName. WhenyouAddadictionary,lookfortheappropriateFileNameinEndNotes Spellfolder.
Dictionary File Name
UserDictionary:Contains Englishwords accent.tlx
UserDictionary:Contains commonEnglishmisspellingsand
theircorrectreplacementsfor autocorrection
correct.tlx
UserDictionary:Sampleuserdictionary userdic.tlx
AmericanEnglish ssceam.tlx
AmericanEnglishMedical sscema.tlx
BritishEnglish sscebr.tlx
BritishEnglishMedical sscemb.tlx
Danish ssceda.tlx
Dutch sscedu.tlx
Finnish sscefi.tlx
French(EuropeanandCanadian) sscefr.tlx
German sscege.tlx
Italian ssceit.tlx
Norwegian(Bokmal) sscenb.tlx
Portuguese(Brazilian) sscepb.tlx
Portuguese(Iberian) sscepo.tlx
Spanish sscesp.tlx
Swedish sscesw.tlx
Dictionary List
RelatedTopics
CiteWhileYouWritePreferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsing EndNoteEasier
SpellChecking
StartingSpellCheck
Sync Preferences
Thisdialogsavessubscriptioncredentialsandsyncsettings toautomatetheprocessofsynchronizingyourEndNotelibrarywith
yourEndNoteWeblibrary.
YoucansetyourSyncpreferencessothat:
l Youdonothaveto enter youre-mailaddressandpasswordeachtimeyousynchronizeyourreferencesbetween EndNote
andEndNoteWeb.
l YoucanupdateyourEndNote librarywithyourEndNoteWeblibrarywheneveryouopenorclose yourdefaultEndNote
library.
l YoucanhaveEndNoteautomaticallybegintheSyncprocessevery15,30, or60minutes(ormanuallyifyouprefer).
YoumustfirstregisterandhaveanactiveEndNoteWebaccount toinitiatetheSyncprocess.Registrationisfastandeasyand
activatesyourtwo-yearEndNoteWebaccount.Whencompleted, EndNoteautomaticallyproceedswiththeSyncprocessand
updates yournewEndNoteWeblibrarytomatchthegroupsinyourEndNotelibrary.
ToaccessSyncPreference, goto theEditmenu,selectPreferences,andthenclickSyncinthelistofpreferences.
Enable Sync Button
YourpurchaseofEndNoteX6entitlesyoutoatwo-yearfreesubscriptiontoEndNoteWebouronlineversionofEndNotedesk-
top.
I Already Have an EndNote Web Account
1. ClicktheEnableSyncbutton togotoanEndNoteWebLogindialog.
2. Enteryoure-mailaddress.
3. EnteryourEndNoteWebpassword.
4. PressOK.
SinceyoualreadyhaveanEndNoteWebaccount,EndNotepopulates thefieldsontheSyncPreferencespagewiththee-mail
addressand passwordthatyouenteredontheEndNoteWebLogindialog.Later youcanchangethedatainthesefieldsifyou
everchangeyoure-mailaddressorpassword.
I Do Not Have an EndNote Web Account
IfyoudonothaveanEndNoteWebaccount,thenyoumustcreateone. Registrationisfastandeasyandactivatesyourtwo-year
EndNoteWeb accountwhencompleted.
1. ClicktheEnableSyncbuttontogotoanEndNoteWebLogin dialog.
2. ClicktheSignUpbuttontogotoaUserRegistrationdialog.
3. Enteryoure-mailaddressintheUserRegistrationdialog.Retypeyoure-mailaddress,andthenclicktheContinuebutton.
4. Enteryourpersonalinformationintherequiredfieldson thenextUserRegistrationform.Forexample,enteryourname, a
password,atitle,andfillintheremainingfields.
5. ClicktheIAgreebuttontocompletetheregistrationprocessandtobeginsynchronizingyourEndNoteWeblibrarywithyour
EndNotelibrary.
OnceyoucreateyourEndNoteWebaccount, EndNotepopulatesthefieldsontheSyncPreferencespagewithyoure-mail
addressandpasswordthatyouenteredduringregistration. Lateryoucanchangethedatainthesefieldsifyoueverchange your
e-mailaddressorpassword.
Note:Werecommendthatyoucreateacompressed librarybackupthefirsttimethatyouinitiatetheSyncprocess. SeeSaving
a CompressedCopyofaLibraryformoreinformation.
SeeTheLibrary WindowforinformationonhowtoinitiatetheSyncprocessfromthe librarytoolbar.
EndNote Web Account Credentials Panel
OnceyouregisterandactivateyourEndNoteWebaccount,youcaneditthefieldsintheEndNoteWebAccountCredentials
panel.
l Enteryoure-mailaddress.EndNoteuses youre-mailaddresstoverifyyouridentification.
l EnteryourEndNoteWebpassword.
EndNoteusesthesecredentialstoaccessyourEndNoteWeblibrary. Onceyousavethisinformation,youwillnothavetoenterit
again. EndNotesavestheinformationuntilthenexttimeyouaccessSync Preferencesanddecidetomakechanges.
Sync this EndNote Library Panel
EnterthenameoftheEndNotelibrarythatyouwanttosynchronize withyourEndNoteWeblibrary.
IfthisfieldisblankwhenyoufirstaccessedSyncPreferences,EndNote willpopulatethefieldwiththepathandfilenameofthe
currentlyopenedEndNotelibrary.
Note:ThisfieldisnotactiveuntilyouregisterandcreateanEndNoteWebaccount.
Sync Automatically Check Boxes
l When I open the library:Thisoption tellsEndNotetosynchronizethereferences inyourEndNotelibrarywiththeref-
erencesinyour EndNoteWeblibrarywhenyouopenup thelibraryspecifiedinthe"SyncthisEndNote Library"field.
l When I close the library:Theselectedcheckbox isadefault setting.ThisoptiontellsEndNotetosynchronizethe ref-
erencesinyourEndNotelibrarywiththereferencesinyourEndNoteWeblibrarywhenyouopenupthe library specifiedin
the"SyncthisEndNoteLibrary"field.
l Every 15 minutes:Theselectedcheckboxisa defaultsetting.Youcanchange thetimesettingto30,60minutes,orman-
ualtoset upatimewhenEndNoteshouldbegintheSyncprocess.
EndNote Defaults and Revert Panel Buttons
SeeEndNote PreferencesforadescriptionoftheEndNoteDefaultsandRevert Panel buttons.
Related Topics:
Overview ofEndNoteWeb
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
Resolve SyncConflicts
SettingupanEndNoteWebAccount
Temporary Citations Preferences
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu, selectPreferences, andthenclickTemporaryCitationsinthelistof preferences.
A"temporarycitation"isanunformattedcitationthatEndNote insertsintoyourwordprocessingdocumentwhenyouusetheFind
Citation(s) orInsert Citation(s)commandfromWords Toolsmenu,orwhenyoucopyandpasteacitationintoadocument.You
canalsotypetemporarycitationsintoyourdocument.Thetemporarycitation isaplaceholderthatEndNotelaterchangestoafor-
matted citation,suchas(Smith Jones,1999).
Bydefaultatemporarycitationincludesthefirstauthorslastname, theyear,andtheEndNoterecordnumber,enclosedincurly
braces:
{Smith,1999#24}
Ifnecessary,youcanchangethetemporarycitationdelimitersusing thesettingsinthispanel.
Temporary Citation Delimiters
Curlybracesareusedbydefaulttoindicatethestartandendofeach temporarycitation.Ifyoucommonlyusecurlybracesinyour
writing, youmightwanttoselectadifferentpairofmarkersforEndNotetouse asTemporaryCitationDelimiters.
Enterthedesiredmarkersintotheappropriateboxesatthetopofthe TemporaryCitationspreferencespanel.
Note:Ifyouwill beusingEndNoteWebtoCiteWhileYouWrite,youmustusethedefault curlybracesascitationdelimiters.
Record Number Marker
Thenumbersign(#)alwaysprecedestherecordnumberinanEndNote temporarycitation.Youmaychangethisbyentering
anothercharacter intheRecordNumberMarkerbox.
TheEndNoterecordnumberisauniquenumberassignedtoeachreference asitisaddedtoalibrary.Thenumberisspecificto
thatreferenceinthatparticularlibrary.Ifyouarecollaboratingwithotherwriters whohavetheirownEndNotelibraries(ordonot
haveanEndNotelibrary atall),youmightfinditeasiertoreplacetheRecordNumberinthe temporarycitationwithsomethingthat
uniquelyidentifiesthereference butisnotspecifictoyourEndNotelibrary.Todoso,select the"Usefieldinsteadofrecord
number"optionandselect fromtheLabelfield,theAccessionNumberfield, orthePagesfield.
l TheLabelfieldcanbeusedtomanuallyenter anyuniquecodethatyouwouldliketouseforeachrecord.
l TheAccessionNumberfieldisdesignedtocontain theuniquerecordnumberassignedtoareferencefromanonlinedata-
base.
l ThePagesfieldcancontainauniquepagenumber oranotheruniquenumberforeachrecord.
Note:If youhaveselectedtheLabel,AccessionNumber,orPagesfield,andthat fieldisemptyinaparticularreference,theRec-
ordNumberwillappear inthetemporarycitation.
Citation Prefix Marker
TheCitationPrefixMarkerseparatesprefixtextinacitationfrom thecitationitself.Forexample,ifyouwantedacitationfor-
mattedas:
(seealsoSmith,1999)
youwouldenterthetextintothetemporarycitationasfollows,withthe"\"indicatingtheendoftheprefixtextandthestartofthe
citation:
{seealso\Smith,1999#24}
IfyouprefertouseadifferentcharacterastheCitationPrefixDelimiter, youmayenteritinthispreferencespanel. Semicolons(;),
letters,numbers, andcharactersalreadyusedasotherdelimitersmaynotbeusedfortheCitationPrefixDelimiter.
Note:Whenyou useCiteWhileYouWritesEditCitationcommandtoaddprefixtext,the CitationPrefixMarkerisautomatically
insertedaspartofthetemporary citation.
Including Notes in the List of References
Somejournalstyles(suchasScience)permityoutoincludenoteswith thelistofworkscitedattheendofthedocument.Insuch
asystem, thenotesarenumberedjustlikethecitations,andincludedinthereference listintheorderofappearance, justlikethe
references.
