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Atoms , Molecules & Stoichiometric ( STPM 2011 & 2012 )

Objective questions

Q1 ( STPM 2011 )

Urea , (NH 2 ) 2 CO , is a chemical fertilizer which decomposes into carbon dioxide and ammonia gas in the presence of water . Calculate the number of gas molecules released when 5.0 g of urea decomposes completely in water .

[ The relative atomic masses of H , C , N and O are 1.0 , 12.0 , 14.0 and 16.0

respectively ; Avogadro constant is 6.0 ×10

23 mol -1 ]

A . 5.0 ×10

23

B. 1.0 ×10

23

C. 1.5 ×10

D. 2.0 ×10

23

23

Calculations

(NH 2 ) 2 CO (l) + H 2 O (l) CO 2 (g) + 2NH 3 (g)

Number of moles of urea =

=

mol

(

)

(

)

Number of moles of gas molecules = 3 ×

mol

= 0.25 mol

Number of gas molecules = moles ×Avogadro constant

= 0.25 ×6.0 ×10

= 1.5 ×10

23

23

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Atoms , Molecules & Stoichiometric ( STPM 2011 & 2012 )

Q2 ( STPM 2012 )

Carbon-12 isotope is used as a standard to determine the atomic mass of an element . Which statement about carbon-12 is true ?

A. Its relative isotopic mass is 12.01 .

B. It is volatile under normal conditions .

C. It is the most stable isotope of carbon

D. It has different number of electron , proton and neutron .

 Answer : C Extra !!! (i) STPM 1990 E : Explain why 12 C is used as a standard in determining relative atomic mass . (ii) STPM 1992 S : Explain why carbon-12 replaced oxygen as a standard in the determination of relative atomic mass . Answer :  Carbon is the most common element found in nature .  Carbon-12 is the most stable isotope .

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Atoms , Molecules & Stoichiometric ( STPM 2011 & 2012 )

Q3 ( STPM 2012 )

The mass spectrum for a diatomic gas W 2 is given below . Which statement(s) is/are true of the gas ?

1. The relative atomic mass of W is 80 .

2. The element W has 2 isotopes with an abundance that is almost the same .

3. The peak at the mass/charge ratio of 162 is produced by

Answer : 1 , 2 , 3

Explanation

81 W

2

+ ion .

Since m/e 160 has the highest peak , thus the relative atomic mass of W is 80 .

The peak for m/e 158 & 162 have similar height , thus they have similar

abundance .

2 ×81 = 162 , thus it is produced by

81 W

2

+ ion .

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Atoms , Molecules & Stoichiometric ( STPM 2011 & 2012 )

Structured & Essays Question

Question 1 ( STPM 2011 E )

A halide of phosphorus has a boiling point of 76 o C . In vapour state , it exists as a trigonal pyramidal molecule . It produces white fumes on exposure to air . When

8.25 g of the halide is dissolved in water , the resulting solution requires 150 cm 3 of 0.400 mol dm -3 silver nitrate solution for complete precipitation .

Determine the identity of the halide ion . [5m]

AgNO 3 (aq) + X - (aq) → AgX (s) + NO 3 - (aq)

Number of moles of AgNO

3 =

=

(

) (

)

= 0.06 mol

From the equation ,

Number of moles of halide ions ( X

- ) = number of moles of AgNO

= 0.06 mol

*Trigonal pyramidal = PX

Number of moles of the halide of phosphorus (PX ) =

3

3

×0.06

= 0.02 mol

Number of moles =

0.02 =

RMM of PX 3 = 412.5

3

( 31.0 ) + 3 ( RAM of element X ) = 412.5

RAM of element X = 127.1

Thus , X is iodine .

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Atoms , Molecules & Stoichiometric ( STPM 2011 & 2012 )

Question 2 ( STPM 2012 S )

Calculate the volume of 0.0100 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide solution needed to

neutralize a solution containing 1.00 ×10 -3 mol of chlorine . Answer :

[2m]

Cl 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)

Number of moles of H + ion produced = 2 ×number of moles of chlorine HCl (aq) + HOCl (aq)

2 ×1.00 ×10 =

=

2.00 ×10

-3

-3

mol

Number of moles of OH

- ions = Number of moles of H

= 2.00 ×10 -3 mol

+ ion

= 2.00 ×10

-3 mol

(

) (

)

= 2.00 ×10

-3 mol

= 200 cm

Thus , the volume of NaOH is 200 cm

3

3

.

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Atoms , Molecules & Stoichiometric ( STPM 2011 & 2012 )

Question 3 ( STPM 2012 E )

(a) Argon consists of 3 isotopes .

(i) Explain the meaning of the term isotope . [1m]

It is the atom of an element with same proton number but different in

nucleon numbers .

(ii) A naturally occurring argon consists of 0.34%

40 Ar . Calculate the relative atomic mass of a naturally occurring argon .

36 Ar , 0.07%

38 Ar and 99.59%

[3m]

Relative atomic mass of argon

 ( ) ( ) ( ) = = 39.99

(b) A sample of carbon with relative atomic mass 12.01112 consists of 2 isotopes

and 13 C .

(i) Define proton number and nucleon number .

[2m]

12 C

Proton number : It is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom .

Nucleon number : It is the total number of protons and neutrons in the

nucleus of an atom .

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Atoms , Molecules & Stoichiometric ( STPM 2011 & 2012 )

(ii) What is the proton number , nucleon number , number of electrons and number

 of neutrons of 12 C and 13 C isotopes ? [2m] Answer : Isotope Proton Nucleon Number of Number of number number electrons neutrons 12 C 6 12 6 6 13 C 6 13 6 7

(iii) Calculate the percentage abundance of

[3m]

12 C and

13 C isotopes to 2 decimal places .

Let the percentage abundance of 12 C be a % .

Let the percentage abundance of

RAM = 12.01112

13 C

be (100 a) % .

(

)

(

)

= 12.01112

a = 98.89%

Percentage abundance of 12 C = 98.89 %

Percentage abundance of

13 C = (100 98.89)%

= 1.11 %

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