Toidentifytexttobeincludedasanumberednoteinthereference list:
1. Typethetextintothebodyofyourdocumentwhereyouwouldwantthenumber forthenotetoappear.
2. Besure tosurroundtheentiresectionoftextwithyourTemporaryCitation Delimiters(curlybracesbydefault),andbeginit
with"NOTE:". Forexample:
{NOTE:Theauthorswouldliketoacknowledge
thesupportof...}
WhenthepaperisformattedbyEndNoteusinganumberedstyle,thetext isassignedanumberandlistedalongwiththeref-
erencesattheendof thepaper.
Note:WithCite WhileYouWrite,youcansimplygotoWordsToolsmenu,gototheEndNote X6submenu,andselectInsert
Note.
ThewaythatthesenotesareidentifiedmaybechangedintheTemporary Citationspreferences.Enteraprefixthatyouwouldlike
tousetosignal thatthetextshouldbetreatedasanote.
Restrictions on the Use of the "NOTE" Feature
l Thisfeaturerequiresthatanumberedstyle beusedfortheformatting;otherwise,thenotewillbeleftasit wasenteredin
thebodyofthetext.
l Entertextonly.Donotattempttoinsert graphics, equations,orsymbolsasnotetext.
l Donotusethetemporarycitationdelimitersaspartofthetextofthenote.Othermarkers,suchastherecord number
markerandtheprefixmarkerandthemultiplecitationseparatormaybeused.
l Thesetypesofnotescannotbecombinedwithregulartemporarycitationswithinthesamesetofbrackets.They shouldbe
citedseparatelyeachinitsownsetofbrackets.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
ComponentsofaTemporaryCitation
EndNotePreferences
Notes AboutTemporaryCitations
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Term Lists Preferences
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andclickonTermListsinthelistofpreferences.
Bydefault,everynewEndNotelibraryhasthreetermlistsassociatedwithit:Authors,Journals,andKeywords.Thetermlistsare
automatically updatedasyouenterreferencesintoyourlibrary.Thetermsinthese listsarealsousedtofacilitatedataentryusing
the"SuggestTerms asYouType"feature.Thisfeaturesuggeststermsasyoutypeinto fieldswithtermlistslinkedtothem.For
example,asyoutypeintothe Authorfield,EndNotesuggestsauthornamesfromyourAuthorstermlist tohelpyouwithdata
entry.Whenyouenteranewtermthatisnotcurrently intheassociatedtermlist,itappearsinredtexttoindicatethatit isanew
term.Thiscanpointouttypingmistakesortheuseofanincorrect keywordifyouthoughtyouwereenteringanameoratermcom-
monlyused inyourlibrary.
AnyofthetermlistsettingsdescribedabovecanbeturnedoffusingthesettingsfortheTermListspreferences.
Suggest Terms as You Type (Auto-Completion)
Whenselected,EndNotewillautomaticallycompletematchingtermswhen youaretypingintoafieldthatislinkedtoatermlist
(seeInsertingTermsintoReferences).
Ifyouturnthisfeatureoff,youmaystillinserttermsintoafieldbyopeningthedesiredtermlistfromtheToolsmenuanddouble-
clicking thedesiredterm.
Update lists when importing or pasting references
Whenthisoptionisselected,thetermlistsareautomaticallyupdated asyouimportreferences(usingtheImportcommandfrom
theFilemenu), drag-and-dropreferences,orPastereferencesintoyourlibrary.Ifyou turnthisoptionoff,youcanalwaysman-
uallyupdateyourtermlistsby selectingDefineTermListsfromtheToolsmenu,highlightingatermlist, andclickingUpdateList
(seeManually UpdatingTermLists).
Update lists during data entry
Whenthisoptionisselected,thetermlistsareautomaticallyupdated asyoutypeinnewreferencedata.Ifyouturnthisoptionoff,
youcan alwaysmanuallyupdateyourtermlistsbyselectingDefineTermLists fromtheToolsmenu,highlightingatermlist,and
clickingUpdateList (seeManuallyUpdating TermLists).
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
URLs & Links Preferences
Toaccessthesesettings,gototheEditmenu,select Preferences, andclickonURLs&Linksinthelistofpreferences.
Connection Log File
WhenyouusetheOnlineSearchcommandtoconnecttoanonlinedatabase, EndNotekeepsacopyofalloftheretrievedref-
erencesforthatsession intheconnectionlogfile (thefilenameis"Connect.log").Thishappensbydefault, butyoumayturnthis
optionoffbyclearingthe"UseLogFile"option.
Werecommendkeepingtheoptionturnedonbecauseintheeventthat thereferenceswerenotcorrectlyretrievedorfilteredinto
EndNote, youcanalwaysadjustthefilterintheconnectionfile,andimportthe Connection.logfileinsteadofredoingthesearch
anddownload(see GeneralImportingInstructions).
Bydefault,theConnection.logfileisstoredinthefolder:
Windows XP:C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\ApplicationData\EndNote
Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\ AppData\Roaming\EndNote
Windows 7:C:\Users\[UserName]\AppData\Roaming\EndNote
Youmaychangethenameandthelocationofthe Connect.logfilebyclickingtheChoosebutton.Inthedialogthatappears,enter
anewnameforthefile(ifdesired),andselectthe newlocationforthefile.
ISI Base URL
Whenyouexport referencesfrom WebofSciencetoEndNote, EndNotecreatesa"GotoISI"link intheURLfieldofeachref-
erence.Theselinkstakeyoubacktothesourcerecordwhereyoucanfindrelatedreferences,timescited,andotherinformation.
IfyouhaveupgradedfromanearlierversionofEndNote,youmayneedtoclickEndNoteDefaultstoupdatetheISIBaseURLto
thelatest setting
IfyourinstitutionusesalocallymountedversionofWebofScience,youshouldentertheURLforthatserverhereinEndNotes
ISIBaseURLpreference.Otherwise,thelinksinreferencesdownloadedfromWebofSciencewilltakeyoutothemainWeb of
Scienceserverwhereyoumightnothaveaccess.
OpenURL Arguments
TheURL>OpenURLLinkcommandontheReferencesmenustartsyour defaultwebbrowseranddisplaysthefulltextarticle(if
available) plusalistoflinkstosimilararticles.ItconnectstoanOpenURL standardsyntaxserverandusestheseOpenURLpref-
erencesalongwithdata inyourEndNoterecordtofindrelatedonlinereferences.
Note:Thiscommand hasnorelationtotheURLfieldfoundinEndNotereferencesortheURL >OpenLinkcommandontheRef-
erencesmenu(whichopensthespecific URLfoundintheURLfield).
Weincludeadefaultargumenttosearchforrelatedonlinerecords. Youcanusethisargumentasasyntaxexampleifyouwishto
enteryour ownargumentshere.
Note:Remember, youcanrevertbacktotheEndNotedefaultsatanytimebyclickingEndNote Defaults.
Attached Files
Whenyouselect FileAttachments>AttachFilefromtheReferences menutoinsertalinktoafile,youhavetwooptionsavailable
toyou. Youcan:
l Insertthefileasarelative link.
Inthiscase,EndNotemakesacopyofthe originalfileandplacesitintheDATA\PDF folderthatispartofyourEndNote
database.EndNotewillalwaysbeable toaccessthefile,evenwhenyoushareyourdatabasewithacolleague.However,
ifyouedittheoriginalfileonyourcomputer,thosechanges willnotbereflectedinEndNote.Youwouldneedtoclearthe
filefromyourEndNotereferenceandreinsertthefile.
l Insertthefilewithanabsolute path.
Inthiscase,EndNotewillalwayslookin theoriginalfolderfortheinsertedfile.Thiscanbehelpfulifyou plantoeditthe
originalfile,andyouwantthosechangesreflectedwhen youaccessthefilefromwithinEndNote.However,ifyouever
movethe filefromtheoriginalfolder,EndNotewillnotbeabletoaccessitunlessyouclearthefilefromyourEndNoteref-
erenceandreinsertitfromthe newfolderlocation.Ifyousendyourdatabasetoacolleague,thefile willnotbeavailable.
Bydefault,thecheckboxtitled"Copynewfileattachmentsto thedefaultfileattachmentfolderandcreatearelativelink"is
selected,sothatEndNotewillcopylinkedfilestotheDATA\PDFfolder.Youcandeselectthisboxinordertosaveabsolute
paths.Youcanalwaysoverridethisdefaultsettingonthefiledialogwhenyouare insertingafile.
FindFullTextalwayssavesfilestothedefaultattachmentfolderand createsrelativelinks.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
Finding RelatedOnlineReferences
Linking aFiletoanEndNoteReference
Opening aLinkedFileorURL
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Microsoft Word CWYW Preferences
Cite While You Write Preferences
YoucanaccesstheCiteWhileYouWritepreferencesinoneofthree ways:
l Word 2003: FromtheTools>EndNotemenuinMicrosoftWord,selectCiteWhileYouWritePreferences.
l Word 2007 and 2010:OntheEndNotetabin Word,intheToolsgroup,clickPreferences.
l OntheEndNotetoolbarinWord,clicktheEndNotePrefsicon.
l FromtheTools>CiteWhileYouWritemenu, select CWYWPreferences.
Note:Yourword processormustbeopeninordertoaccessCWYWPreferencesfromtheToolsmenuinEndNote.
CiteWhileYouWritePreferencesinclude:
l GeneralPreferences
l KeyboardShortcutsinWord
l FiguresandTablesinWord
l Application
SeveralrelatedEndNotepreferencesalsodirectlyaffectCiteWhileYouWrite.
General Preferences (Microsoft Word)
GeneralpreferencesareusefulwhenyoualwaysuseyourEndNotelibrary alongwithyourwordprocessorandyoualwaysuse
yourwordprocessoralongwithyourEndNotelibrary.
ToaccessGeneralpreferences,gotoWord'sTools>EndNotemenuandselect CiteWhileYouWritePreferences.(Word 2007
and2010:OntheEndNotetab,intheToolsgroup,clickPreferences.)
Open EndNote When Starting Word
SelectthisitemtoalwaysopenEndNotewhenyoustartMicrosoftWord.
Close EndNote When Leaving Word
SelectthisitemtoalwayscloseEndNotewhenyouleaveMicrosoftWord. ThisworksonlywhentheEndNoteprogramwas
launchedwithoneofthe CiteWhileYouWritecommandsfromwithinWordoriftheOpenEndNoteWhenStartingWordpref-
erenceisselected.
Return to Document After Inserting Citations
SelectthisitemtoalwaysmakeyourdocumenttheactivewindowafterinsertingcitationswithEndNotesInsertSelectedCita-
tion(s) command.IfthispreferenceisturnedoffsothattheWorddocumentremains inthebackground,youwillnotseethe
insertedcitationintheWord documentuntilthedocumentbecomestheactivewindow.Thisisbecause thedisplayfortheWord
documentisnotupdatedinthebackground.
Enable Instant Formatting on new Word documents
ThisoptionisavailableforCiteWhileYouWrite.ItturnsInstant FormattingonorofffornewWorddocuments.Whenyouenable
InstantFormatting, youcanalsodeterminehowoftenEndNotescansfortemporarycitations andwhetheritchecksforcitation
changesinexistingcitations.
ToturninstantformattingonoroffinanexistingWorddocument,seeInstantFormatting.
Turn off Words Show field codes instead of their values option when opening or updating documents that include
citations
EndNoteusesextensiveWordfieldcodesinordertoidentifyandformat citations.Whenfieldcodesaredisplayed,yourdoc-
umentcanlookconfusing! SeeFieldCodesinWordformore informationandanexample.
WerecommendthatyounotviewfieldcodesinWord.Thisoptionensures thatyouwillseeappropriatetextinyourdocument.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Showing WordProcessorCodes
Keyboard Preferences (Microsoft Word)
KeyboardshortcutsforEndNotesCiteWhileYouWritecommandsareavailable inWord.
Toaddorchangeakeyboardshortcut:
1. Word 2003:FromWordsTools>EndNotemenu,selectCite WhileYouWritePreferences.
Word 2007 and 2010 :OntheEndNotetab,intheTools group, clickPreferences .
2. ClicktheKeyboardtab.
3. Fromthelistofcommands,selectthecommandforwhichyouwouldliketoadd(orchange)ashortcut.
4. Under"Pressnewshortcutkey,"enter thenewshortcutkeycombinationonthekeyboard.
5. ClickAssigntoassignthenewshortcut.
Followthesamestepstoremoveanassignedshortcutkey,exceptclick RemoveinsteadofAssign.
ClickResetAlltoremovecustomkeyassignments.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
CWYWKeyboardCommands
Editing KeyboardCommandsinEndNote
EndNotePreferences
MenuKeyboardCommandsinEndNote
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Showing WordProcessorCodes
Figures and Tables Preferences (Microsoft Word)
Usesettingsintheoutput styletodeterminewhetherimagesareplaced in-textorattheendofthedocument,wherecaptionsand
labelsarelocated,andseparationandpunctuationaroundimagesandcaptions.SeeFigures andTables.
ThefiguresandtablessettingsinMicrosoftWordoverridesettings fromthecurrentoutputstyle.Ifyouroutputstyleissettoprint
figures andtablesinalistattheendofthedocument,thesettingsonthis tabareignored.However,ifyouroutputstyleissetto
printfigures andtablesin-text,youcanusethistabtooverridesettingswhenyouhavemovedfiguresaroundinyourdocument
andwanttoretaintheirplacement.
Tocustomizethein-textplacementofEndNotefiguresandtablesin Word.
1. Word 2003: FromWordsToolsmenu,selectCiteWhileYouWritePreferences.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNotetab,intheTools group,clickPreferences .
2. SelecttheFiguresandTablestab.
3. Selecttheappropriateradiobuttonto:
l Placeeachfigureortabledirectlyaftertheparagraphwhereitisfirstreferenced, or
l Whenre-generatingfigures,keepeachfigureortableinitscurrentposition.Thisallowsyoutomoveimagesaround inyour
documentandhavethemstaytherewhenyouGenerateFigure Listagain.
Application Preferences (Microsoft Word)
UsetheApplicationtabinWordtoindicatewhichversionofEndNotetouse whenyouuseCiteWhileYouWrite.
l EndNote isyourdesktopversionofEndNotebibliographicapplication.
l EndNoteWeb istheonlineWebversionofEndNote.
Toselecttheappropriateapplication:
1. Word 2003: FromWordsToolsEndNotemenu,selectCiteWhileYouWritePreferences.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNoteX6tab,intheTools group,clickPreferences.
2. ClicktheApplicationtab.
3. Selecttheappropriateapplication: EndNoteorEndNoteWeb.
Word 2007 and 2010: ThesystemaddsanEndNoteX6tabintheTabsgroupinWordwhenyouselect theEndNotemenuoption.
ThesystemaddanEndNoteWebtabwhenyouselecttheEndNoteWebmenuoption.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWritePreferences
EndNoteCiteWhileYouWriteTabMissinginWord
EndNotePreferences
OverviewofEndNoteWeb
OverviewofEndNoteWeb
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
SyncPreferences
UsingCiteWhileYouWritewithEndNoteWeb
Showing Word Processor Codes
Theformattedcitationsandbibliographyinyourdocumentarenotplain text;theycontainhiddendatathatmakeitpossiblefor
EndNotetounformat andreformatcitationsandbibliographies.
Microsoft Words Field Shading
FormattedcitationsandbibliographiesinWorddocumentsareMicrosoft Wordfields.ThisgivesEndNotetheabilitytouniquely
identifythem.
WhenyouclickonafieldinWord(suchasaformattedEndNotecitation orthebibliography),itbecomesshaded.Youcanchange
thisbehavior sothatthefieldsarealwaysshaded,shadedonlywhenselected,ornever shaded.Todoso,selectOptions from
WordsToolsmenuandselecttheView option.Thereyouwillseetheoptionsforfieldshading.Word 2007 and 2010: Clickthe
Officeiconinthe topleftcornerofWord,clickWord Options,then clickAdvanced,andscroll downto"Showdocumentcontent"
tofindfieldshadingoptions.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
FieldCodes
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Related EndNote Preferences
SeveralotherEndNotepreferencesdirectlyaffectCiteWhileYouWrite. ToaccessEndNotepreferences,gototheEdit menuin
EndNoteandselectPreferences.
Therelatedpreferencedialogsincludesettingsfor:
l TemporaryCitations
l Formatting
ThesesettingsarestoredwiththeEndNoteprogramspreferencesbecause theyapplytoformattingpaperswithCiteWhileYou
WriteforMicrosoftWord,CiteWhileYouWrite forOpenOffice.orgWriter,andFormat PaperforRTFfiles.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWrite Preferences
EndNotePreferences
FieldCodes
ShortcutstoMakeUsingEndNoteEasier
Showing WordProcessorCodes
OpenOffice.org Writer CWYW Preferences
General Preferences (OpenOffice.org Writer)
GeneralpreferencesareusefulwhenyoualwaysuseyourEndNotelibrary alongwithyourwordprocessor,andyoualwaysuse
yourwordprocessoralongwithyourEndNotelibrary.
ToaccessGeneralpreferencesinOpenOffice.orgWriter,gototheEndNote menuandselectCiteWhileYouWritePreferences.
Open EndNote When Starting OpenOffice.org Writer
SelectthisitemtoalwaysopenEndNotewhenyoustartOpenOffice.orgWriter.
Close EndNote When Leaving OpenOffice.org Writer
SelectthisitemtoalwayscloseEndNotewhenyouleaveOpenOffice.org Writer.ThisworksonlywhentheEndNoteprogram
waslaunchedwithone oftheCiteWhileYouWritecommandsfromwithinOpenOffice.orgWriter oriftheOpenEndNoteWhen
StartingWriterpreferenceisselected.
Shortcuts
Shortcuts to Make Using EndNote Easier
Keyboardcommands, shortcutmenus,context-sensitivemenus,andtoolbars canstreamlineyourdatabasebuildingandcitation
processes.
ToaddorchangeCiteWhile YouWritekeyboardshortcutsinMicrosoftWord,seeKeyboard ShortcutsinWord.
Related Topics:
CiteWhileYouWritePreferences
EndNotePreferences
FieldCodes
ShowingWordProcessorCodes
Shortcut Menus
Asaconvenience,EndNoteprovidescontextual (shortcut)menusfor someofthemostcommonlyusedfeatures.Shortcutmenus
appearwhenyouright-click onsomethingintheEndNoteprogram(suchasareference,agroupname, oranAuthorfield).
Thecontentsofthemenudependonwhereyouclickandwhatoptions areavailableforthatparticularitem.Onlyasubsetofpos-
siblecommandsaredisplayed.Theseareintendedtorepresentthemostcommonlyusedfunctionsfortheselectedtarget.Choos-
ingacommandfrom ashortcut menuhasexactlythesameresultaschoosingthecommandfromthemain menuorthetoolbar.
Ashortcut menuappearswhereveryouclick.Itremainsopenuntilyouchooseacommand fromthelist,clickelsewhere,orpress
Esc.
Shortcut menusareavailableinatleastthefollowingareas: theReferencewindow,thereferencelistintheLibrarywindow,the
GroupspanelintheLibrarywindow,termlists,andManagers(styles,filters,andconnections).
Toolbars
ToolbarsareavailableinEndNotetogiveyouquickaccesstosomeofthecommonlyusedcommands.
Library Toolbar
Bydefault,thecommandsontheLibrarytoolbarinclude(fromlefttoright):
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode,Local Library Mode, andOnline Search Mode:Selectoneof thesedisplay
modes.IntegratedModeallowslocallibraryoperationsas wellasonlinesearches,LocalLibraryModesuppressescommands
andgroups foronlinesearching,andOnlineModedisplaysonlygroupsandcommands foronlinesearching.
Output Styles menu: TheBibliographicOutputStylemenulistsallthestylesyouhavemarked asfavoritesintheStyleMan-
ager.Italsodisplaystheonethatiscurrently selectedtobeusedforthePreviewpanel,CopyFormatted,printing,and exporting.
Ifyoudonotseethestylethatyouwant inthismenu,youcanchooseSelectAnotherStylefromthebottomofthemenutopicka
newstyle. SeeThe StyleManager.
Copy to Local Library:This commandisavailableonlyinOnlineSearchMode.Itcopieshighlighted referencestotheactive
locallibrary.Referenceswillappearinatemporary CopiedReferencesgroup.
New Reference:Thisopensa newreferencefordataentry.ItisasthoughyouhadusedtheReferences menutoselectNewRef-
erence.
Online Search:Thisallowsyoutoselectaconnectionfileforanonlinesearch.Itisasthoughyou hadusedtheToolsmenuto
selectOnlineSearch.
Import:Thisisthesameas thoughyouhadusedtheFilemenutoselectImport.
Export:Thisisthesameas thoughyouhadusedtheFilemenutoselectExport.
Find Full Text: Thiscommands searchesonlineforthefull-textarticlefortheselectedreferences. EndNote downloadsthefileof
thearticleanddisplaysapaperclipinthe PaperClipcolumn.
Open Link: Forreferencesthat containaURL,thiscommandattemptstolaunchyourdefaultbrowserand displaytheURLloca-
tion.
Open File: Thisisavailable onlywhentheselectedreferencehasanattachedfile.Thesystemwillattempttolaunchtheasso-
ciatedprogramtoopenthefile.Itisasthough youhaddouble-clickedonthefileintheWindowsfolder.
Insert Citation, Format Bibliography,andReturn to Word Processor:ThesecommandsareavailableonlywhenMicrosoft
WordorOpenOffice.orgWriterisrunningandCiteWhileYouWritesupportis installed.IfyouhavebothMicrosoftWordandOpe-
nOffice.orgWriteropen, thesecommandsareactiveforthewordprocessorthatwaslaunchedfirst. AcompleteCWYWtoolbaris
availablewithinthewordprocessor. SeeCiteWhileYouWriteCommands inWord,orCiteWhile YouWriteCommandsinOpe-
nOffice.orgWriter.
Sync: ClicktheSynciconinthe toolbartosynchronizethereferencesinyourEndNotelibrarywiththereferencesinyourEnd-
NoteWeblibrary.
Help: ThisbringsuptheEndNote Helpsystem.ItisasthoughyouhadusedtheHelpmenutoselectEndNote X6Help.
Quick Search text box:Type asinglewordorphraseintothe"QuickSearch"textboxand pressEntertoquicklysearchthe
library.
Reference Window Toolbar
ThetoplineoftheReferencetoolbarincludesarrowkeysthatdisplaythepreviousornextreferenceinthecurrentreferencelist(in
thecurrent sortorder).ItalsoincludestheReferenceTypemenu,whereyouassign areferencetypetothecurrentreference.A
HideEmptyFields/ShowEmptyFieldsbuttonallowsyoutotogglebetweenshowingandhidingthe emptyfieldsinareference.
Thebottomlineofthe toolbarincludesthefollowingoptionbuttons:
l FindReferenceUpdates
l OpenLink
l OpenFile
l SpellCheck
l MarkasRead/MarkasUnread
l AttachFigure
l FormatBibliography
l ReturntoWordProcessor
Text Toolbar
ThetexttoolbardisplaysEndNotes textfontmenu,textsizemenu,andthefontstyles.
l FontType
l FontSize
l Bold
l Italics
l Underline
l PlainText
l Superscript
l Subscript
l Symbolfont
l ChangeCase
Related Topics
CiteWhileYouWritePreferences
EndNotePreferences
ShortcutstoMakeUsing EndNoteEasier
EndNote Web
Overview of EndNote Web

EndNoteWebisafeaturesetwithinEndNote,WebofKnowledge, andResearcherID.Itprovidesarangeofbibliographicman-
agement toolsontheWeb.YoucanimportandeditreferencesviaapersonalWebaccount,and thencitethereferencesinpapers
andcreatebibliographies.
EndNote WebcansearchWebofKnowledge,PubMed, and hundredsofotheronlinelibrarydatabasestohelpyoubuildaper-
sonal referencecollection.Itincludes uniqueintegrationforWebofKnowledgesubscriberswithdynamiclinks toTimesCitedrec-
ordsandRelatedRecordsgivingyouone-clickaccess tothelatestinformationonareferencearticle.
EachEndNoteWeblibrarycanstorethousandsofrecordsandcreate bibliographies inover4,500publishing styles.OurCite
WhileYouWrite featureisavailable toanyoneusingMicrosoftWordtocreate bibliographies.
Registering with EndNote Web and Activating the Sync Process
YourpurchaseofEndNoteX6entitlesyoutoatwo-yearfreesubscriptiontoEndNote Webandtheoptiontosynchronizetheref-
erencesinyourEndNote librarywiththereferencesinyourEndNoteWeblibrarywithout havingtoexportandimport files.
YoumustfirstregisterandhaveanactiveEndNoteWebaccountto initiatetheSyncprocess.Registrationisfastandeasyand
activatesyourtwo-yearEndNote Webaccount.Whencompleted,EndNoteautomaticallyproceedsw iththeSyncprocessand
updatesyournewEndNoteWeblibrarytomatchthecustom groupsinyourEndNotelibrary.
Note:TheSyncprocessincludesgroupsandgroupassociationsbutdoesnotincludegroupsets,smartgroups,andgroups
withincombination groups.
I Already Have an EndNote Web Account
1. ClicktheSyncbuttonintheLibrary toolbartogotoanEndNoteWebLogindialog.
2. Enteryoure-mailaddress.
3. EnteryourEndNoteWebpassword.
4. PressOKtoinitiatetheSyncprocess.
SinceyoualreadyhaveanEndNoteWebaccount,EndNotepopulates thefieldsontheSyncPreferencespagewiththee-mail
addressand passwordthatyouenteredontheEndNoteWebLogindialog.Later youcanchangethedatainthesefieldsifyou
everchangeyoure-mailaddressorpassword.
I Do Not Have an EndNote Web Account
1. ClicktheSyncbuttonintheLibrary toolbartogotoanEndNoteWebLogindialog.
2. ClicktheSignUpbuttonontheEndNoteWebLogindialogtogotoaUserRegistrationdialog.
3. Enteryoure-mailaddressintheUserRegistrationdialog. Retypeyoure-mail address,andthenclicktheContinuebutton.
4. EnteryourpersonalinformationintherequiredfieldsonthenextUser Registrationform.Forexample,enteryourname,a
password,atitle,and fillintheremainingfields.
5. ClicktheIAgreebuttontocompletetheregistration processandtobeginsynchronizingyourEndNoteWeb librarywith
yourEndNotelibrary.
OnceyoucreateyourEndNoteWebaccount, EndNotepopulatesthefieldson theSync Preferencespagewithyoure-mail
addressandpasswordthat youentered duringregistration.Lateryoucanchangethedatainthese fieldsatanytime ifyouchange
youre-mailaddressorpassword.
Sync Preferences
SyncPreferencesallowyou tosetyourpreferencessothat:
l Youdonothaveto enter youre-mailaddressandpasswordeachtimeyousynchronizeyourreferencesbetween EndNote
andEndNoteWeb.
l YoucanupdateyourEndNote librarywithyourEndNoteWeblibrarywheneveryouopenorclose yourdefaultEndNote
library.
l YoucanhaveEndNoteautomaticallybegintheSyncprocessevery15,30, or60minutes(ormanuallyifyouprefer).
ToaccessSyncPreference, goto theEditmenu,selectPreferences,andthenclickSyncinthelistofpreferences.
Accessing EndNote Web
ToaccessyourEndNoteWebaccount,goto http://www.endnoteweb.comandclickthe EndNoteWebLoginintheleft-handcol-
umn.
FormoreinformationaboutanEndNoteWebsubscription,contact theThomsonReuterss alesteam.
Related Topics:
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
SettingupanEndNoteWebAccount
SyncPreferences
UnfiledGroups
UsingCite WhileYouWritewithEndNoteWeb
Overview of the Sync Process
EndNoteallowsyoutosynchronizethereferencesinyourEndNotelibrary withthereferencesinyourEndNoteWeblibrary.
l EndNote isyourdesktopversionofyourEndNotebibliographicresourcetool.
l EndNoteWeb isouronlineWebversionofEndNotedesktop.
TheSyncprocessautomaticallysynchronizesbothsetsofreferencesthat resideingroupsso thatanexactmatchexistsinboth
EndNoteandEndNoteWeb.
TheSyncprocessisalwaysinitiatedfromEndNote.ThedatainEndNote andEndNoteWebaresynchronizedinbothappli-
cationswhenyourunSync.YouwillhaveidenticalgroupsandreferenceswhenSynccompletesprocessing.
TheSyncprocessincludesalldatachangestoreferences(including fileattachments)duringtheSyncprocesssothateach
librarymatches theother. Forexample,ifyouaddorremovereferencesand/orPDF filesinEndNote,thenthosechangesare
updatedinEndNoteWeband vice-versa.
TheSyncprocessincludesupdatesandadditionstogroupsinboth libraries.Forexample,ifyoucreateandaddreferencestoa
newgroupinEndNote, thenyouwillseethisgroupinEndNoteWebthenexttimeyou runtheSyncprocess.
Sync Preferences
SyncPreferencesallowyoutosetyourpreferencessothat:
l Youdonothaveto enter youre-mailaddressandpasswordeachtimeyousynchronizeyourreferencesbetween EndNote
andEndNoteWeb.
l YoucanupdateyourEndNote librarywithyourEndNoteWeblibrarywheneveryouopenorclose yourdefaultEndNote
library.
l YoucanhaveEndNoteautomaticallybegintheSyncprocessevery15,30, or60minutes(ormanuallyifyouprefer).
ToaccessSyncPreference, goto theEditmenu,selectPreferences,andthenclickSyncinthelistofpreferences.
Important Points to Know about the Sync Process
l Atwo-yearsubscriptionto EndNoteWebcomeswiththepurchase ofEndNoteX6.Thefreesubscriptionallowsyouto
createanEndNote Weblibraryofupto50,000referencesandupto5GB(gigabytes)of datainfileattachments.
l Syncincludesgroupsand groupassociationsbutdoesnotincludegroupsets,smartgroups, andgroupswithincom-
binationgroups.Thesewillbeaddedin alaterrelease.
l SyncwillputgroupswhereagroupsetcannotbeidentifiedinanUnfiledGroupsset.Draganddropthegrouptotheappropriate
groupinthedesktoplibrary.
l YoucanselectanyEndNotelibrarythatyoucreatedwithEndNote, version8.0orabovetosynchronizewithyourEndNote
Weblibrary.
l YoucanchangeanEndNotelibraryinSyncPreferencesatany time.TheSyncprocessbeginsautomaticallywhenyou
clickOK.
l Allfileattachmentsthatyoutransferredinanearlierversion ofEndNotearereplacedwiththeactualfileattachments.
l SyncworkswithonlyonelibraryandoneEndNoteWebaccount.
l TransferandSyncusedtogetherwithmixedversionscanresult induplicates.UseFindDuplicateswhenthisoccursto
removeduplicates
l Syncwillidentifytransferredreferencesasduplicates.Use FindDuplicateswhenthisoccurs.
l SyncincludesreferencesthathavebeenmovedtotheTrashgroup. IfyouhavereferencesthatweremovedtoTrashinthe
desktopversion,thosereferenceswillbemovedtoTrashgroupintheWebversion.
l Youcannot synchronizeanEndNotelibrarywithyourEndNoteWeb librarywhenyouareinOnlineOnlymode.
l YoucanalwayscancelaSyncprocessthatiscurrentlyinprogress. However,EndNoteprocessesallinformationthathas
gonethrough theSyncprocessuptothecancellationpoint.Ifthereare conflictsbetweenreferencesinEndNoteandEnd-
NoteWeb,thenaSyncConflictsfolderappearsintheGroupspanellistingall recordconflicts
l IfyouhaveaResearcherIDaccount,thenyourMyPublications listandPublicationLists1and2willbedisplayedin
Unfiled Groups.YoucancreateaResearcherIDgroupsetinthedesktop libraryanddraganddropthosegroupsintoit.
Related Topics:
OverviewofEndNoteWeb
ResolveSyncConflicts
SettingupanEndNoteWebAccount
SyncPreferences
UnfiledGroups
Resolve Sync Conflicts Dialog
TheResolveSyncConflictsdialogallowsyoutoresolveconflictsbetween referencesinyourEndNotelibraryandyourEndNote
Weblibrary.
AconflictoccursforareferencewhenyoueditthereferenceinbothEndNoteandinEndNoteWebbetweenSyncs.However,
EndNotedoesnotknowwhichoneyouwanttokeep.
Sync Conflicts Group
ThisgroupcontainsallofthereferencesforwhichEndNotehasidentifiedaconflict betweenanEndNotereferenceandEndNote
Web reference.ThegrouponlyappearsintheGroupspanelwhenthereareconflicts.
ToresolveSyncconflicts:
l Right-clicktheSyncConflictsgroupandselecttheResolveConflictsoptionfromthecontextualmenu.EndNotedisplays
the ResolveSyncConflictsdialog.
l SelecttheSyncConflictsgrouptodisplayalistofreferences thatEndNotehasidentifiedashavingaconflict.Select one
ormore referencesfromthelist.Right-clickandselecttheResolve Conflictsoptionfromthecontextualmenu.
Resolving Conflicts
YoucankeepeithertheEndNotereferenceortheEndNoteWebreferencetoresolveaconflict.Theversionofthereferenceyou
donotchoosetokeepispermanentlydeleted
l Toresolveaconflictbetweentworeferences,clicktheKeep thisDesktopRecordbuttonortheKeepthisWebRecordbut-
ton.Onceyouselect arecordtokeep,EndNoteupdatestherecordin bothEndNoteandEndNoteWeb.
l ToresolveallconflictsinfavorofthedesktopversionortheWeb version,selectthe"KeepallfromDesktop"orthe"Keep
allfrom Web"fromthedrop-downmenuatthebottomofthedialog.Onceyouselecteitheroption,EndNoteupdatesthe rec-
ordsinboth EndNoteandEndNoteWeb.
Youcanalso:
l Copyandpasteinformationbetweenthetworecords.Therecordthatyoukeepwillincludealldatacopiedtotherecord.
l SkiporCancelaconflict.Allreferencesinconflict,however, remainintheSyncConflictsautogroupuntiltheyare
resolved.
Note:Whenyouchoosetokeeparecord, EndNoteimmediatelysendsallthedatatoEndNoteWeb.Ifyourconnection to End-
NoteWebfails, the processendsandthedialogcloses.However,anydataalreadysent toEndNoteWebisprocessed.
Did You Know ...
l WhenyoucreateanewgroupinEndNoteorEndNoteWeb,thenewgroupisaddedtotheotherlibrarywhenyourunSync.
l Whenyouchangeagroupsnameinbothlibraries,EndNoteusesthemostrecentlychangednamesonoconflictoccurs
whenyourunSync.
l Whenyoudeleteagroup,thereisnoconflict.EndNoteremovesthegroupandmovesthereferencestotheUnfiledGroups
folder.
l Ifyoudeleteagroupinoneapplicationandrenamethesamegroupintheotherapplication,EndNotedeletesthegroup
whenyourunSync.DeleteoverrulesRename.
l Whenyoumoveareferencefromonegrouptoanothergroup,thenaSyncconflictmayoccur. Ifyoumoveareferencefrom
GroupAtoGroupBinEndNoteandinEndNoteWebyoumovethesamereferencetoGroupC,thenthenexttimeyourun
Syncthereferencewillbeinconflict.
Related Topics:
Overview ofEndNoteWeb
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
SyncPreferences
UnfiledGroups
Setting up an EndNote Web Account
YourpurchaseofEndNoteX6entitlesyoutoatwo-yearfreesubscriptiontoEndNoteWebouronlineversionofEndNotedesk-
top.YourEndNoteWebsubscriptionisvalidfortwoyearsfromthedateafteryou registerandactivateyouraccount.
YoumaysetupanEndNoteWebaccountforeachvalidEndNote installationoneaccountforeachuniqueEndNoteserial
number. Forinstitutionswithasitelicense,thesiteserialnumber allowedtheappropriatenumberofEndNoteWebaccounts.
Registration and Activation of the Sync Process
TheSyncprocessallowsyoutosynchronizethereferencesinyourEndNotelibrary withthereferencesinyourEndNoteWeb
library.YoumustfirstsetupanEndNoteWebaccountto activatetheSyncprocess.
TherearetwomethodsforsettingupanEndNote Webaccount.
l InEndNote,fromthemainLibrarywindow,clicktheSyncbuttonthatappearsinthetoolbartoopenanEndNoteWebLogin
dialog.ClicktheSignUpbuttontobegintheregistrationandactivationprocess.Followtheonlineinstructions.
l InEndNote,gototheEditmenuandselectPreferences>SyncPreferences.ClicktheEnableSyncbuttontogotothe
EndNoteWebLogindialog.ClicktheSignUpbuttontobegintheregistrationandactivationprocess.Followtheonline
instructions.
Related Topics:
Overviewof EndNoteWeb
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
SyncPreferences
UnfiledGroups
UsingCiteWhileYouWritewithEndNoteWeb
Unfiled Groups
IfduringtheSyncprocess,EndNotereceivesagroupfromEndNoteWebthatdoesnot belongtoanygroupsetinEndNote,then
thesystemautomaticallyadds thegrouptoanUnfiledGroupfolder.
YoushouldmoveallgroupsfromtheUnfiledGroupsfoldertoan existinggroupset inEndNote.Ifanappropriategroupsetdoes
notcurrentlyexist, thenyoushould createone.EndNoteremovestheUnfiledGroupsfolderfromtheGroupspanelwhenyou
moveallunfiledgroupstoagroupset.
Note: BeginningwithEndNoteX3,youcancreate groupsetstoorganizeyourEndNotelibrary.EndNoteWebdoesnot have
groupsets.WhenyouruntheSyncprocess,conflictswillarise andEndNotewillmovethese conflictstotheUnfiledGroupsset.
ResearcherID Groups
IfyouarememberofResearcherID,thenthegroupsnamedMyPublicationList,PublicationList1,andPublicationList2will
appearinUnfiledGroupsfolderfollowingtheSyncprocess.WerecommendthatyoucreateagroupsetnamedResearcherIDand
movethesethreegroupsintothegroupset.Notethatanychanges(ordeletions)thatyoumaketothereferencesinthese
ResearcherIDgroupswillbesenttoEndNoteWebuponthenextSyncandwillalsobeseenatResearcherID.com.
Related Topics:
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
ResolveSyncConflictsDialog
SyncPreferences
Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web
YoucanuseCiteWhileYouWritewitheitherEndNoteX6orEndNote Web.
Important Points about Cite While You Write and EndNote Web
l CiteWhileYouWritesupportisincludedforbothEndNoteandEndNoteWeb.However,youcannotusethisfeaturesimul-
taneouslywithbothapplications.
l Youcaninsertreferences fromyourpersonalEndNoteWeblibrary.Youcannot,however,useCiteWhileYouWriteto
insertreferencesinfolderssharedbyotherEndNoteWebusers.
l SomeCiteWhileYouWritefunctions maynotbeactiveforEndNoteWeb.
Forgeneralinformation abouthowtoCiteWhileYouWrite, seeOverview oftheCiteWhileYouWriteProcessandHow toCite
WhileYouWrite.
Selecting the EndNote or EndNote Web Application
ToselecttheEndNoteorEndNoteWebapplicationforCiteWhileYouWrite:
1. Word 2003:InWord,gototheToolsmenu,selectEndNote X6or EndNoteWeb,andthenselectCiteWhileYouWrite
Preferences.
Word 2007 and 2010: OntheEndNoteX6tab,intheToolsgroup,clickPreferences.
2. ClickontheApplicationtab.
3. Selecttheappropriateapplication.
EndNote isyourdesktopversionofEndNoteX6.
EndNote Web istheonlineWebversionofEndNote.X6Enteryoursubscriptiondetails,whichincludestheEnd-
NoteWebURL,youre-mailaddress,andyourpassword.
The EndNote Toolbar
Word 2003: AnEndNotetoolbarisavailableinMicrosoftWordwhether youareusingEndNoteorEndNoteWeb.Thetitleofthe
toolbarwill indicateeitherEndNoteX6 (thedesktopapplication)orEndNoteWeb.
Word 2007 and 2010: TheEndNotetabwillindicateeitherEndNoteX6orEndNoteWeb.
Related Topics:
ApplicationsPreferences
Overviewof EndNoteWeb
OverviewoftheSyncProcess
Setting UpanEndNoteWebAccount
Windows Installations
Program Requirements
BoththefullEndNoteprogramandtheEndNoteDemoareavailableon CDorbydownloading.IfyouhaveaCDyouneedaCD-
ROMdrivetoinstall theprogram.
System Requirements
EndNoterunsunderthefollowingoperatingsystems:
l Windows7(32-or64-bitversions)
l WindowsVista(32-or64-bitversions)
l WindowsXPwithatleastServicePack3installed
Hardware Requirements
l 450-MHzorfasterprocessor
l Aminimumof256MBofavailableRAM
l Aharddrivewithatleast400MBoffreespace
l AnInternetconnectionisrequiredinorder touseEndNotesOnlineSearchfeatureforsearchingonlinedatabases,theFind
FullTextfeature,andEndNoteWeb.TousetheOpenLinkcommandtoaccessaWebsite,youalsoneedaWebbrowser
installed.
l Unicodecompliant
Makesurethatyourcomputermeetsthesystemandhardwarerequirements beforecontinuing. Ifnecessary,contactthedis-
tributor,dealer,orstore whereyoupurchasedEndNotetoarrangeforafullrefund.Ifyouhave anyproblemobtainingarefund,con-
tactThomsonReutersdirectly.You mustdosowithin30daysofpurchase.
Word Processor Compatibility
AsofJune2010,EndNoteforWindowsiscompatiblewith:
l MicrosoftOfficeWord2003,2007,and2010(32- or64-bitsupport)forWindows
l OpenDocumentFormat (ODT)documentscreatedwithOpenOffice.orgWriter3.x
l RTFfilescreatedwithmostwordprocessors,including:MicrosoftWord,WordPerfect,OpenOffice.orgWriter,StarOffice,
andWordPad
l WolframMathematica8
Automatically Updating Files
YoucanautomaticallyupdateEndNoteX6whenincremental programenhancements areavailable.
ToupdateyourcopyoftheEndNoteprogram:
1. OpenaconnectiontotheInternet.
2. FromtheHelpmenu,select:
l EndNoteProgramUpdatestolaunch awizard.Thewizardchecksforanupdate,letsyouknowwhetheran updateisavail-
able,andthendownloadsthefile(s)andappliesthe updatetoyourEndNoteinstallation.
l WebStylesFindertodirectyour browsertoanEndNotewebpagewhereyoucandownloadfromthefull collectionofout-
putstyles.
Note:YoualsohavetheoptiontodownloadthelatestcontentfilesatanytimefromourWebsiteathttp://www.endnote.com.
Wecontinuallyupdateoutputstyles, filters,andconnectionfiles.
Custom Installations / Adding Content Files
AlthoughwerecommendthatyouusetheTypicalinstallationoptiontoinstallEndNote,theCustominstallationoptioncanbeuse-
fulifyouarelowondiskspace,orifyouneedtoreinstallonlycertainEndNotecomponents,ofifyouwouldliketoaddadditional
contentfiles(outputstyles,import filters,and/orconnectionfiles).
Toperformanewcustominstallation:
1. FollowtheinstructionsforinstallingEndNote X6.
2. OntheSelectInstallationTypedialog,select Custom.
3. WhenyougettotheSelect Featuresdialog,read thesectionbelowcalled"SelectingFeatures"todetermine whatyou
wouldliketoselect ordeselectforyourinstallation.
Note:Iftheinstallerdetectsanothercopyof EndNoteinthedestinationfolder,itgivesyouoptionstoeitherbackuporremove
olderfilesduringtheinstallation.Whendoingacustominstall,only selectedcomponentsareaffected.Forexample,ifyouare
installingonly theAnthropologystyles,andyouchoosetoremoveolderfiles,onlythe olderAnthropologystylesareremoved;no
otherpartoftheinstallation isaffected.
ToinstallcomponentsafterEndNoteisalreadyinstalled:
1. Logintothemachinewithadministrativerights orasauserwithprograminstallationprivileges.
2. Dooneofthese:
StarttheEndNoteinstallationprogramasyouwouldforanewinstallation.
FromtheWindowsStartmenu,select ControlPanel,orselectSettings,and thenselectControlPanel.Then,select Add
orRemovePrograms.In thelist,clickonEndNoteX6andthenChange.
3. OntheApplicationMaintenancedialog,selecttheModifyandthenclickNext.
4. WhenyougettotheSelect Featuresdialog,read thesectionbelowcalled"SelectingFeatures"todetermine whatyou
wouldliketoselect/deselectforinstallation.
Selecting Features
Thereareseveralmajorcategoriesofcomponentsthat canbeinstalledwiththeproduct.Thecomponentsyoucanselectfor
installation include:
EndNote Application
l EndNoteProgram
l SampleFiles
l EndNoteHelp
Word Templates/Add-ins:
l TemplatesforMicrosoftWord
l CiteWhileYouWriteforMicrosoftWord
Additional Styles:Theseformatsforcreatingbibliographiesaregroupedby type.
Additional Connections:Thesefilesfordirectlyretrievingreferencesfrom onlinereferencedatabasesaregroupedby
informationserviceprovider.
Additional Filters:Thesefiles forimportingtextfilesofreferencedataaregroupedbyinformation serviceprovider.
Spelling Dictionaries:Thesearedictionariesavailableforthespelling checker.
Clicktheplussignnexttoeachcategorytodisplayadetailedlist ofitems.Foreachcategoryorsubcategory,clickthetriangle
nextto thenametoselect fromtheavailableinstallationoptions.Toinstall afeature,selectoneofthese:
l Willbeinstalledonlocalharddrive.
l Entirefeaturewillbeinstalledonlocalhard drive.
Installed Files
ThefullEndNoteinstallationincludesthefollowingdefaultfolders andfiles.
Program Folder
C:\Program Files\EndNoteX6,OR
C:\ProgramFiles(x86)\EndNoteX6(64-bit Windowsversions)
l EndNote.exeapplication file
l EndNote.chm helpfile
Youcandouble-clickthefiletoviewit.IntheEndNoteprogram,select EndNoteX6HelpfromtheHelpmenu. Pressingthe
F1key onyourkeyboardorclickingaHelpor?buttonintheprogrambringsupacontext-sensitivetopic.
l EndNoteX6WinHelp.pdfis acompilationofalltheHelptopicsintheonlineHelpsystem
l Readme.txttext filecontainslate-breakingnews
l Examplesshortcut folder
l Stylesfolder
Thisfoldercontainsbibliographicstylesforformattingcitations andabibliography.ATypicalinstallationincludesonly the
mostpopularstyles.WithaCustominstallation,youcan choosefromafullcollectionofover4,500bibliographic styles.
l Connections folder
Thisfoldercontainsconnectionfilestoconnecttoandsearchonlinebibliographicdatabases.ATypicalinstallation
includesonly themostpopularfiles.WithaCustominstallation,youcanchoose fromacollectionofthousands.
l Filtersfolder
Thisfoldercontainsimportfiltersforimportingtextfilesdownloaded fromonlinebibliographicdatabases.ATypical
installationincludes onlythemostpopularfilters.WithaCustominstallation, youcanchoosefromacollectionofhun-
dreds.
l TermsListsfolder
Thisfoldercontainsjournalabbreviationtermlists.Theselistscontain thousandsofjournalnamesandstandardabbre-
viations.Importalist intoyourlibrarysJournalstermlisttousetheabbreviationsin yourbibliographies.
l Spellfolder
ThisfoldercontainsspellcheckdictionariesfortheEndNotespell checker.
l Templatesfolder
ThisfoldercontainsMicrosoftWordtemplatestoquicklysetupyour papersforelectronicsubmissiontopublishers.
l Variousadditionalfoldersandfilesareinstalled tosupporttheEndNoteprogramandtointegrateEndNotewithother soft-
wareprograms.
Shared Folder
OpentheSharedDocumentsorPublicDocumentsfolderinWindowsExplorer tofindtheEndNotefolderlocatedat:
Windows 7: \Users\Public\Public Documents\EndNote
Windows XP:Documents andSettings\AllUsers\SharedDocuments\EndNote
Windows Vista:C:\Users\Public\Public Documents\EndNote
l Examplesfolder
Thisfoldercontainsasamplelibraryandothersampledocumentsand graphicstousewhilelearningEndNote.
l YoumaywanttousethesharedEndNotefoldertostoreyourlibraries,sothattheyareavailabletoalluserson yourcom-
puter.
Personal Folder
OpentheMyDocumentsorDocumentsfolderinWindowsExplorertofindtheEndNotefolderlocatedat:
Windows 7: C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote
Windows XP:C:\Documents andSettings\[UserName]\MyDocuments\EndNote
Windows Vista:C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote
Thesefoldersarecreatedwhenyoucreateormodifyafile:
l Stylesfolder containsnewormodifiedbibliographicstyles
l Connections foldercontainsnewormodifiedconnectionfiles
l Filtersfoldercontainsnewormodifiedimportfilters
Whiletheprogramfoldercontainsthedefaultstyles,connectionfiles, andfilters,yourpersonalEndNotefoldercontainsthose
filesthatyouhavecreatedormodified.Thispreventschangestotheoriginalfiles, andassuresthatyouwillnotinadvertently
deleteacustomizedfilewhenyouremoveorupgradetheEndNoteprogram.Italsoallowsyoutomakechangestofileseven
thoughyoumaynothaveadministratoraccessto modifyfilesintheProgramFilesfolder.EndNotedisplaysasinglelist ofthe
filesfoundinbothlocations.Ifafileofthesamenameappearsinbothlocations,EndNotewilldisplayonlythefilefoundinyour
personal folder.
Youcanchangeyourpersonalfolderlocations.SeeFolder LocationsPreferencesformoreinformation.
Preferences Folder
Dependingonyoursettings,thesefoldersmaybehiddenfromviewin WindowsExplorer.
Windows 7:C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote
Windows XP:C:\Documents andSettings\[UserName]\ApplicationData\EndNote
Windows Vista:C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote
WhilemanyEndNotepreferencesarestoredintheWindowsregistry,some arestoredinyourpersonalpreferencesfolder.Itcon-
tainstheconnect.logfilethatrecordsyourlatest online search,theRefTypeTable.xmlfile thatstoresyourreferencetypepref-
erences,savedsearchstrategies, andvariousothersettings.
Installing Additional Connection Files
TheEndNoteteamhasdevelopedthousandsofdifferentconnectionfiles. Becauseinstallingallofthesefilesmayslowper-
formance,atypical EndNoteinstallationincludesonlythemostpopularconnectionfiles.Youcaninstallsetsofconnectionfiles
byproviderwiththeEndNote installer,oryoucandownloadindividualconnectionfilesfromtheEndNote website.
Using the EndNote Installer to Install Additional Connection Files
First,makesureEndNoteisclosedandnotrunning.Youcanrunthe EndNoteinstallationprogramagain,choosetheoptionto
Modifytheinstallation, andthenselectsetsofconnectionfilestoinstall.
Toinstallsetsofconnectionfiles:
1. Logintothemachinewithadministrativerights orasauserwithprograminstallationprivileges.
2. Dooneofthese:
StarttheEndNoteinstallationprogramasyouwouldforanewinstallation.
Or,fromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectControlPanel,orselectSettings andthenControlPanel.Then,select Addor
RemovePrograms.Inthe list,clickonEndNoteX6 andthenChange.
3. OntheApplicationMaintenancedialog,select theModifyoptionandclickNext.
4. OntheSelectFeaturesdialog,clicktheplus sign(+)nexttoAdditionalConnections.
5. Foreachsetofconnectionfilesyouwouldlike toinstall,clickthetriangleandselecteither"Willbeinstalled onlocalhard
drive"or"Entirefeaturewillbeinstalled onlocalharddrive."
6. ClickNexttocontinuewiththeinstallation.
ThefilterswillbecopiedtotheEndNoteConnectionsfolder,which istypicallyProgramFiles\EndNoteX6\Connections.
Finding Individual Connection Files on the EndNote Web Site
YoucanusetheConnectionManagerinEndNotetofindanddownloadindividual filterfiles.
Todownloadindividualconnectionfiles:
1. FromtheEditmenuinEndNote,selectConnection Files, andthenselectOpenConnectionManager.
2. ClickGetMoreontheWebtostartyourdefault browserandgototheappropriatepageontheEndNotewebsite.
3. ClickAccepttoaccepttheTermsofUse.
4. Browsethroughanalphabeticallistingoftheavailableconnectionfiles,andDownloadthosefilesyouwanttoinstall.
5. CopythedownloadedfilestoyourConnectionsfolder, whichistypicallylocatedatProgramFiles\EndNote X6\Styles.
Installing Additional Filters
TheEndNoteteamhasdevelopedhundredsofdifferentfilterfiles.Becauseinstallingallofthesefilesmayslowperformance, a
typicalEndNote installationincludesonlythemostpopularfilters.YoucaninstallsetsoffiltersbyproviderwiththeEndNote
installer,oryoucandownloadindividualfiltersfromtheEndNoteWebsite.
Using the EndNote Installer to Install Additional Filters
First,makesureEndNoteisclosedandnotrunning.Youcanrunthe EndNoteinstallationprogramagain,choosetheoptionto
Modifytheinstallation, andthenselectsetsoffilterstoinstall.
Toinstallsetsoffilters:
1. Logintothemachinewithadministrativerights orasauserwithprograminstallationprivileges.
2. Dooneofthese:
StarttheEndNoteinstallationprogramasyouwouldforanewinstallation.
Or,fromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectControlPanel,orselectSettings,andthenselect ControlPanel. Then,select
AddorRemovePrograms. Inthelist,clickonEndNoteX6andthenChange.
3. OntheApplicationMaintenancedialog,select theModifyoptionandclickNext.
4. OntheSelectFeaturesdialog,clicktheplus sign(+)nexttoAdditionalFilters.
5. Foreachsetoffiltersyouwouldliketoinstall,clickthetriangleandselect either"Willbeinstalledonlocal harddrive"or
"Entirefeaturewillbeinstalledonlocal harddrive."
6. ClickNexttocontinuewiththeinstallation.
ThefilterswillbecopiedtotheEndNoteFiltersfolder,whichistypically ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6\Filters.
Finding Individual Filters on the EndNote Web Site
YoucanusetheFilterManagerinEndNotetofindanddownloadindividual filterfiles.
Todownloadindividualfilters:
1. FromtheEditmenuinEndNote,selectImportFilters, andthenselectOpenFilterManager.
2. Click"GetMoreontheWeb"tostart yourdefaultbrowserandgototheappropriatepageontheEndNote website.
3. ClickAccepttoaccepttheTermsofUse.
4. BrowsethroughanalphabeticallistingoftheavailablefilterfilesandDownloadthosefilesyouwanttoinstall.
5. CopythedownloadedfilestoyourFiltersfolder,whichistypicallylocatedatProgramFiles\EndNote X6\Filters.
Installing Additional Output Styles
TheEndNoteteamhasdevelopedover4,500different outputstyles.Becauseinstallingallofthesestylescanslowperformance,
atypicalEndNoteinstallationincludesonlythemostpopularstyles.YoucaninstallsetsofstylesbydisciplinewiththeEndNote
installer,oryoucandownloadindividualstylesfromtheEndNoteWebsite.
Using the EndNote Installer to Install Additional Output Styles
First,makesureEndNoteisclosedandnotrunning.Youcanrunthe EndNoteinstallationprogramagain,select theoptiontoMod-
ifytheinstallation, andthenselectsetsofoutputstylestoinstall.
Toinstallsetsofoutput styles:
1. Logintothemachinewithadministrativerights orasauserwithprograminstallationprivileges.
2. Dooneofthese:
StarttheEndNoteinstallationprogramasyouwouldforanewinstallation.
Or,fromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectControlPanel,orselectSettings andthenControlPanel.Then,select Addor
RemovePrograms.Inthe list,clickEndNoteX6andthenChange.
3. OntheApplicationMaintenancedialog,select theModifyoptionandclickNext.
4. OntheSelectFeaturesdialog,clicktheplus sign(+)nexttoAdditionalStyles.
5. Foreachsetofstylesyouwouldliketoinstall, clickthetriangleandselecteither"Willbeinstalledonlocalharddrive"or
"Entirefeaturewillbeinstalledonlocal harddrive."
6. ClickNexttocontinuewiththeinstallation.
ThestyleswillbecopiedtotheEndNoteStylesfolder,whichistypicallyProgramFiles\EndNoteX6\Styles,and thenewfileswill
beavailableforusethenexttimeyoustartEndNote.
Finding Individual Output Styles on the EndNote Web Site
YoucanusetheStyleManagerinEndNotetofindanddownloadindividual outputstyles.
Todownloadindividualoutputstyles:
1. FromtheEditmenuinEndNote,selectOutputStyles andthenOpenStyleManager.
2. ClickGetMoreontheWebtostartyourdefault browserandgototheappropriatepageontheEndNoteWebsite.
Note: Anotherwaytodirectyourbrowsertothiswebpageistoselect WebStyles FinderfromtheHelpmenu.
3. ClickAccepttoaccepttheTermsofUse.
4. Browsethroughanalphabeticallistingoftheavailableoutputstyles,andDownloadthosefilesyouwanttoinstall.
5. CopythedownloadedfilestoyourStylesfolder, whichistypicallylocatedatProgramFiles\EndNote X6\Styles,ortoyour
personalStylesfolder(seeFolder LocationsPreferences).
6. IfEndNoteisstillopen,pleaseExittheprogramandthenrestartEndNotetoreadintheaddedoutputstyles.
ThestyleswillnowbeavailableinEndNotetoselectforformatting.
Uninstalling the EndNote Program
TouninstallEndNote:
1. Log intothemachinewithadministrativerightsorasauserwithprograminstallationprivileges.
2. FromtheWindowsStartmenu,select ControlPanel, orselect Settings, andthenselectControlPanel.
3. Select AddorRemovePrograms.
4. In thelistofcurrentlyinstalledprograms,selectEndNote.
5. ClicktheRemovebutton.
Or,youcanuninstallbyusingtheEndNoteinstallationprogram:
1. Logintothemachinewithadministrativerights orasauserwithprograminstallationprivileges.
2. FromyourEndNoteCD,runSetup.exe.
3. OntheApplicationMaintenancedialog,selectRemove,and thenclickNext.
4. ClickNextagaintobeginremovingEndNote.
Theuninstallprocedureremovesonlyfiles,groups,andicons installed bytheEndNoteinstallerthelasttimeitwasrun.Forexam-
ple,if youusedtheinstallersCustominstallationoptiontoreinstall onlystylefiles, theUninstallprogramremovesonlystyle
files.
ToremoveanymodifiedEndNotefilesthatremain:
WepurposelydonotremoveanyEndNotelibrariesorcustomizedfiles.YoucanmanuallydeletethesefileswithWindows
Explorer.Onceyouare sureyoudonotwanttosaveanyofthefilescontainedinthefollowing folders,youcandeletethem:
Windows XP
C:\ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6
C:\DocumentsandSettings\AllUsers\SharedDocuments\EndNote
C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\MyDocuments\EndNote
C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\ApplicationData\EndNote
Windows Vista
C:\ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6
C:\Users\Public\PublicDocuments\EndNote
C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote
C:\Users\[UserName]\AppData\Roaming\EndNote
Windows 7
C:\ProgramFiles\EndNoteX6
C:\Users\Public\PublicDocuments\EndNote
C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote
C:\Users\[UserName]\AppData\Roaming\EndNote
Note: Ifyouareusinga64-bitversionofWindows, yourEndNoteprogramfolderwillbe:C:\ProgramFiles(x86)\EndNoteX6.
Networks and Volume Installations
Using Libraries on a Network
ThevolumeeditionofEndNoteislicensed foraparticularnumberofusers; youcaninstallEndNotelocallyfor eachofthe
licensedusers. Userscanaccessacommonlibraryonaserver ortheirownpersonallibrary.
Multi- Platform Networks
EndNotelibraries(databases)aredirectlycompatibleacrossWindows andMacintoshplatformsanddonotrequireanyspecial
conversionprocedures (seeTransferring_Libraries_Across_Platforms). Becauseofthis,EndNotecanbeusedinamixedplat-
formnetworkenvironment veryeasily.WehavesuccessfullytestedEndNotelibrariesonmixedplatformAppleShareandWin-
dowsnetworks,andPC-specificnetworksincludingWindowsforWorkgroups.
Multi-User Library Access
EventhoughEndNotecanbeusedacrossanetwork,itwasnotdesignedwithspecificnetworkingcapabilitiesinmind.EndNote
doesnotperform recordlockingfunctionsthatwouldallowmultipleuserstoeditonelibrary atthesametime.However,multiple
userscanaccessoneEndNotelibrary simultaneouslyaslongasthelibraryisrestrictedtoread-only orlockedstatus.Thiswill
allowtheusertoperformsearches, copyinformationtotheirdocuments,andformattheirpapers.UseWindows Explorerto
changethePropertiesofyourEndNotelibrary; selecttheRead-Onlyattributeforthe.ENL fileandthe.DATAfolder.
ThesimplestwaytosetupanEndNotelibraryforsharednetworkaccess istousethenetworkssystemoffilepermissionsto
controlthetype ofaccessallowedforusersandgroups.Oneortwopeopleshouldbeassigned theresponsibilityformaintaining
andupdatingthelibrary;theseusers shouldbegrantedfullaccesstothelibrary.ENLfileand.DATAfolder.Allotherusersshould
begrantedread-only access.
Special Issues in Network Environments
EndNotedoesnotperformrecordlocking,butitdoesrequirefilelocking.SomeWindowsnetworkclientprograms(forexample,
NFSclientsusedtoconnecttoUNIXservers)donotfullysupporttheseprotocols.Filelockingisanoptionalcomponentinsome
implementationsofNFS(LockD).Inaddition,somenetworkfilesystemsimplementacompatibilitymodethatmaypreventfile
lockingfromworkingproperly.NetworkclientsotherthanthoseprovidedbyMicrosoftshouldbetestedtoensurethatfilelocking
isenabled.
EndNoteassumesamaximumfilenamelengthbasedonthecapabilities oftheoperatingsystemonwhichitisrunning;under
Windows,errors mayoccurifEndNoteattemptstostorealongfilenameonaserverthat doesnotsupportlongfilenames.
Note:Theenvironment inwhichEndNotewillbeused,mustsupportlongfile names.
Related Topics:
CustomSettings (Networks)
LicensingofVolumeCopies
Custom Settings
EndNoteallowsyoutocustomizemanyareasoftheprogramtosuityour needs.Mostsettingsaresavedforeachuser.
General Preferences
MostgeneralpreferencesarestoredintheWindows Registry. Forexample,thisincludesmanyEndNotePreferences, subjectbib-
liographysettings,andCiteWhileYouWritesettings.
Reference Types
Ifyouplantoshareyourlibrarieswithotherusers,youmaywanttolimituseofnewandmodifiedreferencetypes.
l Changesmadetothereferencetypestableapply toalllibrariesopenedonthatcomputerfromthecurrentuseraccount.
l Ifyourlibraryisopenedfromadifferentcomputer, yourreferenceswillfollowthelayoutofthereferencetypestable forthat
computeranduser.
Ifyoucreateacustomreferencetypeormodifyareferencetypefor recordsinyourEndNotelibrary,youshouldmakesurethat
thereference typeisalsocreatedormodifiedonothercomputersthatwillaccessthe library.SeeSharing YourReferenceType
Table.
Saved Searches
Searchstrategyfilesare savedbydefaultinyourfolder:
Windows XP:C:\DocumentsandSettings\[UserName]\ApplicationData\EndNote\Searches
Windows Vista and Windows 7:C:\Users\[UserName]\AppData\Roaming\EndNote\Searches
Youmaysavethemelsewhere ifyouprefer,butEndNotewillopentothisSearchesfolderwhenyou choosetoLoadasaved
search.EndNotesearchfilesuse.ENQasthefilenameextension.
Cite While You Write
CiteWhileYouWritecodesaredirectlycompatiblebetweenWord2003, 2007,2010. Becausereferencedataiskeptwitheach
formattedcitation,youcancollaboratewithotherauthorsonapaperwithouteach authorhavingthesamelibrary.
Related Topics:
Configuring EndNote
LicensingofVolumeCopies
Using LibrariesonaNetwork
About Volume Installations
ThevolumeeditionofEndNoteislicensed foraparticularnumberofusers; youcaninstallEndNotelocallyfor eachofthe
licensedusers. Userscanaccessacommonlibraryonaserver ortheirownpersonallibraries.
Forvolumeinstallations,youmustfirstunlocktheinstallerasdescribedinUnlockingtheVolume/Site LicenseInstaller,andthen
distributeandinstalltheprogramusingoneofthemethodsdescribedinAbout MassProgramInstallations.
Networks and Volume Installations (Licensing of Volume Copies)
ThomsonReutersexpectsthatnetworkadministratorswilltakeappropriate stepstomaintaincompliancewiththesoftware
license.Thelicenseagreement(LicenseAgreement.txt)canbefound attherootoftheEndNoteinstallationCD.Youcanpur-
chaseasingleormulti-userlicense:
Single User License
AsingleEndNoteproductpurchaseislicensedtoanindividual,and isnottobeshared.
Workstation License
AnEndNoteworkstationlicenseallowseachpersontoinstallEndNote individually,justlikeasinglepurchase.Workstation
licensesaretypically soldas5-userpacks,andyoucanpurchaseadditionalpacksasneeded.
Volume/Site License
AnEndNotevolume/sitelicenseallowsmultipleusers.EndNotecanbe installedonindividualPCsusingmassinstallation (upto
thenumberofusersindicatedinthelicenseagreement), oryoucaninstallEndNoteonasharednetworkforsimultaneoususe.
Note:Whilewe donotprovideaconcurrentmeteringutility,itispossibletousethird partysoftwaretomonitorconcurrentuseof
EndNote.Werecommendthat youuseSofTrackTM, whichisavailableforpurchaseatdiscountedpricingdirectlyfromThomson
Reuters.GotoIntegrity Softwareformoreinformationaboutthisproduct.
See Also:CustomSettings (Networks)
Unlocking the Volume/Site License Installer
TheVolume/Sitelicenseinstallerusesasingleproductkeyformultiple users.Toautomaticallyincludethekeyforyourlicensed
users,youmust unlocktheinstaller.Thisproducesanewinstallerfile,alongwitha validatinglicense.datfile.
Note:Thisinformation appliesonlytotheVolume/Sitelicenseinstaller,anddoesnotapply toanyotherEndNotelicenses.
Tounlockthevolume/sitelicenseinstallerwithAutorun:
1. InserttheEndNoteX6 installationCD.
TheEndNoteSetupprogramwillstart.IfyoudonothaveAutoplayenabled,viewthefilesontheCDandlaunchAuto-
run.exe.
2. SelectInstallVolumeLicensefromthelist.
3. Whenprompted,enteryourEndNotevolumelicense productkey.
Donotselecttheoptiontitled"PerformAdministrativeInstallation."
Whentheinstallationiscomplete,youwillfindanENX6Inst.msifileandalicense.datfileinthetargetfolder.These files
mustbothbepresentinthesamefoldertoinstalltheEndNote programaseitherasasharedprogram,ortodistributefor
massprogram installations.
Or,tounlockthevolume/sitelicenseinstallerwiththecommandline:
1. OpenanMS-DOScommandline.
Windows XP:FromtheStartmenu, selectRun,typeCMDandclickOK.
Windows Vista:GototheStartmenu.Inthesearchbox, typeCMDandpressEnter.
Windows 7:GototheStartmenu.Inthesearchbox,typeCMDandpressEnter.
2. UsetheChangeDirectorycommand(CD)togoto thelocationwheretheENX6Inst.msifileislocated.TheEndNoteinstal-
lationCDislikelyin theDdrive,andtheENX6 Inst.msifileislocatedintheMSIfolder.Togotothislocation onthecom-
mandline,type:
CDD:\MSI
Ifyourcomputerusesadifferentdriveletterfortheinstallation CD,ortheMSIfileisinanotherlocation,useCDwiththe
appropriate pathtogotothatlocation.
3. Next,runtheinstallerinAdmin modebyenteringthecommand:
4. Whenprompted,enteryourEndNotevolumelicense productkey.
Donotselecttheoptiontitled,"PerformAdministrativeInstallation."
Whentheinstallationiscomplete,youwillfindanENX6Inst.msifileandalicense.datfileinthetargetfolder.These files
mustbothbepresentinthesamefoldertoinstalltheEndNote program.SeeAbout MassProgramInstallations.
Related Topics
Custom Settings
LicensingofVolumeCopies
About Mass Program Installations
Withthevolume/sitelicenseversionofEndNote,anetworkadministrator canusemassinstallationtoinstallEndNoteonmultiple
machines.
Pleasemakesurethatyoumeettheserequirementsbeforeinstalling:
l MakesureEndNoteislicensed fortheappropriatenumberofusers.
l MakesurethateachcomputerisrunningWindows XPwithServicePack3,WindowsVista,orWindows7.EndNotewill
notrununderearlierversions.
TheproductCDincludesanENX6 Inst.msifileinanMSIfolder.InAdministrativeMode,theEndNote installerwillpromptfora
volumeproductkey,whichgeneratesalicense.datfile.Thelicense.datfilemustaccompanytheinstallerforvolumelicensedis-
tributioninordertolaterbypasstheproductkeyinstallationprompt.SeeUnlockingtheVolume/SiteLicenseInstaller.
You can deploy the EndNote installer to multiple machines in one of these ways:
l EasyDeployment
l DeployingtheEndNoteInstallerwithGroupPolicy
l Scripted ProgramInstallations
YoucanusetheprovidedMSI CommandLineOptionsforguidance.Ifyouneedadditionalinformation,refertoMicrosoftsmass
installationdocumentationandcommandline documentation,orhttp://www.microsoft.com.
What you need to know about installing content files:
PreviousversionsofEndNotealwaysinstalledallpredefinedcontent files(outputstyles,importfilters,andconnectionfiles).
Thesenumber inthethousands,andwhentheyareallinstalledtheycanaffectthe speedandperformanceofEndNote.InEnd-
NoteX6 ,atypicalinstallationincludesonlythemostpopularstyles,filters, andconnectionfiles.Ifyoudonotknowwhatsubset
offilesarerequired byyourusers, youmaywanttoinstallallfiles.Youcandothisbysetting theproperty"INSTAL-
LALLCONTENTFILES"to"yes".See InstallingA